The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.

The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. (1/908)

The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (2/908)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. (3/908)

The AlkS protein activates transcription from the PalkB promoter, allowing the expression of a number of genes required for the assimilation of alkanes in Pseudomonas oleovorans. We have identified the promoter from which the alkS gene is transcribed, PalkS, and analyzed its expression under different conditions and genetic backgrounds. Transcription from PalkS was very low during the exponential phase of growth and increased considerably when cells reached the stationary phase. The PalkS -10 region was similar to the consensus described for promoters recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to the alternative sigma factor sigmaS, which directs the expression of many stationary-phase genes. Reporter strains containing PalkS-lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that PalkS promoter is very weakly expressed in a Pseudomonas putida strain bearing an inactivated allele of the gene coding for sigmaS, rpoS. When PalkS was transferred to E. coli, transcription started at the same site and expression was higher in stationary phase only if sigmaS-RNA polymerase was present. The low levels of AlkS protein generated in the absence of sigmaS were enough to support a partial induction of the PalkB promoter. The -10 and -35 regions of PalkS promoter also show some similarity to the consensus recognized by sigmaD-RNA polymerase, the primary form of RNA polymerase. We propose that in exponential phase PalkS is probably recognized both by sigmaD-RNA polymerase (inefficiently) and by sigmaS-RNA polymerase (present at low levels), leading to low-level expression of the alkS gene. sigmaS-RNA polymerase would be responsible for the high level of activity of PalkS observed in stationary phase.  (+info)

Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil. (4/908)

Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (5/908)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from intertidal sediment. (6/908)

A moderately halophilic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium was isolated from continuous cultures containing a suspension of intertidal sediment from the German North Sea coast with hexadecane as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was considered to be a new species belonging to a new genus. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, whose cell size varies. It grows at concentrations of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl and utilizes a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. The G + C content of the DNA is 63.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA studies show a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Comparison of phylogenetic data indicate that it is most closely related to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (88.9% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Since it is impossible to find a sufficiently closely related species, we propose the name Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for the bacteria. The type strain is T9T (= DSM 12178T).  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (7/908)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

Butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. (8/908)

The pathway of butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora' was determined to be butane --> 1-butanol --> butyraldehyde butyrate. Butane was initially oxidized at the terminal carbon to produce 1-butanol. Up to 90% of the butane consumed was accounted for as 1-butanol when cells were incubated in the presence of 5 mM 1-propanol (to block subsequent metabolism of 1-butanol). No production of the subterminal oxidation product, 2-butanol, was detected, even in the presence of 5 mM 2-pentanol (an effective inhibitor of 2-butanol consumption). Ethane, propane and pentane, but not methane, were also oxidized. Butane-grown cells consumed 1-butanol and other terminal alcohols. Secondary alcohols, including 2-butanol, were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. Butyraldehyde was further oxidized to butyrate as demonstrated by blocking butyrate metabolism with 1 mM sodium valerate. Butyrate also accumulated from butane when cells were incubated with 1 mM sodium valerate. The pathway intermediates (butane, 1-butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate) and 2-butanol stimulated O2 consumption by butane-grown cells. 1-Butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate supported growth of 'P. butanovora', as did 2-butanol and lactate.  (+info)

There is no reproductive toxicity data available for Dodecane, however; OECD Guideline 422 studies are available from structural analogues, Decane and Undecane. Additionally, an OECD 443 (extended one-generation reproductive toxicity - with developmental neurotoxicity (Cohorts 1A, 1B without extension, 2A and 2B)) test is proposed for structural analogues, Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, ,2% aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, ,2% aromatics. This data is read across to based on analogue read across and a discussion and report on the read across strategy is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13. This endpoint will be updated subsequent to ECHAs approval of the testing proposal and availability of data upon completion of the study. Oral Decane In an OECD Guideline 422 study (Sasol, 1995), groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with decane daily by gavage at exposure levels of 0, 25, 150, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed from the ...
Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity, which are less suitable for use in gasoline. They form instead the major part of diesel and aviation fuel. Diesel fuels are characterised by their cetane number, cetane being an older name for hexadecane. However the higher melting points of these alkanes can cause problems at low temperatures and in polar regions, where the fuel becomes too thick to flow correctly. Mixtures of the normal alkanes are used as boiling point standards for simulated distillation by gas chromatography.[1] Alkanes from hexadecane upwards form the most important components of fuel oil and lubricating oil. In latter function they work at the same time as anti-corrosive agents, as their hydrophobic nature means that water cannot reach the metal surface. Many solid alkanes find use as paraffin wax, used for lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles. Paraffin wax should not be confused with beeswax, ...
BioBricks, the making of= Two BioBricks are the final constructs for this sub-project. The BioBricks K398015 and K398022, implemented in E.coli, will be able to degrade medium (C5-13) and long chain (C15-36) alkanes respectively, while utilizing them as a C-source. The oxidation route of the alkanes is illustrated in figure 1. [[Image:TUDelft_Alkane_degradation_route.png,600px,thumb,center,Figure 1 - Schematic description of the alkane degradation pathway with the corresponding genes.]] To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and combined with promoters and RBSs obtained from the BioBrick distribution plates. Combination of these genes resulted in the following final BioBrick constructs (the intermediate have also been submitted to the registry). ==BBa_K398014 - Short-chain (C5-13) Alkane degradation== The short-chain hydrocarbon degrading BioBrick contains the AlkB gene cluster from Gordonia sp. TF6[1]. ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
The Simple Alkanes are non-polar solvents, and mostly insoluble in water. Butane is the last of the Simple Alkanes that is still considered slightly water soluble, at .000325 vol/vol, or about 3.2 ml/liter.. Simple Alkanes do a good job of avoiding the polar elements, but does still extract waxes, fats, and lipids, that are non active ingredients adding to the bulk and harshness. This is easily removed by winterizing the raw oleoresin extract using a polar solvent and freezing temperatures to coagulate them, so that they can be filtered out. See page on polishing extracts for details.. The Simple Alkanes are also relatively non-toxic, with some even used in food processing. Their presence is also easily detectable by taste and smell at levels far below Threshold Limit Values, so they are a good choice for extraction. See attached MSDS sheets for details.. Simple Alkane Alcohols:. While the Simple Alkanes may be simple and dull, not so once an oxygen atom enters the picture. Depending on its ...
1] Fujii, T., Narikawa, T., Takeda, K., Kato, J., Biotransformation of various alkanes using the Escherichia coli expressing an alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF6. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 68(10) 2171-2177 (2004) [2] Liu Li, Xueqian Liu, Wen Yang, Feng Xu, Wei Wang, Lu Feng, Mark Bartlam, Lei Wang and Zihe Rao. Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase. Journal of molecular biology, 376: 453-465 (2008) [3] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Mitsuru Haruki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Masaaki Morikawa & Shigenori Kanaya. Gene Cloning of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermophilic Alkane-Degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans B23. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(1):100-102 (2001) [4] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya, Masaaki Morikawa. Gene cloning and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from long-chain alkane-degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23. ...
Molbase Encyclopedia provides dodecane (112-40-3) basic information, physical and chemical properties, safety information, toxicity, customs data, synthetic routes, maps, MSDS, generation methods and uses, and its upstream and downstream products.
Introduction. PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. The alkanes that I will use are Pentane (C5 H12 ), Hexane (C6 H14 ), Heptane (C7 H16 ) and Nonane (C9 H26 ). The formula that I will use to find the heat released is :- Mass (g) x Specific Heat Capacity (4.2/J/g/�C) x Temperature Rise (�C) ? Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. Alkanes burn in a plentiful supply of air to release energy (this is why they are used as fuels). ...read more. Middle. - Using a clamp I will hold the brass beaker about 15cm above the ...
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil.[1][2][3] It is most usually desulfurized and then catalytically reformed, which re-arranges or re-structures the hydrocarbon molecules in the naphtha as well as breaking some of the molecules into smaller molecules to produce a high-octane component of gasoline (or petrol). There are quite literally hundreds of different petroleum crude oil sources worldwide and each crude oil has its own unique composition or assay. There are also hundreds of petroleum refineries worldwide and each of them is designed to process either a specific crude oil or specific types of crude oils. That means that it is virtually impossible to provide a definitive, single definition of the word naphtha since each refinery produces its own naphthas with their own unique initial and final boiling points and other physical and compositional characteristics. In other words, naphtha is a generic term rather than a specific ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of Liquid-Phase Alkane Mixtures in Silicalite. T2 - Simulations and Experiment. AU - Chempath, Shaji. AU - Denayer, Joeri F.M.. AU - De Meyer, Kurt M.A.. AU - Baron, Gino V.. AU - Snurr, Randall Q. PY - 2004/1/6. Y1 - 2004/1/6. N2 - A combination of experimental and computational studies of adsorption from liquid-phase mixtures of linear alkanes in the zeolite silicalite is presented here. Configurational biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations combined with identity-swap moves are used to equilibrate the simulations in reasonable times. Interesting trends observed in experiments have been captured quantitatively by simulations. A siting analysis of the simulation data reveals that, during adsorption from a liquid mixture, shorter alkanes prefer the zigzag channels and longer alkanes concentrate in the straight channels of silicalite.. AB - A combination of experimental and computational studies of adsorption from liquid-phase mixtures of linear alkanes in the ...
Free Notes on Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes - KCET Engineering. Read all the Important points and Chapterwise Notes on KCET Engineering
These various contortions greatly increase the number of ways energy can be dispersed by this molecule. It is for this reason that larger molecules (alkanes, organic, or otherwise), tend to have greater entropy values than smaller ones.. A closer inspection of the graph reveals that there is not a increase from every alkane to the next. There is a decrease in entropy from butane to pentane before continuing upward again through dodecane and (presumably) beyond. Why the drop from butane to pentane? This can be answered by looking into the difference between the first four alkanes and the next eight. The answer cannot be found from this graph, but rather an investigation of states of matter. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are all gases at room temperature. Pentane, and the seven others displayed in this graph, are liquids. There is a drop in entropy when the alkanes change from gases to liquids at room temperature. The reason is once again linked to dispersal of energy. Gases have the ...
Introduction. Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and dont cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. ...read more. ...
By synthesizing alkanes in organisms, alkanes can become a useful renewable energy source; CO2 emitted from burning the alkanes are converted to glucose through photosynthesis, and then the glucose can be fed to alkane-synthesizing organisms to restart the cycle. This cycle can be drastically improved if there were fewer steps in the cycle. We explored the possibility of optimizing the alkane biosynthesis system in different micro-organisms, with the idea that perhaps with autotrophic organisms, we do not need to obtain glucose for the reaction ...
