Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A gonadal stimulant and inducer of ovulation. It is used in the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea, but is thought to be less effective than CLOMIPHENE.
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
Chemical compounds applied to materials to reduce their retention of an electrostatic charge.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.

A comparative study of the unfolding of the endoglucanase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in denaturant and surfactant. (1/199)

Cellulases are increasingly being used for industrial purposes, particularly in washing powders, yet little is known of the factors governing the stability of proteins in detergent solutions. We present a comparative analysis of the behavior of the cellulase Cel45 from Humicola insolens in the presence of the denaturant guanidinium chloride and the anionic detergent C12-LAS. Although Cel45 unfolds in GdmCl according to a simple two-state model under equilibrium conditions, it accumulates a transient intermediate during refolding. The four disulfide bonds do not contribute detectably to the stability of the native state. Cel45 is unfolded by very low concentrations of C12-LAS (1-4 mM). An analysis of 16 mutants of Cel45 shows a very weak correlation between unfolding rates in denaturant and detergent; mutants that have the same unfolding rate in GdmCl (within a factor of 1.5) vary 1,000-fold in their unfolding rates in C12-LAS. The data support a simple model for unfolding by detergent, in which the introduction of positive charges or removal of negative charges greatly increases detergent sensitivity, while interactions with the hydrophobic detergent tail contribute to a smaller extent. This implies that different detergent-mediated unfolding pathways exist, whose accessibilities depend on individual residues. Double-mutant cycles reveal that mutations in two proximal residues lead to repulsion and a destabilization greater than the sum of the individual mutations as measured by GdmCl denaturation, but they also reduce the affinity for LAS and therefore actually stabilize the protein relative to wild-type. Ligands that interact strongly with the denatured state may therefore alter the unfolding process.  (+info)

Effects of carnosine and related compounds on the stability and morphology of erythrocytes from alcoholics. (2/199)

The effects of carnosine and related compounds on erythrocytes from alcoholics were studied. In their presence, erythrocytes showed an increased ability to resist haemolysis and showed a more normal morphology, with carnosine and N-acetyl-carnosine being the most effective compounds. These beneficial properties of the dipeptides do not appear to be directly related to their antioxidant or buffering properties.  (+info)

Mechanism for proton conduction of the M(2) ion channel of influenza A virus. (3/199)

The M(2) integral membrane protein of influenza A virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. We investigated the mechanism for proton transport of the M(2) protein in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp and in CV-1 cells using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Membrane currents were recorded while manipulating the external solution to alter either the total or free proton concentration or the solvent itself. Membrane conductance decreased by approximately 50% when D(2)O replaced H(2)O as the solvent. From this, we conclude that hydrogen ions do not pass through M(2) as hydronium ions, but instead must interact with titratable groups that line the pore of the channel. M(2) currents measured in solutions of low buffer concentration (<15 mM in oocytes and <0.15 mM in CV-1 cells) were smaller than those studied in solutions of high buffer concentration. Furthermore, the reversal voltage measured in low buffer was shifted to a more negative voltage than in high buffer. Also, at a given pH, M(2) current amplitude in 15 mM buffer decreased when pH-pK(a) was increased by changing the buffer pK(a). Collectively, these results demonstrate that M(2) currents can be limited by external buffer capacity. The data presented in this study were also used to estimate the maximum single channel current of the M(2) ion channel, which was calculated to be on the order of 1-10 fA.  (+info)

In vivo transposon mutagenesis of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A using a modified version of the insect mariner-family transposable element Himar1. (4/199)

We present here a method for in vivo transposon mutagenesis of a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, which because of its independence from host-specific factors may have broad application among many microorganisms. Because there are no known Methanosarcina transposons we modified the mariner transposable element Himar1, originally found in the insect Hematobia irritans, to allow its use in this organism. This element was chosen because, like other mariner elements, its transposition is independent of host factors, requiring only its cognate transposase. Modified mini-Himar1 elements were constructed that carry selectable markers that are functional in Methanosarcina species and that express the Himar1 transposase from known Methanosarcina promoters. These mini-mariner elements transpose at high frequency in M. acetivorans to random sites in the genome. The presence of an Escherichia coli selectable marker and plasmid origin of replication within the mini-mariner elements allows facile cloning of these transposon insertions to identify the mutated gene. In preliminary experiments, we have isolated numerous mini-mariner-induced M. acetivorans mutants, including ones with insertions that confer resistance to toxic analogs and in genes that encode proteins involved in heat shock, nitrogen fixation, and cell-wall structures.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of NADPH: azodicarbonyl/quinone oxidoreductase, a plant zeta-crystallin. (5/199)

Arabidopsis thaliana P1 protein was crystallized using the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method in 0.1 M piperazine-1, 4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, containing 14% polyethylene glycol 6000 and 0.2 M magnesium acetate at pH 6.5 and 20 degrees C. The crystals are orthorhombic and belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a=49.8, b=122.4 and c=149. 9 A. The diffraction data up to 2.9 A were collected by a multiwire area detector.  (+info)

Conservation of phosphorylation state of cardiac phosphofructokinase during in vitro hypothermic hypoxia. (6/199)

We investigated the metabolic effects of buffering agents alpha-amino-4-imidazole-propionic acid (Histidine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine (bicine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) on anaerobic energy production (via glycolysis) and conservation of key regulatory enzyme activity, and phosphofructokinase (PFK) throughout prolonged hypothermic hypoxia in porcine hearts. Hearts from 35 to 40 kg pigs were flushed with one of the following five solutions: St. Thomas' Hospital solution (STHS); modified University of Wisconsin (UW) solution; and three solutions containing modified UW plus 90 mM of histidine, bicine, or BES. The hearts were then stored at 4 degrees C for 10 h. After 10 h of hypothermic hypoxia, lactate values were 6.7-12.9 micromol/g higher than control; this reflected an increase in anaerobic end product of 35-67%. The consequences of enhanced anaerobic metabolism were higher ATP, total adenylate, Energy Charge, and ATP/ADP ratios in most of the buffered groups after 4-10 h cold storage; effectiveness of the buffers employed correlated with buffering capacity (BES proved to be the most effective). PFK remained activated throughout most of the 10-h period in hearts stored with buffers and did not undergo the rapid inactivation experienced by hearts stored in STHS. Conservation of PFK integrity with buffering agents was not related to a pH-mediated event; changes in kinetic parameters suggested that this protection was due to an irreversible posttranslational modification, specifically a dephosphorylation event.  (+info)

The origins of stability of spontaneous vesicles. (7/199)

Equilibrium unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by one of two distinct mechanisms depending on the value of the bending constant. Helfrich undulations ensure that the interbilayer potential is always repulsive when the bending constant, K, is of order k(B)T. When K k(B)T, unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by the spontaneous curvature that picks out a particular vesicle radius; other radii are disfavored energetically. We present measurements of the bilayer elastic constant and the spontaneous curvature, R(o), for three different systems of equilibrium vesicles by an analysis of the vesicle size distribution determined by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering. For cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/sodium octyl sulfonate catanionic vesicles, K =.7 k(B)T, suggesting that the unilamellar vesicles are stabilized by Helfrich-undulation repulsions. However, for CTAB and sodium perfluorooctanoate (FC(7)) vesicles, K = 6 k(B)T, suggesting stabilization by the energetic costs of deviations from the spontaneous curvature. Adding electrolyte to the sodium perfluorooctanoate/CTAB vesicles leads to vesicles with two bilayers; the attractive interactions between the bilayers can overcome the cost of small deviations from the spontaneous curvature to form two-layer vesicles, but larger deviations to form three and more layer vesicles are prohibited. Vesicles with a discrete numbers of bilayers at equilibrium are possible only for bilayers with a large bending modulus coupled with a spontaneous curvature.  (+info)

2-Bromoethanesulfonate affects bacteria in a trichloroethene-dechlorinating culture. (8/199)

