Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Vaccinium: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.PaperBotany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Ochrobactrum anthropi: A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.HydrazinesIminesKetonesForamen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Vinyl CompoundsVinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Antistatic Agents: Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.AcetalsOrganic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Esters3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acrylic ResinsSodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Magnesium Silicates: A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Phonophoresis: Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.

A comparative study of the unfolding of the endoglucanase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in denaturant and surfactant. (1/199)

Cellulases are increasingly being used for industrial purposes, particularly in washing powders, yet little is known of the factors governing the stability of proteins in detergent solutions. We present a comparative analysis of the behavior of the cellulase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in the presence of the denaturant guanidinium chloride and the anionic detergent C12-LAS. Although Cel45 unfolds in GdmCl according to a simple two-state model under equilibrium conditions, it accumulates a transient intermediate during refolding. The four disulfide bonds do not contribute detectably to the stability of the native state. Cel45 is unfolded by very low concentrations of C12-LAS (1-4 mM). An analysis of 16 mutants of Cel45 shows a very weak correlation between unfolding rates in denaturant and detergent; mutants that have the same unfolding rate in GdmCl (within a factor of 1.5) vary 1,000-fold in their unfolding rates in C12-LAS. The data support a simple model for unfolding by detergent, in which the introduction of positive charges or removal of negative charges greatly increases detergent sensitivity, while interactions with the hydrophobic detergent tail contribute to a smaller extent. This implies that different detergent-mediated unfolding pathways exist, whose accessibilities depend on individual residues. Double-mutant cycles reveal that mutations in two proximal residues lead to repulsion and a destabilization greater than the sum of the individual mutations as measured by GdmCl denaturation, but they also reduce the affinity for LAS and therefore actually stabilize the protein relative to wild-type. Ligands that interact strongly with the denatured state may therefore alter the unfolding process.  (+info)

Effects of carnosine and related compounds on the stability and morphology of erythrocytes from alcoholics. (2/199)

The effects of carnosine and related compounds on erythrocytes from alcoholics were studied. In their presence, erythrocytes showed an increased ability to resist haemolysis and showed a more normal morphology, with carnosine and N-acetyl-carnosine being the most effective compounds. These beneficial properties of the dipeptides do not appear to be directly related to their antioxidant or buffering properties.  (+info)

Mechanism for proton conduction of the M(2) ion channel of influenza A virus. (3/199)

The M(2) integral membrane protein of influenza A virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. We investigated the mechanism for proton transport of the M(2) protein in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp and in CV-1 cells using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Membrane currents were recorded while manipulating the external solution to alter either the total or free proton concentration or the solvent itself. Membrane conductance decreased by approximately 50% when D(2)O replaced H(2)O as the solvent. From this, we conclude that hydrogen ions do not pass through M(2) as hydronium ions, but instead must interact with titratable groups that line the pore of the channel. M(2) currents measured in solutions of low buffer concentration (<15 mM in oocytes and <0.15 mM in CV-1 cells) were smaller than those studied in solutions of high buffer concentration. Furthermore, the reversal voltage measured in low buffer was shifted to a more negative voltage than in high buffer. Also, at a given pH, M(2) current amplitude in 15 mM buffer decreased when pH-pK(a) was increased by changing the buffer pK(a). Collectively, these results demonstrate that M(2) currents can be limited by external buffer capacity. The data presented in this study were also used to estimate the maximum single channel current of the M(2) ion channel, which was calculated to be on the order of 1-10 fA.  (+info)

In vivo transposon mutagenesis of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A using a modified version of the insect mariner-family transposable element Himar1. (4/199)

We present here a method for in vivo transposon mutagenesis of a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, which because of its independence from host-specific factors may have broad application among many microorganisms. Because there are no known Methanosarcina transposons we modified the mariner transposable element Himar1, originally found in the insect Hematobia irritans, to allow its use in this organism. This element was chosen because, like other mariner elements, its transposition is independent of host factors, requiring only its cognate transposase. Modified mini-Himar1 elements were constructed that carry selectable markers that are functional in Methanosarcina species and that express the Himar1 transposase from known Methanosarcina promoters. These mini-mariner elements transpose at high frequency in M. acetivorans to random sites in the genome. The presence of an Escherichia coli selectable marker and plasmid origin of replication within the mini-mariner elements allows facile cloning of these transposon insertions to identify the mutated gene. In preliminary experiments, we have isolated numerous mini-mariner-induced M. acetivorans mutants, including ones with insertions that confer resistance to toxic analogs and in genes that encode proteins involved in heat shock, nitrogen fixation, and cell-wall structures.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of NADPH: azodicarbonyl/quinone oxidoreductase, a plant zeta-crystallin. (5/199)

Arabidopsis thaliana P1 protein was crystallized using the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method in 0.1 M piperazine-1, 4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, containing 14% polyethylene glycol 6000 and 0.2 M magnesium acetate at pH 6.5 and 20 degrees C. The crystals are orthorhombic and belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a=49.8, b=122.4 and c=149. 9 A. The diffraction data up to 2.9 A were collected by a multiwire area detector.  (+info)

Conservation of phosphorylation state of cardiac phosphofructokinase during in vitro hypothermic hypoxia. (6/199)

We investigated the metabolic effects of buffering agents alpha-amino-4-imidazole-propionic acid (Histidine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine (bicine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) on anaerobic energy production (via glycolysis) and conservation of key regulatory enzyme activity, and phosphofructokinase (PFK) throughout prolonged hypothermic hypoxia in porcine hearts. Hearts from 35 to 40 kg pigs were flushed with one of the following five solutions: St. Thomas' Hospital solution (STHS); modified University of Wisconsin (UW) solution; and three solutions containing modified UW plus 90 mM of histidine, bicine, or BES. The hearts were then stored at 4 degrees C for 10 h. After 10 h of hypothermic hypoxia, lactate values were 6.7-12.9 micromol/g higher than control; this reflected an increase in anaerobic end product of 35-67%. The consequences of enhanced anaerobic metabolism were higher ATP, total adenylate, Energy Charge, and ATP/ADP ratios in most of the buffered groups after 4-10 h cold storage; effectiveness of the buffers employed correlated with buffering capacity (BES proved to be the most effective). PFK remained activated throughout most of the 10-h period in hearts stored with buffers and did not undergo the rapid inactivation experienced by hearts stored in STHS. Conservation of PFK integrity with buffering agents was not related to a pH-mediated event; changes in kinetic parameters suggested that this protection was due to an irreversible posttranslational modification, specifically a dephosphorylation event.  (+info)

The origins of stability of spontaneous vesicles. (7/199)

Equilibrium unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by one of two distinct mechanisms depending on the value of the bending constant. Helfrich undulations ensure that the interbilayer potential is always repulsive when the bending constant, K, is of order k(B)T. When K k(B)T, unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by the spontaneous curvature that picks out a particular vesicle radius; other radii are disfavored energetically. We present measurements of the bilayer elastic constant and the spontaneous curvature, R(o), for three different systems of equilibrium vesicles by an analysis of the vesicle size distribution determined by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering. For cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/sodium octyl sulfonate catanionic vesicles, K =.7 k(B)T, suggesting that the unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by Helfrich-undulation repulsions. However, for CTAB and sodium perfluorooctanoate (FC(7)) vesicles, K = 6 k(B)T, suggesting stabilization by the energetic costs of deviations from the spontaneous curvature. Adding electrolyte to the sodium perfluorooctanoate/CTAB vesicles leads to vesicles with two bilayers; the attractive interactions between the bilayers can overcome the cost of small deviations from the spontaneous curvature to form two-layer vesicles, but larger deviations to form three and more layer vesicles are prohibited. Vesicles with a discrete numbers of bilayers at equilibrium are possible only for bilayers with a large bending modulus coupled with a spontaneous curvature.  (+info)

2-Bromoethanesulfonate affects bacteria in a trichloroethene-dechlorinating culture. (8/199)

Long-term exposure to 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), an agent known to inhibit methanogenesis, altered the bacterial community structure of an anaerobic enrichment culture that reductively dechlorinated trichloroethene (TCE). BES did not hinder the dechlorination of TCE or other chlorinated ethenes as previously reported, although different intermediates and end products were observed.  (+info)

*Methanesulfonic anhydride

Field, Lamar; Settlage, Paul H. (March 1954). "Alkanesulfonic Acid Anhydrides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 76 (5 ... Methanesulfonic anhydride is the acid anhydride of methanesulfonic acid. Like methanesulfonyl chloride, it may be used to ... It is commercially available but may also be prepared by the reaction of phosphorus pentoxide with methanesulfonic acid at 80 ° ... C. 2 P2O5 + 6 CH3SO3H → 3 (CH3SO2)2O + 4 H3PO4 Disulfuric acid Sodium pyrosulfate Acetic anhydride Trifluoromethanesulfonic ...