Background Breathing alkanes are reported to be able to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy people. with the chemiresistor sensor attached at its inside bottom to measure the sensor peak output (percentage change of baseline resistance measured before exhalation buy Maackiain to peak resistance) and the time taken for the baseline resistance to reach peak resistance. Results Analysis of multivariate variance and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that the peak output and the time to peak values for the lung cancer patients were statistically different from that for both the COPD patients and the controls without lung disease, Pillais Trace =0.393, F=3.909, df = (4, 64), P=0.007. A 2.20% sensor peak output and a 90-s time to peak gave 83.3% sensitivity and 88% specificity in diagnosing lung cancer. Tobacco smoking did not affect the diagnostic accuracy of the buy Maackiain sensor. Conclusions The alkane sensor could discriminate patients with lung cancer from COPD patients and people without ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. AU - Trionfetti, C.. AU - Agiral, A.. AU - Gardeniers, Han J G E. AU - Lefferts, L.. AU - Seshan, K.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as feedstock for commercial fuels and chemicals. However, direct conversion of lower alkanes for such purposes is a challenging problem. A discussion covers the oxidative conversion of light alkanes in the presence of cold plasma in a microreactor; variables influencing products selectivities; characteristics of the plasma microreactor; formation of C-C bonds; and directly upgrading cheap low molecular weight alkanes to commercially useful fuels and/or feedstock materials for the chemical industry. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 42nd Loss Prevention Symposium (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).. AB - Availability and low cost of light alkanes make them interesting as ...
Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) on Candida maltosa EH 15 Strain: Influence on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity and n-alkanes Biodegradation. AU - Chrzanowski, Łukasz AU - Owsianiak, Mikolaj. AU - Wyrwas, Bogdan AU - Aurich, Andreas AU - Szulc, Alicja AU - Olszanowski, Andrzej. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The effect of exogenously added sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS) surfactant on biodegradation of a mixture of straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (dodecane and hexadecane) and resulting cell surface hydrophobicity changes of Candida maltosa EH 15 were investigated. Results indicated that up to 75 mg/L SDBS improves the biodegradation potential of examined yeast. A decrease in hydrophobicity was observed when SDBS was supplemented in higher concentrations, having strong impact on biodegradation rates. Phase distribution of surfactant molecules was investigated using methylene blue active substances method (MBAS), accompanied by surface and interfacial ...
The equivalent orbital (EO) method is investigated and used for predicting outer and inner ionization potentials of the linear alkanes. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with those observed in photoelectron spectra provided that a set of 12 parameters is used in the theory. An optimization technique is used to find the best values for thle parameters and a single transferable parameter set can be found which is applicable to all the n-alkanes. A good fit to the experimental results can only be obtained if the uppermost molecular orbital of the n-alkanes is an antisymmetrical orbital built up from CH equivalent orbitals.. ...
The reason this is an approximation is that a very slightly higher concentration of H+(aq) exists in reality, due to the autodissociation of water, H2O(l) ⇌ H+(aq) + A−(aq). We neglect this effect since water produces a far lower concentration of H+(aq) than most weak acids. If you were studying an exceptionally weak acid (you wont at A-level), this assumption might begin to cause big problems ...
Tī piau-chún chōng-hóng hā, CH4 kàu C4H10 sī khì-thé, C5H12 kàu C17H36 sī e̍k-thé, C18H38 chi-āu tō lóng-sī kò͘-thé. In-ūi hun-chú ê tāng-liōng sī éng-hióng alkane hut-tiám tōa-sè ê chú-iàu in-sò͘, in-chhú alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám hām hun-chú-liōng ê tōa-sè ū sòaⁿ-sèng koan-hē. Iû piⁿ-á ê chhu-sè-tô͘ ē-sái khòaⁿ-chhut: múi cheng-ka chi̍t-ê carbon, alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám tō ē cheng-ka 20 kàu 30°C.[3] Ti̍t-liān alkane ê hut-tiám lóng pí ū hun-chi ê kôaiⁿ, in-ūi hun-chi ē kiám-chió hun-chú chi-kan ê chiap-chhiok piáu-bīn-chek, khì éng-hióng-tio̍h alkane hun-chú chi-kan ê van der Waals le̍k. Pí-lūn-kóng, pí-kàu n-butane kah isobutane (2-methylpropane), in-ê hut-tiám hun-pia̍t sī 0°C kah -12°C.[3] ...
Acute Fish Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not cause acute toxicity to fish with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). Chronic Fish Toxicity: Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)did not cause toxicity to fish ina 21-day toxicity study with Brachydanio rerio following standard test guidelines at a nominal loading of 5000 mg/l.These results indicate that hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)is not expected to be chronically toxic to fish.These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%). Acute Invertebrate Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not ...
A process for the desulfurization of a fluid catalytically cracked naphtha wherein the valuable olefins are retained and recombinant mercaptans are prevented from forming, resulting in a low sulfur naphtha. Embodiments disclosed herein may allow for more flexibility in varying the end point of the naphtha used in gasoline blending.
Varnish makers naphtha and painters naphtha - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
1. Callaghan, A., Gieg, L., Kropp, K., Suflita, J. and Young, L. Comparison of mechanisms of alkane metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions among two bacterial isolates and a bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2006, DOI: 10.1128/AEM02896-05 2. Callaghan, A., Wawrik, B., Ní Chadhain, S., Young, L. and Zylstra, G. Anaerobic alkane-degrading strain AK-01 contains two alkylsuccinate synthase genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.11.094 3. Callaghan, A., Morris, B., Pereira, I., McInerney, M., Austin, R., Groves, J., Kukor, J., Suflita, J., Young, L., Zylstra, G. and Wawrik, B. The genome sequence of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01: a blueprint for anaerobic alkane oxidation. Environ Microbiol, 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02516.x 4. Canfield, D., Jorgensen, B., Fossing, H., Glud, R., Gundersen, J., Ramsing, N., Thamdrup, B., Hansen, J., Nielsen, L. and Hall, P. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments. ...
1. Callaghan, A., Gieg, L., Kropp, K., Suflita, J. and Young, L. Comparison of mechanisms of alkane metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions among two bacterial isolates and a bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2006, DOI: 10.1128/AEM02896-05 2. Callaghan, A., Wawrik, B., Ní Chadhain, S., Young, L. and Zylstra, G. Anaerobic alkane-degrading strain AK-01 contains two alkylsuccinate synthase genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.11.094 3. Callaghan, A., Morris, B., Pereira, I., McInerney, M., Austin, R., Groves, J., Kukor, J., Suflita, J., Young, L., Zylstra, G. and Wawrik, B. The genome sequence of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01: a blueprint for anaerobic alkane oxidation. Environ Microbiol, 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02516.x 4. Canfield, D., Jorgensen, B., Fossing, H., Glud, R., Gundersen, J., Ramsing, N., Thamdrup, B., Hansen, J., Nielsen, L. and Hall, P. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments. ...
A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.
Volatilisation is dependent on Henrys Constant (HC) which is not applicable to complex substances. However, HC values for representative structures are included in the PETRORISK spreadsheet attached to IUCLID Section 13. Henrys law constant for decane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 3.311 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for undecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 4.47 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for dodecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 6.17 atm-m3/mol. Henrys law constant for tetradecane has been estimated in the Concawe library, using SPARC v4.2 program. The obtained value is 11.48 atm-m3/mol. ...
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the properties and catalytic activity of the third phase in a phase transfer catalytic system. The conditions of formation of the third phase are investigated by changing the kind of phase transfer catalyst (PTC), organic solvents, and concentration of potassium hydroxide in the aqueous phase. When tetrabutylammonium bromide, (Bu),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase is formed with both dodecane and toluene as organic solvents. On the other hand, when tetrahexylammonium bromide, (Hex),SUB,4,/SUB,NBr, is used as the phase transfer catalyst, the third phase forms with dodecane but not with toluene.,BR,The volume of the third phase, the base strength, the concentration of catalyst, water, and organic solvent in the third phase were measured. Solidification phenomena are observed for some cases of higher KOH concentrations in the aqueous phase.,BR,Dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromooctane in the ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
European benzenes premium to naphtha slipped to a 3.5 month low at the end of last week as benzene failed to keep pace with strengthening upstream markets, as per Platts. The spread between spot benzzene and its feedstock naphtha was assessed at US$363 ...
The normal alkanes (n-alkanes) and their hydrogen isotopic (δD) values in sediments and aquatic and terrestrial plants from Fuxian Lake area of China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), respectively. According to the δD values of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes, the sediment samples were divided into types I and II. The type I samples had a heavier hydrogen isotopic composition (-161 to -155‰ on average) compared to that of the type II samples (-208 to -173‰ on average). This isotopic difference is likely a result of their different biological sources. Similarity in the average n-alkane δD values in the sediments and plants indicated that C17 and C21 to C25 were mainly derived from aquatic submerged plants in... the lake, C27 and C29 mainly from woody plants from the surrounding area, and C31 and C33 principally from a mixture of terrestrial herbaceous and woody plants. The results further demonstrate that ...
Alkanes.........C_nH_(2n+2) Olefins.........C_nH_(2n) Alkanes are saturated molecules. Their formulae correspond to C_nH_(2n+2). Try it out with methane, ethane,.....hexane. Olefins have ONE so-called degrees of unsaturation with respect to equivalent alkanes. For instance, compare the formula of ethylene and propylene, H_2C=CH_2, and H_3C-CH=CH_2, with that of their saturated precursors, H_3C-CH_3, and H_3C-CH_2CH_3. What are the C_nH_m formula? How many degrees of unsaturation does acetylene have? A degree of unsaturation corresponds to the presence of an olefinic bond, HC=CH, OR a ring junction (the ring junction reduces the overall hydrogen count by 2). Halogens count for 1 hydrogen, oxygens we ignore (though a carbonyl bond could be the source of unsaturation), and if there is nitrogen present we subtract NH from the formula before we assess saturation. For more details, see here. For a practical example of how we can use this idea to interrogate a formula see here.
Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are provided.
Manganese propane and manganese butane complexes derived from CpMn(CO)(3) were generated photochemically at 130-136 K with the alkane as solvent and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with in situ laser photolysis. Time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements were performed at room temperature with the same laser wavelength. The ν(CO) bands in the IR spectra of the photoproducts in propane are shifted to low frequency with respect to CpMn(CO)(3), consistent with formation of CpMn(CO)(2)(propane). The (1)H NMR spectra conform to the criteria for alkane complexes: a high-field resonance for the η(2)-CH protons that shifts substantially on partial deuteration of the alkane and exhibits a coupling constant J(C-H) on (13)C-labeling of ca. 120 Hz. The NMR spectrum of each system exhibits two diagnostic product resonances in the high-field region for the η(2)-CH protons, corresponding to CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C1-H-alkane) and CpMn(CO)(2)(η(2)-C2-H-alkane) isomers. Partial
This chapter focuses on the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, with an emphasis on alkanes, and the applications of enzymes involved in these processes for biocatalysis. Yeasts and fungi are often mentioned as alkane degraders, for example in connection with the production of single-cell proteins or organic acids and amino acids from hydrocarbons. Soluble and particulate mono-oxygenases are known to oxidize the same compounds, and some of the gene diversity detected with primers that amplify membrane-bound methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) genes may well be due to short-chain alkane-degrading bacteria instead of methanotrophs. The application of oxygenases in biocatalytic processes is more complicated than that of enzymes such as hydrolases, because of cofactor and oxygen requirements, the sensitive nature of many oxygenases, the toxicity of substrates and products to the biocatalyst, and the uptake of the lipophilic substrates. The best strain in this study was a hexane-degrading
Many bacteria capable of degrading long-chain alkanes have been isolated, and the enzyme systems that oxidize long-chain n-alkanes up to C16 have been characterized (see references 18, 26, and 30 for reviews). Although long-chain alkanes are more persistent in the environment than shorter-chain alkanes, genes involved in degradation of n-alkanes longer than C16 had not been reported prior to the work of Throne-Holst et al. (25) and Feng et al. (5). A flavin-binding monooxygenase involved in oxidation of very-long-chain n-alkanes up to C32 has been characterized in Acinetobacter sp. strain DSM17874 (25), and LadA from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 is the first long-chain n-alkane monooxygenase functional on alkanes in the range from C15 to C36 to be cloned and structurally characterized from a Gram-positive strain (5). Both enzymes show little or no homology with the widespread and well-characterized AlkB-type alkane hydroxylases usually reported as being functional on long-chain ...
Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ability to use wide range of hydrocarbons is advantage of this bacterium to other marine community bacteria. A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) and the second system is cytochrome P450. Until now there is not any report on cloning of cytochrome P450 gene of A. borkumensis. In this study cytochrome P450 gene from A. borkumensis was cloned. At first P450 gene was cloned in pBluescript plasmid by blunt cloning and insertion was confirmed by colony PCR. Then P450 gene was cloned in PET-26 expression vector and finally, IPTG induced gene expression in E.coli BL-21 bacterium. It was shown that longer induction time led to more expression level. The recombinant enzyme has difference absorbance in 450 nm that confirmed the activity of this recombinant enzyme.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Evaluation of Peroxisomal and Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes in n-Alkane-Assimilating Diploid Yeast, Candida tropicalis. AU - Ueda, Mitsuyoshi. AU - Kanayama, Naoki. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The n-alkane-assimilating diploid yeast, Candida tropicalis, possesses two acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (Thiolase I) isozymes encoded by one allele: peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is encoded by both CT-T1A and CT-T1B. To clarify the function of peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is, the site-directed mutation leading Thiolase I ΔC6 without a putative C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal was introduced on CT-T1A locus in the ct-t1bΔ-null mutant. The C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I was active and solely present in the cytosol. Although the ct-t1aΔ/t1bΔ-null mutants showed mevalonate auxotrophy, the mutants having the C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I did not require mevalonate for growth, as did the strains having cytosolic Thiolase I. These ...
Looking for online definition of alkane in the Medical Dictionary? alkane explanation free. What is alkane? Meaning of alkane medical term. What does alkane mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of a Pseudomonas rhamnolipid biosurfactant on cell hydrophobicity and biodegradation of octadecane. AU - Zhang, Y.. AU - Miller, R. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In this study, the effect of a purified rhamnolipid biosurfactant on the hydrophobicity of octadecane-degrading cells was investigated to determine whether differences in rates of octadecane biodegradation resulting from the addition of rhamnolipid to four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be related to measured differences in hydrophobicity. Cell hydrophobicity was determined by a modified bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon (BATH) assay. Bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon quantitates the preference of cell surfaces for the aqueous phase or the aqueous-hexadecane interface in a two- phase system of water and hexadecane. On the basis of octadecane biodegradation in the absence of rhamnolipid, the four bacterial strains were divided into two ...
Gordonia sp. SoCg, a Gram positive strain able to grow on long chain n-alkanes1, possess a single copy of alkB2 gene, whose product is required for n-alkane hydroxylation3. An analysis of alkB flanking regions revealed five ORFs which were designed as orf1, rubA3, rubA4, rubB and alkU, according to the sequence 14 homology with that of known alk clusters3. In G. sp. SoCg the transcription of these genes was induced by long-chain and solid n-alkanes as revealed by quantitative RT-PCR, and the essential role of alkB in nalkane degradation was demonstrated by the construction of an alkB disruption mutant strain3. The SoCg alkB gene was successfully expressed in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 (M145-AH), and the production of 1-hexadecanol from n-hexadecane oxidation was observed3. A differential study of global gene expression of M145-AH cultures was performed, where n-hexadecane (C16) glucose (GLU) and none (NC) were provided as only carbon source, respectively. Proteomic analysis, based on 2D-DIGE ...
0004] Provided herein are recombinant phototrophic microorganisms, comprising one or more alkane oxidation genes whose expression results in oxidation of alkanes and assimilation of the resulting products into the central metabolic pathways in phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria. The one or more alkane oxidation genes can be an alkane monooxygenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase or an aldehyde assimilatory gene. The recombinant photosynthetic organism converts the entire feed of alkane into the targeted product because it uses sunlight to provide energy and oxygen needed for oxidation of alkanes. Having the ability to couple oxidation of alkanes such as methane with sunlight in the recombinant phototrophic organism and energy can allow molecules of interest (e.g., butanol) to be produced biologically from natural gas in an efficient and cost effective manner. Because the recombinant phototrophic organism converts alkanes into metabolic products that are natively part of central metabolic ...
The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by mortality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute lethal toxicity to Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14 -C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). In another study, the acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by mortality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute lethal toxicity to Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data ...
For the linear alkanes, the internal methylene groups $\left(-\ce{CH2}-\right)$ are considered to be the functional group defining the homologous series:. $$ \ce{H3C-\underline{(\ce{CH2})_n}-CH3}~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{n-alkanes} $$. Alternatively, this series is defined by the absence of any particular functional group other than methyl and methylene.. Ethane, $\ce{C2H6}$ is the member of the series for $n=0$. Technically, one could exclude methane, $\ce{CH4}$, from the series, since it doesnt have two capping methyl groups. However, to my knowledge its usually considered part of the series as a special case.. For the 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes, the double and triple bonded carbons are the functional groups defining the series:. $$ \ce{H3C-(CH2)_n-\underline{\ce{CH=CH2}}} ~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{1-alkenes} $$. $$ \ce{H3C-(CH2)_n-\underline{\ce{C#CH}}} ~,~~n\geq 0 \tag{1-alkynes} $$. Parallel to the alkanes, the shortest official members of the two series are technically propene ...
Basic understanding of the combustion kinetics of jet fuels is critical to optimal design of gas-turbine engines. Because jet fuels contain a large number of compounds, a current approach to their combustion kinetics is to use a surrogate, containing several compounds, to mimic jet-fuel behaviors. Towards the goal of developing a combustion kinetic model for jet-fuel surrogates, a theoretical study was undertook here, focusing largely on a particular class of surrogate component, namely, the normal alkanes.; To develop a combustion reaction model for fuel surrogates requires a reliable H2/CO/C1-C4 combustion sub-model as its foundation. Therefore, a significant portion of the current work is to improve H2/CO/C1-C4 high-temperature combustion model through a critical evaluation of rate parameters, theoretical studies for several key reactions, ab initio calculations of thermochemical properties, and validation tests against a wide range of experimental data.; Notably, the kinetics of reactions ...
Basic understanding of the combustion kinetics of jet fuels is critical to optimal design of gas-turbine engines. Because jet fuels contain a large number of compounds, a current approach to their combustion kinetics is to use a surrogate, containing several compounds, to mimic jet-fuel behaviors. Towards the goal of developing a combustion kinetic model for jet-fuel surrogates, a theoretical study was undertook here, focusing largely on a particular class of surrogate component, namely, the normal alkanes.; To develop a combustion reaction model for fuel surrogates requires a reliable H2/CO/C1-C4 combustion sub-model as its foundation. Therefore, a significant portion of the current work is to improve H2/CO/C1-C4 high-temperature combustion model through a critical evaluation of rate parameters, theoretical studies for several key reactions, ab initio calculations of thermochemical properties, and validation tests against a wide range of experimental data.; Notably, the kinetics of reactions ...
Anaerobic methane metabolism is solely conducted by Archaea, through a unique pathway with the key enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) for methane activation/production. Recently, the MCR-based pathway was also found in propane and n-butane oxidation and related genes was also found actively expressed in natural environment. In this study, we then made a global metagenome-based survey of mcr containing archaeal genomes. Methane metabolizing archaea were found present in various environments such as lakes, hot springs, marine environments. In addition to the Euryarchaeota and Bathyarchaeota, MAGs (metagenome assembled genomes) harbouring mcr genes were found belonging to diverse archaeal lineages including such as the Korarchaeota, Hadesarchaeota, Verstraetearchaeota, Nezhaarchaeota (a new archaeal group named in this study using the Chinese mythological character Nezha, who flies on the wind and fire wheels), far more diversified than ever recognized. The finding of anaerobic alkane ...
Both the human and animal data indicate that exposure to high levels of gasoline can produce acute central nervous system depression. There is also evidence from the clinical literature that repeated exposure to gasoline at very high levels, under abuse conditions, can produce more profound central nervous system effects. Less clear is the degree to which these effects may have been due to the lead additives as opposed to the hydrocarbon constituents. There is little evidence of chronic neurological effects in humans exposed repeatedly at lower, occupational levels. The animal data provide little experimental support for chronic neurological effects from either unleaded gasoline or naphtha blending stocks. Initial studies with wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline provided evidence of exacerbation of normal, age-related changes. However, subsequent studies with gasoline vapor and naphtha blending stocks had no clear or reproducible effects on motor activity, produced no functional changes, and did ...
(plastemart) -- The Russian government has no plans to change the export duty on crude oil and products, including high export duties for gasoline and naphtha.In May 2011, the government introduced export duties for gasoline and naphtha at ...
The red line graph shows the boiling point of alkanes from methane CH4 (boiling point -164oC/109 K) to tetradecane C14H30 (boiling point 254oC/527 K). [Remember K = oC + 273] Note: The red line represents linear alkanes in all the graphs 1-3 and is a useful baseline to compare the intermolecular bonding present in other homologous series of non-cyclic aliphatic compounds.. So, in this discussion we are comparing the red line (linear alkanes) with the linear aliphatic monocarboxylic molecule AND comparing molecules with a similar number of electrons.. A plot of number of electrons in any molecule of a homologous series versus its boiling point (K) shows a steady rise with a gradually decreasing gradient.. I consider this the best for comparison of the effects of intermolecular bonding between different homologous series i.e. carbon chains with a different end functional group.. REMINDER: Intermolecular forces are all about partially positive (δ+) sites and partially negative (δ ) sites on ...
The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature of organic chemistry is the standardized official naming rule of organic compounds, developed by the IUPAC. In this page we will discuss the IUPAC naming of alkanes, branched-chain alkanes, alkanes with substituents, and cycloalkanes. In organic chemistry, a number of prefixes, suffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound. The steps for naming an organic compound …
Biocatalytic production of perillyl alcohol from limonene by using a novel Mycobacterium sp cytochrome P450 alkane hydroxylase expressed in Pseudomonas ...