Long-term exposure to 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), an agent known to inhibit methanogenesis, altered the bacterial community structure of an anaerobic enrichment culture that reductively dechlorinated trichloroethene (TCE). BES did not hinder the dechlorination of TCE or other chlorinated ethenes as previously reported, although different intermediates and end products were observed.  (+info)

EWGs Tap Water Database Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) results for North Las Vegas Utilities | Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) results for Belton | Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Find out what is in your tap water
Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages ...
Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28‐d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land‐application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected
Article Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water purification plants (WPPs) with advanced treatment processes. A series of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) surveys were conducted in two water purification plants (WPPs) having ozonation and granular ac...
The European Commission this year will consider a proposal to restrict the manufacture or sale of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), its salts, or substances that degrade into PFHxS. These chemicals are used as water and stain repellents in textile treatment, according to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). They are part of a group known as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that are highly persistent in the environment. PFHxS is highly bioaccumulative and has been detected in human blood and in wildlife in the Arctic and other remote places. Use of PFHxS and its related compounds has declined in recent years, ECHA says, adding that current annual emissions of these substances in the EU are estimated at about 0.42 metric tons. Norway initiated the proposal to restrict PFHxS and its related compounds, with the goal to prevent their use in place of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, which is already banned in the European Union, or perfluorooctanoic acid, which will be prohibited there as ...
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are man-made chemicals. Their unique properties make them beneficial for a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, such as constituents in fire fighting foams, hydraulic oils and food packaging materials.PFAAs have shown to be highly persistent in the environment, and the toxicological potential of long chain PFAA homologues is of a concern. International regulation and voluntary actions by the industry have been implemented and led to reduced primary emissions of PFAAs to the environment. However, the concentrations of some PFAAs in e.g. birds from the Baltic Sea are still very high and of ecotoxicological concern. Measures to reduce the PFAA contamination require an understanding of the sources and how the PFAAs are being transported in the environment.In this licentiate thesis a mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the ...
Little is known about factors influencing infant perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations. Associations between serum PFAA concentrations in 2-4-month-old infants (n = 101) and determinants were investigated by multiple linear regression and general linear model analysis. In exclusively breastfed infants, maternal serum PFAA concentrations 3 weeks after delivery explained 13% (perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA) to 73% (perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFHxS) of infant PFAA concentration variation. Median infant/maternal ratios decreased with increasing PFAA carbon chain length from 2.8 for perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to 0.53 for PFUnDA and from 1.2 to 0.69 for PFHxS and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Infant PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and PFOS levels increased 0.7-1.2% per day of gestational age. Bottle-fed infants had mean concentrations of PFAAs 2 times lower than and a mean percentage of branched (%br) PFOS isomers 1.3 times higher than those of ...
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) has been serving as an active source to cater intelligent research report to enlighten both readers and investors. This research study titled Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Market. Request a Free Sample Report @ Increasing demand for sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laureth ether sulfate (SLES) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) from detergents & cleaners and personal care industries is expected to drive the global SLS, SLES & LAS market in the next five years. However, the adverse effect of SLS and SLES on human skin coupled with fluctuation in prices of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate is anticipated to hamper market growth. Emerging applications such as paints & coatings and oilfield chemicals are estimated to offer immense opportunities for players in the market. SLS, SLES and LAS are the major forms of anionic surfactants. However, LAS accounts for nearly 40% of the global anionic surfactants market.. The report ..., community and environment at risk from perfluorinated chemcialsNTN has released its new report on the Persistence and Toxicity of Perfluorinated Compounds in Australia.
Get Information of Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Dealers, Exporters, Traders, Producers, Wholesalers, Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Companies in Aurangabad, India
We utilized milk samples obtained from a survey of 219 primiparous mothers in 2009 to test for the presence of new persistent organic pollutants: hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), chlordecone, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOS-F), and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). 158 samples were pooled according to the mothers age, length of stay in Hong Kong, and their dietary habits (frequencies of intake of fish and other seafood, and milk and dairy products) and tested for chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs. All were present in our samples. Their mean and median concentrations are very high compared to findings in other countries. HCH and PeCB were tested in 73 individual samples and their mean levels were of the same order of magnitude as those reported in our previous study. The levels of PBDEs were positively associated ...
Paola Irato, Sara Trabucco and Laura Tallandini-Emerging Contaminants Such as Perfluorinated Compounds: Toxicity andOxidative Stress
A survey on seasonal concentration changes of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was performed for surface water in Lake Biwa (14 sites) from February to November in 20
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmental chemicals linked to weight gain and type 2 diabetes.We examined the extent to which PFAS plasma concentrations during pregnancy were associated with postpartum anthropometry and biomarkers.We studied women recruited between 1999-2002 in the Project Viva prospective cohort with pregnancy plasma concentrations of PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (EtFOSAA). Three-year postpartum anthropometry measurements were available from 786-801 women, blood pressure from 761 women, and blood biomarkers from 450-454 women. We used multivariable regression to evaluate the association of log2-transformed PFAS with postpartum anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood biomarkers (leptin, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP]), adjusting for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ...
Link: Shabalina Irina G, Kalinovich AV, Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2015) Event: MiP2015 The environmental pollutants perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are degradation products of polyfluorinated surfactants and polymers that due to their unique surface-active properties, the stability of their C-F bonds and their thermal resistivity, are utilized in a wide variety of products, including fire-fighting foams, lubricants, paints, cosmetics and ski-wax. PFOS/PFOA cause a dramatic reduction in the size of the major adipose tissue depots when they are added to the food of mice. A large part of the effect of PFOA/PFOS on food intake was dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the brown adipose tissue [1]. We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wildtype brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen ...
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online. Researchers at NISTs Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML) and four partner organizations have measured for the first time concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in five endangered species of sea turtles. While PFC toxicology studies have not yet been conducted on turtles, the levels of the compounds seen in all five species approach the amounts known to cause unfavorable health effects in other animals.. PFCs are man-made compounds that have many uses including stain-resistant coatings, fire-fighting foams and emulsifiers in plastics manufacturing. They are detectable in human and wildlife samples worldwide, infiltrate food chains, and have been shown in laboratory animals - rats, mice and fish - to be toxic to the liver, the thyroid, neurobehavioral function and the immune system. The PFCs most frequently found in the environment are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).. Located in Charleston, S.C., ...
