Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.ButanesOctanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Alcanivoraceae: A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)PropaneAlkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agrocybe: A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.

The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. (1/908)

The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (2/908)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. (3/908)

The AlkS protein activates transcription from the PalkB promoter, allowing the expression of a number of genes required for the assimilation of alkanes in Pseudomonas oleovorans. We have identified the promoter from which the alkS gene is transcribed, PalkS, and analyzed its expression under different conditions and genetic backgrounds. Transcription from PalkS was very low during the exponential phase of growth and increased considerably when cells reached the stationary phase. The PalkS -10 region was similar to the consensus described for promoters recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to the alternative sigma factor sigmaS, which directs the expression of many stationary-phase genes. Reporter strains containing PalkS-lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that PalkS promoter is very weakly expressed in a Pseudomonas putida strain bearing an inactivated allele of the gene coding for sigmaS, rpoS. When PalkS was transferred to E. coli, transcription started at the same site and expression was higher in stationary phase only if sigmaS-RNA polymerase was present. The low levels of AlkS protein generated in the absence of sigmaS were enough to support a partial induction of the PalkB promoter. The -10 and -35 regions of PalkS promoter also show some similarity to the consensus recognized by sigmaD-RNA polymerase, the primary form of RNA polymerase. We propose that in exponential phase PalkS is probably recognized both by sigmaD-RNA polymerase (inefficiently) and by sigmaS-RNA polymerase (present at low levels), leading to low-level expression of the alkS gene. sigmaS-RNA polymerase would be responsible for the high level of activity of PalkS observed in stationary phase.  (+info)

Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil. (4/908)

Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (5/908)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from intertidal sediment. (6/908)

A moderately halophilic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium was isolated from continuous cultures containing a suspension of intertidal sediment from the German North Sea coast with hexadecane as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was considered to be a new species belonging to a new genus. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, whose cell size varies. It grows at concentrations of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl and utilizes a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. The G + C content of the DNA is 63.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA studies show a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Comparison of phylogenetic data indicate that it is most closely related to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (88.9% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Since it is impossible to find a sufficiently closely related species, we propose the name Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for the bacteria. The type strain is T9T (= DSM 12178T).  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (7/908)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

Butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. (8/908)

The pathway of butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora' was determined to be butane --> 1-butanol --> butyraldehyde butyrate. Butane was initially oxidized at the terminal carbon to produce 1-butanol. Up to 90% of the butane consumed was accounted for as 1-butanol when cells were incubated in the presence of 5 mM 1-propanol (to block subsequent metabolism of 1-butanol). No production of the subterminal oxidation product, 2-butanol, was detected, even in the presence of 5 mM 2-pentanol (an effective inhibitor of 2-butanol consumption). Ethane, propane and pentane, but not methane, were also oxidized. Butane-grown cells consumed 1-butanol and other terminal alcohols. Secondary alcohols, including 2-butanol, were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. Butyraldehyde was further oxidized to butyrate as demonstrated by blocking butyrate metabolism with 1 mM sodium valerate. Butyrate also accumulated from butane when cells were incubated with 1 mM sodium valerate. The pathway intermediates (butane, 1-butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate) and 2-butanol stimulated O2 consumption by butane-grown cells. 1-Butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate supported growth of 'P. butanovora', as did 2-butanol and lactate.  (+info)

*Wax motor

Specific examples include paraffin waxes in the straight-chain n-alkanes series. These melt and solidify over a well-defined ...

*Higher alkanes

... are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, ... The properties listed here refer to the straight-chain alkanes (or: n-alkanes). This group of n-alkanes is generally liquid ... "alkanes with a higher number of carbon atoms". One definition distinguishes the higher alkanes as the n-alkanes that are solid ... However, the higher alkanes have little value and are usually split into lower alkanes by cracking. ...

*Alkane

Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in an alkane-water mixture. The molecular structure of the alkanes directly affects their ... Alkanes also pose a threat to the environment. Branched alkanes have a lower biodegradability than unbranched alkanes. However ... see List of alkanes. Simple branched alkanes often have a common name using a prefix to distinguish them from linear alkanes, ... The odd-numbered alkanes have a lower trend in melting points than even numbered alkanes. This is because even numbered alkanes ...

*Perfluoroalkoxy alkane

Perfluoroalkoxy alkanes or PFA are fluoropolymers. They are copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4) and perfluoroethers ( ...

*Alkane stereochemistry

... concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes. Alkane conformers are one of the subjects of alkane ... Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The smallest alkane with such a chemical ... More alkane conformations exist in cyclic alkanes; see cyclohexane conformations. More on the impact of gauche interactions; ... Naming alkanes per standards listed in the IUPAC Gold Book is done according to the Klyne-Prelog system for specifying angles ( ...

*List of straight-chain alkanes

The following is a list of straight-chain and branched alkanes and their common names, sorted by number of carbon atoms. (R ... means the page is redirected to higher alkanes) Isomer Count A calculator that can determine the number of isomers ... stereoisomers and structurally unfavourable isomers for a particular alkane.. ...

*Alkane metathesis

... is a class of chemical reaction in which an alkane is rearranged to give a longer or shorter alkane product. ... Abstract "Catalytic Alkane Metathesis by Tandem Alkane Dehydrogenation-Olefin Metathesis." Goldman, A. S.; Roy, A. H.; Huang, Z ... but alkane methathesis operates on a carbon-carbon single bond. Alkane metathesis is catalyzed by metal-containing compounds or ... Numerous applications for alkane metathesis involving petrochemicals and fuels can be envisaged. For example, the conversion of ...

*Alkane 1-monooxygenase

In enzymology, an alkane 1-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions an alkane + reduced ... Other names in common use include alkane 1-hydroxylase, omega-hydroxylase, fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, alkane monooxygenase, ... Alkanes of 6 to 22 carbons have been observed as substrates. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. ...

*Hexane

All alkanes are colorless. The boiling points of the various hexanes are somewhat similar and, as for other alkanes, are ... Hexane /ˈhɛkseɪn/ is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. The term may refer to any of the five ... Higher alkanes present as impurities in hexanes have similar retention times as the solvent, meaning that fractions containing ... This may result in a solid compound being obtained as an oil and the alkanes may interfere with analysis. Hexanes are chiefly ...

*Ring flip

The six-membered ring of the alkane, cyclohexane, has the 'chair' as its preferred conformation and through proton NMR it would ...

*Long-chain acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase

Schirmer, A.; Rude, M.A.; Li, X.; Popova, E.; del Cardayre, S.B. (2010). "Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes". Science. 329 ( ...

*Fischer-Tropsch process

Most of the alkanes produced tend to be straight-chain, suitable as diesel fuel. In addition to alkane formation, competing ... Increasing the pressure leads to higher conversion rates and also favors formation of long-chained alkanes, both of which are ... In addition, the alkene to alkane ratio increases. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are sensitive to poisoning by sulfur-containing ... and alkanes. This conversion is called gasification and the product is called synthesis gas ("syngas"). Synthesis gas obtained ...

*Polyolefin

page needed] "Properties of Alkanes." Retrieved on June 24, 2013 L. R. Rudnick and R. L. Shubkin, ed. (1999). Synthetic ...

*Organoaluminium chemistry

Acids react to give alkanes. For example, alcohols give alkoxides: AlR'3 + ROH → 1/n (R'2Al−OR)n + R'H A wide variety of acids ...

*Saturated and unsaturated compounds

Alkanes Butanol, acetaldehyde, propanone, butyric acid saturated fatty acids (e.g., stearic acid and palmitic acid) Unsaturated ... Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes. An unsaturated compound is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double ... or Alkanes". Purdue University Division of Chemical Education. ... which are not possible with saturated compounds such as alkanes ...

*Paraffin wax

"Alkane reactions". Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry. Belmont, CA: Cengage. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-538-73332- ... In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with alkane, indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. The name is ...