United States Patent O 3,758,410 VICINAL SUBSTITUTED ALKANES Shih K. Lin, St. Louis, Mo., assignor to Monsanto Company, St. Louis, M0. N Drawing. Continuation-in-part of applications Ser. No. 710,644, Mar. 5, 1968, and Ser. No. 852,898, Aug. 25, 1969, both now abandoned. This application Apr. 21, 1971, Ser. No. 136,249 Int. Cl. Clld 3/075 U.S. Cl. 252-89 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Mixtures of internal position isomers of vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes wherein the alkyl chain contains from 15 to 17 carbon atoms and the substituents are hydroxy or alkoxy groups, at least one of the substituents being alkoxy groups, are effective surfactants. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This application is a continuation-in-part of US. patent application, Ser. No. 710,644, filed Mar. 5, 1968 and US. patent application, Ser. No. 852,898, filed Aug. 25, 1969, both of said applications now abandoned. This invention relates to novel surfactant compositions and to detergent ...
Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary systems nonane + benzene + [bmim][PF6], nonane + toluene + [bmim][PF6], nonane + m-xylene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + benzene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + toluene + [bmim][PF6], undecane + m-xylene + [bmim][PF6]) were determined at 298.15 K. Binodal curves were obtained by the cloud point method, while tie-line compositions were obtained by density and UV spectrophotometry measurements. In all cases the two-phase region is large and wide. The values of distribution coefficients and selectivities indicate that the ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] is a good solvent for the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic compounds. The consistency of the tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The experimental LLE data were correlated through the well-known NRTL model for the activity coefficient, with estimation of new interaction energy parameters, using the Simplex minimization method and a composition-based objective function. The ...
The solids hold-up and mean bubble behavior in a vertically-vibrated fluidized bed are experimentally studied in the present work by Means of Digital Image Analysis (DIA) for four different powders with Geldart classifications A, B and A/B. The bed has a small The solids hold-up and mean bubble behavior in a vertically-vibrated fluidized bed are experimentally studied in the present work by Means of Digital Image Analysis (DIA) for four different powders with Geldart classifications A, B and A/B. The bed has a small thickness (i.e. pseudo-2D bed) and operates in bubbling regime subject to a wide range of gas superficial velocities, vibration frequencies and vibration amplitudes. Mean parameters of the bed and the bubbles, such as solids hold-up, bubble fraction, bubble number density and bubble diameter and velocity, are characterized here by averaging the results over time and space. The results reveal that vibration of the bed promotes a confinement of the bubble path to the central section of ...
Materials and Methods. Microorganism, media and cultivation. The R. wratislawiensis BN38, employed in this study was isolated from soil polluted with hydrocarbons by a standard enrichment technique (Tuleva et al., 2008). Minimal salt medium (MSM) with the following composition (g/l): K2HPO4.3H2O, 4.8; KH2PO4, 1.5; (NH4)2SO4, 1.0; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.2; supplemented with trace element solution (mg/l): CaCl2.2H2O, 2.0; MnCl2.4H2O, 0.4; NiCl2.6H2O, 0.4; ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.4; FeCl3.6H2O, 0.2; Na2MoO4.2H2O, 0.2 and phenol and n-hexadecane at 500 mg/l, unless otherwise mentioned, was used. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.0. The MSM was solidified as MSM phenol agar by addition of 1.8 % agar when necessary. Cultures grown on MSM agar supplemented with 500 mg/l phenol were used to inoculate 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 100 ml liquid MSM. At each cycle MSM was supplemented to 100 ml with fresh sterile medium without cell transfer and only phenol was added. Cultures were incubated during the long-term ...
n this work, a simple numerical model of the evaporation process of a single droplet of various fuels, e.g., n-alkanes (n-decane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) and kerosene is evaluated with various correlations at standard pressure (0.1 MPa) and various uniform temperature fields. The effect of natural, forced or combined convection is explored using an effective Reynolds number (Reeff). Studies are performed for n-alkanes and kerosene droplets and have been compared with the empirical data available in the literature for the temporal variation of droplet diameter, droplet surface temperature, and average evaporation rate constants at various temperatures under free-stream and quiescent conditions. A good match is observed for a particular property rule (Eq. 10), with different convective correlations, depending on the convective conditions present.. ...
was isolated from this hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater and examined for its ability to utilize hexadecane. This strain was capable to grow on n-hexadecane as the sole source of carbon and energy. The ability of the isolate to degrade nhexadecane was assessed by growth assays and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Using GC analysis, it was shown that the strain KSS1060 was able to degrade 62 % of n-hexadecane within 6 days, which mostly (51.6 %) occurred within the first 24 h. Identification of this hexadecane-degrader bacterium was carried out using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Additionally, characterization of chemical composition of wastewater samples by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of Hexanal, Benzene methanol, Indanol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester, diisobutyl phthalate, and Phenol,4,4-(1- methylethylidene) in the major constituents of wastewater. In conclusion, this study can focus on more costefficient ...
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Synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon. 13 words related to aliphatic compound: acetylene, alkyne, ethyne, alicyclic compound, alkene, olefin, olefine, organic compound, alkane, alkane series.... What are synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon?
We are examining the reaction surface for alkanes in the coordination sphere of Rh and Ir complexes. It is generally believed now that oxidative addition and reductive elimination of alkanes to transition metal centers involve complexes of intact alkanes (sigma complexes) as intermediates, and considerable effect is widely going into trying to discern their properties and to observe them directly. We are investigating their intramolecular reactivity properties with respect to their barriers for oxidative addition, reductive elimination, migration of the metal about the intact alkane, and alkane dissociation, and competition for re-coordination of different hydrocarbons to the rhodium center. All of these processes must be central to any catalytic reaction for the modification or functionalization of alkanes mediated by these metals. Shown below is an example of a rhodium complex under investigation which exhibits migration of rhodium from C1 to C10 of its decyl group. Evidence strongly ...
68131-80-6 - Distillates (petroleum), steam-cracked, polymers with acid-treated coal solvent naphtha and phenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Daniel Freitig is Internal Auditor at Naphtha Israel Petroleum Corp Ltd. See Daniel Freitigs compensation, career history, education, & memberships.
The fractionated naphtha is divided into two streams, one to the thermal cracker (olefin plant) and the other to the reformer (aromatics plant). The exit streams are separated and individual chemicals subjected to separate treatments depending on the intermediates, monomers or polymers required.. A highly paraffinic naphtha is thus the best cracking feedstock for high yields of ethylene, and Figure 33 shows the kind of product distribution from a Kuwaiti naphtha under various cracking conditions. The major co-products - ethylene, propylene, butadiene (C4H6), mixed butene/butane (C4H8, C4H10) and pyrolysis gasoline (C5+) − vary in concentration depending on cracking severity. With naphthas derived from other crudes, the product distribution will be quite different (see Box 7). The proportion of unwanted byproducts like hydrogen, methane and carbon coke (not shown in the figure, but which gradually accumulate within the cracking tubes) increases with cracking severity. However, the product ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Based on data from drilling core,analysis assay and seismic data of the Central Tarim area,the authors deal systematically with the activities and mechanism of the deep fluid as well as its thermal effect on hydrocarbon accumulation.Based on the study for hydrothermal mineralization and alteration of Ordovician rock,paleo-thermal anomaly,inorganic CO_2 gas reservoir,inclusion temperature measurement and so on,the following conclusions are arrived: throught seismic,volcano or other variable channels such as fault,unconformity and so on,the deep fluid migrated upwards.Such fluid could improve not only the hydrocarbon-generation quantity and rate,but also lower the residual organic content in source rock and affects the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation.Deep fluid both has the destructive role of hydrothermal calcite filling and the constructive role of hydrothermal corrosion and hydrothermal secondary minerals for the gas reservoir.During the process of upward migration,abnormal high pressure caused by
Principal Investigator:YOSHIDA Yoichi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:エネルギー学一般・原子力学
Cellulose nanocrystals and their interactions with different surfactants in high ionic strength brine were studied to produce stable liquid-liquid interface (emulsions) and gas-liquid (foams) for potential application in underground CO2 storage, enhanced oil recovery, and biodegradation of crude oil at marine oil-spill sites. Three different but related studies were carried out to complete these objectives. Interfacial and surface properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and surfactants were studied in high ionic strength (I) brines and correlated to the stability of Pickering emulsions and foams in the presence of three different surfactants viz: Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) cocoalkylamine (CAA), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and Octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP). Emulsion stability studies revealed that ionic strength, wettability, adsorption energy, and oil content strongly affect emulsion stability, more so than surfactant adsorption. DTAB increased the stability of dodecane in SSW emulsions.
A large number of analytes, including non-fluorescent ones, can be sensitively detected by fluorescence scanning densitometry using silica gel HPTLC plates impregnated with a solution of coralyne cation. This is carried out by the variation, increase or decrease, that the corresponding analyte induces on native coralyne emission at a given excitation wavelength. A similar phenomenon was previously described for berberine cation, and Reichardts dye probes. However, the sensitivity of coralyne in HPTLC detection of non-fluorescent, structurally different analytes (e.g., long-chain alkanes, alcohols, alkylbromides, neutral lipids) is superior to that of the above-mentioned probes. In this work, the analytical viability of this phenomenon for HPTLC detection using coralyne as a probe is explored, and fluorescent responses of a number of analytes on the coralyne system are rationalized in the light of a previously proposed model. This establishes that the resulting intensity for a probe in the ...
The synthesis of a series of polymethylene chain-bridged 8-azapurines as potential DNA intercalating agents is described. N,N-Bis(5-amino-6-chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (III), N,N-bis(5-amino-6chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,8-diaminooctane (IV), and N,N-bis(5-amino-6-chloro-4-pyrimidyl)-1,12-diaminododecane (V) were synthesized from 5-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine (I) and 1,3-diaminopropane (II, n = 3), 1,8-diaminooctane (II, n = 8), and 1,12-diaminododecane (II, n = 12), respectively, as the starting materials. 1,3-Bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)propane (VI), 1,8-bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)octane (VII), and 1,12-bis(6-chloro-9-purinyl)dodecane (VIII) were prepared by acid-catalyzed reaction of the corresponding pyrimidines III-V with triethyl orthoformate in N,N-dimethylacetamide. The polymethylene chain-bridged 6-hydroxy-8-azapurines XII-XIV were obtained via diazotization of the corresponding pyrimidines. The spectral data and other physical properties of the new compounds have been determined.. ...