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of synthetic compounds found in a variety of household and industrial products. The two most studied compounds in this family, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been associated with a range of health concerns. The following webinar recording describes two pilot projects designed to measure human PFAS exposures undertaken by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the New York State Department of Health. It focuses on the states use of the PFAS Exposure Assessment Technical Tools (PEATT)-a guidance document developed by CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to measure human PFAS exposures through drinking water sources. Results from PEATT allow health officials to estimate levels of exposure for an entire affected community, not just those individuals tested. The PEATT also provides guidance on how to share results with affected communities.Read More ». ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. alkylbenzene sulfonate ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Article Adsorption of four perfluorinated acids on non ion exchange polymer sorbents. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have attracted global concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and properties of persistence, bio accumulation and toxicity. The...
Several environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, bisphenol A and phthalates, have been linked to diabetes. We therefore investigated whether other kinds of contaminants, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), also called perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are also associated with diabetes. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study investigated 1,016 men and women aged 70 years. Seven PFAS were detected in almost all participant sera by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetes was defined as use of hypoglycaemic agents or fasting glucose , 7.0 mmol/l. 114 people had diabetes. In the linear analysis, no significant relationships were seen between the seven PFAS and prevalent diabetes. However, inclusion of the quadratic terms of the PFAS revealed a significant non-linear relationship between perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and diabetes, even after adjusting for multiple confounders (OR 1.96, 95% CI ...
MELVILLE, NY--(Marketwired - October 11, 2017) - Napoli Shkolnik PLLC has filed a class action lawsuit against five manufacturers of aqueous firefighting foams (AFFF) containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for the contamination of the groundwater relied upon by the residents of Yaphank, New York. The class action...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Wen, Li Li. AU - Chang, Chih Cheng. AU - Lin, Chien Yu. AU - Jin, Lu. AU - Juan, Shu Hui. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through ...
Chen, M-H, E-H Ha, T-W Wen, Y-N Su, G-W Lien, C-Y Chen, P-C Chen and W-S Hsieh. 2012. Perfluorinated compounds in umbilical cord blood and adverse birth outcomes.. Synopsis:. Babies exposed to higher levels of the chemical PFOS in the womb were born sooner and smaller than babies with lower exposures, suggests a new study of 429 babies from Taiwan. They also had smaller head circumferences.. PFOS levels in the babies umbilical cord blood were similar to those collected from U.S. and Canadian babies in 2004 - 2005. Birth outcomes were unaffected by the other studied chemicals - PFOA, PFNA and PFUA.. This is the first time that PFOS has been related to shorter pregnancies. Effects on birth weight and head circumference support the findings from previous studies.. The results are important because nearly everyone carries PFOS in their blood. Even subtle effects at an individual level can have important public health consequences at the population scale if everyone is exposed.. PFOS is a stain, ...
PFCs are synthetic organic compounds, based on fluorine. Used in stain, heat and water-resistant products (eg Teflon). Toxic to lab animals. Bioaccumulative
Aceptado junio 2009. ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), anthracene and a LAS anthracene mixture on the growth of a microbial consortium isolated from polluted sediment. The microbial consortium was grown in a sterile glass bottle with mineral medium containing 1 g/L of glucose. Microbial growth inhibition produced by LAS, anthracene and combinations of LAS and anthracene was determined by viable count in nutritive agar; inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was calculated. The concentrations evaluated were 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, 16 and 160 mg/L of LAS or anthracene. The LAS anthracene mixtures were prepared by fixing either LAS or anthracene at 0.16 mg/L while increasing the other compound at the above concentrations. Microbial growth was sensitive to LAS at an IC50 of 8.22 and to anthracene at an IC50 of 5.2 mg/L. In the LAS anthracene combination, if LAS concentration was fixed and anthracene concentration varied, IC50 (5.92 mg/L) was ...
To determine whether exposure to per-and polyfluoroalkyl susbtances at an early developmental stage is associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders.
Alkanes C10-C13, chloro (short-chain chlorinated paraffins) (SCCPs): 10 000 mg/kg;. Aldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Chlordecone: 5 000 mg/kg;. DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane): 5 000 mg/kg;. Dieldrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endosulfan: 5 000 mg/kg;. Endrin: 5 000 mg/kg;. Heptachlor: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexabromobiphenyl: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorobutadiene: 1 000 mg/kg;. Hexachlorocyclohexanes, including lindane: 5 000 mg/kg;. Mirex: 5 000 mg/kg;. Pentachlorobenzene: 5 000 mg/kg;. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS). (C8F17SO2X). (X = OH, Metal salt (O-M+), halide, amide, and other derivatives including polymers): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) (3): 50 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) (4): 5 mg/kg;. Polychlorinated naphthalenes*: 1 000 mg/kg;. Sum of the concentrations of tetrabromodiphenyl ether C12H6Br4O), pentabromodiphenyl ether (C12H5Br5O), hexabromodiphenyl ether ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
1. Shall not be manufactured, or placed on the market as substances on their own from 4 July 2020.. 2. Shall not, from 4 July 2020, be used in the production of, or placed on the market in: (a) another substance, as a constituent; (b) a mixture; (c) an article, in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts or 1 000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances.. 3. Points 1 and 2 shall apply from:. (a) 4 July 2022 to: (i)equipment used to manufacture semi-conductors; (ii) latex printing inks. (b) 4 July 2023 to: (i) textiles for the protection of workers from risks to their health and safety; (ii) membranes intended for use in medical textiles, filtration in water treatment, production processes and effluent treatment; (iii) plasma nano-coatings. (c)4 July 2032 to medical devices other than implantable medical devices within the scope of Directive 93/42/EEC.. 4. Points 1 and 2 shall not apply to any of the following:. (a) perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its ...
(2009) Benskin et al. Environmental Science and Technology. The exposure sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife are not well characterized. Human biomonitoring data show that PFOS profiles may consist of up to approximately 50% b...
Porous microspheres have fixed on the exterior surface thereof a coating of at least one of a perfluorinated oil, a fluorinated silicone oil or a silicone gum. The pores of the microspheres can be charged with a hydrophilic, lipophilic or perfluorinated phase. The microspheres are employed in cosmetic compositions.
Time to pregnancy for women with highest blood levels of two chemicals was 134% and 154% longer, vs. those with the lowest levels
Hepatotoxic perfluorinated chemicals Perfluorinated compounds are a group of manmade chemicals that were used for decades before their environmental significance was realised. Once they enter the environment they are incredibly stable and, along with several other groups of chemicals, have been labelled emerging contaminants. According to the US...
southern coastal Maine.. PFOS Concentrations in Osprey Eggs in Casco Bay [See graph]. • PCBs, PBDEs, PFCs and OCs were found in all of the osprey eggs sampled in 2007 and 2009.. • Deca-PBDE was detected in 10 of 12 osprey eggs collected in Casco Bay.. • PFOS in an egg from Flag Island were the highest ever seen in Maine wildlife, and among the highest ever observed in a bird egg.. • Fully 75 percent of osprey eggs had PFOS concentrations exceeding the threshold for negative health effects established for chickens (100 ng/g, wet weight).. • No spatial trend was detectable among the samples, suggesting that point sources, watershed characteristics and food web dynamics may all play a role in exposure to contaminants (Goodale 2010).. With support from CBEP and other partners, in 2007 BioDiversity Research Institute (BRI) began the first study to measure PBDEs, PFCs, PCBs, OCs and mercury in eggs from 23 species of birds in Maine from ocean, estuary, river, lake and terrestrial habitats. ...
Our study found that increased exposure to PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS was associated with higher odds of irregular and long menstrual cycle and lower risks of menorrhagia in women who plan to be pregnant. In contrast, women with higher levels of PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS were more likely to have hypomenorrhea.. Two previous studies have evaluated the association between PFOA and PFOS and menstrual irregularity and length. Our results are consistent with those reported in a subset of 1,240 pregnant women randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort (Fei et al. 2009). They found that the risk of irregular menstrual cycle was higher in women exposed to PFOA (15.0% in the upper three quartiles vs. 9.0% in the lowest quartile) and PFOS (14.2% in the upper three quartiles vs. 11.6% in the lowest quartile) (Fei et al. 2009). The INUENDO cohort enrolled 1,623 pregnant women in three countries (Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine) (Lyngsø et al. 2014) and found that PFOA exposure levels were ...