*Staggered conformation

Alkane stereochemistry. ...

*Polarizability

Alkanes are the most polarizable molecules. Although alkenes and arenes are expected to have larger polarizability than alkanes ... Water is a very polar molecule, but alkanes and other hydrophobic molecules are more polarizable. Water with its permanent ... This results because of alkene's and arene's more electronegative sp2 carbons to the alkane's less electronegative sp3 carbons ... because of their higher reactivity compared to alkanes, alkanes are in fact more polarizable. ...

*Tetracosane

... , also called tetrakosane, is an alkane hydrocarbon with the structural formula H(CH2)24H. As with other alkanes, ... List of alkanes "tetracosane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 ...

*Carbon-hydrogen bond activation

Hartwig reported a highly regioselective arene and alkane borylation catalyzed by a rhodium complex. In the case of alkanes, ... In the latter example, the reaction is presumed to proceed via the oxidative addition of alkane to a 16-electron iridium(I) ... This so-called Shilov system is today one of the few true catalytic systems for alkane functionalizations. In some cases, ... Du, X.; Houk, K. N. (1998). "Transition states for Alkane Oxidations by Dioxiranes". J. Org. Chem. 63: 6480-6483. doi:10.1021/ ...

*Clostridium acetobutylicum

In 2013, the first microbial production of short-chain alkanes was reported - which is a considerable step toward the ... Oct 2013). "Microbial production of short-chain alkanes". Nature. 502 (7472): 571-4. doi:10.1038/nature12536. PMID 24077097. ...

*Biofuel

Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. Y. (2013). "Microbial production of short-chain alkanes". Nature. 502: 571-4. doi:10.1038/nature12536. ... while KAIST researchers developed a strain capable of producing short-chain alkanes, free fatty acids, fatty esters and fatty ...

*Zircon

Staff (June 2007). "Dubbo Zirconia Project Fact Sheet June 2014" (PDF). Alkane Resources Limited. Retrieved 2007-09-10. "The ...

*Haloalkane

Alkanes react with halogens by free radical halogenation. In this reaction a hydrogen atom is removed from the alkane, then ... Their boiling points are higher than the corresponding alkanes and scale with the atomic weight and number of halides. This is ... The formal naming of haloalkanes should follow IUPAC nomenclature, which put the halogen as a prefix to the alkane. For example ... As they contain fewer C-H bonds, halocarbons are less flammable than alkanes, and some are used in fire extinguishers. ...