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CL54950100 - 3-Azabicyclo(3.3.1)nonane, 9-alpha-methoxy-3-methyl-9-beta-phenyl-, citrate (1:1) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
0128] The Article provides a lather profile as described hereafter. The lather volume assessment is performed on 15 g/10 inch flat Oriental virgin hair switches that have been treated with 0.098 g of artificial liquid sebum [10-22% olive oil, 18-20% coconut oil, 18-20% oleic acid, 5-9% lanolin, 5-9% squalene, 3-6% palmitic acid, 3-6% paraffin oil, 3-6% dodecane, 1-4% stearic acid, 1-4% cholesterol, 1-4% coconut fatty acid, 18-20% choleth-24]. The hair switch is rinsed with 9-11 grain, 100° F. water at 1.5 gallons/min for 20 seconds with a shower nozzle. For testing the liquid control products, 0.75 cm3 of liquid product are applied to the center of the switch, the lower portion of hair on the switch is then rubbed over the product on the hair 10 times in a circular motion, followed by 40 strokes back and forth (a total of 80 strokes). Lather speed is recorded as the number of strokes when the first lather is obviously generated during the 80 strokes, Lather from operators gloves is transferred ...
The aim of this experiment is classified of the hydrocarbon and learn the test which are aromatic bromation, permanganate test, sulfuric acid test and nitration of aromatic hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon , any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series.The alkanes are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first and simplest member of this series is methane, CH4; the series is sometimes called the methane series. Each successive member of a homologous series of hydrocarbons has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms ...
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Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Alkanes[edit]. For linear alkanes, molecular ion peaks are often observed. However, for long chain compounds, the intensity of ... The ionization of alkanes weakens the C-C bond, ultimately resulting in the decomposition.[7] As bond breaks, A charged, even ... Branched alkanes have somewhat weaker molecular ion peaks in the spectra. They tend to fragment at the branched point. For the ... Alkenes often produce stronger molecular ion peaks than alkanes due to the lower ionization energy of a pi electron than a σ ...
... concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes. Alkane conformers are one of the subjects of alkane ... Conformation of alkane[edit]. Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The ... More alkane conformations exist in cyclic alkanes; see cyclohexane conformations.. *More on the impact of gauche interactions; ... Naming alkanes per standards listed in the IUPAC Gold Book is done according to the Klyne-Prelog system for specifying angles ( ...
Alkanes. Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations. 48. Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 9783131784810. ...
Alkanes. Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations. 48. Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 9783131784810. ...
Chemical composition: Least to greatest resistance to biodegradation: n-alkanes > branched alkanes > low molecular weight ... aromatics > cyclic alkanes > high molecular weight aromatics = polar polymers Physical properties: Shape Exposed surface area ...
From alkanesEdit. Main article: Free radical halogenation. Alkanes react with halogens by free radical halogenation. In this ... The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes ... The formal naming of haloalkanes should follow IUPAC nomenclature, which put the halogen as a prefix to the alkane. For example ... Their boiling points are higher than the corresponding alkanes and scale with the atomic weight and number of halides. This is ...
In case of an alkane, three hydrogen atoms are bound to a primary carbon (see propane in the figure on the right). A hydrogen ... Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0 ...
Alkane An alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other ... Page 379 "Alkanes". IUPAC Gold Book - alkanes. IUPAC. March 27, 2017. doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00222. ISBN 978-0-9678550-9-7. ... words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are ...
... atoms can occur in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes. The formation of chiral quaternary carbon ... Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0 ...
... atoms can occur, for example, in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes. Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). " ... "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (Book) (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-07-337562-5. Hans Peter ...
In unbranched alkanes, the inner carbon atoms are always secondary carbon atoms (see figure). Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). " ... "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (Book) (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-07-337562-5. Hans Peter ...
Alkanes. *Methane (CH. 4). *Ethane (C. 2H. 6). *Propane (C. 3H. 8) ...
... (alternative spelling eicosane) is an alkane with the chemical formula C20H42. It has 366,319 constitutional isomers. ... Icosane's size, state or chemical inactivity does not exclude it from the traits its smaller alkane counterparts have. It is a ...
All alkanes are colorless.[11][12] The boiling points of the various hexanes are somewhat similar and, as for other alkanes, ... Hexane /ˈhɛkseɪn/ is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. ... This may result in a solid compound being obtained as an oil and the alkanes may interfere with analysis.[citation needed] ... "C5 and C6 alkanes". A and B Scott Organic Chemistry. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2007. ...
The name is formed by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -al, so that HCHO is named methanal, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is ... Alkane Catalysed by transition metals Dialdehydes[edit]. A dialdehyde is an organic chemical compound with two aldehyde groups ... Alkane If an aldehyde is converted to a simple hydrazone (RCH=NHNH2) and this is heated with a base such as KOH, the terminal ... compared to the acidity of a typical alkane (pKa about 50).[2] This acidification is attributed to (i) the electron-withdrawing ...
Alkanes. CnH2n + 2. Linear alkanes. *Methane. *Ethane. *Propane ...
Alkanes. Methane. 50.009. 6.9. 21,504. 802.34. Ethane. 47.794. -. 20,551. 1,437.2. Propane. 46.357. 25.3. 19,934. 2,044.2. ...
The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers is much shorter than the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm) or the C-C bond in alkanes ( ... They are far more acidic than alkenes and alkanes, which have pKa values of around 40 and 50, respectively. The acidic hydrogen ... The steam cracking of alkanes yields a few percent acetylene, which is selectively hydrogenated in the presence of a palladium/ ... For more complex alkynes, the Lindlar catalyst is widely recommended to avoid formation of the alkane, for example in the ...
Alkanes. CnH2n + 2. Linear alkanes. *Methane. *Ethane. *Propane ...
doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0108-2. Eser BE, Das D, Han J, Jones PR, Marsh EN (Dec 2013). "Oxygen-independent alkane formation by ... Andre C, Kim SW, Yu XH, Shanklin J (Feb 2013). "Fusing catalase to an alkane-producing enzyme maintains enzymatic activity by ... Non-specific formation of alcohols rather than alkanes has also been observed, which would instead correspond to a heterolytic ... Schirmer A, Rude M, Li X, Popova E, del Cardayre SB (Jul 2010). "Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes". Science. 329 (5991): 559- ...
Alkane - In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated ... Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. Alkene - In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that ... In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon ... ". "IUPAC Gold Book - alkanes". IUPAC. March 27, 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-23. Wade, L.G. (2006). Organic Chemistry (6th ed.). ...
ISBN 978-0-19-850346-0. Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes. ...
Schirmer A, Rude MA, Li X, Popova E, del Cardayre SB (July 2010). "Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes". Science. 329 (5991): 559 ...
Most of the alkanes produced tend to be straight-chain, suitable as diesel fuel. In addition to alkane formation, competing ... Increasing the pressure leads to higher conversion rates and also favors formation of long-chained alkanes, both of which are ... In addition, the alkene to alkane ratio increases. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are sensitive to poisoning by sulfur-containing ... and alkanes. This conversion is called gasification and the product is called synthesis gas ("syngas"). Synthesis gas obtained ...
Linear alkanes. *CH4. *C2H6. *C3H8 ...
Linear alkanes. *CH4. *C2H6. *C3H8 ...
Linear alkanes. *CH4. *C2H6. *C3H8 ...
Related alkanes. Pentane Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], ...
Linear alkanes. *CH4. *C2H6. *C3H8 ...
Linear alkanes. *CH4. *C2H6. *C3H8 ...
Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, ... "alkanes with a higher number of carbon atoms". One definition distinguishes the higher alkanes as the n-alkanes that are solid ... Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity, which are ... However, the higher alkanes have little value and are usually split into lower alkanes by cracking. ...
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... from pentane up to around C17H36 are liquids. Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. ... Alkane Derivatives. Almost an unlimited number of derivatives can be made from the alkanes since any hydrogen can be ... Kerosene contains alkanes from about n=10 to n=16. Above n=17 they are solids at room temperature. Alkanes with higher values ... Alkanes. Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds are called alkanes. They are called saturated hydrocarbons because there ...
Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes. Alkane conformers are one of the subjects of alkane ... Conformation of alkane[edit]. Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The ... More alkane conformations exist in cyclic alkanes; see cyclohexane conformations.. *More on the impact of gauche interactions; ... Naming alkanes per standards listed in the IUPAC Gold Book is done according to the Klyne-Prelog system for specifying angles ( ...
X. Appendix II - Analytical Method for Alkanes (C5-C8). XI. Appendix III - Material Safety Data Sheet. 77-151F.PDF (17 pages, ... Appendix I - Method for Sampling Alkanes (C5-C8) in Air. 77-151E.PDF (17 pages, 493K)pdf icon. ...
Summary of the Straight-Chain Alkanes. Name. Formula. Melting. Point. ( C). Boiling. Point. ( C). Number of Structural. Isomers ... Alkanes. Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are held together by single bonds. Their general formula is CnH2n+2 ... Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes. The straight-chain (normal) and branched alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2. The ... On the other hand, alkanes are important for their ability to undergo combustion with molecular oxygen (O2): alkanes of various ...
... vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes and/or with vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes having alkyl chain lengths greater or ... 2 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ethylene oxide) 13.7 7,8 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ... 9 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ethylene oxide) 14 1,2 disubstituted C alkane (7 molecular proportions ... The alkane chain length is additionally critical in this respect since the unexpected advantage obtained by the use of isomer ...
Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in an alkane-water mixture.[citation needed] The molecular structure of the alkanes ... Alkanes also pose a threat to the environment. Branched alkanes have a lower biodegradability than unbranched alkanes. Methane ... The odd-numbered alkanes have a lower trend in melting points than even numbered alkanes. This is because even numbered alkanes ... such as cracking and reformation where long-chain alkanes are converted into shorter-chain alkanes and straight-chain alkanes ...
ALKANEさんのユーザーページです。主に字幕プレイ動画を作成、投稿しているという、ただのゲーム好きな
... metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert ... and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, ... Conversion of alkanes to oxygenates. US7091387. Apr 19, 2005. Aug 15, 2006. Shell Oil Company. Process to convert alkanes into ... Alkanes useful in embodiments of the present invention include any alkanes having one or more carbon atoms. In a preferred ...
... definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as ...
C13-15 Alkane is a mixture of alkanes with 13 to 15 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. ... Appears as: Chemical Name: C13-15 ALKANE; CAS number: 64742-46-7; Classification Hazard Statement Codes: H350. ... Appears as: Chemical Name: C13-15 ALKANE; CAS number: 64742-46-7; Classification Hazard Statement Codes: H350 ... Appears as: chemical_names: C13-15 ALKANE; cas_numbers: 64742-46-7. ...
Alkane series definition, the homologous series of saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2 , as ...
The properties of organic molecules depend on the structure, and knowing the names of organic compounds allow us to communicate with other chemists. Well be learning about different aspects of molecular structure, including common functional groups and conformations.