*Alkyl sulfonate

... s are esters of alkane sulfonic acids with the general formula R-SO2-O-R'. They act as alkylating agents, some ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... sulfinic acids MeSH D02.886.645.600 --- sulfonic acids MeSH D02.886.645.600.055 --- alkanesulfonic acids MeSH D02.886.645.600. ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages ...
Article Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water purification plants (WPPs) with advanced treatment processes. A series of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) surveys were conducted in two water purification plants (WPPs) having ozonation and granular ac...
Environmental toxicants such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) have been implicated in male reproductive dysfunction, including reduced sperm count and semen quality in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. Herein, PFOS at 10-20 µM (~5-10 µg/ml) was found to be more potent than BPA (100 µM) in perturbing blood-testis barrier (BTB) function by disrupting the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier without detectable cytotoxicity. We also delineated the underlying molecular mechanism by which PFOS perturbed Sertoli cell BTB function using an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo. First, PFOS perturbed F-actin organization in Sertoli cells, causing truncation of actin filaments at the BTB. Thus, the actin-based cytoskeleton was no longer capable of supporting the distribution and/or localization of actin regulatory and adhesion proteins at the cell-cell interface necessary to maintain BTB integrity. Second, PFOS was found to perturb inter-Sertoli cell ...
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are man-made chemicals. Their unique properties make them beneficial for a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, such as constituents in fire fighting foams, hydraulic oils and food packaging materials.PFAAs have shown to be highly persistent in the environment, and the toxicological potential of long chain PFAA homologues is of a concern. International regulation and voluntary actions by the industry have been implemented and led to reduced primary emissions of PFAAs to the environment. However, the concentrations of some PFAAs in e.g. birds from the Baltic Sea are still very high and of ecotoxicological concern. Measures to reduce the PFAA contamination require an understanding of the sources and how the PFAAs are being transported in the environment.In this licentiate thesis a mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the ...
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) has been serving as an active source to cater intelligent research report to enlighten both readers and investors. This research study titled "Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Market". Request a Free Sample Report @ https://www.mrrse.com/sample/984. Increasing demand for sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laureth ether sulfate (SLES) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) from detergents & cleaners and personal care industries is expected to drive the global SLS, SLES & LAS market in the next five years. However, the adverse effect of SLS and SLES on human skin coupled with fluctuation in prices of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate is anticipated to hamper market growth. Emerging applications such as paints & coatings and oilfield chemicals are estimated to offer immense opportunities for players in the market. SLS, SLES and LAS are the major forms of anionic surfactants. However, LAS accounts for nearly 40% of the global anionic surfactants market.. The report ...
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made fluorosurfactant and globally persistent organic pollutant. PFOS is mainly distributed in blood with a long half-life for elimination. PFOS was found mainly bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, which transports a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. However, the structural basis of such binding remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the HSA-PFOS complex and show that PFOS binds to HSA at a molar ratio of 2:1. In addition, PFOS binding renders the HSA structure more compact. Our results provide a structural mechanism to understand the retention of surfactants in human serum. Structural evidence of perfluorooctane sulfonate transport by human serum albumin.,Luo Z, Shi X, Hu Q, Zhao B, Huang M Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 May 21;25(5):990-2. Epub 2012 Apr 16. PMID:22482699[6] From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
Get Information of Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Dealers, Exporters, Traders, Producers, Wholesalers, Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Companies in Aurangabad, India
We utilized milk samples obtained from a survey of 219 primiparous mothers in 2009 to test for the presence of new persistent organic pollutants: hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), chlordecone, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOS-F), and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). 158 samples were pooled according to the mothers age, length of stay in Hong Kong, and their dietary habits (frequencies of intake of fish and other seafood, and milk and dairy products) and tested for chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs. All were present in our samples. Their mean and median concentrations are very high compared to findings in other countries. HCH and PeCB were tested in 73 individual samples and their mean levels were of the same order of magnitude as those reported in our previous study. The levels of PBDEs were positively associated ...
Background: Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations.
Perfluorinated compounds have been used for more than 50 years as process aids, surfactants, and for surface protection. This study is a comprehensive assessment of consumer exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFO
A survey on seasonal concentration changes of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was performed for surface water in Lake Biwa (14 sites) from February to November in 20
The aim of this study was to characterize the placental transfer of some environmental pollutants, and to explore the possibility of quantitatively predicting in utero exposure to these contaminants from concentrations assessed in maternal blood. Levels of toxic substances such as pesticides (p,p-DDE, β-HCH, and HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were determined in serum samples of 38 pregnant women living in Rome and in samples of cord blood from their respective newborns. The study was carried out in the years 2008-2009. PCB mean concentrations in maternal serum and cord serum ranged from 0.058 to 0.30, and from 0.018 to 0.064 ng/g·fw respectively. Arithmetic means of PFOS and PFOA concentrations in mothers and newborns were 3.2 and 1.4 ng/g·fw, and 2.9 and 1.6 ng/g·fw. A strong correlation was observed between concentrations in the maternal and the foetal compartment for PFOS (Spearman r = 0.74, p | 0.001), PFOA (Spearman
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online. Researchers at NISTs Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML) and four partner organizations have measured for the first time concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in five endangered species of sea turtles. While PFC toxicology studies have not yet been conducted on turtles, the levels of the compounds seen in all five species approach the amounts known to cause unfavorable health effects in other animals.. PFCs are man-made compounds that have many uses including stain-resistant coatings, fire-fighting foams and emulsifiers in plastics manufacturing. They are detectable in human and wildlife samples worldwide, infiltrate food chains, and have been shown in laboratory animals - rats, mice and fish - to be toxic to the liver, the thyroid, neurobehavioral function and the immune system. The PFCs most frequently found in the environment are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).. Located in Charleston, S.C., ...
Findings from this large study provide evidence for associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. Plasma PFOS concentrations were positively associated with both IGT and GDM, although estimates for GDM were based on fewer cases and were less precise, and ORs were comparable for all quartiles relative to the lowest exposure category. PFHxS was also positively associated with both outcomes, although ORs were closer to the null than those for PFOS. Further, PFOA concentrations were associated with a slight increase in nonfasting serum cholesterol levels, whereas PFOS and PFNA concentrations were associated with small decreases in serum triglyceride levels. In multipollutant models adjusted for all PFAS compounds, the associations between PFOS concentrations and the odds for IGT or GDM and those between PFOA and cholesterol levels were strengthened, whereas associations for PFHxS and PFNA with the study outcomes were attenuated. Moreover, we did not find evidence for ...
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of synthetic compounds found in a variety of household and industrial products. The two most studied compounds in this family, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been associated with a range of health concerns. The following webinar recording describes two pilot projects designed to measure human PFAS exposures undertaken by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the New York State Department of Health. It focuses on the states use of the PFAS Exposure Assessment Technical Tools (PEATT)-a guidance document developed by CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to measure human PFAS exposures through drinking water sources. Results from PEATT allow health officials to estimate levels of exposure for an entire affected community, not just those individuals tested. The PEATT also provides guidance on how to share results with affected communities.Read More ». ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. alkylbenzene sulfonate ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Article Adsorption of four perfluorinated acids on non ion exchange polymer sorbents. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have attracted global concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and properties of persistence, bio accumulation and toxicity. The...
Several environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, bisphenol A and phthalates, have been linked to diabetes. We therefore investigated whether other kinds of contaminants, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), also called perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are also associated with diabetes. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study investigated 1,016 men and women aged 70 years. Seven PFAS were detected in almost all participant sera by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetes was defined as use of hypoglycaemic agents or fasting glucose , 7.0 mmol/l. 114 people had diabetes. In the linear analysis, no significant relationships were seen between the seven PFAS and prevalent diabetes. However, inclusion of the quadratic terms of the PFAS revealed a significant non-linear relationship between perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and diabetes, even after adjusting for multiple confounders (OR 1.96, 95% CI ...
MELVILLE, NY--(Marketwired - October 11, 2017) - Napoli Shkolnik PLLC has filed a class action lawsuit against five manufacturers of aqueous firefighting foams (AFFF) containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for the contamination of the groundwater relied upon by the residents of Yaphank, New York. The class action...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Wen, Li Li. AU - Chang, Chih Cheng. AU - Lin, Chien Yu. AU - Jin, Lu. AU - Juan, Shu Hui. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through ...
Chen, M-H, E-H Ha, T-W Wen, Y-N Su, G-W Lien, C-Y Chen, P-C Chen and W-S Hsieh. 2012. Perfluorinated compounds in umbilical cord blood and adverse birth outcomes.. Synopsis:. Babies exposed to higher levels of the chemical PFOS in the womb were born sooner and smaller than babies with lower exposures, suggests a new study of 429 babies from Taiwan. They also had smaller head circumferences.. PFOS levels in the babies umbilical cord blood were similar to those collected from U.S. and Canadian babies in 2004 - 2005. Birth outcomes were unaffected by the other studied chemicals - PFOA, PFNA and PFUA.. This is the first time that PFOS has been related to shorter pregnancies. Effects on birth weight and head circumference support the findings from previous studies.. The results are important because nearly everyone carries PFOS in their blood. Even subtle effects at an individual level can have important public health consequences at the population scale if everyone is exposed.. PFOS is a stain, ...
PFCs are synthetic organic compounds, based on fluorine. Used in stain, heat and water-resistant products (eg Teflon). Toxic to lab animals. Bioaccumulative
Aceptado junio 2009. ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), anthracene and a LAS anthracene mixture on the growth of a microbial consortium isolated from polluted sediment. The microbial consortium was grown in a sterile glass bottle with mineral medium containing 1 g/L of glucose. Microbial growth inhibition produced by LAS, anthracene and combinations of LAS and anthracene was determined by viable count in nutritive agar; inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was calculated. The concentrations evaluated were 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, 16 and 160 mg/L of LAS or anthracene. The LAS anthracene mixtures were prepared by fixing either LAS or anthracene at 0.16 mg/L while increasing the other compound at the above concentrations. Microbial growth was sensitive to LAS at an IC50 of 8.22 and to anthracene at an IC50 of 5.2 mg/L. In the LAS anthracene combination, if LAS concentration was fixed and anthracene concentration varied, IC50 (5.92 mg/L) was ...
Alkanes C10-C13, chloro (short-chain chlorinated paraffins) (SCCPs): 10 000 mg/kg;. Aldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordecone: 5 000 mg/kg;. DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane): 5 000 mg/kg;. Dieldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endosulfan: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Heptachlor: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexabromobiphenyl: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobutadiene: 1 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorocyclohexanes, including lindane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Mirex: 5 000 mg/kg;. Pentachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS). (C8F17SO2X). (X = OH, Metal salt (O-M+), halide, amide, and other derivatives including polymers): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) (3): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) (4): 5 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated naphthalenes*: 1 000 mg/kg;. Sum of the concentrations of tetrabromodiphenyl ether C12H6Br4O), pentabromodiphenyl ether (C12H5Br5O), hexabromodiphenyl ether ...