*Compounds of fluorine

Monofluoroalkanes (alkanes with one hydrogen replaced with fluorine) may be chemically and thermally unstable, yet are soluble ... Partially fluorinated alkanes are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Substituting other halogens in combination with fluorine gives ...
Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
1] Fujii, T., Narikawa, T., Takeda, K., Kato, J., Biotransformation of various alkanes using the Escherichia coli expressing an alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF6. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 68(10) 2171-2177 (2004) [2] Liu Li, Xueqian Liu, Wen Yang, Feng Xu, Wei Wang, Lu Feng, Mark Bartlam, Lei Wang and Zihe Rao. Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase. Journal of molecular biology, 376: 453-465 (2008) [3] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Mitsuru Haruki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Masaaki Morikawa & Shigenori Kanaya. Gene Cloning of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermophilic Alkane-Degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans B23. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(1):100-102 (2001) [4] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya, Masaaki Morikawa. Gene cloning and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from long-chain alkane-degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23. ...
Introduction. PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. The alkanes that I will use are Pentane (C5 H12 ), Hexane (C6 H14 ), Heptane (C7 H16 ) and Nonane (C9 H26 ). The formula that I will use to find the heat released is :- Mass (g) x Specific Heat Capacity (4.2/J/g/�C) x Temperature Rise (�C) ? Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). ...read more. Middle. - Using a clamp I will hold the brass beaker about 15cm above the ...
Business Directory for Naphtha Suppliers in Delhi - Get contact details of Naphtha Manufacturers, Wholesale Naphtha Exporters, Best Naphtha Traders & Distributors Across the Delhi.
Free Notes on Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - KCET Engineering. Read all the Important points and Chapterwise Notes on KCET Engineering
Alkane-degrading bacteria have developed different ways to accommodate alkane oxidation. In order to regulate alkane oxidation in E. coli, genes encoding a regulatory mechanism controlled by alkane levels must be incorporated. High alkane levels can then be used to activate expression of specific genes involved in the alkane degradation. Two types of regulatory constructs will be created in the form of BioBricks to achieve this. The first construct proposed is based on a catabolic repression pathway encoded by the P.putida Gpo1 OCT plamid. The second mechanism makes use of a global regulator protein from E.coli which is known to bind to regions of promoters known to activate genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The BioBricks including these mechanisms will be implemented in Escherichia coli K12 and characterized and evaluated on it regulating capabilities controlled by alkane levels. ...
These various contortions greatly increase the number of ways energy can be dispersed by this molecule. It is for this reason that larger molecules (alkanes, organic, or otherwise), tend to have greater entropy values than smaller ones.. A closer inspection of the graph reveals that there is not a increase from every alkane to the next. There is a decrease in entropy from butane to pentane before continuing upward again through dodecane and (presumably) beyond. Why the drop from butane to pentane? This can be answered by looking into the difference between the first four alkanes and the next eight. The answer cannot be found from this graph, but rather an investigation of states of matter. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are all gases at room temperature. Pentane, and the seven others displayed in this graph, are liquids. There is a drop in entropy when the alkanes change from gases to liquids at room temperature. The reason is once again linked to dispersal of energy. Gases have the ...
Introduction. Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and dont cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. ...read more. ...
Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the ...
The equivalent orbital (EO) method is investigated and used for predicting outer and inner ionization potentials of the linear alkanes. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with those observed in photoelectron spectra provided that a set of 12 parameters is used in the theory. An optimization technique is used to find the best values for thle parameters and a single transferable parameter set can be found which is applicable to all the n-alkanes. A good fit to the experimental results can only be obtained if the uppermost molecular orbital of the n-alkanes is an antisymmetrical orbital built up from CH equivalent orbitals.. ...
What is left at the end of a reaction is thus typically a mixture of product and impurities (impurities being by-products and unreacted starting materials). Achieving high percentage yields is particularly important in industries that rely on organic synthesis, such as the pharmaceutical industry. It may require tens of steps to synthesise a drug molecule - if there are ten steps, each of which has a percentage yield of 90%, the overall yield is only 35%: 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% × 90% = (90%)10 = 35% ...
A process for the desulfurization of a fluid catalytically cracked naphtha wherein the valuable olefins are retained and recombinant mercaptans are prevented from forming, resulting in a low sulfur naphtha. Embodiments disclosed herein may allow for more flexibility in varying the end point of the naphtha used in gasoline blending.
It is of great importance to study the selective oxidation of light alkanes on metal oxide catalysts from a fundamental and industrial point of view. Clarification of the relationship between the structure of the oxide catalysts and their catalytic properties is vital for the design of efficient catalysts and for the realization of efficient oxidative conversion of light alkanes. In this review, we summarize some recent progress in the understanding of the structures and catalytic properties of several catalysts including V-P-O, V-Sb-O, Mo-V-Te-Nb-O, and V-Mg-O metal oxides. These oxides as well as the Re-Sb-O catalysts developed by us have been extensively studied for the selective oxidation of light alkanes. We then revisit several key aspects including multi-functionality, site isolation, and phase cooperation. These aspects are required for catalysts that are efficient in the selective oxidation of light alkanes and will provide insights into the design and synthesis of metal oxide catalysts ...
14.11 Alkane Synthesis Using Organocopper Reagents. Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 202. 14-53. Lithium Dialkylcuprates. Lithium dialkylcuprates are useful synthetic reagents. They are prepared from alkyllithiums and a copper(I) halide. 2RLi + Cu X. R 2 Cu Li + Li X. Slideshow 6734350 by shelly-lewis
A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the properties and catalytic activity of the third phase in a phase transfer catalytic system. The conditions of formation of the third phase are investigated by changing the kind of phase transfer catalyst (PTC), organic solvents, and concentration of potassium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. When tetrabutylammonium bromide, (Bu),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase is formed with both dodecane and toluene as organic solvents. On the other hand, when tetrahexylammonium bromide, (Hex),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase forms with dodecane but not with toluene.,BR,The volume of the third phase, the base strength, the concentration of catalyst, water, and organic solvent in the third phase were measured. Solidification phenomena are observed for some cases of higher KOH concentrations in the aqueous phase.,BR,Dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromooctane in the ...
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Petroleum naphtha is a name primarily used in the U.S. for the petroleum distillate containing mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons. The global naphtha market in terms of revenue was valued at USD 167,711.8 million in 2012.
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Naphtha Naph tha (n[a^]f th[.a] or n[a^]p th[.a]), n. [L. naphtha, Gr. na fqa, fr.Ar. nafth, nifth.] 1. (Chem.) The complex mixture of volatile, liquid, inflammable hydrocarbons, occurring naturally, and usually called {crude petroleum}, {mineral
European benzenes premium to naphtha slipped to a 3.5 month low at the end of last week as benzene failed to keep pace with strengthening upstream markets, as per Platts. The spread between spot benzzene and its feedstock naphtha was assessed at US$363 ...
Alkanes.........C_nH_(2n+2) Olefins.........C_nH_(2n) Alkanes are saturated molecules. Their formulae correspond to C_nH_(2n+2). Try it out with methane, ethane,.....hexane. Olefins have ONE so-called degrees of unsaturation with respect to equivalent alkanes. For instance, compare the formula of ethylene and propylene, H_2C=CH_2, and H_3C-CH=CH_2, with that of their saturated precursors, H_3C-CH_3, and H_3C-CH_2CH_3. What are the C_nH_m formula? How many degrees of unsaturation does acetylene have? A degree of unsaturation corresponds to the presence of an olefinic bond, HC=CH, OR a ring junction (the ring junction reduces the overall hydrogen count by 2). Halogens count for 1 hydrogen, oxygens we ignore (though a carbonyl bond could be the source of unsaturation), and if there is nitrogen present we subtract NH from the formula before we assess saturation. For more details, see here. For a practical example of how we can use this idea to interrogate a formula see here.
Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are provided.
Manganese propane and manganese butane complexes derived from CpMn(CO)(3) were generated photochemically at 130-136 K with the alkane as solvent and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with in situ laser photolysis. Time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements were performed at room temperature with the same laser wavelength. The ν(CO) bands in the IR spectra of the photoproducts in propane are shifted to low frequency with respect to CpMn(CO)(3), consistent with formation of CpMn(CO)(2)(propane). The (1)H NMR spectra conform to the criteria for alkane complexes: a high-field resonance for the η(2)-CH protons that shifts substantially on partial deuteration of the alkane and exhibits a coupling constant J(C-H) on (13)C-labeling of ca. 120 Hz. The NMR spectrum of each system exhibits two diagnostic product resonances in the high-field region for the η(2)-CH protons, corresponding to CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C1-H-alkane) and CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C2-H-alkane) isomers. Partial
Buy, download and read Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Jack G Calvert; Richard G Derwent; John J Orlando; Geoffrey S Tyndall; Timothy J Wallington. ISBN: 9780199710881. Publisher: Oxford University Press. An international team of eminent atmospheric scientists have prepared Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes as an authoritative source of information on the role of alkanes in the chemist
View Notes - Chapter 3 from CHE 201 at SUNY Buffalo. Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated with hydrogens Ratio: CnH2n+2 Alkane homologs: CH3(CH2)nCH3 Same ratio for branched
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Alkane Resources Limited executive: Karen Brown. Insider profile, background and performance of Karen Brown and Alkane Resources and other executives: Alkane Resources | ALKEF.
The above are the structural formulas of two compounds which have the same molecular formula. Which of following statements is correct?. a) The bond angle \(\alpha\) is the same as the bond angle \(\beta\).. b) Compound (A) is a saturated hydrocarbon and compound (B) is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.. c) The bond length between the carbon atoms is identical for all bonds. d) None of the above. ...
my primary school: sek keb merbau secondry school: sek tun fatimah jbahru isle of ely college- wisbech, englang for a level umist, england for first degree ukm,bangi for dip ed now working in mrsm ...
my primary school: sek keb merbau secondry school: sek tun fatimah jbahru isle of ely college- wisbech, englang for a level umist, england for first degree ukm,bangi for dip ed now working in mrsm ...