Perfluoroalkyl (PFAS) substances are widespread in the environment and in organisms. The fact that exposure to PFAS is associated with elevated cholesterol levels is a major concern for human health. Previous investigations, in which bovine serum albumin was frequently studied, indicate that PFOS, PFOA and PFNA bind to serum albumin. However, it is critical to know whether these and other PFAS have a preference for the protein or the lipid fraction in native human blood fractions. For this reason, blood samples from four young healthy volunteers (two women, two men, 23-31 years old) were used for protein size separation and fractionation by the Cohn method in combination with serial ultracentrifugation. The plasma fractions were analyzed for 11 PFAS using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Although the data are based on a small sample, they clearly show that albumin is the most important carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in native human plasma. These five ...
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was produced and used by various industries and in consumer products. Because of its persistence, it is ubiquitous in air, water, soil, wildlife, and humans. Although the adverse effects of PFOS on male fertility have been reported, the underlying mechanisms have not …
The widespread occurrence and environmental persistence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received worldwide attention recently. Exhaustive analysis of all fluorinated compounds in an environmental sample can be daunting because of the constraints in the availability of analytical standards and extraction methods. Combustion ion chromatographic technique for trace fluorine analysis was used to assess the concentrations of known PFCs (e.g., PFOS, PFOA) and total fluorine (TF) in the blood of wild rats collected from Japan. The technique was further validated using tissues from PFOA-exposed rats. Six PFCs (PFOS, PFOSA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA) were detected in all of the wild rat blood samples. Concentrations of extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in fraction 1 (Fr1; MTBE extraction) of wild rats ranged 60.9-134 ng F mL-1, while those in fraction 2 (Fr2; hexane) were below LOQ (32 ng F mL-1); TF concentrations in the blood of wild rats ranged from 59.9-192 ng F mL-1. The contribution of known ...
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
The project was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, as a part of the Program for Cleaner Products, Area 1.7 Collection of knowledge and mapping of alternatives to problematic substances. The report contains the newest information about the properties, uses and occurrences of PFOS, PFOA and related polyfluorinated compounds. In addition, a search for and a preliminary assessment of possible alternatives to these types of chemicals were done. The report focuses mainly on the Danish situation but may also be a contribution to the PFOS/PFOA discussion at European level.. Today the largest use areas of PFOS-based compounds seem to be:. Cleaning agents for glass cleaning. Waxes and floor polishes. Photographic industry. Manufacturing of semiconductors. Metal surface treatment. PFOS and a range of related perfluorinated compounds are used in numerous industrial products and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water ...
A polycatenar mesogen consisting of a stiff, four ring aromatic core with three long alkoxy chains and a bulky, perfluorinated substituent has been synthesized and the phase behavior investigated. Due to strong incompatibility among the constitutional moieties, the material can be expected to self-organize i
The federal Environmental Protection Agency today released a health advisory for two perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) called PFOS and PFOA that are not regulated by the federal government. The newly announced health advisory level for these two combined chemicals is 70 parts per trillion for drinking water. Prior to EPAs announcement, the McCrory administration began working with water systems that would exceed the new levels to ensure that the drinking water they provide is safe.
PFNA was related to prevalent diabetes in a non-monotonic fashion in this cross-sectional study, supporting the view that this perfluoroalkyl substance might influence glucose metabolism in humans at the level of exposure seen in the general elderly population.
SANTA CLARA, Calif., Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today announced it has jointly developed a method to detect and identify perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water and soil using High-Performan...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
The mixing behavior of binary combinations of perfluoroalkanes in the bulk and in solid monolayers adsorbed at the graphite/liquid interface, determined by calorimetry and powder diffraction, is reported. The perfluoroalkanes are found to generally have a smaller excess enthalpy of mixing on the surface than in the bulk, and their relative size ratio is a good parameter to predict the mixing behavior. The excess enthalpy of mixing for perfluoroalkanes is found to be significantly smaller than that of the closely related hydrocarbons. The preferential adsorption of longer homologues over shorter ones is observed. Interestingly, the extent of preferential adsorption with relative size ratio is very similar to that of the hydrocarbons. These results can be understood in terms of the increased compressibility and lower polarizability of the perfluoroalkanes compared to hydrocarbons.. ...
We are happy to welcome our new PhD student Flora Allendorf. Floras project toxicokinetic modeling of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans is a PhD project of IP Exposom.. Additionally, we now are happy to welcome our PhD student Andrea Ebert here in Leipzig, who spent her first year of PhD in a cooperating group in Linz. Andrea investigates the membrane permeability of ionic and neutral species. ...
Biological immunomodulators are routinely evaluated as a natural source of molecules with profound effects on the immune system. They belong to a group of physiologically active compounds, collectively termed biological response modifiers. Most of the studies were focused on immune system stimulation. Recently, they have become the focus of studies seeking molecules that are able to overcome negative effects of various immunotoxins. This paper concentrates on the effects of a glucan/resveratrol/vitamin C combination on immunosuppressive effects of mercury and perfluorinated hydrocarbons. Effects described in this review have strong clinical potential, as environmental contaminants have adverse effects on all aspects of the immune system and represent a serious threat to the health of both humans and animals.
A process is provided for making a liquid composition of a perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups in a liquid medium by contacting the polymer with a mixture of 25 to 100% by weight of water and 0 to 75% by weight of a second liquid component such as a lower alcohol, e.g., propanol or methanol, at a temperature of at least 180° C. (at least 240° C. when about 90% to 100% water is used), in a closed system. The liquid composition made by this process, or modified liquid products prepared therefrom, are used in coating various substrates, in casting films, and in repairing perfluorinated ion exchange films and membranes. The process is also useful in recovering perfluorinated polymer having sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups from scraps and used articles made of such polymer or containing such polymer as a component part thereof.
While fluorochemicals have been detected all over the world and in wastewater treatment plants, the effect of wastewater effluent on the receiving waters has not been evaluated. In the first study, the mass flow of fluorochemicals emanating from wastewater treatment plants along the Glatt River in Switzerland was evaluated. The fluorochemical concentrations in daily composite samples of river water and wastewater were measured using LC/MS/MS. On average, the seven wastewater treatment plants proved ineffective in completely removing fluorochemicals from the influent and in some individual cases, the effluent concentrations of fluorochemicals were elevated when compared to the influent. Fluorochemical concentrations in wastewater were dominated by PFOS followed by PFHxS and PFOA; PFOS was detected in 100% of the samples. In the Glatt River, PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were detected in all samples. Mass flows were determined and showed that the mass loading from the treatment plants is additive and that ... PFOS, PFOA, Lead and Cyst Whole House Water Filter System [Pioneer-KW2520HT]PFOS, PFOA and Lead Filter PIONEER is the first of its kind PFOA/PFOS, lead, cyst, chemical, chlorine and chloramine removal filter. Whole House PFOS/PFOA System This is a PFOA/PFOS and lead whole house water filtration system. NSF Certified Filter System Complete whole house water filter system NSF certified for PFOS and PFOA removal. Large tank 8(D) x 40(H) delivers optimal filtration 100,000 gallons of performance per filter cartridge PFOS and PFOA are dangerous carcinogens Quick and Easy DYI filter