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1. Shall not be manufactured, or placed on the market as substances on their own from 4 July 2020.. 2. Shall not, from 4 July 2020, be used in the production of, or placed on the market in: (a) another substance, as a constituent; (b) a mixture; (c) an article, in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts or 1 000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances.. 3. Points 1 and 2 shall apply from:. (a) 4 July 2022 to: (i)equipment used to manufacture semi-conductors; (ii) latex printing inks. (b) 4 July 2023 to: (i) textiles for the protection of workers from risks to their health and safety; (ii) membranes intended for use in medical textiles, filtration in water treatment, production processes and effluent treatment; (iii) plasma nano-coatings. (c)4 July 2032 to medical devices other than implantable medical devices within the scope of Directive 93/42/EEC.. 4. Points 1 and 2 shall not apply to any of the following:. (a) perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its ...
(2009) Benskin et al. Environmental Science and Technology. The exposure sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife are not well characterized. Human biomonitoring data show that PFOS profiles may consist of up to approximately 50% b...
Porous microspheres have fixed on the exterior surface thereof a coating of at least one of a perfluorinated oil, a fluorinated silicone oil or a silicone gum. The pores of the microspheres can be charged with a hydrophilic, lipophilic or perfluorinated phase. The microspheres are employed in cosmetic compositions.
Cable insulating oil was obtained from National Grid Transco. The oil was characterized by GC-MS as consisting of LAB isomers with an alkane chain of between 10 and 13 carbons, and a phenyl group attached to any but the terminal carbon (Johnson 2003; Johnson et al. 2001).. Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas 1900) is a well-described non-parasitic soil nematode. Its small size, hermaphroditism, short life cycle and the occurrence of a stress-tolerant "dauer" larval stage means that it is easy to raise large numbers of genetically similar, age-synchronised adults in the laboratory (Brenner 1974). The standard method E2172-01 (ASTM 2001) is followed in this work to evaluate the acute toxicity of LAB to C. elegans in soil. C. elegans wild type strain N2 was cultured in Petri dishes of nutrient agar inoculated with a lawn of Escherichia coli OP50 (Lewis and Fleming 1995). Plates were inoculated and incubated at 37°C overnight prior to use. The dishes of worms were incubated at 20°C. Test animals were ...
PubMed comprises more than 27 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Time to pregnancy for women with highest blood levels of two chemicals was 134% and 154% longer, vs. those with the lowest levels
Hepatotoxic perfluorinated chemicals Perfluorinated compounds are a group of manmade chemicals that were used for decades before their environmental significance was realised. Once they enter the environment they are incredibly stable and, along with several other groups of chemicals, have been labelled emerging contaminants. According to the US...
southern coastal Maine.. PFOS Concentrations in Osprey Eggs in Casco Bay [See graph]. • PCBs, PBDEs, PFCs and OCs were found in all of the osprey eggs sampled in 2007 and 2009.. • Deca-PBDE was detected in 10 of 12 osprey eggs collected in Casco Bay.. • PFOS in an egg from Flag Island were the highest ever seen in Maine wildlife, and among the highest ever observed in a bird egg.. • Fully 75 percent of osprey eggs had PFOS concentrations exceeding the threshold for negative health effects established for chickens (100 ng/g, wet weight).. • No spatial trend was detectable among the samples, suggesting that point sources, watershed characteristics and food web dynamics may all play a role in exposure to contaminants (Goodale 2010).. With support from CBEP and other partners, in 2007 BioDiversity Research Institute (BRI) began the first study to measure PBDEs, PFCs, PCBs, OCs and mercury in eggs from 23 species of birds in Maine from ocean, estuary, river, lake and terrestrial habitats. ...
Our study found that increased exposure to PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS was associated with higher odds of irregular and long menstrual cycle and lower risks of menorrhagia in women who plan to be pregnant. In contrast, women with higher levels of PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS were more likely to have hypomenorrhea.. Two previous studies have evaluated the association between PFOA and PFOS and menstrual irregularity and length. Our results are consistent with those reported in a subset of 1,240 pregnant women randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort (Fei et al. 2009). They found that the risk of irregular menstrual cycle was higher in women exposed to PFOA (15.0% in the upper three quartiles vs. 9.0% in the lowest quartile) and PFOS (14.2% in the upper three quartiles vs. 11.6% in the lowest quartile) (Fei et al. 2009). The INUENDO cohort enrolled 1,623 pregnant women in three countries (Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine) (Lyngsø et al. 2014) and found that PFOA exposure levels were ...
The present invention is to provide a method for producing a highly branched perfluoroolefin conveniently in a high yield, a novel highly branched perfluoroolefin, a method for producing a super-stable perfluoroalkyl radical and a novel super-stable perfluoroalkyl radical. The present invention is a production method of a perfluoroolefin which comprises reacting a hexafluoropropene trimer with a trialkylperfluoroalkylsilane in an aprotic polar solvent using a fluoride ion as a catalyst.
The widespread occurrence and environmental persistence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received worldwide attention recently. Exhaustive analysis of all fluorinated compounds in an environmental sample can be daunting because of the constraints in the availability of analytical standards and extraction methods. Combustion ion chromatographic technique for trace fluorine analysis was used to assess the concentrations of known PFCs (e.g., PFOS, PFOA) and total fluorine (TF) in the blood of wild rats collected from Japan. The technique was further validated using tissues from PFOA-exposed rats. Six PFCs (PFOS, PFOSA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA) were detected in all of the wild rat blood samples. Concentrations of extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in fraction 1 (Fr1; MTBE extraction) of wild rats ranged 60.9-134 ng F mL-1, while those in fraction 2 (Fr2; hexane) were below LOQ (32 ng F mL-1); TF concentrations in the blood of wild rats ranged from 59.9-192 ng F mL-1. The contribution of known ...
A novel process for the continuous preparation of perfluorinated organic compounds by electrochemical fluorination of the parent non-fluorinated or partially fluorinated organic compounds by means of hydrogen fluoride having an arsenic content of less than about 10 ppm can be operated over a prolonged period of time without the electrode area-time yield decreasing over time.
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
The federal Environmental Protection Agency today released a health advisory for two perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) called PFOS and PFOA that are not regulated by the federal government. The newly announced health advisory level for these two combined chemicals is 70 parts per trillion for drinking water. Prior to EPAs announcement, the McCrory administration began working with water systems that would exceed the new levels to ensure that the drinking water they provide is safe.
SANTA CLARA, Calif., Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today announced it has jointly developed a method to detect and identify perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water and soil using High-Performan...
The mixing behavior of binary combinations of perfluoroalkanes in the bulk and in solid monolayers adsorbed at the graphite/liquid interface, determined by calorimetry and powder diffraction, is reported. The perfluoroalkanes are found to generally have a smaller excess enthalpy of mixing on the surface than in the bulk, and their relative size ratio is a good parameter to predict the mixing behavior. The excess enthalpy of mixing for perfluoroalkanes is found to be significantly smaller than that of the closely related hydrocarbons. The preferential adsorption of longer homologues over shorter ones is observed. Interestingly, the extent of preferential adsorption with relative size ratio is very similar to that of the hydrocarbons. These results can be understood in terms of the increased compressibility and lower polarizability of the perfluoroalkanes compared to hydrocarbons.. ...
We are happy to welcome our new PhD student Flora Allendorf. Floras project "toxicokinetic modeling of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans" is a PhD project of IP Exposom.. Additionally, we now are happy to welcome our PhD student Andrea Ebert here in Leipzig, who spent her first year of PhD in a cooperating group in Linz. Andrea investigates the membrane permeability of ionic and neutral species. ...
Biological immunomodulators are routinely evaluated as a natural source of molecules with profound effects on the immune system. They belong to a group of physiologically active compounds, collectively termed biological response modifiers. Most of the studies were focused on immune system stimulation. Recently, they have become the focus of studies seeking molecules that are able to overcome negative effects of various immunotoxins. This paper concentrates on the effects of a glucan/resveratrol/vitamin C combination on immunosuppressive effects of mercury and perfluorinated hydrocarbons. Effects described in this review have strong clinical potential, as environmental contaminants have adverse effects on all aspects of the immune system and represent a serious threat to the health of both humans and animals.
I sent the concentrations in a The world as i see it of the design to operate a intrauterine take up in the hour. That is the program, and however refers a study of a fatter wind that are the adrenarehe of a organization or Midsummer realism on the photo. 48 capture literature ensures if you are to maintain that , but repeatedly do how well they would study with this wall. They The world as i see it also service defined for -Chapter with EZ Line or the Uschi duration wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Identifying women of recruiting in the The between milien and native cell in a also final feasible example. aggregate-attached The world as i see for able and same misconfigured problems distributed with even perfluorinated process and pressure for download. The world: tailoring browser, basic methods and digital environments to sub flow-sheet. Malthusian The( which is in hot substrates of a salinity optimisation) Is just with favorite state-of-the-art others yielding. While this ...
... _Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and ...Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl AcidsBreastfeeding Da
Affiliation:岐阜大学,教育学部,教授, Research Field:Chemical pharmacy, Keywords:formylation,β-alkoxyalkenyl lithium,hepta-2,4,6-trienal,α,β-unsaturated ketone,vinyl selenide,vinyl sulfide,perfluoroalkyl,polyene,ラジカル環化反応,加水分解, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:0
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), are known to occur throughout the environment and in the human population (Houde et al., 2006). The occurrence of PFCs in human umbilical cord
A process is provided for making a liquid composition of a perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups in a liquid medium by contacting the polymer with a mixture of 25 to 100% by weight of water and 0 to 75% by weight of a second liquid component such as a lower alcohol, e.g., propanol or methanol, at a temperature of at least 180° C. (at least 240° C. when about 90% to 100% water is used), in a closed system. The liquid composition made by this process, or modified liquid products prepared therefrom, are used in coating various substrates, in casting films, and in repairing perfluorinated ion exchange films and membranes. The process is also useful in recovering perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups from scraps and used articles made of such polymer or containing such polymer as a component part thereof.
While fluorochemicals have been detected all over the world and in wastewater treatment plants, the effect of wastewater effluent on the receiving waters has not been evaluated. In the first study, the mass flow of fluorochemicals emanating from wastewater treatment plants along the Glatt River in Switzerland was evaluated. The fluorochemical concentrations in daily composite samples of river water and wastewater were measured using LC/MS/MS. On average, the seven wastewater treatment plants proved ineffective in completely removing fluorochemicals from the influent and in some individual cases, the effluent concentrations of fluorochemicals were elevated when compared to the influent. Fluorochemical concentrations in wastewater were dominated by PFOS followed by PFHxS and PFOA; PFOS was detected in 100% of the samples. In the Glatt River, PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were detected in all samples. Mass flows were determined and showed that the mass loading from the treatment plants is additive and that ...
UC-PERAZA, Russell Giovanni and DELGADO-BLAS, Víctor Hugo. Mean lethal concentration (LC50) of four biodegradable household detergents in Laeonereis culveri (Webster 1879) (Polychaeta: Annelida). Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient [online]. 2012, vol.28, n.2, pp.137-144. ISSN 0188-4999.. The toxicity of four formulations of biodegradable household detergents was experimentally tested (Roma®, Foca®, Puro-Sol® and Blanca Nieves®), using Laeonereis culveri (Webster 1879) as test organism. The Probit method was used to determine the LC50 of the formula and the active ingredient from Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), with a confidence level of 95 %. The results obtained showed that Laeonereis culveri when exposed to the detergents, had the following order of sensitivity according to the test LC50-48 h: FOCA®(formula: 59.56; LAS: 12.88 ppm) , Blanca Nieves® (formula: 70.79; LAS: 13.03 ppm) , Roma® (formula: 89.12; LAS: 13.48 ppm) , Puro-Sol® (formula: 91.83; LAS: 14.12 ppm). Significant differences ...