In horses, the quantity of faeces and the faecal concentrations of plant and synthetic alkanes are inconsistent throughout the day. The estimation of feed intake and digestibility can additionally be limited by irregular and incomplete faecal recovery of alkanes that are used as dietary markers. The correction of alkane concentrations minimizes the bias of estimates, but requires the determination of faeces quantity by total collection. However, in consideration of the dynamics of alkane concentrations in faeces, sampling at selected timeframes throughout a day may be useful in avoiding such correction. Five adult horses were fed a hay-based diet offered three times a day in equal amounts. Horses received a bolus with similar quantities of n-octacosane (C28), n-dotriacontane (C32) and n-hexatriacontane (C36) synthetic alkanes twice a day. Total faeces were quantified over 3 consecutive days. Dry matter intake (DMI), output (DMO) and digestibility (DMD) were determined from the total collection ...
A series of sulfated alumina catalysts were synthesised by wet impregnation with sulfate-containing solutions. The degree of surface sulfation and corresponding surface acidity could be readily tuned by varying the molarity of impregnating solution. Strong acid treatments (,0.1 M) induced aluminium-sulfate crystallisation with a concomitant decrease in porosity and surface acidity. Platinum-doped sulfated aluminas showed enhanced activity towards methane, ethane and propane combustion. Activity scaled with the degree of accessible surface sulfate and platinum loading, however C-H bond scission appeared rate-limiting over both pure and presulfated aluminas. The magnitude of sulfate-promoted propane oxidation was greatest under heavily oxidising conditions (C3H6O2 , 120) but independent of Pt loading, confirming that support-mediated alkane activation is the dominant factor in the promotional mechanism. ...
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Alkane series definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as methane, CH 4 , or ethane, C 2 H 6 . See more.
Angewandte Books Chemie Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes The research area covered by this book is the atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric pollution, and photochemical formation of ozone and photooxidants. It essentially focuses on the oxidation of alkanes and haloalkanes, but it also includes the subsequent oxidation processes of primary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, nitrates, hydroperoxides, and multifunctional products. It essentially deals with gas-phase chemistry and photochemistry, and thus it includes neither chemistry in the liquid phase nor heterogeneous chemistry on atmospheric particles. The book provides a fairly large number of data on reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, product formation, UV absorption spectra, and photochemical reactions, arranged on nearly 1000 pages, with numerous tables and figures and an exhaustive list of references. This volume is a follow-up of two previous books by Calvert et al. on the atmospheric oxidation ...
Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes - Chemistry LibreTexts Straight-chain hydrocarbon , Britannica.com hydrocarbons. in hydrocarbon: Physical properties. For a given number of carbon atoms, an unbranched alkane has a higher boiling point than any of its branchedchain isomers. This effect is evident upon comparing the boiling points (bp) of selected C 8H 18 isomers. Straight-Chain and … ...
Definition of Alkane 1-monooxygenase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The smallest alkane with such a chemical bond, ethane, exists as an infinite number of conformations with respect to rotation around the C-C bond. Two of these are recognised as energy minimum (staggered conformation) and energy maximum (eclipsed conformation) forms. The existence of specific conformations is due to hindered rotation around sigma bonds, although a role for hyperconjugation is proposed by a competing theory.. The importance of energy minimum and energy maximum is seen by extension of these concepts to more complex molecules for which stable conformations may be predicted as minimum energy forms. The determination of stable conformations has also played a large role in the establishment of the concept of asymmetric induction and the ability to predict the stereochemistry of reactions controlled by steric effects.. In the example of staggered ethane in Newman projection, a hydrogen atom on one ...
Comprehension of reactive chemical dynamics in the gas phase and at the gas/organic-surface interface and non-reactive dynamics at the interface between hydrophobic surfaces and water requires an understanding of the fundamental atomic and molecular interactions that undergird these important phenomena. In an effort to study these regimes of chemical interaction, we have performed computational simulations that probe the dynamics of chemical systems that exemplify each of these domains. To study gas-phase chemical dynamics, we reparametrized semiempirical Hamiltonians so that they can accurately describe the potential energy surfaces for two distinct atom+alkane reactions. In addition to their demonstrated accuracy, these methods possess the attractive quality of being computationally inexpensive enough to afford extensive direct-dynamics trajectory studies. Our results on the dynamics of atom+alkane hydrogen-abstraction reactions have shown good agreement with experimental metrics that are as ...
The analysis of catalytic partial oxidation of light alkanes indicates that processes involving this group proceed via the formation and consecutive transformations of free radicals. Depending on the properties of the catalytic system and reaction conditions the same primary radical can give different final products, olefins, oxygenated organic substances and carbon oxides. An approach to design a complex catalytic system for efficient alkane partial oxidation based on separation of zones where free radicals are formed and where they are transformed into desired products is suggested and examples of its implementation are presented.
Alkane Exploration Ltd (ALK.AX) shares are being watched closely by traders as the Awesome Oscillator signal is revealing a downward trend building over the past five bars, signaling that market momentum is building for the name.. The Awesome Oscillator (AO), created (and aptly named) by Bill Williams, is an indicator which is able to show what is happening with driving force of the market.. The Awesome Oscillator is created using the difference between the 34-period and 5-period simple moving averages of the bars midpoints (H+L)/2. The AO is usually planned as a histogram in which bars higher than the preceding bar will be colored green. Bars lower than the preceding one will be colored red. The Awesome Oscillator was introduced by Williams in his book "New Trading Dimensions".. When applying indicators for technical analysis, traders and investors might want to look at the ATR or Average True Range. The current 14-day ATR for Alkane Exploration Ltd (ALK.AX) is currently sitting at 0.02. The ...
Since 2014 Alkane has sponsored the Tomingley Gold Project Community Fund, which aims to foster close relations between the TGO team and the local Narromine Shire community by providing support for local infrastructure and events. Funding is awarded twice a year on a proposals basis. To find out more about how to apply for the Tomingley Gold Project Community Fund click here.. Listening and sharing - Alkane values strong and positive relationships with local communities. We are committed to clear and regular communications about our operations and development activities, and welcome community members to engage with us directly about any of our projects.. Community newsletters - We publish two quarterly newsletters created especially for the communities interested in the Dubbo Project and Tomingley Gold Operations. They focus on development and operations updates, news of interest to residents and other community-relevant announcements. ...
Naphtha is selectively hydrodesulfurized using selectively poisoned hydrotreating catalyst to remove sulfur while minimizing loss in octane level due to olefin saturation.
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Global oxygenates markets increase; MTBE approaches commodity status. The global market for methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is projected to increase from just over 8 million metric tons in 1991 to 33 million metric tons in 2000. Significant new capacity will be needed to meet blending requirements for oxygenated gasoline demand. The US and Western Europe are forecast to import increasing volumes of MTBE supplied from Venezuela, the Middle East, Africa and Canada. MTBE is the preferred oxygenate, but other oxygenates such as TAME and ethanol will play a role. (Editor s note There is some foreshadowing in this editorial).. Naphtha buyers face nasty surprise. In a new report, naphtha buyers will experience a bitter surprise in the second half of the decade. Shortages are anticipated as naphtha supplies fail to meet demand. Slumping world economy and diversification in feedstock are believed to be responsible for future naphtha shortages. In 1991, global ...
After a Naphtha chemical leak at the PBF Refinery Wednesday, officials debated whether they should open nearby Paulsboro High School the following day. But
* Taiwans Formosa bought naphtha at $9.50 to $10 a tonne aboveits own price formula on a cost-and-freight (C&F) basis, tradersfamiliar with the matter said.* Formosa bought 200,000 to 250,000 tonnes of open-specificationnaphtha this week for first-half February arrival at Mailiaowhere it operates three crackers* The fresh premiums were lower versus the $11 to $12 a tonnepremium Formosa paid on Dec. 13, which marked the highest levelthe petrochemical company had forked out since July 2014.* Traders expect a muted market next week due to year-endfestive season.(Reporting by Seng Li Peng; Editing by Sunil Nair)
Current Texas lawmakers took $11.3 million from the oil and gas industry over the past two election cycles, according to a new report, "Running on Hydrocarbons," released today by Texans for Public Justice, Public Citizen and the Sierra Clubs Lone Star Chapter. The Energy & Natural Resources sector supplies lawmakers with more money than any other sector besides Lawyers & Lobbyists (even as Energy & Natural Resources is the leading employer of Texas lobbyists ...
Characteristics of the Tan-Lu Strike-Slip Fault and Its Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Liaodong Bay Sub-Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, China
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Crystals of n-alkanes show a remarkable series of solid-solid phase transitions. In the odd n-alkanes C25, C27, and C29 a previously unknown transition is found by both calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The ubiquitous presence of nonplanar conformations of the chains is shown by infrared spectroscopy. The nonplanar conformers constitute approximately half the molecules in the highest temperature solid phase of C29. ...
... definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as methane, CH 4 , or ethane, C 2 H 6 . See more.
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Bicyclo[5.2.0]nonane, 4,8,8-trimethyl-2-methylene- | C13H22 | CID 564732 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The film morphology of pi-conjugated oligomers has been controlled by self-assembly in solution. To this end supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems of oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) carrying ureido-s-triazine hydrogen-bonding groups are used. Neutron scattering experiments in dodecane solutions show that columnar stacks are formed. Films with thicknesses on the order of 100 nm are made that have a supramolecular organization resembling the organization present in solution. Uniform rodlike morphological domains range over several hundreds of nanometers as shown by atomic force microscopy. The rodlike morphology of the OPVs was also preserved when blended with a C-60 derivative, producing stable photovoltaic devices.. ...
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General Information: Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01 was isolated from sediment from the Arthur Kill, NJ/NY waterway, USA. This site has a history of contamination from petrochemical industry and strain AK-01 is able to degrade 13 to 18 carbon alkanes. Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans is an alkene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from estuarine sediment. It activates alkanes via subterminal addition of the alkane to fumarate. ...
