The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Butanes are flammable, colorless gases with a mild petroleum-like odor, consisting of either one of two isomeric forms of butane (n-butane or isobutane), used primarily as fuel, in the production of a wide range of chemicals, and as a refrigerant.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Propane is a colorless, odorless, and chemically simple hydrocarbon (C3H8), commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines, which exists as a gas at room temperature but can be liquefied under pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Halogenated hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.

The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. (1/908)

The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (2/908)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. (3/908)

The AlkS protein activates transcription from the PalkB promoter, allowing the expression of a number of genes required for the assimilation of alkanes in Pseudomonas oleovorans. We have identified the promoter from which the alkS gene is transcribed, PalkS, and analyzed its expression under different conditions and genetic backgrounds. Transcription from PalkS was very low during the exponential phase of growth and increased considerably when cells reached the stationary phase. The PalkS -10 region was similar to the consensus described for promoters recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to the alternative sigma factor sigmaS, which directs the expression of many stationary-phase genes. Reporter strains containing PalkS-lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that PalkS promoter is very weakly expressed in a Pseudomonas putida strain bearing an inactivated allele of the gene coding for sigmaS, rpoS. When PalkS was transferred to E. coli, transcription started at the same site and expression was higher in stationary phase only if sigmaS-RNA polymerase was present. The low levels of AlkS protein generated in the absence of sigmaS were enough to support a partial induction of the PalkB promoter. The -10 and -35 regions of PalkS promoter also show some similarity to the consensus recognized by sigmaD-RNA polymerase, the primary form of RNA polymerase. We propose that in exponential phase PalkS is probably recognized both by sigmaD-RNA polymerase (inefficiently) and by sigmaS-RNA polymerase (present at low levels), leading to low-level expression of the alkS gene. sigmaS-RNA polymerase would be responsible for the high level of activity of PalkS observed in stationary phase.  (+info)

Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil. (4/908)

Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (5/908)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from intertidal sediment. (6/908)

A moderately halophilic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium was isolated from continuous cultures containing a suspension of intertidal sediment from the German North Sea coast with hexadecane as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was considered to be a new species belonging to a new genus. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, whose cell size varies. It grows at concentrations of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl and utilizes a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. The G + C content of the DNA is 63.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA studies show a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Comparison of phylogenetic data indicate that it is most closely related to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (88.9% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Since it is impossible to find a sufficiently closely related species, we propose the name Fundibacter jadensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for the bacteria. The type strain is T9T (= DSM 12178T).  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (7/908)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

Butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. (8/908)

The pathway of butane metabolism by butane-grown 'Pseudomonas butanovora' was determined to be butane --> 1-butanol --> butyraldehyde butyrate. Butane was initially oxidized at the terminal carbon to produce 1-butanol. Up to 90% of the butane consumed was accounted for as 1-butanol when cells were incubated in the presence of 5 mM 1-propanol (to block subsequent metabolism of 1-butanol). No production of the subterminal oxidation product, 2-butanol, was detected, even in the presence of 5 mM 2-pentanol (an effective inhibitor of 2-butanol consumption). Ethane, propane and pentane, but not methane, were also oxidized. Butane-grown cells consumed 1-butanol and other terminal alcohols. Secondary alcohols, including 2-butanol, were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. Butyraldehyde was further oxidized to butyrate as demonstrated by blocking butyrate metabolism with 1 mM sodium valerate. Butyrate also accumulated from butane when cells were incubated with 1 mM sodium valerate. The pathway intermediates (butane, 1-butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate) and 2-butanol stimulated O2 consumption by butane-grown cells. 1-Butanol, butyraldehyde and butyrate supported growth of 'P. butanovora', as did 2-butanol and lactate.  (+info)

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

Alkane 1-monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of one oxygen atom from molecular oxygen to a alkane, resulting in the formation of an alcohol. This reaction also requires the cofactor NADH or NADPH and generates water as a byproduct.

The general reaction catalyzed by alkane 1-monooxygenase can be represented as follows:

R-CH3 + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ -> R-CH2OH + H2O + NAD(P)+

where R represents an alkyl group.

This enzyme is found in various microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, and plays a crucial role in their ability to degrade hydrocarbons, including alkanes, which are major components of fossil fuels. Alkane 1-monooxygenase has potential applications in bioremediation and the production of biofuels from renewable resources.

Butanes are a group of flammable, colorless gases that are often used as fuel or in the production of other chemicals. They have the chemical formula C4H10 and are composed of four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. Butanes are commonly found in natural gas and crude oil, and they can be extracted through a process called distillation.

There are two main types of butane: n-butane and isobutane. N-butane has a straight chain of four carbon atoms, while isobutane has a branched chain with one carbon atom branching off the main chain. Both forms of butane are used as fuel for lighters, stoves, and torches, and they are also used as refrigerants and in the production of aerosols.