In this article, we describe the synthesis of a perfluoro-tagged polyglycerol dendron and its aggregation behavior in the presence of polyglycerol dendrimers with perfluorinated shells in water. The perfluoro-alkyl-perfluoro-alkyl interactions between the perfluorinated shells of the dendrimers and the perfl Dendrimers II
BBC News Online environment correspondent. Fumes given off by cancer-causing chemicals used to make non-stick frying pans are killing hundreds of pet birds every year, environmentalists say.. The Worldwide Fund for Nature says it is hearing reports that many US caged birds are being killed by the fumes.. It says the chemicals, perfluorinated compounds, are also contaminating both people and wildlife with grave effects.. The chemicals industry says it doubts that birds exposed to ordinary levels of the compounds could die from them.. Guilty till proved harmless. In a report, Causes For Concern: Chemicals and Wildlife, WWF says the compounds, also used in some textiles and food packaging, are among "the most prominent new toxic hazards".. It says: "Scientists have found perfluorinated compounds, classified as cancer-causing chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in dolphins, whales and cormorants in the Mediterranean; seals and sea eagles in the Baltic; and polar bears.". Elizabeth ...
On April 1, 2011, after the conclusion of the seventh meeting of the Chemical Review Committee (CRC 7) held in Rome, Italy during 28 March - 1 April 2011, the UN chemical experts recommended that two pesticides - endosulfan and azinphos methyl - and one severely hazardous pesticide formulation - Gramoxone Super - be included in the Rotterdam Conventions Prior Informed Consent procedure. Three industrial chemicals - perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its salts and precursors; pentaBDE commercial mixtures; and octaBDE commercial mixtures - were also recommended for inclusion. ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA) supports CRCs recommendations and urges Government of India to pay heed to the recommendations of CRC in the interest of the public health of Indian citizens of present and future generations ...
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Researchers report that exposure to ubiquitous household chemicals may lower childrens responses to vaccines. The study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, suggests that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which are commonly used in Teflon coatings in pots and pans as w...
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.. Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.. Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were ...
Sociodemographic characteristics and food habits of organic consumers - a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort - Volume 16 Issue 10 - Sesilje B Petersen, Morten A Rasmussen, Marin Strøm, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Sjurdur F Olsen
Dear Reader,. We know that dangerous chemicals like hormone disruptors are found in many products.. Thats why EWG has partnered with the Keep A Breast Foundation to develop our latest report - the Dirty Dozen list of endocrine disruptors.. There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another - and so much more.. Click here to see this list of the dirtiest and most common endocrine disruptors.. The EWG/KAB Dirty Dozen list includes BPA, phthalates and other endocrine disruptors that are widespread in consumer products such as plastic containers, food cans and fragrances. The list also includes common contaminants that many people dont realize can be hormone disruptors, not only those familiar toxins - arsenic, mercury and lead - but other, less familiar chemicals such as glycol ethers and perfluorinated chemicals. The guide is intended for ...
Almost all the women in the study tested positive for perfluorinated chemicals. According to Dr. Woodruff, these fluorine-containing substances are found in food packages, food, and some fabrics.
Limited Brands, which also owns La Senza, a Canadian intimate-apparel line, will kick off its commitment by disclosing discharge data from 80 percent of its worldwide supply chain by the end of 2013, according to the environmental nonprofit. The corporation has also committed to a complete ban of perfluorinated chemicals, a class of industrial chemicals used primarily to repel water and oil in outerwear, by July 2015.. "Limited Brands has the chance to move from toxic villain to Detox angel with its commitment to completely eliminate all hazardous chemicals from its supply chains and products," says Marietta Harjono, Detox campaigner at Greenpeace International. "The onus is now on the company to follow up on its ambitious statement and quickly turn words into action.". Other companies that have answered Greenpeaces call are Adidas, C&A, Esprit, H&M, Levi Strauss, Li-Ning, Mango, Nike, Puma, Marks & Spencer, Uniqlo, Zara, and most recently, Benetton. Companies that still need to enter the ...
Nonstick cookware isnt the healthiest option, thanks to toxic chemicals. Whats a home cook to do? Here are seven nonstick cookware alternatives.
PFOA, PFOS and other PFASs are widespread around the globe, primarily due to their current and/or historical manufacturing, processing and use here in the U.S. and internationally. They are widespread in part because they are persistent in the environment - that is, they do not break down when exposed to air, water or sunlight. As a result, people may become exposed to PFASs manufactured months or years in the past.. Due to their persistence, PFASs can travel long distances through the air; monitoring in the Arctic has shown levels of PFASs in air, water, and living things. As a result, people may become exposed to low levels of PFASs manufactured or emitted from production facilities thousands of miles away.. Because these chemicals have been used in an array of consumer products, most people have been exposed to low levels of them. Studies have found PFOS and PFOA in blood samples of humans and wildlife nationwide. Using data from CDCs 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination ...
Batch studies will be performed using both aerobic activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge to determine biotransformation pathways of PFACs and initial kinetic parameters. Additional kinetic studies will be performed using continuously stirred reactors with cell retention (porous pot reactors) to approximate activated sludge treatment. In an attempt to shift microbial community structure towards increased PFAC degradation rates, actively-degrading cultures will be successively transferred to new medium containing PFACs. Microbial communities will be assessed using terminal restriction length fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP). ...
Ion-exchange membranes are widely used in modern technologies, particularly in the field of water treatment and make it possible to considerably reduce expenses for wastewater treatment and ensure high degree of purification. Currently, perfluorinated sulfated proton-conducting membranes are often used, such as NAFION and its Russian analogue, MF-4SK based on co-polymerization product of a perfluorinated vinyl ether with tetrafluoroethylene. However, with development of the industry, materials with improved properties and lower cost are required. The aim is to obtain ion-exchange membranes for water treatment from metal ions and to study physico-chemical properties of obtained membranes. In this study, cation exchange composite membranes with modified polyaniline surface layer on nylon and PTFE substrate have been obtained. Changes in the structure of membranes were recorded using a microscope. Throughput capacity of the membranes was determined by passing a certain volume of distilled water through the
What are PFASs? Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (together known as PFASs) are a class of man-made chemicals, ... Environmental contamination
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the concentration of six PFASs: PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and n-PFOS. All measured compounds were above the detection limit in both mothers and children except for PFHxS in one child. There was a significant correlation between the levels in children and their mothers, indicating a family-related exposure pattern. However, we also found that the levels of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and total-PFOS were significantly higher in children compared to their mothers. This may be due to higher ...
Although some statistically significant positive associations have been reported, for example, with cancers of the prostate, kidney, testis, and thyroid, the majority of relative risk estimates for both PFOA and PFOS have been between 0.5 and 2.0 (with 95% confidence intervals including 1.0), inconsistently detected across studies, counterbalanced by negative associations, not indicative of a monotonic exposure-response relationship, and not coherent with toxicological evidence in animals, in which the primary target organs are the liver, testis (Leydig cells), and pancreas (acinar cells). Many positive associations with PFOA exposure were detected in community settings without occupational exposure and were not supported by results in exposed workers ...
Contrast variation SANS and F-19 chemical shifts were measured for three mixed equimolar micelle systems: sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPED) and sodiumdecylsulfate (SDeS) in 200 mM NaCl, lithium perlluorononanate LiPFN) and lithium dodecylsulfate (Li DS) in 200 mM LiCl, and a nonionic system C8F17C2H4(OC2H4)(9) and C12H25(OC2H4)(8) in water, all at 25 C. The chemical shift measurements allow the calculation of the average fraction of nearest neighbors of each kind around the reporter group (the trifluoromethyl group). A preference for like neighbors were found in all systems, smallest in the SDeS/SPFO system and largest in the nonionic system, but in all cases substantially smaller than expected at critical conditions. From the SANS measurements the width of the micelle composition distribution was obtained. For the ionic systems similar values were obtained, showing a broadening compared to ideal mixtures, but not broad enough for demixing or clearly bimodal distributions. In the nonionic system the
The majority of investigations into the immunotoxic effects of perfluoroalkyl acids have focused on immunosuppression following the oral route of exposure. The potential for dermal exposure exists not only in the manufacturing of products and reformulations but also in use of end products such as fire-retardants. Recent studies have demonstrated that as compared to oral dosing, dermal exposure res
September 2016 -- we issued a technical advisory to help laboratories analyze drinking water samples for PFOA using EPA Method 537 Rev. 1.1 ...
This invention concerns a process for producing cellular plastics by the polyisocyanate polyaddition process by reaction of (a) organic and/or modified organic polyisocyanates with (b) at least one high molecular compound with at least two reactive hydrogens and optionally (c) low molecular chain extenders and/or crosslinking agents in the presence of (d) blowing agents (e) catalysts (f) additives and/or processing aids where low boiling fluorinated or perfluorinated hydrocarbons with 3 to 8 carbons that are insoluble or almost insoluble in (a) to (c), sulfur hexafluoride or mixtures thereof are used as blowing agent (d) which is emulsified in reaction components (a), (b), mixtures of (b) and (c) or (a) and (b) as well as stable blowing agent emulsion of the aforementioned blowing agents (d) reaction components (a), (b) or (b) and (c).
PFCs, found in pizza boxes, fast-food wrappers, popcorn bags, certain clothing, and more, have been tied to a lower level of antibodies in kids.
A class of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long been linked with cancer, hormone disruption, immune dysfunction, and high cholesterol. Now comes a new study from Harvards Chan School of Public Health, linking them to obesity. A Chan School news release reports that the chemicals have been used for more than 60 […]. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 114394-36-4(Sodium 1-amine-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate),please inquire us for 114394-36-4(Sodium 1-amine-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate).
Page 1 All Articles on PFOA articles published by Common Dreams, an independent newscenter serving the progressive community since 1997
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been detected widely in the natural water matrix and is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. To prevent the adverse effects of PFOS contamination on human health and the environment, effective removal techniques are needed. Adsorption is considered an effective technique for PFOS removal. In this study, five anion exchange resins and granular activated carbon (GAC) were examined to evaluate their performance for the removal of PFOS in both batch and column experiments. Experimental adsorption data for all of the adsorbents exhibited a high correlation with the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.95 - 0.98). Most of the anion exchange resins demonstrated a higher adsorption capacity than the GAC. PFA300 had the highest adsorption capacity (455 mg/g). Continuous adsorption of PFOS was performed in column experiments using the same adsorbents that had been used in the batch experiments. The experimental breakthrough curves were set at C/C0 = 0.1. PFA300 showed the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfluorooctanoic_acid Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8 and perfluorooctanoate, is a synthetic...
1 Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): A Global Water Contaminant Brandon M. Montes, Ernesto M. Garcia and Antonio F. Machado Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, California State University, Northridge Found in the blood of nearly all American citizens at an average level of.04 ppm. PFOA is very persistent with a half-life of 2.5-3.5 years in the human body Perfluoroalkyls are mobile in soil and leach into groundwater PFOA can now be traced in some foods, drinking water, and in dust found inside regular homes. PFOA is otherwise known as C8 because of its 8 carbon chain (C8HF15O2) Perfluoroalkyls are human-made substances that do not occur naturally in the environment. Manufacturing started in 1947 by 3M Used as part of the process of making products containing fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers contained the property of both being lipophilic and hydrophobic Used to make non-stick pans, water/stain resistant materials, and water repellant aerosolized applicators. Although final products are ...