No significant hydrocarbons peaks in samples extracted from cells expressing only ADC. The blue GCMS chromatagram trace on the bottom show no significant peaks are found on the ADC only control within the time range that we expect alkane signal based upon GC-MS runs on chemical standards (8-10.5 minutes). This is expected, as E. coli does not normally produce any long chain length aldehyde substrates. C16 alcohols are observed when AAR is expressed on its own. The red GCMS chromatagram trace in the middle has a significant peak at 10.2 minutes corresponding to the C16 alcohol (as confirmed by comparison of the peaks MS spectra to a reference library) is observed when AAR is expressed in MG1655 E. coli. The production of C16 alcohols in cells expressing AAR (but not in cells expressing only ADC) is consistent with AAR reducing even chain length Acyl-ACPs into even chain length fatty aldehydes, which are further reduced by aldehyde dehydrogenases to the alcohol. The PetroBrick Works! C13, C15, ...
High yields of liquid straight-chain alkanes were obtained directly from cellulosic feedstock in a one-pot biphasic catalytic system. The catalytic reaction proceeds at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in the presence of tungstosilicic acid, dissolved in the aqueous phase, and modified Ru/C, sus 2015 most accessed Energy & Environmental Science articles
Researchers in China are proposing new pathways for the CO2 catalytic conversion of oleic acid into C8-C15 alkanes. The yield of C8-C15 products reaches 73.10 mol% in a CO2 atmosphere-much higher than the 49.67 mol% yield obtained in an H2 atmosphere. In the the absence of an external H2 source,...
Yes Chromium oxide reaction is valid for all alkanes. In fact, many metal (III) oxides are capable of producing such reactions on specific compounds. Examples are Aluminum and Iron (III) oxide ...
1) When organic acids are subjected to continuing increases in temperature, and depending on the acid itself, is it reasonable to assume that organic acids convert first to aldehydes, then to alcohols, then to alkanes given.
The geometries of 35 conformers of Me(SiMe2) nMe (n= 4, 1; n = 5, 2; n = 6, 3; n = 7, 4) were optimized at the MP2/VTDZ level, and CCSD(T) single-point calculations were done at three MP2/VTDZ conformer geometries of 1. The relative ground-state energies of the conformers of 1-4 in the gas phase were obtained from the MP2/VTDZ electronic energy, zero- point vibrational energy, and thermal corrections at 0, 77, and 298 K. Relative energies in an alkane solvent at 77 and 298 K were obtained by the addition of solvation energies, obtained from the SM5.42R model. The calculated energies of 26 of the conformers (n = 4-6) have been least-squares fitted to a set of 15 additive increments associated with each Si-Si bond conformation and each pair of adjacent bond conformations, with mean deviations of 0.06-0.20 kcal/mol. An even better fit for the energies of 24 conformers (mean deviations, 0.01-0.09 kcal/mol) has been obtained with a larger set of 19 increments, which also contained contributions from ...
Schubert, C. and Stein, R. (1996): n-Alkane distribution in surface sediments from the eastern central Arctic Ocean: Preliminary results and perspectives , Reports on Polar Research, Alfred Wegener Institut for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven , 212 ...
The C-C bond in alkanes is a sigma bond and has cylindrical symmetry. Due to this, atoms involved can rotate about the axis of the bond without affecting the overlap of orbitals that form the bond. So rotation about C-C bond is quite free. Therefore hydrogen atoms can have different spatial arrangement while maintaing the bond and the bond angle between H-C-H. Such different spatial arrangments are called conformations, conformational isomers (conformers) or rotational isomers (rotamers ...
Pris: 1559 kr. Inbunden, 2008. Skickas inom 7-10 vardagar. Köp Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes av Jack G Calvert på Bokus.com.
Numerous challenges remain to achieve industrially competitive space-time yields for bio-oxidations. The ability to rapidly screen bioconversion reactions for characterization and optimization is of major importance in bioprocess development and biocatalyst selection; studies at conventional lab scale are time consuming and labor intensive with low experimental throughput. The direct ω-oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic alkanes in a regio- and chemoselective manner is efficiently catalyzed by monooxygenases such as the AlkBGT enzyme complex from Pseudomonas putida under mild conditions. However, the adoption of microscale tools for these highly volatile substrates has been hindered by excessive evaporation and material incompatibility. This study developed and validated a robust high-throughput microwell platform for whole-cell two-liquid phase bio-oxidations of highly volatile n-alkanes. Using microwell plates machined from polytetrafluoroethylene and a sealing clamp, highly reproducible results were
90622-49-4 - Alkanes, C10-32, chlorosulfonated, reaction products with ammonia - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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100684-50-2 - Sulfonic acids, C18-26-alkane, sodium salts - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
View Notes - Practice_Problems_1_answer_key from CHM 201 at Cal Poly Pomona. others may exist others may exist 3) Give the IUPAC name for the following alkanes. Cl Cl a) b)
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We have prepared and evaluated 2,3-epoxypropyl trialkyl substituted acetate (OXI; alpha, alpha-branched alkane carboxylic glycidyl esters) based on bran...
A List with 189 English Words From Letters ALKANES -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. FindTheWord.info searches for partial words (both crossword solver and part of word), help with cheating in Scrabble and Wordfeud, finds anagrams, palindromes, and words in word, and much more.The dictionary used contains more than 589,000 English words.
Fluidized beds are common equipment in many process industries. Knowledge of the hydrodynamics within a fluidized bed on the local scale is important for the improvement of scale-up and process efficiencies. This knowledge is lacking due to limited observational technologies at the local scale. This paper uses X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging to describe the local time-average gas holdup differences of annular hydrodynamic structures that arise through axisymmetric annular flow in a 10.2 cm and 15.2 cm diameter cold flow fluidized bed. The aeration scheme used is similar to that provided by a porous plate and hydrodynamic results can be directly compared. Geldart type B glass bead, ground walnut shell, and crushed corncob particles were studied at various superficial gas velocities. Assuming axisymmetry, the local 3D time-average gas holdup data acquired through X-ray CT imaging was averaged over concentric annuli, resulting in a 2D annular and time-average gas holdup map. These gas holdup ...
Downloadable! This paper examines a contractual settingwith unverifiable investment and a durable trading opportunity, in which trade can take place in any one of an infinite number of periods. The contractual setting features cross-investment, meaning that the seller’s investment affects the buyer’s benefit of trade. The analysis shows that durability of the trading opportunity does not complicate the hold-up problem; more precisely, the set of outcomes supported in the durability setting is equivalent to the set supported in the related setting without durability. Thus, the technology of investment and tradeâ€
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EC number: 265-086-6 , CAS number: 64741-84-0 A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained as the raffinate from a solvent extraction process. It consists predominantly of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C5 through C11 and boiling in the range of approximately 35°C to 190°C (95°F to 374°F). ...
EC number: 265-086-6 , CAS number: 64741-84-0 A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained as the raffinate from a solvent extraction process. It consists predominantly of aliphatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C5 through C11 and boiling in the range of approximately 35°C to 190°C (95°F to 374°F). ...
A diffusionless transformation in normal alkane: we observed an interesting pattern of twinned domains that occurs in the phase sequence of a particular n-alkane, tricosane (C23H48). Phase transitions between this twinned regime and one of its neighboring phases preserve atomic-scale features such as growth steps, indicating that the regime is entered via a diffusionless (martensitic-like) transition. This is an optical microscopy image, which shows a pattern of stripes with a spacing of 1 m organized into domains with sizes of tens of micrometers, as shown in figure at a temperature 42 C, stripes are separated into domains separated by two types of twin boundaries. ...
First things first, alkanes are compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. In this section we will explore how alkenes combust (or burn in non-chemistry lingo). The combustion of hydrocarbons is an exothermic reaction, obviously, as it would be pretty pointless … Read More. ...
A W-peroxo derivative of an intact singly substituted Keggin structure has now been discovered, b - [CoIIO )W O (O ) ]10- [52]. This appears, from cyclohexenol oxidation results, to be a relatively nu- cleophilic oxidant, as expected. Hydroxylations of alkanes are catalyzed by the substituted Kegginstructure, [g-SiW {Fe(OH) } O ]6- [53], and it is established by NMR that the 1,2-Fe topomer (with vicinal Fe atoms) is the main active component. Similar results are reported for oxygen oxidations withH PV Mo O , with the 1,2-V topomer being the best catalyst of phenol and alcohol oxidation, among others [54]. Both of these catalysts seem to involve cooperation between two 1-electron oxidizing spe-cies, as may others with this feature [55]. Mixed Mo/V complexes up to PV Mo catalyze phenol hy- droxylation by H O [56], and the dependence of o-:p- ratio on V:Mo ratio may well be related to An important development in the practical use of polyoxometallates, aimed thus far at paper pulp bleaching, is ...
In the new practice depth paper (the one on the google drive link) question 5c where it asks you to identify the molecular formula of alkane X, I identified that the alkane has 7 carbon atoms in it so assumed its formula was C7H16 due to this being the general formula of alkanes. Yet the answer was C7H14, why is this ...
The invention relates to a material which is suited as a carrier for catalysts in the dehydrogenation of alkanes and in the oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes and which is made of an oxide ceramic
You may also wish to search for items by Frenkel. 91 matching references were found. Kabo, G.J.; Kozyro, A.A.; Kiky, V.V.; Simirsky, V.V.; Ivashkevich, L.S.; Krasulin, A.P.; Sevruk, V.M.; Marchand, A.P.; Frenkel, M., Thermodynamic properties of pentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane, C11H14, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1995, 27, 707-720. [all data] Kabo, G.J.; Kozyro, A.A.; Frenkel, M.; Blokhin, A.V., Solid Phase Transitions of the Cyclohexane Derivatives and the Model of Energy States of Molecules in Plastic Crystals, Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology. Section A. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, 1999, 326, 1, 333-355, https://doi.org/10.1080/10587259908025424 . [all data] Kabo, G.J.; Kozyro, A.A.; Diky, V.V.; Simirsky, V.V.; Ivashkevich, L.S.; Krasulin, A.P.; Sevruk, V.M.; Marchand, A.P.; Frenkel, M., Thermodynamic properties of pentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane, C11H14, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1995, 27, 6, 707, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1995.0072 . [all ...
Make no contact with the spilled material. ELIMINATE all ignition sources and ground all equipment. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material ...
Make no contact with the spilled material. ELIMINATE all ignition sources and ground all equipment. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material ...
The FTO system analyzes streams with concentrations of 0.2%-35% olefins. This GC system determines C4 - C10 olefins in all finished motor gasolines, straight naphthas and FCC naphthas. It reports in weight % and liquid volume % and a full analysis takes just 20 minutes. The FTO analysis exceeds the repeatability capabilities of ASTM D 1319 (the Fluorescent Indicator Absorption-FIA-method) and incorporates ASTM D 6296 - Total Olefins in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels by Multi-Dimensional GC ...
