Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.ButanesOctanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Alcanivoraceae: A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)PropaneAlkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agrocybe: A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.EthaneProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.EthersCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.

The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. (1/908)

The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (2/908)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. (3/908)

The AlkS protein activates transcription from the PalkB promoter, allowing the expression of a number of genes required for the assimilation of alkanes in Pseudomonas oleovorans. We have identified the promoter from which the alkS gene is transcribed, PalkS, and analyzed its expression under different conditions and genetic backgrounds. Transcription from PalkS was very low during the exponential phase of growth and increased considerably when cells reached the stationary phase. The PalkS -10 region was similar to the consensus described for promoters recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to the alternative sigma factor sigmaS, which directs the expression of many stationary-phase genes. Reporter strains containing PalkS-lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that PalkS promoter is very weakly expressed in a Pseudomonas putida strain bearing an inactivated allele of the gene coding for sigmaS, rpoS. When PalkS was transferred to E. coli, transcription started at the same site and expression was higher in stationary phase only if sigmaS-RNA polymerase was present. The low levels of AlkS protein generated in the absence of sigmaS were enough to support a partial induction of the PalkB promoter. The -10 and -35 regions of PalkS promoter also show some similarity to the consensus recognized by sigmaD-RNA polymerase, the primary form of RNA polymerase. We propose that in exponential phase PalkS is probably recognized both by sigmaD-RNA polymerase (inefficiently) and by sigmaS-RNA polymerase (present at low levels), leading to low-level expression of the alkS gene. sigmaS-RNA polymerase would be responsible for the high level of activity of PalkS observed in stationary phase.  (+info)

Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil. (4/908)

Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (5/908)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from intertidal sediment. (6/908)

A moderately halophilic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium was isolated from continuous cultures containing a suspension of intertidal sediment from the German North Sea coast with hexadecane as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was considered to be a new species belonging to a new genus. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, whose cell size varies. It grows at concentrations of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl and utilizes a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. The G + C content of the DNA is 63.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA studies show a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Comparison of phylogenetic data indicate that it is most closely related to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (88.9% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Since it is impossible to find a sufficiently closely related species, we propose the name Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for the bacteria. The type strain is T9T (= DSM 12178T).  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (7/908)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

Butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. (8/908)

The pathway of butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora' was determined to be butane --> 1-butanol --> butyraldehyde butyrate. Butane was initially oxidized at the terminal carbon to produce 1-butanol. Up to 90% of the butane consumed was accounted for as 1-butanol when cells were incubated in the presence of 5 mM 1-propanol (to block subsequent metabolism of 1-butanol). No production of the subterminal oxidation product, 2-butanol, was detected, even in the presence of 5 mM 2-pentanol (an effective inhibitor of 2-butanol consumption). Ethane, propane and pentane, but not methane, were also oxidized. Butane-grown cells consumed 1-butanol and other terminal alcohols. Secondary alcohols, including 2-butanol, were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. Butyraldehyde was further oxidized to butyrate as demonstrated by blocking butyrate metabolism with 1 mM sodium valerate. Butyrate also accumulated from butane when cells were incubated with 1 mM sodium valerate. The pathway intermediates (butane, 1-butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate) and 2-butanol stimulated O2 consumption by butane-grown cells. 1-Butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate supported growth of 'P. butanovora', as did 2-butanol and lactate.  (+info)

  • Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes.By Jack0G. (docme.ru)
  • Angewandte Books Chemie Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes The research area covered by this book is the atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric pollution, and photochemical formation of ozone and photooxidants. (docme.ru)
  • It essentially focuses on the oxidation of alkanes and haloalkanes, but it also includes the subsequent oxidation processes of primary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, nitrates, hydroperoxides, and multifunctional products. (docme.ru)
  • Finally, this is an important book, which provides a large amount of information on the chemical and photochemical processes connected to the oxidation of alkanes and haloalkanes in the atmosphere. (docme.ru)
  • Jean-Claude Rayez, Robert Lesclaux Institut des Sciences Molculaires (ISM) Universit Bordeaux 1 (France) DOI: 10.1002/anie.200901202 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes By Jack G. Calvert et al. (docme.ru)
  • Pathways for the degradation of alkanes by terminal, subterminal, and biterminal oxidation. (asmscience.org)
  • Kiat-kò͘ siōng kán-tan-ê alkane sī methane (CH 4 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble and particulate mono-oxygenases are known to oxidize the same compounds, and some of the gene diversity detected with primers that amplify membrane-bound methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) genes may well be due to short-chain alkane-degrading bacteria instead of methanotrophs. (asmscience.org)
  • Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity , which are less suitable for use in gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkanes with a chain length of approximately 35 or more carbon atoms are found in bitumen (asphalt), used (for example) in road surfacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smallest alkane with such a chemical bond, ethane , exists as an infinite number of conformations with respect to rotation around the C-C bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next higher member in alkane series, propane ( CH 3 - CH 2 - CH 3 ) also has two extreme conformations, the energy barrier in propane is14kJmol -1 , which is slightly higher than that in ethane. (transtutors.com)
  • Transtutors is the best place to get answers to all your doubts regarding conformation in alkanes, conformation of ethane, propane and butane, order of stability with examples . (transtutors.com)
  • Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as feedstock for commercial fuels and chemicals. (utwente.nl)
  • Many solid alkanes find use as paraffin wax , used for lubrication , electrical insulation , and candles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkane sī chi̍t-ê chióng-lūi ê Iú-ki hoà-ha̍p-bu̍t ê chóng-chheng, mā hō-chòe Paraffin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of alkane hydroxylase (AH) gene diversity, coupled with information on substrate range, induction, enzyme kinetics, and host properties, should help in understanding and optimizing the biodegradative activity of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains, benefit biocatalytic applications, and promote fundamental research on the activation of oxygen by enzymes and biomimetic catalysts. (asmscience.org)
  • A two-step catalytic process for converting cyanobacteria-derived fatty acids (CBFAs) to linear and branched alkanes for biorenewable synthetic paraffinic kerosene was demonstrated. (elsevier.com)
  • The n-alkane products of CBFA deoxygenation were hydroisomerized in the liquid phase (with added n-dodecane) over a 0.70 wt% Pt/CaY catalyst. (elsevier.com)
  • The oxygenases that are required for the initial activation of alkanes belong to several different enzyme classes, some of which act on medium- and long-chain alkanes, while others oxidize only short-chain alkanes. (asmscience.org)
  • Olefins have ONE so-called #"degrees of unsaturation"# with respect to equivalent alkanes. (socratic.org)
  • To study gas-phase chemical dynamics, we reparametrized semiempirical Hamiltonians so that they can accurately describe the potential energy surfaces for two distinct atom+alkane reactions. (vt.edu)
  • Our results on the dynamics of atom+alkane hydrogen-abstraction reactions have shown good agreement with experimental metrics that are as diverse as product velocity distributions, excitation functions, angular distributions and rovibrational state distributions for diatomic products of the abstraction. (vt.edu)
  • A siting analysis of the simulation data reveals that, during adsorption from a liquid mixture, shorter alkanes prefer the zigzag channels and longer alkanes concentrate in the straight channels of silicalite. (northwestern.edu)
  • However the higher melting points of these alkanes can cause problems at low temperatures and in polar regions , where the fuel becomes too thick to flow correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only intermolecular forces acting between alkane molecules are very weak London forces (also known as dispersion forces ) which result from the attractions between instantaneous dipoles formed as a result of random fluctuations of electrons in nonpolar molecules. (angelo.edu)
  • In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. (osti.gov)
  • Alkenes in shale oil were mainly generated in the cleavage of alkane molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alkanes: the longer the chain the higher the bp/mp, due to increased London dispersion forces, greater interaction and increased stackability/overlap of the molecules. (studentdoctor.net)
  • The dehydrogenation of alkanes offers potentially attractive routes for more effective utilization of relatively low‐value feedstocks as well as functionalization of more complex molecules. (caltech.edu)
  • Alkyl groups are used as substituents, and alkane derivatives have many applications. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives are used in hundreds of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insedticides, etc., so the fossil fuel resource from which we obtain the alkanes is much too valuable to burn it all as a motor fuel. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives can be formed by substituting an alkyl group for one of the hydrogens. (gsu.edu)