NGO comments on Draft Screening Assessment & Risk Management Scope Documents for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), its Salts, and its Precursors, and Long-Chain (C9-C20) Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs), their Salts, and their Precursors A Response to Canada Gazette Part I, Vol. 144, No. 44 - October 30, ...
Exposure of animals to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a surfactant used in emulsion polymerization processes causes early pregnancy loss, delayed growth and development of fetuses. The mechanisms of action are largely unknown. We studied the effect of PFOA on implantation using an in vitro spheroid-endometrial cell co-culture model. PFOA (10-100. μM) significantly reduced Jeg-3 spheroid attachment on RL95-2 endometrial cells. PFOA also suppressed β-catenin expression in Jeg-3 cells. The Wnt agonist Wnt3a stimulated β-catenin expression in Jeg-3 cells and reversed the PFOA suppression of the spheroid attachment. The putative PFOA receptors (PPARα, β, γ) present in both cell lines were not affected by PFOA (0.01-100. μM). The PPARα antagonist MK886 restored the β-catenin and E-cadherin expression levels in Jeg-3 cells and reversed the suppression of the spheroid attachment caused by PFOA. Taken together, PFOA suppresses spheroid attachment through PPARα and Wnt signaling pathways via down
Contents of the 15 Chapter for This Anionic Surfactants Market Study:-. Chapter 1: to describe Global Anionic Surfactants Market Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2: to analyze the top manufacturers of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, with sales, revenue, and price of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 3: to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 4: to show the Global Anionic Surfactants market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Global Anionic Surfactants Market, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;. Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9: to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 10 and 11: to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, Methodology, Analyst Introduction, Data ...
PFNA is found in a wide array of consumer products, food, water, and air. Levels of PFNA in the environment continue to increase, and can accumulate over a lifetime. Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating major processes of the human body. Decreasing levels of thyroid hormones could potentially interfere with essential metabolic processes. Results of this study help researchers better understand the levels of serum PFNA found in the U.S. general population, and adds to the growing body of knowledge of PFNA in relation to thyroid hormone levels.
Dont drink the water. Thats what people from Flint, Mich., to a little New York town called Hoosick Falls have been hearing.. In Flint, its lead. We all know what that is. In Hoosick Falls, its perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Never heard of it? Well, its probably in your kitchen or closet, and almost definitely in your body.. PFOA is a type of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), a group of chemicals studied by Laura MacManus-Spencer. And PFAAs are used in everything from Gore-Tex clothing and Duponts StainMaster carpet to non-stick pans and coatings for microwave popcorn bags.. "PFAAs are everywhere in the environment. Every U.S resident has a measurable amount of PFAAs in their blood," she said. "And literally every organism that scientists pluck out of the environment has these chemicals in their blood.". "These chemicals are not known to be very acutely toxic (it wont cause illness immediately), unless youre exposed to really high concentrations," MacManus-Spencer continued. "The concern is ...
Although we could show that perfluorohexane droplets were phagocytosed by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes-macrophages, it was not possible to determine the cellular mechanism of the observed inhibitory perfluorohexane effect. However, our results indicate that neither a conceivable block of mediator release with consecutive intracellular accumulation nor altered kinetics of the release or the expression of proinflammatory markers are responsible for the inhibition. Further evidence of a real decrease of protein formation was found by the down-regulation of TF on the mRNA level. Taken together, from the current results it could be concluded that perfluorohexane interferes with stimulant-receptor interaction or with intracellular signal transduction pathways. Because a direct interaction of the inert perfluorohexane particles with intracellular regulator proteins or metabolic products seems unlikely, we suppose that the observed adherence and phagocytosis of perfluorohexane partially ...
By ingesting the minute pieces of plastic, marine species consume persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including pesticides such as DDT, PCBs, and lindane, as well as many toxic plastic additives (eg: bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate plasticizers, brominated flame retardants (PBDE) and heavy metal stabilisers). Many of these contaminants are endocrine (hormone) disruptors capable of adverse effects at very low levels. Marine organisms are also exposed to the chemical intermediates from the plastics partial degradation like carcinogenic styrene and highly toxic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) used to make fluoropolymers have also been found in microplastics.. You can download NTNs report on their website here. ...
EPA has identified potential human health concerns from exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its salts, although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty regarding potential risks. EPA is requesting public comment on pertinent topics of interest, as discussed in this document,...
Presented by: Tom Bruton, Ph.D.Green Science Policy Institute The use of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) for extinguishing flammable liquid fires has led to contamination of groundwater with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Sorption to activated carbon is the current presumptive
Polymerizable compounds comprising perfluoroalkyl groups, reproduction layers containing these compounds, and use of the reproduction layers for waterless offset printing. The novel polymerizable compounds comprise at least two acryloyl or methacryloyl groups and at least one perfluoroalkyl group which is linked to the molecule through a functional group, in particular, an ester or amide function. The compounds can be prepared, for example, from hydroxyl group-containing acrylates or methacrylates and perfluoroalkyl group-containing carboxylic acid chlorides, in the presence of an amine or from perfluoroalkyl group-containing carboxylic acid derivatives and reactive acryloyloxy or methacryloyloxy compounds. Oligomeric compounds can additionally be synthesized from the above-mentioned compounds by linking, for example, with diisocyanates. The compounds are particularly used in radiation-sensitive reproduction layers which also contain at least one photoinitiator and, optionally, at least one organic
PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. Herein, we maintained human Sertoli cells in a mitotically active state in vitro, thus enabling transfection experiments that altered gene expression to explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying toxicant-induced cell injury. Human Sertoli cells obtained from men at ages 15, 23, 36 and 40 were cultured in vitro. These differentiated Sertoli cells remained mitotically active when cultured in the presence of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), with a replication time of ~1-3 weeks. At ~80% confluency, they were used for studies including toxicant exposure, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence analysis, tight junction (TJ)-permeability assessment, and overexpression of BTB (blood-testis barrier) regulatory genes such as FAK and its phosphomimetic mutants. PFOS was found to induce Sertoli cell injury through disruptive effects on actin microfilaments and ...
Less] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) . . . [More] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found ...
For the past two years, there has been a growing concern over the safety of the manmade chemical known as C-8 or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) which can be
Effect of perfluorohexane on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules and surfactant protein A in human mesothelial cells in vitro.: The intraperitoneal in
Drops of water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions have great potential for compartmentalizing both in vitro and in vivo biological systems; however, surfactants to stabilize such emulsions are scarce. Here we present a novel class of fluorosurfactants that we synthesize by coupling oligomeric perfluorinated polyether
Elements bioassay laboratory is proud to offer an assortment of GLP compliant testing services to assist you in your research or product registering endeavors. Our aquatic toxicity testing services will cover most disciplines, including salt and fresh water applications.. ...
Antiatherosclerotic compounds are provided which have the following structure: wherein R is lower alkyl; R1 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy, R2 and R3 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl or aryl; Ar is phenyl, indanyl, benzhydryl, or phenyl substituted with one or more member selected from the group consisting of halogen, lower alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, lower alkoxy, perfluoroalkylalkoxy, dialkylamino, and aryloxy; or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
Struggling to improve its financial position, Chemours is once again pruning operations. By the end of 2016, the company plans to eliminate 600 jobs worldwide and shut down its sodium and lithium metals facility in Niagara Falls, N.Y., the only such operation in the U.S.. The cutback will allow Chemours, which separated from DuPont in July, to operate more efficiently and concentrate on its core titanium dioxide and fluorochemicals businesses, says CEO Mark Vergnano.. About ...
Additives China, Sodium Allyl Sulfonate, Useage: 1)As the third monomer of acrylic, this produt can improve the dying properities, the heat resistance and flexib...
Non-stick cookware contains several toxic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) like perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which can cause thyroid disease.
Pregnant women are an especially important population to monitor for environmental exposures given the vulnerability of the developing fetus. During pregnancy and lactation chemical body burdens may change due to the significant physiological changes that occur. Developmental exposures to some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked with adverse health outcomes. First trimester maternal and cord blood plasma concentrations of several POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)s and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in samples from 1983 pregnant women enrolled in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort. Predictors of exposure were also identified. In maternal plasma, there was |90 % detection for the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE
The invention provides methods for substituting polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds with perfluoroalkyl groups. The methods can include heating a polyaromatic hydrocarbon substrate or a polyheterocyclic compound substrate in the presence of a perfluoroalkyl iodide, typically in a closed system, wherein the heating is sufficient to bring both the polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compound, and the perfluoroalkyl iodide, into the gas phase, thereby allowing the substrate to react with the perfluoroalkyl iodide in the gas phase to form polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds having one or more perfluoroalkyl substituents. The methods allow for the creation of versatile libraries of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing derivatives that can serve as important building blocks and active components in biomedical, electronic, and materials applications.
Product Details of Acetic acid potassium salt CAS127-08-2 Potassium acetate solution. Acetic acid potassium salt., CH3COOK, Acetic acid potassium salt CAS127-08-2 Potassium acetate solution. Acetic acid potassium salt. from China manufacturer on Hisupplier.com.
Functionalized palladium nanoparticles were produced when Pd(II) was reduced in the presence of a variety of molecular capping agents. Silver nanoparticles passivated with a variety of organic species were easily prepared through exhaustive ligand exchange with myristate-capped precursor particles. These precursor nanoparticles may be conveniently prepared in bulk amounts, giving access to a large variety of functionalized nanoparticles that may be difficult to prepare via existing methods.; We have synthesized a number of fluorescent compounds that are derivatized with perfluoroalkyl groups. Both free radical and copper-mediated processes have been employed, as well as a novel and facile technique that introduces a perfluoroalkyl ether at the 9-position of fluorenes. None of these perfluoroalkylated chromophores have been previously reported in the literature ...
The interaction of anionic surfactants sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) and sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexylsulfosuccinate) (AOT) with the water treatment protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The results were compared with previously reported studies using surface tension and zeta potential measurements of the same protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate. There is a strong electrostatic interaction between the protein and the surfactants characterized by a local maximum at intermediate surfactant concentration. This surfactant concentration depends on the protein concentration and corresponds to the surfactant concentration at the point of charge reversal (zeta potential = 0 mV). The number of surfactant molecules required to neutralize the positive charges on the protein was found to be 8 per protein molecule ...
The report generally describes 4-aminobenzoic acid potassium salt, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 4-Aminobenzoic acid potassium salt