We consider the problem of stabilization of unstable periodic solutions to autonomous systems by the non-invasive delayed feedback control known as Pyragas control method. The Odd Number Theorem imposes an important restriction upon the choice of the gain matrix by stating a necessary condition for stabilization. In this paper, the Odd Number Theorem is extended to equivariant systems. We assume that both the uncontrolled and controlled systems respect a group of symmetries. Two types of results are discussed. First, we consider rotationally symmetric systems for which the control stabilizes the whole orbit of relative periodic solutions that form an invariant two-dimensional torus in the phase space. Second, we consider a modification of the Pyragas control method that has been recently proposed for systems with a finite symmetry group. This control acts non-invasively on one selected periodic solution from the orbit and targets to stabilize this particular solution. Variants of the Odd Number ...
Playing dice with Mo-V-Te-Nb oxide a promising catalyst for alkane oxidation with a structure obscured by the fractional distribution of V or Mo atoms on many sites. In their Communication on page 12854 ff., P. Sautet et al. present an efficient DFT approach that allows fast comparison of the energies of up to 8008 configurations of this complex oxide. The calculations predict the statistical V atom distribution found experimentally, when the dice are loaded and the V/Mo distribution is far from being equiprobable. ...
There is little that is known about organic dye aggregates because the size and geometry are difficult to control. This further complicates the comparison of the optical properties of the dye aggregate to its structure. The purpose of this research was to synthesize simple face to face organic dye aggregates and study their solubility and optical absorbance, and compare those results with the results of structurally similar dyes. Using a monomer that has been shown to readily form aggregates, complex dimer molecules were synthesized. The two monomer chains were connected via alkane chains of piperazine, which put a space of two carbons between each monomer chain. Each dye aggregate was in contact with another dye aggregate in a dilute solution, which permitted the comparison of single interactions and the resulting optical properties. The face to face dimer showed a lower energy, red shift in its optical absorbance when compared to that of the monomer. Molecula ...
Feature Requests item #1386030, was opened at 2005-12-20 11:24 Message generated for change (Tracker Item Submitted) made by Item Submitter You can respond by visiting: https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=detail&atid=370024&aid=1386030&group_id=20024 Please note that this message will contain a full copy of the comment thread, including the initial issue submission, for this request, not just the latest update. Category: cdk.render Group: None Status: Open Priority: 5 Submitted By: Egon Willighagen (egonw) Assigned to: Nobody/Anonymous (nobody) Summary: Drawing alkane chains in one drag move Initial Comment: [2005-12-20 09:51:51] ,egonw, BTW, a feature request... [2005-12-20 09:52:00] ,egonw, maybe its something you have a good idea on how to do it: [2005-12-20 09:52:15] ,egonw, - drag while in BOND mode gives you one new bond... [2005-12-20 09:52:40] --, steinbeck has joined this channel. ([email protected]) [2005-12-20 09:53:01] ,egonw, - what about of the drag distance (coord_now - ...
Principal Investigator:NAITO Shuichi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:触媒・化学プロセス
Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds that only contain H and C atoms, but they can be subdivided according to the following tree diagram depending on the bond types that are present ...
NIOSH recommends that employee exposure to thiols in the workplace be controlled by adherence to the following sections. The recommended standard is designed to protect the health and provide for the safety of employees for up to a 10-hour workshift, in a 40-hour workweek, during a working lifetime. Compliance with all sections of their recommended standard should prevent adverse effects of exposure to thiols on the health of employees and provide for their safety. Techniques recommended in the standard are valid, reproducible, and available to industry and government agencies. Sufficient technology exists to permit compliance with the recommended standard. Although NIOSH considers the recommended workplace environmental limits to be safe levels based on current information, employers should regard them as the upper boundaries of exposure and make every effort to maintain exposures as low as is technically feasible. The criteria and recommended standard will be reviewed and revised as necessary. ...
In the current bid for synthetic efficiency, multiple bond-forming transformations are becoming a key concept in organic synthesis. In this context, domino protocols have become increasingly common in the synthesis of bicyclic systems. This tutorial review aims at providing a short but authoritative overview
NIOSH recommends that employee exposure to thiols in the workplace be controlled by adherence to the following sections. The recommended standard is designed to protect the health and provide for the safety of employees for up to a 10-hour workshift, in a 40-hour workweek, during a working lifetime. Compliance with all sections of their recommended standard should prevent adverse effects of exposu
Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ability to use wide range of hydrocarbons is advantage of this bacterium to other marine community bacteria. A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) and the second system is cytochrome P450. Until now there is not any report on cloning of cytochrome P450 gene of A. borkumensis. In this study cytochrome P450 gene from A. borkumensis was cloned. At first P450 gene was cloned in pBluescript plasmid by blunt cloning and insertion was confirmed by colony PCR. Then P450 gene was cloned in PET-26 expression vector and finally, IPTG induced gene expression in E.coli BL-21 bacterium. It was shown that longer induction time led to more expression level. The recombinant enzyme has difference absorbance in 450 nm that confirmed the activity of this recombinant enzyme.
Alkanes are also known as saturated hydrocarbons and sometimes as paraffins. Alkanes are a relatively simple group of hydrocarbons and are usually included in introductory courses in organic chemistry. School-Level Chemistry page, ages 14-16, UK GCSE or international equivalent.
The dried aerial parts of scutellaria lateriflora L. (family Labiatae), have been used for many years as a domestic remedy for epilepsy, hysteria, and nervous tension states. Although several phytochemical investigations have been made regarding the constituents present in this species (i. e. flavonoids, iridoids), none has been recorded concerning the cuticular wax. Using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and GLC-mass spectrometry, laterifloral collected from Mazandaran province in northern Iran have been analysed. The wax yield was 1.2%. The alkanes fall in the range of C23 to C37 the odd carbon number n-alkanes being predominant. The concentration of branched alkane is low (1.2%). Three homologous series of branched alkanes were identified as 3,9-dimethyl alkanes, 2-methyl alkanes and 3-methyl alkanes.
1. A process for producing a composition consisting essentially of a binder component and a solvent component, said process comprising the steps of:(A) preparing the solvent component by mixing a solvent dimethyl carbonate with a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of aromatic hydrocarbon (135-146C), aromatic hydrocarbon (150-190C), aromatic hydrocarbon (182-219C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-150C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-163C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (115-149C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-177C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-185C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (145-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (155-190C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (170-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (180-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (182-266C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (90-110C), mineral spirit, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1-butoxy ethoxy 222-propanol, 1-methyl naphthalene, 1-nitro propane, ...
Nutrakey Cissus Quadrangularis Powder - Unflavored - Get the lowest price on Nutrakey Cissus Quadrangularis Powder - Unflavored, online at AllegroMedical.com.
0015] The solvent as used in the method of the present invention may be any saturated or unsaturated aliphatic (i.e. non-aromatic) solvent and may include linear, branched or cyclic alkanes and alkenes and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the solvent in step (b) comprises an aliphatic hydrocarbon having from 3 to 9 carbon atoms per molecule, more preferably from 4 to 7 carbons per molecule, or a combination thereof. Especially suitable solvents are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane and nonane, in particular butane, pentane, hexane and heptanes (and isomers thereof). It is preferred that the solvent in step (b) comprises at least 90 wt. % of the aliphatic hydrocarbon having from 3 to 9 carbon atoms per molecule, preferably at least 95 wt. %. Also, it is preferred that in step (b) substantially no aromatic solvent (such as toluene or benzene) is present, i.e. less than 5 wt. %, preferably less than 1 wt. %. Herewith, the asphaltene content of ...
Cissus is a genus of approximately 350 species of lianas (woody vines) in the grape family (Vitaceae). They have a cosmopolitan distribution, though the majority are to be found in the tropics. Cissus quadrangularis has been evaluated for potential medical uses. As a source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid the extracts may have potential for medical effects, including "gastroprotective activity" and benefits in terms of "lipid metabolism and oxidative stress". Cissus quinquangularis was used by the Maasai people of Kenya to relieve some of the symptoms of malaria. Cissus antarctica, Cissus alata and Cissus incisa are cultivated as garden plants, depending on area of the world. Succulent members of the genus such as Cissus quadrangularis are also found in the nursery trade but tend to be frost tender and are thus not widely cultivated. Cissus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hypercompe eridanus and Hypercompe icasia. The generic ...
A short-term simulated weathering experiment was performed on two crude oils and two heavy fuel oils under natural conditions to evaluate the effects of natural weathering processes by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. The results of diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes show that only odd to even predominance (OEP1, OPE2) and carbon preference index (CPI) remain stabilized during the 28 d weathering process, but they cannot effectively distinguish the four types of oils. Statistical analyses based on paired sample t-test and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that stable carbon isotope compositions of n-alkanes in the four studied oils have no significant changes over the weathering time, and that the carbon isotope discrimination (Delta delta C-13) of n-alkanes is , 3 parts per thousand. We have provided evidence that the stable carbon isotope compositions of n-alkanes compared to n-alkanes diagnostic ratios ...
The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the construction of complex molecular structures on planar gold and silicon dioxide surfaces using a variety of surface modification techniques, along with thorough surface characterization at each modification step. The dissertation is structured into six separate chapters. In Chapter 1, an introduction to the importance and implications of molecular level surface modification, commonly employed surface modification methods, and available surface characterization techniques is presented. Chapter 2 shows applications of novel methodologies for the functionalization of gold surfaces using alkane dithiol self-assembled monolayers and thiol-ene click chemistry. The resulting functionalized gold substrates demonstrate higher chemical stability than alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers alone and allow spatially controlled functionalization of gold surfaces with light. In Chapter 3, work on tunable hydrophobic surfaces is presented. These surfaces are