BBC News Online environment correspondent. Fumes given off by cancer-causing chemicals used to make non-stick frying pans are killing hundreds of pet birds every year, environmentalists say.. The Worldwide Fund for Nature says it is hearing reports that many US caged birds are being killed by the fumes.. It says the chemicals, perfluorinated compounds, are also contaminating both people and wildlife with grave effects.. The chemicals industry says it doubts that birds exposed to ordinary levels of the compounds could die from them.. Guilty till proved harmless. In a report, Causes For Concern: Chemicals and Wildlife, WWF says the compounds, also used in some textiles and food packaging, are among the most prominent new toxic hazards.. It says: Scientists have found perfluorinated compounds, classified as cancer-causing chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in dolphins, whales and cormorants in the Mediterranean; seals and sea eagles in the Baltic; and polar bears.. Elizabeth ...
On April 1, 2011, after the conclusion of the seventh meeting of the Chemical Review Committee (CRC 7) held in Rome, Italy during 28 March - 1 April 2011, the UN chemical experts recommended that two pesticides - endosulfan and azinphos methyl - and one severely hazardous pesticide formulation - Gramoxone Super - be included in the Rotterdam Conventions Prior Informed Consent procedure. Three industrial chemicals - perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its salts and precursors; pentaBDE commercial mixtures; and octaBDE commercial mixtures - were also recommended for inclusion. ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA) supports CRCs recommendations and urges Government of India to pay heed to the recommendations of CRC in the interest of the public health of Indian citizens of present and future generations ...
CAS 68081-81-2 Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World Report This CAS 68081-81-2 - Sodium (C10-16)alkylbenzenesulfonate Chemical World...
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.. Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.. Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were ...
Dear Reader,. We know that dangerous chemicals like hormone disruptors are found in many products.. Thats why EWG has partnered with the Keep A Breast Foundation to develop our latest report - the Dirty Dozen list of endocrine disruptors.. There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another - and so much more.. Click here to see this list of the dirtiest and most common endocrine disruptors.. The EWG/KAB Dirty Dozen list includes BPA, phthalates and other endocrine disruptors that are widespread in consumer products such as plastic containers, food cans and fragrances. The list also includes common contaminants that many people dont realize can be hormone disruptors, not only those familiar toxins - arsenic, mercury and lead - but other, less familiar chemicals such as glycol ethers and perfluorinated chemicals. The guide is intended for ...
Limited Brands, which also owns La Senza, a Canadian intimate-apparel line, will kick off its commitment by disclosing discharge data from 80 percent of its worldwide supply chain by the end of 2013, according to the environmental nonprofit. The corporation has also committed to a complete ban of perfluorinated chemicals, a class of industrial chemicals used primarily to repel water and oil in outerwear, by July 2015.. Limited Brands has the chance to move from toxic villain to Detox angel with its commitment to completely eliminate all hazardous chemicals from its supply chains and products, says Marietta Harjono, Detox campaigner at Greenpeace International. The onus is now on the company to follow up on its ambitious statement and quickly turn words into action.. Other companies that have answered Greenpeaces call are Adidas, C&A, Esprit, H&M, Levi Strauss, Li-Ning, Mango, Nike, Puma, Marks & Spencer, Uniqlo, Zara, and most recently, Benetton. Companies that still need to enter the ...
Nonstick cookware isnt the healthiest option, thanks to toxic chemicals. Whats a home cook to do? Here are seven nonstick cookware alternatives.
PFOA, PFOS and other PFASs are widespread around the globe, primarily due to their current and/or historical manufacturing, processing and use here in the U.S. and internationally. They are widespread in part because they are persistent in the environment - that is, they do not break down when exposed to air, water or sunlight. As a result, people may become exposed to PFASs manufactured months or years in the past.. Due to their persistence, PFASs can travel long distances through the air; monitoring in the Arctic has shown levels of PFASs in air, water, and living things. As a result, people may become exposed to low levels of PFASs manufactured or emitted from production facilities thousands of miles away.. Because these chemicals have been used in an array of consumer products, most people have been exposed to low levels of them. Studies have found PFOS and PFOA in blood samples of humans and wildlife nationwide. Using data from CDCs 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination ...
Batch studies will be performed using both aerobic activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge to determine biotransformation pathways of PFACs and initial kinetic parameters. Additional kinetic studies will be performed using continuously stirred reactors with cell retention (porous pot reactors) to approximate activated sludge treatment. In an attempt to shift microbial community structure towards increased PFAC degradation rates, actively-degrading cultures will be successively transferred to new medium containing PFACs. Microbial communities will be assessed using terminal restriction length fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP). ...
Ion-exchange membranes are widely used in modern technologies, particularly in the field of water treatment and make it possible to considerably reduce expenses for wastewater treatment and ensure high degree of purification. Currently, perfluorinated sulfated proton-conducting membranes are often used, such as NAFION and its Russian analogue, MF-4SK based on co-polymerization product of a perfluorinated vinyl ether with tetrafluoroethylene. However, with development of the industry, materials with improved properties and lower cost are required. The aim is to obtain ion-exchange membranes for water treatment from metal ions and to study physico-chemical properties of obtained membranes. In this study, cation exchange composite membranes with modified polyaniline surface layer on nylon and PTFE substrate have been obtained. Changes in the structure of membranes were recorded using a microscope. Throughput capacity of the membranes was determined by passing a certain volume of distilled water through the
What are PFASs? Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (together known as PFASs) are a class of man-made chemicals, ... Environmental contamination
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the concentration of six PFASs: PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and n-PFOS. All measured compounds were above the detection limit in both mothers and children except for PFHxS in one child. There was a significant correlation between the levels in children and their mothers, indicating a family-related exposure pattern. However, we also found that the levels of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and total-PFOS were significantly higher in children compared to their mothers. This may be due to higher ...
Although some statistically significant positive associations have been reported, for example, with cancers of the prostate, kidney, testis, and thyroid, the majority of relative risk estimates for both PFOA and PFOS have been between 0.5 and 2.0 (with 95% confidence intervals including 1.0), inconsistently detected across studies, counterbalanced by negative associations, not indicative of a monotonic exposure-response relationship, and not coherent with toxicological evidence in animals, in which the primary target organs are the liver, testis (Leydig cells), and pancreas (acinar cells). Many positive associations with PFOA exposure were detected in community settings without occupational exposure and were not supported by results in exposed workers ...
Contrast variation SANS and F-19 chemical shifts were measured for three mixed equimolar micelle systems: sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPED) and sodiumdecylsulfate (SDeS) in 200 mM NaCl, lithium perlluorononanate LiPFN) and lithium dodecylsulfate (Li DS) in 200 mM LiCl, and a nonionic system C8F17C2H4(OC2H4)(9) and C12H25(OC2H4)(8) in water, all at 25 C. The chemical shift measurements allow the calculation of the average fraction of nearest neighbors of each kind around the reporter group (the trifluoromethyl group). A preference for like neighbors were found in all systems, smallest in the SDeS/SPFO system and largest in the nonionic system, but in all cases substantially smaller than expected at critical conditions. From the SANS measurements the width of the micelle composition distribution was obtained. For the ionic systems similar values were obtained, showing a broadening compared to ideal mixtures, but not broad enough for demixing or clearly bimodal distributions. In the nonionic system the
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
September 2016 -- we issued a technical advisory to help laboratories analyze drinking water samples for PFOA using EPA Method 537 Rev. 1.1 ...
PFCs, found in pizza boxes, fast-food wrappers, popcorn bags, certain clothing, and more, have been tied to a lower level of antibodies in kids.
A class of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long been linked with cancer, hormone disruption, immune dysfunction, and high cholesterol. Now comes a new study from Harvards Chan School of Public Health, linking them to obesity. A Chan School news release reports that the chemicals have been used for more than 60 […]. ...