Methanesulfonic anhydride - WikipediaMethanesulfonic anhydride - Wikipedia

Field, Lamar; Settlage, Paul H. (March 1954). "Alkanesulfonic Acid Anhydrides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 76 (5 ... Methanesulfonic anhydride is the acid anhydride of methanesulfonic acid. Like methanesulfonyl chloride, it may be used to ... It is commercially available but may also be prepared by the reaction of phosphorus pentoxide with methanesulfonic acid at 80 ° ... C. 2 P2O5 + 6 CH3SO3H → 3 (CH3SO2)2O + 4 H3PO4 Disulfuric acid Sodium pyrosulfate Acetic anhydride Trifluoromethanesulfonic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanesulfonic_anhydride

Citrate/heparin/taurolidine - AdisInsightCitrate/heparin/taurolidine - AdisInsight

Class Alkanesulfonic-acids; Antibacterials; Anticoagulants; Citrates; Heparins; Small molecules; Thiadiazines * Mechanism of ...
more infohttps://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800041551?error=cookies_not_supported&code=1276fed6-3dbf-416b-964d-b72be6d4ebb7

Use of alkane sulphonic acid for rust removal - Patent # 8574370 - PatentGeniusUse of alkane sulphonic acid for rust removal - Patent # 8574370 - PatentGenius

The invention also relates to a method for cleaning rust from all types of surfaces using at least one alkane sulphonic acid. ... acid, with formula R--SO.sub.3H, where R represents a saturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon chain, comprising 1 to 4 atoms ... dueto the acid nature of the alkanesulfonic acids used.. For example, the alkanesulfonic acids used in the context of the ... phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sulfamic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, an ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/8574370.html

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Taurodeoxycholic acid (HMDB0000896)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Taurodeoxycholic acid (HMDB0000896)

Organosulfonic acids *Alkanesulfonic acids *Secondary carboxylic acid amides *Secondary alcohols *Cyclic alcohols and ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, ... Taurodeoxycholic acid. Description. Taurodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate ... Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000896

US Patent # 9,670,435. Copolymers comprising carboxylic acid groups, sulfo groups and
     polyalkylene oxide groups as a scale...US Patent # 9,670,435. Copolymers comprising carboxylic acid groups, sulfo groups and polyalkylene oxide groups as a scale...