Butane vs Methane - Difference and Comparison | DiffenButane vs Methane - Difference and Comparison | Diffen

Butane and methane are hydrocarbons from the same chemical family compounds known as alkanes. They are components of natural ... Related alkanes. Propane; Pentane. Ethane, propane. Related compounds. Isobutane; Cyclobutane. Methanol, chloromethane, formic ... Butane and methane are hydrocarbons from the same chemical family compounds known as alkanes. They are components of natural ...
more infohttps://www.diffen.com/difference/Butane_vs_Methane

Propane - WikipediaPropane - Wikipedia

Propane is a three-caurbon alkane wi the molecular formula C. 3H. 8, normally a gas, but compressible tae a transportable ...
more infohttps://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propane

Cloning and gene expression of cytochrome P450 gene from Alcanivorax borkumensis BacteriumCloning and gene expression of cytochrome P450 gene from Alcanivorax borkumensis Bacterium

A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) ... Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ... A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) ... Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ...
more infohttp://www.ijabbr.com/article_7034.html

Butane Combustion Equation - Jennarocca	Butane Combustion Equation - Jennarocca

Reactions Of Alkanes And Cycloalkanes There Are Two Major Types. Butane C 4h 10 L Is Combusted In Devices Such As Chegg Com ...
more infohttp://jennarocca.com/butane-combustion-equation/

Investigation on finding the Molar Mass of Butane Essay Example for FreeInvestigation on finding the Molar Mass of Butane Essay Example for Free

Its only other isomer is methylpropane: CH(CH3)3. It is an organic compound which belongs to the alkane group or organic ... Butane (C4H10), also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ...
more infohttps://studymoose.com/investigation-on-finding-the-molar-mass-of-butane-essay

Butane - ConcentratesButane - Concentrates

Butane is, believe it or not, a totally organic compound made up of Alkane and Carbon. Butane can be used for filling your ...
more infohttp://mrniceguysglass.com/concentrates/butane.html

Background The cuticle is a hydrophobic hurdle located at the aerialBackground The cuticle is a hydrophobic hurdle located at the aerial

... alkanes, secondary alcohols and ketones (examined by [2,4-6]). The identification of 24 mutants with altered cuticular wax ... a particular upsurge in alkane content was correlated with greater drought tolerance [14] recently. The overexpression of the ...
more infohttp://researchhunt.com/2017/08/02/background-the-cuticle-is-a-hydrophobic-hurdle-located-at-the-aerial/

Principles of Biochemistry/Lipids - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldPrinciples of Biochemistry/Lipids - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Although most natural waxes are esters, paraffin waxes are hydrocarbons, mixtures of alkanes usually in a homologous series of ... The epicuticular waxes of plants are mixtures of substituted long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, containing alkanes, fatty acids ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Principles_of_Biochemistry/Lipids

Chemical formula for butaneChemical formula for butane

Butane gas is a hydrocarbon and belongs to the alkane series which are all saturated with hydrogen and have no double or triple ... Butane gas is a hydrocarbon and belongs to the alkane series which are all saturated with hydrogen and have no double or triple ...
more infohttp://chemicalformula.org/butane

AlkanesAlkanes

... from pentane up to around C17H36 are liquids. Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. ... Alkane Derivatives. Almost an unlimited number of derivatives can be made from the alkanes since any hydrogen can be ... Kerosene contains alkanes from about n=10 to n=16. Above n=17 they are solids at room temperature. Alkanes with higher values ... Alkanes. Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds are called alkanes. They are called saturated hydrocarbons because there ...
more infohttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/alkane.html