Butanes are highly flammable and can be dangerous if not handled properly. They should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area away from sources of ignition, and they should never be used near an open flame or other source of heat. Ingesting or inhaling butane can be harmful and can cause symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. If you suspect that you have been exposed to butane, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "octanes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry and physics, particularly in reference to fuel. Octane is a hydrocarbon molecule found in gasoline, and it is used as a measure of the fuel's ability to resist engine knocking or pinging during combustion.

The octane rating of gasoline typically ranges from 87 (regular) to 91-93 (premium). Higher-octane fuels are often recommended for high-performance vehicles that have higher compression ratios in their engines. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Rubredoxins are small iron-sulfur proteins that contain a single iron atom bonded to four cysteine residues, forming an iron(II)-sulfur cluster. They play a role in electron transfer reactions in certain bacteria and archaea. The name "rubredoxin" comes from the fact that these proteins can be easily reduced, turning them red in color. They have a molecular weight of around 6,000 daltons and are known for their stability and resistance to chemical changes. Rubredoxins are not commonly found in higher organisms such as plants and animals.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

Gordonia bacterium is a type of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Gordoniaceae. These bacteria are typically found in soil, water, and clinical specimens such as respiratory secretions, wounds, and blood. They are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and many species can produce colonies with a distinctive orange or pink color due to the production of pigments such as gordoniabactin.

Gordonia species are generally considered to be low-virulence organisms, but they have been associated with various types of infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Gordonia species are often resistant to many antibiotics, including beta-lactams, macrolides, and aminoglycosides. Therefore, identification of the specific Gordonia species and susceptibility testing are important for guiding appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Alcanivoraceae is a family of Gram-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are known for their ability to degrade hydrocarbons. These bacteria are commonly found in marine environments and play an essential role in the natural bioremediation of oil spills. They have the ability to use alkanes, which are a major component of crude oil, as their sole source of carbon and energy. This makes them particularly useful for cleaning up oil-contaminated waters, as they can help to break down the oil into smaller, less toxic compounds.

The type genus of Alcanivoraceae is Alcanivorax, which was first described in 1998. Since then, several other genera have been added to the family, including Cycloclasticus, Marinobacter, and Neptuniibacter. These bacteria are typically found in marine environments, such as seawater, sediments, and oil-contaminated waters. They are also known to be associated with marine animals, such as sea turtles and sponges.

In addition to their role in bioremediation, Alcanivoraceae bacteria have been studied for their potential use in a variety of industrial applications, including the production of biofuels and other valuable chemicals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the biology and ecology of these bacteria before they can be widely used in these contexts.

I believe you may be asking for a medical explanation or examples of substances that are referred to as "waxes." Waxes are not a specific medical term, but they can refer to various natural or synthetic esters that are insoluble in water and have a soft, waxy consistency. In a medical context, the term "waxes" might refer to:

1. Cerumen (Earwax): A yellowish waxy substance produced by glands in the ear canal. Cerumen helps protect the ear by trapping dirt, dust, and other particles and preventing them from entering the inner ear.
2. Sebaceous Waxes: These are esters found in sebum, an oily substance produced by sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebum helps keep the skin and hair moisturized and protected.
3. Cutaneous Waxes: These are lipid-rich substances secreted by specialized sweat glands called eccrine glands. They help to waterproof and protect the skin.
4. Histological Waxes: Paraffin or other waxes used in histology for tissue processing, embedding, and microtomy to prepare thin sections of tissues for examination under a microscope.

These are some examples of substances that can be referred to as "waxes" in a medical context.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Propane" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines. Propane is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it can be liquefied under moderate pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkenes is CnH2n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The double bond in alkenes can undergo various reactions, such as addition reactions, where different types of molecules can add across the double bond to form new compounds. The relative position of the double bond in the carbon chain and the presence of substituents on the carbon atoms can affect the physical and chemical properties of alkenes.

Alkenes are important industrial chemicals and are used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and other chemicals. They are also found in nature, occurring in some plants and animals, and can be produced by certain types of bacteria through fermentation processes.

Rhodococcus is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, actinomycete bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil and water. Some species of Rhodococcus can cause opportunistic infections in humans and animals, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect various organs and tissues, such as the lungs, skin, and brain, and can range from mild to severe.

Rhodococcus species are known for their ability to degrade a wide variety of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, making them important players in bioremediation processes. They also have complex cell walls that make them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants, which can complicate treatment of Rhodococcus infections.

Acetic anhydride is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, particularly in the production of cellulose acetate and other acetate esters. Acetic anhydride is also an important intermediate in the synthesis of certain pharmaceuticals and dyes.