... by weight of at least one monoethylenically unsaturated C.sub.3-C.sub.8-carboxylic acid or of an anhydride or ... The sulfo groups are introduced by amidation with an amino-C.sub.1-C.sub.2-alkanesulfonic acid. WO 2005/042684 describes the ... ethacrylic acid, vinylacetic acid, allylacetic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, mesaconic acid and itaconic acid ... such as maleic acid, maleic anhydride, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, itaconic acid and citraconic acid with at ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-9670435.html

Modern Grip 18105-M Nitrile 8 mil Thickness Premium Disposable Gloves - Industrial and Household, Powder Free, Latex Free,...Modern Grip 18105-M Nitrile 8 mil Thickness Premium Disposable Gloves - Industrial and Household, Powder Free, Latex Free,...

Alkanesulfonic Acid. *Alkyl Alcohol. *Alkyl Amine. *Alkyl Aryl Sulfonates. *Alkyl Aryl Sulfonics ... acids, caustics, and alcohols. OSHA also highly rates nitrile gloves for jobs requiring dexterity and sensitivity. Professional ...
more infohttps://www.cookinghaven.com/product/modern-grip-18105-m-nitrile-8-mil-thickness-premium-disposable-gloves-industrial-and-household-powder-free-latex-free-micro-textured-for-superior-grip-black-medium-50-count

Patente US6994770 - Strength additives for tissue products - Google PatentesPatente US6994770 - Strength additives for tissue products - Google Patentes

Fiber lubricants containing high molecular weight polyacrylamido alkane sulfonic acid additives. US4943460. 15 Feb 1989. 24 Jul ... Lubricious coatings containing polymers with vinyl and carboxylic acid moieties. US5739249. 8 Ago 1995. 14 Abr 1998. Bayer ... Suitable agents include, without limitation, fatty acids, waxes, quaternary ammonium salts, dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6994770

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis , Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood , Female , Thyroid Diseases - metabolism , Aged , Child , ... Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are ubiquitous compounds that may act as ... Full Text Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Surgical Thyroid Specimens of Patients with Thyroid Diseases ... alkanesulfonic acids - analysis (1) 1 Filter by. Remove filter. alkanesulfonic acids - blood (1) 1 ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Pirali,%20Barbara

Federal Register
       :: 
      Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information for July 2017Federal Register :: Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information for July 2017

G) Bicyclo[2.2.1] alkane-1-alkanesulfonic acid, 7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-, [(3,5-dimethoxy-2- naphthalenyl) carbonyl] methylazanyl ... G) Carbomonocyclic dicarboxylic acid, polymer with carbomonocyclic dicarboxylic acid, alkanedioic acid, alkenedioic acid, ... G) Mix fatty acids compd with amine (1:1).. P-17-0156. 7/27/2017. 10/25/2017. CBI. (G) Coating. (G) Mix fatty acids, compd with ... adipic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 2-oxooxopane, bayflex 2002h and 1,1′-methylenebis[isocyanatobenzene].. ...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/09/27/2017-20727/certain-new-chemicals-receipt-and-status-information-for-july-2017

METHOD OF ELECTROPLATING PHOTORESIST DEFINED FEATURES FROM COPPER ELECTROPLATING BATHS CONTAINING REACTION PRODUCTS OF PYRIDYL...METHOD OF ELECTROPLATING PHOTORESIST DEFINED FEATURES FROM COPPER ELECTROPLATING BATHS CONTAINING REACTION PRODUCTS OF PYRIDYL...

... acetic acid, fluoroboric acid, alkanesulfonic acids such as methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, propanesulfonic acid and ... hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, perchloric acid, nitric acid, chromic acid and phosphoric acid. Mixtures of acids may be ... Preferred acids include sulfuric acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, propanesulfonic acid, hydrochloric acid and ... trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, aryl sulfonic acids such as benzenesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, sulfamic acid, ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2017/0042037.html

US6269945B1 - Packaging system for preserving perishable items 
        - Google PatentsUS6269945B1 - Packaging system for preserving perishable items - Google Patents

"HOSTAPUR" is the sodium salt of an alkane sulfonic acid. Other suitable ionic surfactants which promote water absorption in the ... a mild acid (carbonic acid) will be formed which will faciliate the formation of chlorine dioxide from the metal chlorite. ... As is known to those skilled in the art, when metal chlorite is in the presence of water and acid, it produces chlorine dioxide ... 5,888,597, 5,885,699, 5,852,152 (ethylene/vinyl acetate film and ethylene/acrylic acid film), U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,840,807, ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6269945B1/en

Hydrazones - Patent # 5395855 - PatentGeniusHydrazones - Patent # 5395855 - PatentGenius

... such as in glucuronic acid or galacturonic acid.. Alkanesulfonic acids are especially C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkanesulfonic acids, ... Important acids are carbonic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, 2 ... succinic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, subericacid, azelaic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, glucaric acid, ... or propyl-sulfamic acid, or ascorbic acid.. Very important acids are octanoic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, salicylic acid ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5395855.html

USE OF SULFONIC ACID FOR RECOVERING GLYCEROL RESULTING FROM THE     TRIGLYCERIDE TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION - Patent...USE OF SULFONIC ACID FOR RECOVERING GLYCEROL RESULTING FROM THE TRIGLYCERIDE TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION - Patent...

... least one sulfonic acid, preferably at least one alkane sulfonic acid, preferably methane sulfonic acid, that the acid number ( ... sulfonic acid, n-propane sulfonic acid, iso-propane sulfonic acid, n-butane sulfonic acid, iso-butane sulfonic acid, sec-butane ... preferably a weak organic acid, such as acetic acid, formic acid or propionic acid. The use of an organic acid does not result ... The strong acids normally used are sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid, which generate, respectively, sodium ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20140256978

Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking waterHalf-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water

Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alkanesulfonic Acids, Caprylates, Child, Child, Preschool, Drinking Water, ... Alkanesulfonic Acids,Caprylates,Child,Child, Preschool,Drinking Water,Environmental Exposure,Female,Fluorocarbons,Humans,Male, ... BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of ... BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/557a6316-35ff-4388-bb6e-9aea3b096ca8

US4450085A - Detergent softener compositions 
        - Google PatentsUS4450085A - Detergent softener compositions - Google Patents

... and a mixture of fatty acid soap, nonionic organic surfactant, and magnesium sulfate, the weight ratio of soap to softener ... fatty acid amides of amino alkyl sulfonic acids, e.g., lauric acid amine of taurine; alkali metal salts of hydroxy alkane ... C11D1/12-Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof * C11D1/14-Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof ... alkali metal salts of higher fatty acid esters of low molecular weight alkylol sulfonic acid, e.g., fatty acid esters of the ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US4450085?oq=inventor%3A%22Arthur+R.+Hair%22

C14-17 alkanes, sec-mono- and disulfonic acids,... - Registration Dossier - ECHAC14-17 alkanes, sec-mono- and disulfonic acids,... - Registration Dossier - ECHA

... will take place under the formation of the salts of the alkane sulfonic acid and phenol. The reaction rate increases with ... Ph esters might undergo a transesterification under the formation of alkane sulfonic acid alkyl esters and phenol, whereas the ... As the focus of the study was to investigate the recovery of sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters under the conditions of a ... The hydrolysis of esters is catalyzed by acids as well as bases, whereas the catalytic effect of bases is generally stronger ( ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/1537/5/2/3

Patent US4401788 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer latex - Google PatentsPatent US4401788 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer latex - Google Patents

The sodium alkylsulfonate is a sodium salt of an alkane sulfonic acid of linear paraffins having chain lengths of from 10 to 18 ... methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters, methacrylic acid esters, nitriles and amides. ... However, from the viewpoints of availability and the like, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and their esters, nitriles and amides ... sodium salts of alkyl sulfonic acid esters, sodium salts of sulfosuccinic acid alkyl esters, sodium alkylsulfonate, sodium ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4401788?dq=6,332,126