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Significant maternal toxicity was evidenced by a reduction in maternal body weight gain in the 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg/day dose groups. Maternal necropsy weight (maternal body weight minus pregnant uteruss weight) was also significantly different from that of the control animals at doses of 1500 and 2000 mg/kg/day. No clinically apparent maternal toxicity was noted during the course of the study. Thirteen animals were found dead in their cage at various times during the dosing period and each was submitted to necropsy. In all cases the cause of death was found to be related to the presence of JP-8 in the lungs. Maternal observations at necropsy, including the number of females pregnant, number of corpora lutea per female, number of fetuses per female and post-implantation loss, were within the normal range for all treatment groups ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Hydrocarbons, C14 -C20, aliphatics, ≤2% aromatics are UVCBs. Therefore, the phototransformation in air was estimated from the AOPWIN v1.92 calculations of phototransformation of selected hydrocarbons likely to be constituents of Hydrocarbons, C14 -C20, aliphatics, ≤2% aromatics. The phototransformation rate is in the range 12.59 - 42.13 x 10-12 cm3/molecule/sec. The calculated half-lives are in the range 0.254 - 0.850 d (3.047 -10.195 hrs). These values are largely below the trigger limit (2 days). Therefore, Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, aliphatics, ≤2% aromatics are not persistent. The phototransformation rate for icosane is 25.24 x 10-12 cm3/molecule/sec.The calculated half-life is 0.424 d (5.085 hrs). This value is largely below the trigger limit (2 days). Therefore, icosane is not persistent. ...
Higher Alkanes. Medium length alkanes have significant populations with one or more gauche conformations (DOI: 10.1021/ ... Home,Historical,Relevance,Theory,Alkanes,Sub-alk,σ-π Conjugations,Cycloalkanes,Hetrings,Atrop,Prob] ... In straight-chain alkanes the gauche conformation is promoted by increased dispersion interactions ... processes are dynamic and the thermodynamic equilibrium population of conformers about the C-C bonds in straight-chain alkanes ...
With cyclo-alkanes, we observe that a group placed on one side of a ring stays on that same side. Except in very large rings ( ... Organic Chemistry/Alkanes/Stereoisomers. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Organic_Chemistry/Alkanes/Stereoisomers&oldid=3680246" ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
Nomenclature of Alkanes, Conformations of Ethane Organic Chemistry (Chem 51A) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/ ...
... n-alkane, 17 carbon atoms), 3H-pristane (branched-alkane, 19 carbon atoms) and 3H-dodecylcyclohexane (cyclo-alkane, 18 carbon ... In vitro metabolic study on alkanes in hepatic microsomes from humans and rats. ... The biotransformation of three radiolabelled alkanes, namely 14C-heptadecane ( ...
To name an alkane, the first step is to find the longest carbon chain. The next step is to identify the substituents that are ... To name an alkane, the first step is to find the longest carbon chain. The next step is to identify the substituents that are ... To name an alkane, the first step is to find the longest carbon chain. The next step is to identify the substituents that are ... To name an alkane, the first step is to find the longest carbon chain. The next step is to identify the substituents that are ...
In the present paper we investigate whether the HPLC parameters of alkanes could be predicted from the QSPR-type models using ... has now been employed for calculating the HPLC retention time of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes. ...
Alkanes. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (this means that there are NO double bonds in the molecule). They contain Hydrogen ...
The reaction of a halogen with an alkane in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light or heat leads to the formation of a ... The reaction of a halogen with an alkane in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light or heat leads to the formation of a ... Experiments have shown that when the alkane and halogen reactants are not exposed to UV light or heat, the reaction does not ... Structure and Properties of Alkanes *Alkanes: Natural Sources. *Alkanes: Preparations. *Alkanes: Molecular and Structural ...
  • Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds are called alkanes. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are held together by single bonds. (angelo.edu)
  • The Wiener number, which has already been applied in several cases to the prediction of gas Chromatographic retention indices and HPLC parameters for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has now been employed for calculating the HPLC retention time of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes. (springer.com)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (this means that there are NO double bonds in the molecule). (purchon.com)
  • Alkanes are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that do not contain a ring of carbon atoms but a chain of carbon atoms with carbon‑carbon single bonds. (bartleby.com)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms with no ring structure. (bartleby.com)
  • A Knowledge organiser on for 11th and 12th grade (A-Level) organic chemistry, the hydrocarbons (Alkanes and alkenes) including: naming, intermolecular forces, general formulae, structual & Geometric isomers, reactions of alkanes: oxidation and free radical substitution (with chlorine). (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphur compound. (scribd.com)
  • Alkanes are hydrocarbons that only consist of single bonds. (brightstorm.com)
  • And alkanes are hydrocarbons, compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon, that only consist of single bonds, okay? (brightstorm.com)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, the main components of oil and natural gas. (phys.org)
  • Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are all hydrocarbons with different structures and thus different physical and chemical properties. (differencebetween.net)
  • saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes, unsaturated hydrocarbons or alkenes and alkynes, cycloalkanes, and aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes. (differencebetween.net)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which mean they are compounds with a single bond between the atoms. (differencebetween.net)
  • 3.Alkanes are the most stable hydrocarbons as the carbon bonds are difficult to break. (differencebetween.net)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, whereas alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons of different sizes and structures. (igem.org)
  • Mass of Fuel The variables that might effect this investigation are :- * type of flame * amount of water * length of time * thermometer not started at room temperature * amount of the alkane * size of beaker holding the alkane * height from flame to beaker Prediction Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons because they only have single bonds between carbon atoms and are known to be in the homologous series, individuals are known as homologs. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds between the atoms. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • This video gives an overview of hydrocarbons and alkanes. (topperlearning.com)
  • According to the definition by IUPAC, the former two are alkanes, whereas the third group is called cycloalkanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to RUDN chemists, the catalyst shows oxidising activity in reactions with cycloalkanes-alkanes that look like a closed circuit. (phys.org)
  • This system facilitates the initial oxidation step of C5-C13 alkanes along with that of C5-C8 cycloalkanes towards their respective alcohols. (igem.org)
  • This page deals briefly with the combustion of alkanes and cycloalkanes. (libretexts.org)
  • Straight-chain alkanes are named by using a stem that indicates the number of carbon atoms (meth = 1 C, eth = 2 C's, prop = 3 C's, etc.) to which is added the suffix -ane , indicating that the molecule is an alkane (that is, that the carbon atoms are all connected by single bonds). (angelo.edu)
  • Some alkanes have non-IUPAC trivial names: cetane, for hexadecane cerane, for hexacosane The properties listed here refer to the straight-chain alkanes (or: n-alkanes). (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of flash points of binary and ternary mixtures of straight-chain alkanes were determined. (hindawi.com)
  • Straight-chain alkanes are the simplest. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • The first four alkanes are methane , ethane, propane, and butane with the Lewis symbols shown below. (gsu.edu)
  • The smallest alkane with such a chemical bond, ethane , exists as an infinite number of conformations with respect to rotation around the C-C bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein the one or more encapsulated metal oxide catalysts comprises a pelletized and calcined mixture of clay and an organic metal salt and further wherein the one or more alkanes are selected from methane, ethane, propane and butane. (google.com)
  • Some of the basic examples of alkanes are methane ( CH 4 ), ethane ( C 2 H 6 ). (bartleby.com)
  • Ethane (C 2 H 6 ) is a simple alkane that exhibits two characteristic conformations: staggered and eclipsed. (coursehero.com)
  • Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • One definition distinguishes the higher alkanes as the n-alkanes that are solid under natural conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the higher alkanes have little value and are usually split into lower alkanes by cracking . (wikipedia.org)
  • One group of the higher alkanes are waxes, solids at standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP), for which the number of carbon atoms in the carbon backbone is greater than about 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical trivial name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • By hydrogenation, alkynes form alkenes and alkenes form alkanes but I need the reverse process i.e preparation of alkenes from alkanes and alkynes from alkenes. (physicsforums.com)
  • Transferable united-atom force fields, based on n-6 Mie potentials are presented for noble gases, branched alkanes, and alkynes. (aiche.org)
  • Alkenes have the pi bond between the carbon atoms, and during a lot of reactions the pi bond ruptures in order to form a single bond thus they are more reactive than alkanes but relatively stable as compared to alkynes. (differencebetween.net)
  • How do the boiling points of comparable alkanes, alkenes and alkynes vary? (studentdoctor.net)
  • When comparing alkynes, alkenes, and alkanes of similar molecular weight and structure(unbranched), I am pretty sure alkynes will have the highest boiling point due to the fact of increased electron density from your pi orbitals. (studentdoctor.net)
  • 5. Alkynes will have a higher BP than alkenes or alkanes. (studentdoctor.net)
  • We present all type of solution for problems related to the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Assignmenthelp.net not only provide help for assignment, project, and homework but also support student for learning the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols in very effective way. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Online tutorial facility is also available for those students who wish to learn the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Alcohols. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Alkanes from nonane to hexadecane (those alkanes with nine to sixteen carbon atoms) are liquids of higher viscosity , which are less suitable for use in gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkanes with a chain length of approximately 35 or more carbon atoms are found in bitumen (asphalt), used (for example) in road surfacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alkanes are highly combustible and are valuable as clean fuels, burning to form water and carbon dioxide. (gsu.edu)
  • Find the longest chain of carbon atoms (the backbone) and name the atom as a derivative of the alkane with that number of carbons. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane conformers arise from rotation around sp 3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon atoms in alkanes are sp 3 -hybridized, and have tetrahedral shapes, with the bonded atoms at angles of 109.5 to each other. (angelo.edu)
  • Free rotation is possible around the carbon-carbon single bonds in alkanes, making the carbon chains very flexible and 'floppy' - particularly for the larger molecules. (angelo.edu)
  • Alkanes are nonpolar molecules, since they contain only nonpolar carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. (angelo.edu)
  • 252-89 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Mixtures of internal position isomers of vicinally disubstituted linear alkanes wherein the alkyl chain contains from 15 to 17 carbon atoms and the substituents are hydroxy or alkoxy groups, at least one of the substituents being alkoxy groups, are effective surfactants. (google.es)
  • In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an alkane, each carbon atom is sp3-hybridized with 4 sigma bonds (either C-C or C-H), and each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms (in a C-H bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of carbon atoms may be considered as the size of the alkane. (wikipedia.org)