Perfluoroalkyl substances, or PFASs-a group of toxic chemicals linked with health issues such as cancer, immune system problems, and thyroid disease-will likely be subject to new regulations in Massachusetts in 2020. In mid-December, the commonwealth of Massachusetts proposed…. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 114394-36-4(Sodium 1-amine-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate),please inquire us for 114394-36-4(Sodium 1-amine-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate).
Page 1 All Articles on PFOA articles published by Common Dreams, an independent newscenter serving the progressive community since 1997
Sulfonic Acids / analysis * Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis* Substances * Alkanesulfonic Acids * Caprylates * Drinking ... followed by perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) (27.2%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (23.0%). Considering that bottled ... Furthermore, the most frequent compounds and those at higher concentrations were perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) with a mean of ... PFASs concentrations were found in tap water samples and the more frequently found compound was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid ( ...
... in particular methane sulfonic acid for increasing the permeability of underground petroliferous and/or gas-bearing carbonate ... The invention relates to the use of alkane sulfonic acids, ... EN) Use of water-soluble alkane sulfonic acids for increasing ... The invention relates to the use of alkane sulfonic acids, in particular methane sulfonic acid for increasing the permeability ... 1. CN101133135 - Use of water-soluble alkane sulfonic acids for increasing the permeability of underground petroliferous and/or ...
Alkanesulfonic Acids / adverse effects* * Body Mass Index * Caprylates / adverse effects* * Cohort Studies ...
Fiber lubricants containing high molecular weight polyacrylamido alkane sulfonic acid additives. US4943460. 15 Feb 1989. 24 Jul ... Lubricious coatings containing polymers with vinyl and carboxylic acid moieties. US5739249. 8 Ago 1995. 14 Abr 1998. Bayer ... Suitable agents include, without limitation, fatty acids, waxes, quaternary ammonium salts, dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow ...
Organosulfonic acids *Alkanesulfonic acids *Secondary alcohols *Cyclic alcohols and derivatives *Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar ... Taurocholic acid. Description. Taurocholic acid is a bile acid and is the product of the conjugation of cholic acid with ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute ... The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl ...
Organosulfonic acids *Alkanesulfonic acids *Secondary carboxylic acid amides *Secondary alcohols *Cyclic alcohols and ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, ... Taurodeoxycholic acid. Description. Taurodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate ... Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver ...
Sulfur Acids [D02.886.645]. *Sulfonic Acids [D02.886.645.600]. *Alkanesulfonic Acids [D02.886.645.600.055] ... It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids. ...
Examples include fluoroalkanesulfonic acids and alkanesulfonic acids and salts thereof with nitrogen compounds. ... The rinse may further contain a surfactant which is typically a fluoroalkanesulfonic acid derivative or alkanesulfonic acid ... 4. The rinse of claim 3, wherein said surfactant comprises a fluoroalkanesulfonic acid derivative or alkanesulfonic acid ... The surfactant is preferably selected from fluoroalkanesulfonic acid derivatives and alkanesulfonic acid derivatives. ...
Organosulfonic acids and derivatives Direct Parent. Organosulfonic acids Alternative Parents. *Sulfonyls *Alkanesulfonic acids ... These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).. ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. ... while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination ...
In the system of alkane sulfonic acid, matte pure tin electroplating process.Single agent, low foam type. Normal temperature ... Cross-linked hyaluronic acid: 24mg/ml Lidocaine HCL: 3mg/ml Phosphate-buffered saline,ph: qs Rejeunesse Deep with lidocaine is ... Rejeunesse Deep , Dermal Fillers , 1 x 1.1ml gel pre-filled syringe , Cross-linked hyaluronic acid , 0.3% of Lidocaine ...
Surface treatment of aluminum or aluminum alloys by means of formulations comprising alkanesulfonic acids ... an organic acid or asalt of these acids and containing a small amount of a metal salt, to absorb the metal in the metal salt or ... or a mlneral acid or organic acid to which one or more metal salts have been added, at room temperature by means of a direct ... The alloy was used as an anode and subjected to an anodic oxidation for 30 minutes in an aqueous solution of a sulfuric acid to ...
Surface treatment of aluminum or aluminum alloys by means of formulations comprising alkanesulfonic acids ... The mineral acid component of the electrolyte is advantageously sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid. Where sulfuric acid is used, ... The organic carboxylic acids containing a reactive group in alpha-position to the carboxylic acid group include acids in which ... The resulting alkali salts of the titanic acid complexes are water-soluble, and acid-soluble, and are stable in acid solutions ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 75-75-2 Methanesulfonic acid. ... ChEBI: An alkanesulfonic acid in which the alkyl group directly linked to the sulfo functionality is methyl. ... Organic Acids;Synthetic Reagents;Organic AcidsAnalytical Reagents;Products for Amino Acid Hydrolysis;Amino Acid Analysis; ... Dry the acid, either by azeotropic removal of water with *benzene or toluene, or by stirring 20g of P2O5 with 500mL of the acid ...
The invention also relates to a method for cleaning rust from all types of surfaces using at least one alkane sulphonic acid. ... acid, with formula R--SO.sub.3H, where R represents a saturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon chain, comprising 1 to 4 atoms ... dueto the acid nature of the alkanesulfonic acids used.. For example, the alkanesulfonic acids used in the context of the ... phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sulfamic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, an ...
... will take place under the formation of the salts of the alkane sulfonic acid and phenol. The reaction rate increases with ... Ph esters might undergo a transesterification under the formation of alkane sulfonic acid alkyl esters and phenol, whereas the ... As the focus of the study was to investigate the recovery of sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters under the conditions of a ... The hydrolysis of esters is catalyzed by acids as well as bases, whereas the catalytic effect of bases is generally stronger ( ...
... by weight of at least one monoethylenically unsaturated C.sub.3-C.sub.8-carboxylic acid or of an anhydride or ... The sulfo groups are introduced by amidation with an amino-C.sub.1-C.sub.2-alkanesulfonic acid. WO 2005/042684 describes the ... ethacrylic acid, vinylacetic acid, allylacetic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, mesaconic acid and itaconic acid ... such as maleic acid, maleic anhydride, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, itaconic acid and citraconic acid with at ...
The sodium alkylsulfonate is a sodium salt of an alkane sulfonic acid of linear paraffins having chain lengths of from 10 to 18 ... methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters, methacrylic acid esters, nitriles and amides. ... However, from the viewpoints of availability and the like, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and their esters, nitriles and amides ... sodium salts of alkyl sulfonic acid esters, sodium salts of sulfosuccinic acid alkyl esters, sodium alkylsulfonate, sodium ...
C10-C21-Alkane sulfonic acid phenyl esters (No.180), chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts (No.181), 2-phosphono-1,2,4- ... Anthranilic acid This report is a translation of a report finalized in German in October 1995. Topics: 2-aminobenzoic acid; ... butanetricarboxylic acid (PBTC) (No.182), diprogulic acid (and its sodium salt) (No.183) These reports are translations of ... Main conclusions: no epidemiologic data are available on the effects of fatty alkyl sulfates (sulfuric acid esters) in humans; ...
Contains modified polyacrylic acid salt, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium hypochlorite sodium ... The C13-18 n-alkane sulfonic acid and salts thereof is a well known surfactant detergent, available commercially as Hostapur ... The modified polyacrylic acid salt and the polyacrylic acid salt act as suspending aids to keep the water softener (sodium ... Water 50.6-80.2Allyl sucrose modified polyacrylic acid made by co-polymerizing about 98-99.5 parts by weight of acrylic acid ...
... acetic acid, fluoroboric acid, alkanesulfonic acids such as methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, propanesulfonic acid and ... hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, perchloric acid, nitric acid, chromic acid and phosphoric acid. Mixtures of acids may be ... Preferred acids include sulfuric acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, propanesulfonic acid, hydrochloric acid and ... trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, aryl sulfonic acids such as benzenesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, sulfamic acid, ...
... sulfonic acids such as alkanesulfonic acids and arylsulfonic acids, phosphonic acids such as alkylphosphonic acids and ... malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid or malic acid, ... and substituted arylcarboxylic acids. Preferred organic acids include formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, oxalic acid, ... ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, phthalic acid, benzene tricarboxylic acid, salicilic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 1,4- ...