  • Almost an unlimited number of derivatives can be made from the alkanes since any hydrogen can be substituted by an alkyl group , a halide, etc. (gsu.edu)
  • This has led to the identification and characterization of of the alkBFGHJKL and alkST genes which encode all proteins necessary to convert alkanes to the corresponding acyl-CoA derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • The simplest alkanes have only one way in which their atoms can be arranged, and have no structural isomers. (angelo.edu)
  • Alkane Resources is poised to benefit from a surge in rare earths prices sparked by the Chinese government's recent introduction of export quotas, says investment bank RBS. (afr.com)
  • 2018. "Effect of Nitrogen/Oxygen Substances on the Pyrolysis of Alkane-Rich Gases to Acetylene by Thermal Plasma. (mdpi.com)
  • If a hydrogen is removed from an alkane , it can be used as a substituent functional group called an alkyl group. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes can be either in straight chains, like this, you see and all the ends of these little lines are going to be hydrogen or it can be branched. (brightstorm.com)
  • In the the absence of an external H 2 source, the researchers report generating aviation fuel-like products through the aromatization of C 3 H 6 , oxidative dehydrogenation involving CO 2 and C 3 H 8 , and hydrogen transfer reactions account for hydrogen liberation in oleic acid and achieve its re-arrangement in the final alkane products. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Distinct reaction pathways for deoxygenation of oleic acid in CO 2 and H 2 atmospheres are also fully explored on the basis of reaction intermediates, the C=C bond effect on catalytic cracking, H 2 spillover, and hydrogen transfer for alkane production. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Owing to the highly dispersed Ni metal center on the zeolite support, hydrogen spillover is observed in H 2 atmosphere, which inhibits the production of short-chain alkanes and reveals the inherent disadvantage of H 2 in this point. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The internal bonds in alkanes are so strong that they are difficult to break even with such aggressive substances as concentrated sulphuric acid or potassium permanganate. (phys.org)
  • Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. (gsu.edu)
  • RUDN chemists suggested a new copper-based catalyst that simplifies the oxidation of alkanes. (phys.org)
  • Finally, this is an important book, which provides a large amount of information on the chemical and photochemical processes connected to the oxidation of alkanes and haloalkanes in the atmosphere. (docme.ru)
  • The lower-molecular mass alkanes (1 to 4 carbons) are gases at room temperature, those having 5 to 20 carbons tend to be liquids with increasingly high boiling points, and those with more than 20 carbons are increasingly viscous liquids, and finally waxy solids at room temperature. (angelo.edu)
  • What is the general molecular formula for an alkane? (bartleby.com)
  • The general molecular formula for alkanes is C n H 2n+2 . (bartleby.com)
  • Here, both molecular and metabolic features of BCP1 cells grown on gaseous and short-chain n -alkanes (up to n -heptane) were examined in detail. (frontiersin.org)
  • The alkBA genes were complemented with alkane hydroxylation in both bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • These genes will be implemented into E.coli using the BioBrick standard and their alkane degrading capabilities will be characterized. (igem.org)
  • Figure 1 - Schematic description of the alkane degradation pathway with the corresponding genes. (igem.org)
  • To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and combined with promoters and RBSs obtained from the BioBrick distribution plates. (igem.org)
  • The gene cluster is formed by the genes encoding for alkB2 (alkane 1-monooxygenase), rubA3 (rubredoxin), rubA4 (rubredoxin) and rubR (rubredoxin reductase). (igem.org)
  • According to Global Market Insights, Inc., "Worldwide secondary alkane sulfonate market was worth USD 900 million in 2016 and will surpass a revenue generation of USD 1.3 billion by 2024 with a CAGR of 5% over 2016-2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Asia Pacific secondary alkane sulfonate market covered more than 40% of the regional contribution in 2016 and will collect significant revenue by the end of 2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Household detergent and cleaners accounted for more than 40% of secondary alkane sulfonate industry share in 2016 and will collect considerable revenue by 2024. (fractovia.org)
  • It is important to convert alkane-rich gases, such as coke oven gas, to value-added chemicals rather than direct emission or combustion. (mdpi.com)
  • Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). (markedbyteachers.com)
  • InI3 catalyzes the reaction of branched alkanes with methanol to produce heavier and more highly branched alkanes, which are more valuable fuels. (caltech.edu)
  • The alkane-oxidizing enzymes used by some of these strains (e.g. two P. aeruginosa strains, a P. denitrificans strain and a marine Pseudomonas sp. (nih.gov)
  • Several cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation of alkanes. (mdpi.com)
  • This learning unit describes the principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics of the radical halogenation of alkanes and it explains the reasons for the different chemical properties of the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in radical substitution reactions. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Radical halogenation of alkanes: principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics. (chemgapedia.de)
  • B. Smit, S. Karaborni, and J. I. Siepmann, Computer simulations of vapour-liquid phase equilibria of n-alkanes J. Chem. (berkeley.edu)