  • With their repeated -CH2 units, the alkanes constitute a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ in molecular mass by multiples of 14.03 u (the total mass of each such methylene-bridge unit, which comprises a single carbon atom of mass 12.01 u and two hydrogen atoms of mass ~1.01 u each). (wikipedia.org)
  • the simplest branched alkane is 2-methyl-propane, or more commonly known as isobutane, which has three carbon atoms as backbone, and another carbon (a methyl group) linked to the second atom of the backbone, so as to form a "T" shaped molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in various ways, forming structural isomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • C13-15 Alkane is a mixture of alkanes with 13 to 15 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. (ewg.org)
  • The biotransformation of three radiolabelled alkanes, namely 14 C-heptadecane (n-alkane, 17 carbon atoms), 3 H-pristane (branched-alkane, 19 carbon atoms) and 3 H-dodecylcyclohexane (cyclo-alkane, 18 carbon atoms) was investigated using liver microsomes from three rat strains (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344) and from three different pools of human donors (at least 10 donors in each case). (europa.eu)
  • To name an alkane, the first step is to find the longest carbon chain. (bartleby.com)
  • In this case it is a seven carbon chain and hence the parent alkane is heptane. (bartleby.com)
  • Many Pseudomonads are able to use linear alkanes as sole carbon and energy source. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past decade, much research effort has been devoted to the design and synthesis of new reagents and catalysts that can influence carbon-hydrogen bond activation, mainly because of the prospect that C−H activation could enable the conversion of cheap and abundant alkanes into valuable functionalized organic compounds. (springer.com)
  • The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in alkanes is always in the form of n: 2n+2 . (brightstorm.com)
  • PLAN I am going to investigate that if the number of carbon atoms in an alkane effect the amount of heat released. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Alkanes are simple chains of carbon and hydrogen. (igem.org)
  • The majority of the alkanes found in diesel have a carbon chain of 10 to 20 carbons long. (igem.org)
  • This part encodes an enzyme Aldehyde Decarbonylase (ADC) that removes the carbonyl group (C=O) from a fatty aldehyde, yielding an alkane one carbon shorter than the original aldehyde and a molecule of formate. (igem.org)
  • For example, with alkanes, the ones with an even number of carbon atoms are marginally harder than those with an odd number! (libretexts.org)
  • Mixtures of the normal alkanes are used as boiling point standards for simulated distillation by gas chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • E. B. Sirota, H. E. King Jr., D. M. Singer and H. H. Shao, "Rotator Phases of the Normal Alkanes: An X-Ray Scattering Study," Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1993, pp. 5809-5824. (scirp.org)
  • E. B. Sirota and D. M. Singer, "Phase Transitions among the Rotator Phases of the Normal Alkanes," Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 101, No. 12, 1994, pp. 10873- 10882. (scirp.org)
  • E. B. Sirota, D. M. Singer and H. E. King Jr., "Structural Effects of High Pressure Gas on the Rotator Phases of Normal Alkanes," Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1994, pp. 1542-1551. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, it has been found that a change in temperature can Induce a favored $configuration^{1}$ In the present study, we have obtained IR and Raman spectra of tetrabutyl-tin ($SnB_{4}$) in a series of normal alkanes. (osu.edu)
  • Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Change in the temperatures of main transition of the lipid/alkane mixtures against the length of added alkanes depends largely on the headgroup. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • E. B. Sirota, H. E. King Jr., H. H. Shao and D. M. Singer, "Rotator Phases in Mixtures of n-Alkanes," The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, No. 2, 1995, pp. 798-804. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, a model was developed to predict the flash point of straight-chain alkane mixtures using a simple calculation process. (hindawi.com)
  • Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of certain organic compounds containing chloride: polychlorinated n-alkanes. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • The resultant mixtures had isoalkane/normal alkane ratios of 0.25-0.50. (rsc.org)
  • I kinda thought so, but after looking for 2 hours on the net, no good answers, so I graphed alkane vs terminal alkene and other stuff. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Apparatus used to test a sample for the presence of an alkane or alkene. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Because of the multitude of ways organic molecules may be formed, a set of rules for naming alkane derivatives is a part of the IUPAC system for organic compounds. (gsu.edu)
  • The only intermolecular forces acting between alkane molecules are very weak London forces (also known as dispersion forces ) which result from the attractions between instantaneous dipoles formed as a result of random fluctuations of electrons in nonpolar molecules. (angelo.edu)
  • The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane (CH4), where n = 1 (sometimes called the parent molecule), to arbitrarily large and complex molecules, like pentacontane (C50H102) or 6-ethyl-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl) octane, an isomer of tetradecane (C14H30). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. (osti.gov)
  • This work used molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) method to study the homogeneous crystal nucleation in the melts of n-alkanes, the simplest class of chain molecules. (mit.edu)
  • Alkenes in shale oil were mainly generated in the cleavage of alkane molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alkanes: the longer the chain the higher the bp/mp, due to increased London dispersion forces, greater interaction and increased stackability/overlap of the molecules. (studentdoctor.net)
  • The dehydrogenation of alkanes offers potentially attractive routes for more effective utilization of relatively low‐value feedstocks as well as functionalization of more complex molecules. (caltech.edu)
  • Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. (google.com)
  • More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes. (google.com)
  • This invention further relates to a process to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes. (google.com)
  • A direct reduction of alcohols to the corresponding alkanes using chlorodiphenylsilane as hydride source in the presence of a catalytic amount of InCl 3 showed high chemoselectivity for benzylic alcohols, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols while not reducing primary alcohols and functional groups that are readily reduced by standard methods such as esters, chloro, bromo, and nitro groups. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • This activity provides students with some basic information about alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols (e.g., boiling point, molecular mass, density) and asks a series of simple questions and later some questions inviting larger reflection on those answers with an eye toward synthesizing new information about overall trends in boiling point, -OH effects (polarity) and more. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Both alcohols and biodiesel are more corrosive than unreactive alkanes. (igem.org)
  • This protein facilitates the conversion of long-chain alkanes (from C15 up to at least C36) to their corresponding primary alcohols in the presence of flavin mononucleotide, oxygen and NADH. (igem.org)
  • 2. The process of claim 1 wherein the one or more alkanes is methane. (google.com)
  • Methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria and some long-chain alkanes function as pheromones in certain animal species or as protective waxes in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study, we doped PCN-250 adsorbents with C 10 alkane and C 14 fatty acid, investigating their impact on the methane uptake capabilities. (osti.gov)
  • Alkane operates mid-sized 'gas to power' electricity plants and has onshore petroleum exploration licences allowing it to operate coal mine methane sites pulling out gas from old pits. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alkanes are in some respect the most boring of the organic compounds, since they are unreactive (mostly) towards acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and most of the other reagents that organic chemists have in their arsenals. (angelo.edu)
  • Crude oil is a complex mixture of thousands of compounds, of which alkanes constitute the major fraction. (igem.org)
  • This would require a biological pathway that is able to produce alkanes, the main class of compounds in diesel. (igem.org)
  • 本发明涉及一种用于低碳烷烃脱氢制备低碳烯烃的方法,主要解决现有技术中存在催化剂在高温使用过程中容易积炭失活,稳定性 (google.com)
  • 0001] 本发明涉及一种低碳烷烃脱氢制低碳烯烃的方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to the dehydrogenation (google.com)
  • 由炼油厂得到的大量低碳烷烃是液化石油气的主要成分,主要用作民用燃料。 By the refineries to get a (google.com)
  • 开发由低碳烷烃制取低碳烯烃过程对于充分利用低碳烷烃开辟新的烯烃来源具有重要意义 (google.com)
  • Light alkanes tend to be resistant to many forms of activation. (springer.com)
  • This was an important negative control when testing for alkane production. (igem.org)
  • Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The straight-chain (normal) and branched alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2 . (angelo.edu)
  • Chapter 5 covers the oxygenation of C-H bonds, a field of enormous interest with bioinorganic im-plications, and finally chapter 6 presents the functionalization of alkane C-H bonds by carbene or nitrene insertion. (springer.com)
  • In Alkane Functionalization (eds A. J. Pombeiro and M. F. da Silva). (caltech.edu)
  • After successful previous events in Brussels (2012) and Beijing (2015), a new international meeting on chlorinated alkanes (chlorinated paraffins) has been set for 29 November 2018 in New Delhi, India. (eurochlor.org)
  • Alkyl groups are used as substituents, and alkane derivatives have many applications. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives are used in hundreds of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insedticides, etc., so the fossil fuel resource from which we obtain the alkanes is much too valuable to burn it all as a motor fuel. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkane derivatives can be formed by substituting an alkyl group for one of the hydrogens. (gsu.edu)
  • Almost an unlimited number of derivatives can be made from the alkanes since any hydrogen can be substituted by an alkyl group , a halide, etc. (gsu.edu)
  • This has led to the identification and characterization of of the alkBFGHJKL and alkST genes which encode all proteins necessary to convert alkanes to the corresponding acyl-CoA derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • If a hydrogen is removed from an alkane , it can be used as a substituent functional group called an alkyl group. (gsu.edu)
  • Alkanes can be either in straight chains, like this, you see and all the ends of these little lines are going to be hydrogen or it can be branched. (brightstorm.com)
  • In the the absence of an external H 2 source, the researchers report generating aviation fuel-like products through the aromatization of C 3 H 6 , oxidative dehydrogenation involving CO 2 and C 3 H 8 , and hydrogen transfer reactions account for hydrogen liberation in oleic acid and achieve its re-arrangement in the final alkane products. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Distinct reaction pathways for deoxygenation of oleic acid in CO 2 and H 2 atmospheres are also fully explored on the basis of reaction intermediates, the C=C bond effect on catalytic cracking, H 2 spillover, and hydrogen transfer for alkane production. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Owing to the highly dispersed Ni metal center on the zeolite support, hydrogen spillover is observed in H 2 atmosphere, which inhibits the production of short-chain alkanes and reveals the inherent disadvantage of H 2 in this point. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Specifically, the trans conformation of $SnB_{4}$ is favored by increasing the alkane concentration and chain length. (osu.edu)
  • The simplest alkanes have only one way in which their atoms can be arranged, and have no structural isomers. (angelo.edu)
  • The simplest alkane is CH4. (differencebetween.net)
  • Alkane Resources is poised to benefit from a surge in rare earths prices sparked by the Chinese government's recent introduction of export quotas, says investment bank RBS. (afr.com)
  • The Alkane Dominator™ is expected to complete certification and be ready for production in 2017. (prweb.com)
  • It is with great pleasure that I present to you the Alkane Resources Annual Report for 2017. (alkane.com.au)
  • The internal bonds in alkanes are so strong that they are difficult to break even with such aggressive substances as concentrated sulphuric acid or potassium permanganate. (phys.org)
  • RUDN chemists suggested a new copper-based catalyst that simplifies the oxidation of alkanes. (phys.org)
  • The lower-molecular mass alkanes (1 to 4 carbons) are gases at room temperature, those having 5 to 20 carbons tend to be liquids with increasingly high boiling points, and those with more than 20 carbons are increasingly viscous liquids, and finally waxy solids at room temperature. (angelo.edu)