... abietic acid salts, hydroxyalkane-sulfonic acid salts, alkanesulfonic acid salts (Triton X-200 ), alpha-olefin sulfonates ( ... alkylbenzenesulfonic acid salts and branched alkylbenzenesulfonic acid salts such as dodecylbenzene-sulfonic acid sodium salt ( ... SDBS), alkylnaphthalene sulfonic acid salts (Alkanol XC ), disodium salts of the alkyl half-esters of sulfosuccinic acids, ... Rhodacal A246 ), dialkylsulfosuccinic acid salts such as the sodium salt of dioctyl 2-sulfosuccinic acid (Aerosol OT ), ...
... hydroxy-alkane sulfonic acid sodium salts (20-40 wt %), and alkene and hydroxy-alkane disulfonic acid disodium salts (5-15 wt ... Organic sulfonic acid oligomers and production process. US3864286 *. 6 Nov 1972. 4 Feb 1975. Chevron Res. Detergent composition ... Terpene hydroxysulfonic acids and corresponding hydroxysulfonate salts. US4138345 *. 6 Abr 1977. 6 Feb 1979. Mobil Oil ... The two sulfonic acid sodium salts may be characterized as monosulfonates, and the two disulfonic disodium salts may be ...
G) Bicyclo[2.2.1] alkane-1-alkanesulfonic acid, 7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-, [(3,5-dimethoxy-2- naphthalenyl) carbonyl] methylazanyl ... G) Carbomonocyclic dicarboxylic acid, polymer with carbomonocyclic dicarboxylic acid, alkanedioic acid, alkenedioic acid, ... G) Mix fatty acids compd with amine (1:1).. P-17-0156. 7/27/2017. 10/25/2017. CBI. (G) Coating. (G) Mix fatty acids, compd with ... adipic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 2-oxooxopane, bayflex 2002h and 1,1′-methylenebis[isocyanatobenzene].. ...
p>Global Methacrylic Acid Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current st - Market Research Reports ... Methanesulfonic acid (MSA), the simplest alkanesulfonic acid, is a hygroscopic colorless liquid or white solid, depending on ... 1.5 Methacrylic Acid Industry Policy Analysis 7. 1.6 Methacrylic Acid Industry News Analysis 7. Chapter Two Methacrylic Acid ... Chapter One Methacrylic Acid Industry Overview 1. 1.1 Methacrylic Acid Definition 1. 1.2 Methacrylic Acid Classification and ...
The acid generation efficiency (the number of acid molecules generated by a single EUV photon) was obtained within the acid ... A new series of methacrylate substituted benzene sulfonic photoacid generators (PAGs) and a perfluoro alkanesulfonic PAG, bound ... Dependence of acid generation efficiency on acid molecular structure and concentration of acid generator in chemically ... Poly(methacrylic acid-NLM) dissolves as fast as poly(methacrylic acid) in 0.26 N tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) aqueous ...
Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs ... The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and ... Response to Comment on "In Situ Air-water and Particle-water Partitioning of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids, Perfluorosulfonic Acids ... In Situ Air-water and Particle-water Partitioning of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids, Perfluorosulfonic Acids and Perfluorooctyl ...
A new technique for studying photo-acid generator chemistry and physics in polymer films using on-wafer ellipsometry and acid- ... A new series of methacrylate substituted benzene sulfonic photoacid generators (PAGs) and a perfluoro alkanesulfonic PAG, bound ... This incompatibility leads to lowered acid generation efficiency, non-uniform acid distribution and migration, and phase ... The acid yield of these PAG bound polymer resists was among the range of 54-81% under deep ultraviolet exposure (254 nm) that ...
A catalytic amount of a water-stable Br nsted acidic ionic liquid with an alkane sulfonic acid catalyzed a mild and ... Perchloric acid adsorbed on silica gel (HClO4-SiO2) has been found to be an extremely efficient and reusable catalyst for 1,3- ... Tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40) was found to be an effective and highly selective catalyst for the thioacetalization of ... A Lewis acid-surfactant-combined copper bis(dodecyl sulfate) [Cu(DS)2] catalyst served as an efficient and reusable catalyst ...
  • In the presence of ethanol, sulfonic acids, C10-21 alkane, Ph esters might undergo a transesterification under the formation of alkane sulfonic acid alkyl esters and phenol, whereas the corresponding ethyl esters are less stable with respect to hydrolysis compared to the phenyl esters. (
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as trihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. (
  • These are bile acid derivatives containing a taurine conjugated to the bile acid moiety. (
  • EC (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. (
  • EC (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol. (
  • Automatic or Machine Dishwashing Compositions of Sulfonated Estolides and Other Derivatives of Fatty Acids and Uses Thereof - Sulfo-estolides and methods of making them are described. (
  • The invention relates to novel preparation processes for the preparation of 3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid derivatives and to novel intermediates and processes for their preparation. (
  • The dihydroxyheptanoic acid derivatives and the intermediates are suitable for advantageous syntheses of statins. (
  • Methanesulfonic acid is a raw material for medicine and pesticide. (
  • Methanesulfonic acid is a caustic chemical, briefly referred to as MSA. (
  • 2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the alkanesulfonic acid is selected from the group consisting of methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, n-propanesulfonic acid, isopropanesulfonic acid, n-butanesulfonic acid, isobutanesulfonicacid, sec-butanesulfonic acid, tert-butanesulfonic acid, and the mixtures of two or more of them in all proportions. (
  • 3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the alkanesulfonic acid is methanesulfonic acid or ethanesulfonic acid. (
  • Examples of suitable acids for the formation of nontoxic, pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, alkanesulfonic acids such as methanesulfonic acid and arylsulfonic acids such as p-toluene sulfonic acid. (
  • Hydrolysis under alkaline conditions (saponification) will take place under the formation of the salts of the alkane sulfonic acid and phenol. (
  • A catalytic amount of a water-stable Br nsted acidic ionic liquid with an alkane sulfonic acid catalyzed a mild and chemoselective thioacetalization of various aldehydes to afford 1,3-dithianes in very good yield and short reaction times. (
  • 1. Use of at least one sulfonic acid, preferably at least one alkane sulfonic acid, for recovering glycerol resulting from a reaction crude from transesterification of glycerides, in particular of triglycerides of vegetable and/or animal origin. (
  • Use of Alkane Sulfonic Acid For Descaling In the Agri-Food Industry - The present invention relates to the use of alkane sulfonic acid for descaling, and more generally for cleaning vats, casks, and other containers used for the storage, shipping, and handling of meat and early produce, particularly poultry, fruit, and vegetables. (
  • The present invention also relates to a composition in gel form including at least one alkane sulfonic acid. (
  • 5. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the nonionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of alkyl ethers, alkylphenol ethers and higher fatty acid esters of polyethylene oxide. (
  • Hydrolysis in an acidic environment leads to an equilibrium mixture containing the ester, alcohol as well as the free sulfonic acid, whereas a complete hydrolysis of the ester solely occurs if the formed alcohol is removed from the mixture. (
  • 6. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the nonionic surfactant is a fatty acid ester of polyethylene oxide having an average number of ethylene oxide repeat units of from 15 to 40. (
  • 12 . The element of claim 11 wherein said anionic dispersant is sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium dodecylsulfate, the sodium salt of N-oleyl-N-methyltaurine, or the dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid. (
  • These are prenol lipids structurally characterized by a bile acid or alcohol which bears three hydroxyl groups. (
  • 2. The rinse of claim 1, wherein said water-soluble polymer is selected from the group consisting of N-vinylpyrrolidone homopolymers, copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone with another vinyl monomer, polyvinyl alcohol, copolymers of vinyl alcohol with another vinyl monomer, poly(meth)acrylic acids, and polysaccharides. (
  • 5 . The copper plating solution for embedding fine wiring according to any one of claims 1 to 4 , wherein said reductant for stabilizing the copper plating solution contains at least one organic compound containing at least one type of functional group selected from aldehyde, hydroxyl and carboxyl, alcohol, and organocarboxylic acid. (
  • Oxidation of a primary alcohol with chromic acid yields a carboxylic acid as the organic product via the corresponding aldehyde . (
  • If one molar equivalent of chromic acid is used, some aldehyde and some carboxylic acid are obtained as organic products, and, since there are not enough chromic acid molecules to react with all the alcohol molecules, some unreacted alcohol is recovered. (
  • Hydrolysis of taurocholic acid yields taurine, a nonessential amino acid. (
  • The hydrolysis of esters is catalyzed by acids as well as bases, whereas the catalytic effect of bases is generally stronger (Riemscheider & Hermann, 2005). (
  • Useful methods include acid side bleaching, partial hydrogenation of the fatty acid, pretreatment of the fatty acid to provide color inhibition, acid side hydrolysis of the sulfo-estolides, or conversion of SHP to an essentially fully hydrolyzed product (HSHP) or a partially hydrolyzed product (PHSHP). (
  • The acid hydrolysis is preferably effected with hydrochloric acid but other acids such as sulfuric acid may be used. (