Molecule Gallery - AlkanesMolecule Gallery - Alkanes

Summary of the Straight-Chain Alkanes. Name. Formula. Melting. Point. ( C). Boiling. Point. ( C). Number of Structural. Isomers ... Alkanes. Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are held together by single bonds. Their general formula is CnH2n+2 ... Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes. The straight-chain (normal) and branched alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2. The ... On the other hand, alkanes are important for their ability to undergo combustion with molecular oxygen (O2): alkanes of various ...
more infohttps://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/molecule_gallery/01_alkanes/00_alkanes.htm

Alkane stereochemistry - WikipediaAlkane stereochemistry - Wikipedia

Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes. Alkane conformers are one of the subjects of alkane ... Conformation of alkane[edit]. Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The ... More alkane conformations exist in cyclic alkanes; see cyclohexane conformations.. *More on the impact of gauche interactions; ... Naming alkanes per standards listed in the IUPAC Gold Book is done according to the Klyne-Prelog system for specifying angles ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauche_conformation

AlkanesAlkanes

Higher Alkanes. Medium length alkanes have significant populations with one or more gauche conformations (DOI: 10.1021/ ... Home,Historical,Relevance,Theory,Alkanes,Sub-alk,σ-π Conjugations,Cycloalkanes,Hetrings,Atrop,Prob] ... In straight-chain alkanes the gauche conformation is promoted by increased dispersion interactions ... processes are dynamic and the thermodynamic equilibrium population of conformers about the C-C bonds in straight-chain alkanes ...
more infohttp://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/organic/conf/c1_alkanes.html

Patente US3758410 - Vicinal substituted alkanes - Google PatentesPatente US3758410 - Vicinal substituted alkanes - Google Patentes

... vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes and/or with vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes having alkyl chain lengths greater or ... 2 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ethylene oxide) 13.7 7,8 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ... 9 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ethylene oxide) 14 1,2 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ... The alkane chain length is additionally critical in this respect since the unexpected advantage obtained by the use of isomer ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US3758410

Alkanes | Gondar Design Chemistry	Alkanes | Gondar Design Chemistry

Alkanes. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (this means that there are NO double bonds in the molecule). They contain Hydrogen ...
more infohttp://purchon.com/chemistry/?page_id=172

Toward Alkane Synthesis | ScienceToward Alkane Synthesis | Science

Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/329/5991/489.2

Alkanes, cycloalkanes, and functional groups |
Khan AcademyAlkanes, cycloalkanes, and functional groups | Khan Academy

The properties of organic molecules depend on the structure, and knowing the names of organic compounds allow us to communicate with other chemists. Well be learning about different aspects of molecular structure, including common functional groups and conformations.
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/organic-chemistry/bond-line-structures-alkanes-cycloalkanes

Microbial Biosynthesis of Alkanes | ScienceMicrobial Biosynthesis of Alkanes | Science

Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the ... Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures ... Alkane biosynthesis genes were identified in cyanobacteria and engineered into Escherichia coli for recombinant hydrocarbon ... Alkane biosynthesis genes were identified in cyanobacteria and engineered into Escherichia coli for recombinant hydrocarbon ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/329/5991/559

Alkanes, cycloalkanes, and functional groups | Chemistry |
Khan AcademyAlkanes, cycloalkanes, and functional groups | Chemistry | Khan Academy

The properties of organic molecules depend on the structure, and knowing the names of organic compounds allow us to communicate with other chemists. Well be learning about different aspects of molecular structure, including common functional groups and conformations.
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/bond-line-structures-alkanes-cycloalkanes/naming-alkanes/v/organic-chemistry-naming-examples-5?modal=1

Halogenation of Alkanes - 
                    
                        ChemgapediaHalogenation of Alkanes - Chemgapedia

Radical halogenation of alkanes: principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics.. Important Keywords in this Learning Unit. ... This learning unit describes the principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics of the radical halogenation of alkanes and it ...
more infohttp://www.chemgapedia.de/vsengine/vlu/vsc/en/ch/12/oc/vlu_organik/radikale/halogenierung_alkane.vlu/Summary.html

Alkanes, C18-28, chloro - Substance Information - ECHAAlkanes, C18-28, chloro - Substance Information - ECHA

Alkanes, C18-28, chloro. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [1] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/de/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.079.498

Patent US7968755 - Process and catalyst for converting alkanes - Google PatentsPatent US7968755 - Process and catalyst for converting alkanes - Google Patents

... metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert ... and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, ... Conversion of alkanes to oxygenates. US7091387. Apr 19, 2005. Aug 15, 2006. Shell Oil Company. Process to convert alkanes into ... Alkanes useful in embodiments of the present invention include any alkanes having one or more carbon atoms. In a preferred ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7968755?dq=6,970,917

alkane seriesalkane series

... definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/alkane-series

Alkane series | Define Alkane series at Dictionary.comAlkane series | Define Alkane series at Dictionary.com

Alkane series definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/alkane-series?qsrc=2446

Chapter 2: AlkanesChapter 2: Alkanes

Chapter 2 : Alkanes Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds that only contain H and C atoms, but they can be subdivided ...
more infohttp://library.tedankara.k12.tr/carey/ch2-3.html
  • 252-89 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Mixtures of internal position isomers of vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes wherein the alkyl chain contains from 15 to 17 carbon atoms and the substituents are hydroxy or alkoxy groups, at least one of the substituents being alkoxy groups, are effective surfactants. (google.es)
  • The liquid phases chosen in the present article were two non-linear alkanes , isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) and cyclohexane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of the multitude of ways organic molecules may be formed, a set of rules for naming alkane derivatives is a part of the IUPAC system for organic compounds. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes are in some respect the most boring of the organic compounds, since they are unreactive (mostly) towards acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and most of the other reagents that organic chemists have in their arsenals. (angelo.edu)
  • With their repeated -CH2- units, the alkanes constitute a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ in molecular mass by multiples of 14.03 u (the total mass of each such methylene-bridge unit, which comprises a single carbon atom of mass 12.01 u and two hydrogen atoms of mass ~1.01 u each). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkyl groups are used as substituents, and alkane derivatives have many applications. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives are used in hundreds of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insedticides, etc., so the fossil fuel resource from which we obtain the alkanes is much too valuable to burn it all as a motor fuel. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives can be formed by substituting an alkyl group for one of the hydrogens. (gsu.edu)
  • Almost an unlimited number of derivatives can be made from the alkanes since any hydrogen can be substituted by an alkyl group , a halide, etc. (gsu.edu)
  • The only intermolecular forces acting between alkane molecules are very weak London forces (also known as dispersion forces ) which result from the attractions between instantaneous dipoles formed as a result of random fluctuations of electrons in nonpolar molecules. (angelo.edu)
  • The lower-molecular mass alkanes (1 to 4 carbons) are gases at room temperature, those having 5 to 20 carbons tend to be liquids with increasingly high boiling points, and those with more than 20 carbons are increasingly viscous liquids, and finally waxy solids at room temperature. (angelo.edu)
  • Alkanes are the acyclic (loopless) ones, corresponding to k = 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkyl groups are named by dropping the -ane suffix of the alkanes and adding the suffix -yl. (gsu.edu)
  • If the substituent is an alkyl group, then the derivative will have the same empirical formula as a larger alkane, so the empirical formula for an organic compound is insufficient to identify it. (gsu.edu)
  • The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (an alkane with sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity, which are less suitable for use in gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkanes from pentane up to around C 17 H 36 are liquids. (gsu.edu)
  • This learning unit describes the principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics of the radical halogenation of alkanes and it explains the reasons for the different chemical properties of the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in radical substitution reactions. (chemgapedia.de)
  • The alkanes are highly combustible and are valuable as clean fuels, burning to form water and carbon dioxide. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes from hexadecane upwards form the most important components of fuel oil and lubricating oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present paper we investigate whether the HPLC parameters of alkanes could be predicted from the QSPR-type models using the Wiener number as a structural descriptor. (springer.com)