  • An alkyl group is an alkane-based molecular fragment that bears one open valence for bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the general molecular formula for an alkane? (bartleby.com)
  • The general molecular formula for alkanes is C n H 2n+2 . (bartleby.com)
  • J.-P. Ryckaert, I. R. McDonald and M. L. Klein, "Disorder in the Pseudohexagonal Rotator Phase of n-Alkanes: Molecular-Dynamics Calculations for Tricosane," Molecular Physics, Vol. 67, No. 5, 1989, pp. 957-979. (scirp.org)
  • N. Wentzel and S. T. Milner, "Crystal and Rotator Phases of n-Alkanes: A Molecular Study," Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 132, 2010, pp. 044901-(1-10). (scirp.org)
  • The coverage dependent phase behavior of molecular films of n-alkanes (\(CH_{3}CH_{n−2}CH_3\), denote Cn) on mercury was studied for lengths 10 \(\leq\) n \(\leq\) 50, using surface tensiometry and surface x-ray diffraction methods. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast with Langmuir films on water, where roughly surface-normal molecular orientation is invariably found, alkanes on mercury are always oriented surface-parallel, and show no long-range in-plane order at any surface pressure. (harvard.edu)
  • This is the catalytic component of the AH system and oxidizes (cyclo)alkanes to their respective (cyclo)alkanols by transferring one oxygen atom from molecular oxygen to the alkane. (igem.org)
  • For branched alkanes, simulations are performed on branched isomers of butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane to assess the transferability of potential parameters. (aiche.org)
  • The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to produce alkanes, we need both Acyl-ACP Reductase (AAR) and Aldehyde Decarbonylase (ADC) to work together in the cell. (igem.org)
  • IUPAC name for the given alkane has to be written. (bartleby.com)
  • U. Ungar and N. Masic, "Order in the Rotator Phase of n-Alkanes," The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 89, No. 6, 1985, pp. 1036-1042. (scirp.org)
  • U. Zammit, M. Marinelli and F. Mercuri, "Analysis of the Order Character of the RIIRI and the RIRV Rotator Phase Transitions in Alkanes by Photopyroelectric Calorimetry," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 114, No. 24, 2010, pp. 8134-8139. (scirp.org)
  • U. Zammit, M. Marinelli, F. Mercuri and F. Scudieri, "Effect of Quenched Disorder on the RI-RV, RII-RI and Liquid-RII Rotator Phase Transition in Alkanes," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 115, No. 10, 2011, pp. 2331-2337. (scirp.org)
  • R. G. Snyder, G. Conti, H. L. Strauss and D. L. Dorset, "Termally-Induced Mixing in Partially Microphase Segregated Binary n-Alkane Crystals," The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, No. 28, 1993, pp. 7342-7350. (scirp.org)
  • An international team of eminent atmospheric scientists have prepared Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes as an authoritative source of information on the role of alkanes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. (bokus.com)
  • The book includes the properties of the alkanes and haloalkanes, as well as a comprehensive review and evaluation of the existing literature on the atmospheric chemistry of the alkanes and their major atmospheric oxidation products, and the various approaches now used to model the alkane atmospheric chemistry. (bokus.com)
  • The current book should be of special interest and value to the modelers of atmospheric chemistry as a useful input for development of realistic modules designed to simulate the atmospheric chemistry of the alkanes, their major oxidation products, and their influence on ozone and other trace gases within the troposphere. (bokus.com)
  • The results presented herein demonstrate an innovative approach to CO2 utilization chemistry and prove unequivocally that CO2-processing of oleic acid over nano-Ni/zeolite catalyst can produce sustainable and clean aviation fuel-like alkanes in an efficient and effective manner. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Many solid alkanes find use as paraffin wax , used for lubrication , electrical insulation , and candles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkanes with higher values of n are found in diesel fuel, fuel oil, petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, motor oils, and for the highest values of n, asphalt. (gsu.edu)
  • With cyclo-alkanes, we observe that a group placed on one side of a ring stays on that same side. (wikibooks.org)
  • This learning unit describes the principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics of the radical halogenation of alkanes and it explains the reasons for the different chemical properties of the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in radical substitution reactions. (chemgapedia.de)
  • All the existing quality measurements of the rate coefficients for the reactions of OH, Cl, O(3P), NO3, and O3 with the alkanes, the haloalkanes, and their major oxidation products have been reviewed and evaluated. (bokus.com)
  • Therefore, chemical reactions with alkanes require temperatures at 200-300 degrees C and high pressure, as well as efficient catalysts. (phys.org)
  • The authors of the work want to create a multiple-use catalyst for chemical reactions with alkanes. (phys.org)
  • Alkane biosynthesis genes were identified in cyanobacteria and engineered into Escherichia coli for recombinant hydrocarbon production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Give the IUPAC name for each of the following alkanes. (bartleby.com)
  • This video contains practice questions on IUPAC nomenclature, isomerism and preparation of alkanes. (topperlearning.com)
  • This video explains IUPAC nomenclature, isomerism in alkanes and preparatio. (topperlearning.com)
  • If the substituent is an alkyl group, then the derivative will have the same empirical formula as a larger alkane, so the empirical formula for an organic compound is insufficient to identify it. (gsu.edu)
  • RUDN chemists developed a catalyst to oxidize alkanes without additional heating and under regular pressure. (phys.org)
  • The n -alkane products of CBFA deoxygenation were hydroisomerized in the liquid phase (with added n -dodecane) over a 0.70 wt% Pt/CaY catalyst. (rsc.org)
  • Alkane C-H Activation by Single-Site Metal Catal ysis presents the current state-of-the-art development in the catalytic systems for the catalytic trans-formations of alkanes under homogeneous conditions. (springer.com)
  • Chapter 3 examines the catalytic borylation of alkanes, discovered by Hartwig, whereas chapter 4 provides an updated vision of the alkane dehydrogenation reaction. (springer.com)
  • A two-step catalytic process for converting cyanobacteria-derived fatty acids (CBFAs) to linear and branched alkanes for biorenewable synthetic paraffinic kerosene was demonstrated. (rsc.org)
  • Researchers in China are proposing new pathways for the CO 2 catalytic conversion of oleic acid into C 8 -C 15 alkanes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Medium (C6-C12)- or long-chain (C13-C20) n-alkanes can be utilized by many strains, some of which have been partially characterized. (nih.gov)
  • E. B. Sirota, "Remarks Concerning the Relation between Rotator Phases of Bulk n-Alkanes and Those of Langmuir Monolayers of Alkyl-Chain Surfactant on Water," Langmuir, Vol. 13, No. 14, 1997, pp. 3849-3859. (scirp.org)
  • Three n-alkanes with progressive chain length were studied, n-octane (C8), n-eicosane (C20), and C150, using a united atom force field, which is able to reproduce physical quantities related to the solid-liquid phase transition in n-alkanes. (mit.edu)
  • Short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated alkanes are entering the environment in a quantity or a concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health, and thus meet the definition of 'toxic' under paragraph 64(c) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 7 . (greenspec.co.uk)
  • Experimental kinetic studies have shown that the apparent activation energies for cracking and H/D exchange decrease with n-alkane chain length, while for dehydrogenation the energies increase [2,3]. (unt.edu)
  • Petroleum consists of mostly long-chain length alkanes consisting of long hydrocarbon chains. (igem.org)
  • The Alkanivore E.coli strain has been designed to carry the genes required for the conversion of medium (C 5 -C 13 ) and long chain (C 15 -C 36 ) alkanes. (igem.org)
  • Our medium-chain hydrocarbon degrading strain contains the alkane hydroxylase (AH) native to Gordonia sp. (igem.org)
  • According to Global Market Insights, Inc., "Worldwide secondary alkane sulfonate market was worth USD 900 million in 2016 and will surpass a revenue generation of USD 1.3 billion by 2024 with a CAGR of 5% over 2016-2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Asia Pacific secondary alkane sulfonate market covered more than 40% of the regional contribution in 2016 and will collect significant revenue by the end of 2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Household detergent and cleaners accounted for more than 40% of secondary alkane sulfonate industry share in 2016 and will collect considerable revenue by 2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Alkane Truck Co. will install domestic propane and natural gas engines and fuel systems, and automatic or automated manual transmissions in Daimler Foton chassis for sale in the U.S. (truckinginfo.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company will produce a Liquid Propane Auto-gas (LPG) powered Class 8 Cab Over for the long haul trucking industry. (prweb.com)
  • Established in 2012 and headquartered in Myrtle Beach, Alkane Truck Company specializes in medium duty trucks, medium heavy trucks and heavy duty tractors that run on CNG, LNG and propane. (ngvamerica.org)
  • The alkBA genes were complemented with alkane hydroxylation in both bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • These genes will be implemented into E.coli using the BioBrick standard and their alkane degrading capabilities will be characterized. (igem.org)
  • Figure 1 - Schematic description of the alkane degradation pathway with the corresponding genes. (igem.org)
  • To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and combined with promoters and ribosome binding sites obtained from the BioBrick distribution plates. (igem.org)
  • Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane. (gsu.edu)
  • 6. The process of claim 1 wherein the one or more alkane halides is methylchloride, methylbromide, or a mixture thereof. (google.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company, a South Carolina-based assembler of alternative fuel vehicles, has announced plans to establish more than a dozen assembly facilities in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico over the next three years. (truckinginfo.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company is exploring a supply agreement with diesel engine manufacturer Cummins Inc., to offer clean diesel engine options for Alkane's line of heavy-duty trucks and off-road vehicles. (truckinginfo.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company will still pursue alternative fuels as its primary source of fuel, but has decided to add the gasoline option to both its line of Class 7 trucks as well as its off-road vehicle, the Dominator. (truckinginfo.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company is establishing a new manufacturing facility in Summerville, S.C. where the OEM will build its recently announced line of Class 7 cabover alternative fuel trucks. (truckinginfo.com)
  • Following the D.O.T. certification of the Alkane Class 7 Cab Over and the introduction of the Alkane Dominator™, Alkane Truck Company makes official the development plans for the Alkane Class 8 Cab Over. (prweb.com)
  • For more information visit the Alkane Truck Company main website at http://alkanetruckcompany.com and the Alkane Dominator™ site at http://alkanedominator.com . (prweb.com)
  • Alkane Truck Company, an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of commercial trucks, is establishing new Lowcountry manufacturing operations in Dorchester County, a move that is expected to create more than 300 jobs in Summerville, South Carolina. (ngvamerica.org)
  • Physical structure and expression of alkBA encoding alkane hydroxylase and rubredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas maltophilia. (nih.gov)
  • This fragment contains sequences for alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB) and rubredoxin reductase gene (alkA), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In December Alkane unveiled the Alkane Dominator™, a Humvee-type vehicle that will also utilize the cleaner-burning LPG. (prweb.com)
  • The Alkane Dominator™ is expected to not only appeal to off-road enthusiasts in the civilian market, but fits the needs for municipal and government applications. (prweb.com)
  • Alkane Energy Plc - Oil & Gas - Deals and Alliance. (bharatbook.com)
  • Alkane Energy Plc (Alkane Energy), a subsidiary of Basalt Infrastructure Partners LLP, is a diversified company. (bharatbook.com)
  • Alkane Energy Plc - Oil & Gas - Deals and Alliances Profile provides you comprehensive data and trend analysis of the company's Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), partnerships and financings. (bharatbook.com)
  • Radical halogenation of alkanes: principles, kinetics, and thermodynamics. (chemgapedia.de)
  • B. Smit, S. Karaborni, and J. I. Siepmann, Computer simulations of vapour-liquid phase equilibria of n-alkanes J. Chem. (berkeley.edu)
  • This result shows that alkBA gene is essential for alkane hydroxylation since chromosomal loci have been encoded for other enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • Alkanes from pentane up to around C 17 H 36 are liquids. (gsu.edu)