  • These are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom). (
  • 1,3-Dithianes and 1,3-dithiolanes can easily be prepared from carbonyl compounds with 1,3-propanedithiol or 1,2-ethanedithiol in the presence of a Br nsted or a Lewis acid catalyst. (
  • A Lewis acid-surfactant-combined copper bis(dodecyl sulfate) [Cu(DS) 2 ] catalyst served as an efficient and reusable catalyst for the thioacetalization and transthioacetalization of carbonyl compounds and O,O -acetals in water at room temperature. (
  • Specific preferred compounds are 2-(1-acetyloxyethyl)-4-hydroxy-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinoli necarboxamide, 4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinoline -carboxamide and 4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxypropyl)-N-(2-thiazolyl)-8-trifluoromethyl-3-quinolin ecarboxamide and their salts with non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable acids and bases. (
  • In a preferred mode of the process of the invention, the functional derivative of the acid of formula IV is an acid halide or anhydride and the reaction between the compounds of formulae V and VI is effected in the presence of an organolithium or a lithium amide such as in the presence of butyllithium or lithium diisopropylamide. (
  • A structural feature of the compounds of formula I is the presence of the C-terminal carboxylic acid functionality, which was shown to be responsible not only for the potency and reversibility observed for this inhibitor series, but also for the excellent specificity for HCV protease compared to other serine/cysteine proteases. (
  • The compounds of formula I are zwitterionic and are capable of forming salts with strong acids and bases. (
  • Taurodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. (
  • 4. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the anionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate, sodium salts of alkyl sulfonic acid esters, sodium salts of sulfosuccinic acid alkyl esters, sodium alkylsulfonate, sodium alkyldiphenylether sulfonate, and sulfuric acid esters of alkylphenolpolyethylene oxide. (
  • Water 50.6-80.2Allyl sucrose modified polyacrylic acid made by co-polymerizing about 98-99.5 parts by weight of acrylic acid with about 0.5- 2.0 parts of polyallyl polyether of sucrose having about 4-8 allyl groups per molecule .3-1.2Sodium tripolyphosphate, powdered 4. (
  • The polymer blend includes a polymaleic acid, a polycarboxylic acid and a sodium polyacrylate. (
  • EP-A-0 277 002 discloses in Scheme I the oxidation of several steroids with ruthenium dioxide/sodium periodate in an organic solvent leading to the corresponding acid. (
  • Preferably, X' is chlorine and the acid of formula A is an alkali metal salt such as the sodium or potassium salt. (
  • The present invention provides a copper plating solution for embedding fine wiring, wherein it contains copper sulfate at 100 to 300 g/L as copper sulfate pentahydrate, sulfuric acid at 5 to 300 g/L, chlorine at 20 to 200 mg/L, a macromolecular surfactant at 0.05 to 20 g/L for controlling the electrodeposition. (
  • OSHA recommends nitrile gloves as part of their Personal Protective Equipment Standard (1910.132) because of their ability to provide protection from many chemicals, including oils, greases, acids, caustics, and alcohols. (
  • PCC can also be used as an alternative to cromic acid in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones . (
  • Alanine is an important source of energy for muscles and central nervous system, strengthens the immune system, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids, and displays a cholesterol-reducing effect in animals. (
  • Let us now consider lactic acid. (
  • The lactic acid molecule has one chiral center. (
  • Therefore, a Fischer projection representing either enantiomer of lactic acid has the following bond skeleton around the chiral center. (
  • Some of these 24 Fischer projections represent ( R )-lactic acid and others ( S )-lactic acid. (
  • The mirror image of a Fischer projection representing ( R )-lactic acid represents ( S )-lactic acid and vice versa, implying that twelve of the 24 Fischer projections represent ( R )-lactic acid and the other twelve ( S )-lactic acid. (
  • Thus, the maximum number of Fischer projections that can be drawn to represent ( R )-lactic acid is twelve. (
  • 2. Use the following stepwise procedure to generate the twelve Fischer projections that represent ( R )-lactic acid. (
  • The nitrogen-containing compound is a salt of an amino group-containing triazine compound with an oxygen acid, a salt of an amino group-containing triazine compound with a hydroxyl group-containing triazine compound, a polyphosphoric acid amide, a cyclic urea compound, or others. (
  • The invention also relates to a process for purifying glycerol obtained as a by-product of triglyceride transesterification during the preparation of fatty acids, fatty esters and/or fatty acid salts, and also to a combined process for preparing, on the one hand, fatty acids, fatty esters and/or fatty acid salts and, on the other hand, glycerol, from triglycerides, using at least one sulfonic acid. (
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to a process for purifying glycerol obtained as a by-product of triglyceride transesterification during the preparation of fatty acids, of fatty esters and/or of fatty acid salts. (
  • The results showed that the highest PFASs concentrations were found in tap water samples and the more frequently found compound was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with mean concentrations of 7.73, 15.33 and 15.83ng/l in French, Spanish and Brazilian samples, respectively. (
  • Amino Acids. (
  • A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. (
  • Amino acid with side chain -CH3. (
  • A small non-essential amino acid in humans, Alanine is one of the most widely used for protein construction and is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine. (
  • 4. The rinse of claim 3, wherein said surfactant comprises a fluoroalkanesulfonic acid derivative or alkanesulfonic acid derivative. (
  • 4. Use according to claim 1, in which said at least one sulfonic acid is methane sulfonic acid (CH 3 SO 3 H). (
  • 8. Process according to claim 7, in which the at least one sulfonic acid is methane sulfonic acid. (
  • 10. Process according to claim 9, in which said at least one sulfonic acid of step 4b is methane sulfonic acid. (
  • The present invention relates to the use of at least one alkane sulphonic acid, with formula R--SO.sub.3H, where R represents a saturated, linear or branched hydrocarbon chain, comprising 1 to 4 atoms of carbon for removing rust from all types of surface, in particular from metal surfaces, specifically iron, steel and others. (
  • The invention also relates to a method for cleaning rust from all types of surfaces using at least one alkane sulphonic acid. (
  • The present study investigated the stability of sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters in aqueous media recovering more than 80 % of representative constituents after a duration of 240 h. (
  • Sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters are stable under the applied test conditions. (
  • As the focus of the study was to investigate the recovery of sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters under the conditions of a migration test, the aqueous phase consists of food simulating solvent consisting of 10 % (v/v) ethanol dissolved in water. (
  • Furthermore, the reaction rate in dilute acids is generally fairly low, partly based on the poor solubility of the esters in water. (
  • Concluding, it can be assumed that sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters can hydrolyze under acidic conditions but the reaction is assumed to be slow and thus not relevant under environmental and physiological conditions. (
  • Furthermore, the great resistance against saponification is one main feature of sulfonic acid, C10-21-alkane, Ph esters as compared to common softeners (Product information, Lanxess) supporting the assumption that the saponification reaction solely gains in importance at very high pH values normally not occurring in natural systems. (
  • 3. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 2 wherein the ethylenically unsaturated monomer is selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters, methacrylic acid esters, nitriles and amides. (
  • Taurocholic acid is a bile acid and is the product of the conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. (
  • Taurocholic acid, as with all bile acids, acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. (
  • Taurocholic acid is one of the main components of urinary nonsulfated bile acids in biliary atresia. (
  • 2. Use according to claim 1, in which said at least one sulfonic acid corresponds to the general formula R--SO 3 H, where R represents an alkyl or aryl radical, preferably an alkyl radical. (
  • Stabilized Liquid Enzyme Composition - The present invention relates to a liquid composition comprising an enzyme and an enzyme stabilizer such as an aryl carboxylic acid. (
  • It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids. (
  • The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. (
  • Replacement of phenol with carboxylic acid for transparency and aqueous base development resulted in swelling. (
  • 5. Use according to claim 1, in which said at least one sulfonic acid is in anhydrous form or in the form of an aqueous solution comprising from 5% to 90% by weight, in particular from 10% to 80% by weight of sulfonic acid, and more particularly from 15% to 75% by weight, the rest to 100% consisting of water. (
  • Tungstophosphoric acid (H 3 PW 12 O 40 ) was found to be an effective and highly selective catalyst for the thioacetalization of aldehydes, ketones, acetals, acylals and O,S -acetals in excellent yields in the absence of solvent. (