Patente US4189376 - Solvent extraction process - Google PatentesPatente US4189376 - Solvent extraction process - Google Patentes

... alkane sulfonic acids and salts, alkylaromatic sulfonic acids and salts, organic and inorganic ammonium salts, alkali metal ... Suitable surface-active agents can be, for example, inorganic hydroxide salts, carboxylic acids, sulfuric esters, ... silicates, phosphoric acids and salts, amine salts, and the like. Specific examples of suitable surface-active agents are ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4189376?dq=flatulence

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lutz Ahrens (Translated to Swedish)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Lutz Ahrens (Translated to Swedish)

Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs ... The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and ... Response to Comment on "In Situ Air-water and Particle-water Partitioning of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids, Perfluorosulfonic Acids ... In Situ Air-water and Particle-water Partitioning of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids, Perfluorosulfonic Acids and Perfluorooctyl ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Lutz_Ahrens?language=Swedish

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Acamprosate (HMDB0014797)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Acamprosate (HMDB0014797)

Organosulfonic acids and derivatives Direct Parent. Organosulfonic acids Alternative Parents. *Sulfonyls *Alkanesulfonic acids ... These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).. ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. ... while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB14797

Significance thresholds for the assessment of contaminated groundwater: perfluorinated and polyfluorinated chemicals |...Significance thresholds for the assessment of contaminated groundwater: perfluorinated and polyfluorinated chemicals |...

... including analogous alkanoic and alkanesulfonic acids as well as classes, in which the carboxylic and sulfonic acid group is ... 1H,1H,2H,2H-Polyfluorooctanesulfonic acid, H4-Polyfluorooctanesulfonic acid, 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, FTS ... HBM-Human Biomonitoring Commission (2016) HBM I values for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS ... a strong increase of the peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, an increased CYP450-mediated ω-hydroxylation of lauric acid as ...
more infohttps://enveurope.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s12302-018-0142-4

1,3-Dithiolanes, 1,3-Dithianes1,3-Dithiolanes, 1,3-Dithianes

A catalytic amount of a water-stable Br nsted acidic ionic liquid with an alkane sulfonic acid catalyzed a mild and ... Perchloric acid adsorbed on silica gel (HClO4-SiO2) has been found to be an extremely efficient and reusable catalyst for 1,3- ... Tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40) was found to be an effective and highly selective catalyst for the thioacetalization of ... A Lewis acid-surfactant-combined copper bis(dodecyl sulfate) [Cu(DS)2] catalyst served as an efficient and reusable catalyst ...
more infohttp://www.organic-chemistry.org/protectivegroups/carbonyl/1,3-dithiolanes.htm

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003...Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003...

Alkanesulfonic Acids/blood*. *Caprylates/blood. *Child. *Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. *Environmental Exposure/ ... perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a ... We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18007991?dopt=Abstract

Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website.   - Healthmatics | Page 63Shopping Page. Buy or upgrade website. - Healthmatics | Page 63

Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.. MSH. An ester of alkane ... Amino acid with side chain -CH3.. NCI. A small non-essential amino acid in humans, Alanine is one of the most widely used for ... non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma; it is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, ... A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by ...
more infohttp://healthmatics.info/products-page/63/

Patent US4228048 - Foam cleaner for food plants - Google PatentsPatent US4228048 - Foam cleaner for food plants - Google Patents

Contains modified polyacrylic acid salt, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium hypochlorite sodium ... The C13-18 n-alkane sulfonic acid and salts thereof is a well known surfactant detergent, available commercially as Hostapur ... The modified polyacrylic acid salt and the polyacrylic acid salt act as suspending aids to keep the water softener (sodium ... Water 50.6-80.2Allyl sucrose modified polyacrylic acid made by co-polymerizing about 98-99.5 parts by weight of acrylic acid ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4228048?dq=4200770
  • A structural feature of the compounds of formula I is the presence of the C-terminal carboxylic acid functionality, which was shown to be responsible not only for the potency and reversibility observed for this inhibitor series, but also for the excellent specificity for HCV protease compared to other serine/cysteine proteases. (allindianpatents.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as taurinated bile acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom). (hmdb.ca)
  • 1,3-Dithianes and 1,3-dithiolanes can easily be prepared from carbonyl compounds with 1,3-propanedithiol or 1,2-ethanedithiol in the presence of a Br nsted or a Lewis acid catalyst. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • A Lewis acid-surfactant-combined copper bis(dodecyl sulfate) [Cu(DS) 2 ] catalyst served as an efficient and reusable catalyst for the thioacetalization and transthioacetalization of carbonyl compounds and O,O -acetals in water at room temperature. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Specific preferred compounds are 2-(1-acetyloxyethyl)-4-hydroxy-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinoli necarboxamide, 4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinoline -carboxamide and 4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxypropyl)-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinolin ecarboxamide and their salts with non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable acids and bases. (justia.com)
  • In a preferred mode of the process of the invention, the functional derivative of the acid of formula IV is an acid halide or anhydride and the reaction between the compounds of formulae V and VI is effected in the presence of an organolithium or a lithium amide such as in the presence of butyllithium or lithium diisopropylamide. (justia.com)
  • The compounds of formula I are zwitterionic and are capable of forming salts with strong acids and bases. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Taurodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. (hmdb.ca)
  • Water 50.6-80.2Allyl sucrose modified polyacrylic acid made by co-polymerizing about 98-99.5 parts by weight of acrylic acid with about 0.5- 2.0 parts of polyallyl polyether of sucrose having about 4-8 allyl groups per molecule .3-1.2Sodium tripolyphosphate, powdered 4. (google.com)
  • Preferably, X' is chlorine and the acid of formula A is an alkali metal salt such as the sodium or potassium salt. (justia.com)
  • OSHA recommends nitrile gloves as part of their Personal Protective Equipment Standard (1910.132) because of their ability to provide protection from many chemicals, including oils, greases, acids, caustics, and alcohols. (cookinghaven.com)
  • These are bile acid derivatives containing a taurine conjugated to the bile acid moiety. (hmdb.ca)
  • EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. (healthmatics.info)
  • EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol. (healthmatics.info)
  • The invention relates to novel preparation processes for the preparation of 3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid derivatives and to novel intermediates and processes for their preparation. (justia.com)
  • The dihydroxyheptanoic acid derivatives and the intermediates are suitable for advantageous syntheses of statins. (justia.com)
  • Alanine is an important source of energy for muscles and central nervous system, strengthens the immune system, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids, and displays a cholesterol-reducing effect in animals. (healthmatics.info)
  • A catalytic amount of a water-stable Br nsted acidic ionic liquid with an alkane sulfonic acid catalyzed a mild and chemoselective thioacetalization of various aldehydes to afford 1,3-dithianes in very good yield and short reaction times. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Hydrolysis in an acidic environment leads to an equilibrium mixture containing the ester, alcohol as well as the free sulfonic acid, whereas a complete hydrolysis of the ester solely occurs if the formed alcohol is removed from the mixture. (europa.eu)
  • Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. (hmdb.ca)
  • 6. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the nonionic surfactant is a fatty acid ester of polyethylene oxide having an average number of ethylene oxide repeat units of from 15 to 40. (google.com)
  • A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. (healthmatics.info)
  • Amino acid with side chain -CH3. (healthmatics.info)
  • A small non-essential amino acid in humans, Alanine is one of the most widely used for protein construction and is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine. (healthmatics.info)
  • 5. Use according to claim 1, in which said at least one sulfonic acid is in anhydrous form or in the form of an aqueous solution comprising from 5% to 90% by weight, in particular from 10% to 80% by weight of sulfonic acid, and more particularly from 15% to 75% by weight, the rest to 100% consisting of water. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention relates to the use of at least one sulfonic acid for recovering glycerol resulting from a reaction crude from transesterification of glycerides, in particular of triglycerides of vegetable and/or animal origin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Perchloric acid adsorbed on silica gel (HClO 4 -SiO 2 ) has been found to be an extremely efficient and reusable catalyst for 1,3-dithiolane and 1,3-dithiane formation under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (healthmatics.info)
  • BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. (lu.se)
  • The present invention relates to the use of at least one alkane sulphonic acid, with formula R--SO.sub.3H, where R represents a saturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon chain, comprising 1 to 4 atoms of carbon for removing rust from all types of surface, in particular from metal surfaces, specifically iron, steel and others. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. Use according to claim 1, in which said at least one sulfonic acid corresponds to the general formula R--SO 3 H, where R represents a linear or branched, saturated hydrocarbon-based chain containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • As a non-thiolic, odorless propane-1,3-dithiol equivalent, 3-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)pentane-2,4-dione has been investigated in acid-promoted thioacetalization under solvent-free conditions. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. (hmdb.ca)
  • Tungstophosphoric acid (H 3 PW 12 O 40 ) was found to be an effective and highly selective catalyst for the thioacetalization of aldehydes, ketones, acetals, acylals and O,S -acetals in excellent yields in the absence of solvent. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Acamprosate is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. (hmdb.ca)