In medical terminology, acetic anhydride is not typically used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. However, it can be used in laboratory settings to synthesize compounds that may have medical applications. For example, acetic anhydride has been used to produce certain antiviral drugs and antibiotics.

It is important to note that acetic anhydride can be harmful or fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause burns and eye damage, and may be harmful to the respiratory system if inhaled. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used only in well-ventilated areas with appropriate personal protective equipment.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Halogenated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and one or more halogens, such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). These compounds are formed when halogens replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule.

Halogenated hydrocarbons can be further categorized into two groups:

1. Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons: These include alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes with halogen atoms replacing hydrogen atoms. Examples include chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3), methylene chloride (dichloromethane, CH2Cl2), and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3).
2. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: These consist of aromatic rings, such as benzene, with halogen atoms attached. Examples include chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl), bromobenzene (C6H5Br), and polyhalogenated biphenyls like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Halogenated hydrocarbons have various industrial applications, including use as solvents, refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and intermediates in chemical synthesis. However, some of these compounds can be toxic, environmentally persistent, and bioaccumulative, posing potential health and environmental risks.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Agrocybe is a genus of fungi in the family Strophariaceae. These mushrooms are commonly known as "meadow mushrooms" or " lawn mushrooms." They are saprobic, meaning they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter. Some species of Agrocybe are considered edible and are found in many parts of the world. However, it is important to note that some species can be toxic and should not be consumed without proper identification by a trained mycologist.

Here is a medical definition of Agrocybe:

A genus (Agrocybe) of fungi in the family Strophariaceae, characterized by brown to yellow-brown pileus (cap), adnexed to adnate gills, and a stipe (stem) that is often bulbous at the base. Some species are considered edible, while others can be toxic. Proper identification of Agrocybe species is important before consumption.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhodium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. It is found in small quantities in platinum or nickel ores along with some other rare metals.

It's primarily used in industrial applications, such as being a key component in catalytic converters in automobiles, which helps to reduce harmful emissions. It's also used in jewelry, electronics, and scientific instruments due to its properties of resistance to corrosion and heat.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a group of bacteria that chemically reduce sulfates to produce hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, and other sulfur compounds. They are anaerobic, meaning they do not require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria are commonly found in environments like soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals, including humans.

In the medical context, SRB can be associated with certain health conditions. For example, they can contribute to dental cavities by producing acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. They can also cause infections in people with compromised immune systems or implanted medical devices, such as heart valves or joint replacements. These infections can lead to the production of harmful sulfur compounds that can damage tissues and cause symptoms like pain, swelling, and discharge.

SRB are also known to play a role in some types of anaerobic digestion, where they help break down organic matter in wastewater treatment plants and other industrial settings. However, their ability to produce corrosive sulfur compounds can cause problems in these environments, such as damage to pipes and equipment.

Acyclic hydrocarbons, also known as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They are characterized by the absence of aromatic rings or cyclic structures in their molecular structure. Instead, they contain open chains of carbon atoms that are saturated (containing only single bonds) or unsaturated (containing double or triple bonds).

Acyclic hydrocarbons can be further classified into several subcategories based on the nature and arrangement of their carbon-carbon bonds. These include:

* Alkanes: saturated acyclic hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms (e.g., methane, ethane, propane, butane)
* Alkenes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (e.g., ethene, propene, butene)
* Alkynes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (e.g., ethyne, propyne, butyne)

Acyclic hydrocarbons are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used in the production of a wide range of chemicals, materials, and consumer products, including plastics, synthetic fibers, solvents, and fuels.

Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in an alkane-water mixture. The molecular structure of the alkanes directly affects their ... Alkanes also pose a threat to the environment. Branched alkanes have a lower biodegradability than unbranched alkanes. Methane ... The odd-numbered alkanes have a lower trend in melting points than even-numbered alkanes. This is because even-numbered alkanes ... such as cracking and reformation where long-chain alkanes are converted into shorter-chain alkanes and straight-chain alkanes ...
Higher alkane List of compounds with carbon numbers 50+ "organic chemistry - How to determine number of structural isomers?". ... The following is a list of straight-chain alkanes, the total number of isomers of each (including branched chains), and their ... Fujita, Shinsaku (2007). "Alkanes as Stereoisomers. Enumeration by the Combination of Two Dichotomies for Three-Dimensional ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Alkanes, Chemistry-related lists). ...
Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, ... However, the higher alkanes have little value and are usually split into lower alkanes by cracking. Some alkanes have non-IUPAC ... "alkanes with a higher number of carbon atoms". One definition distinguishes the higher alkanes as the n-alkanes that are solid ... n-alkanes). This group of n-alkanes is generally liquid under standard conditions. From this group on, the n-alkanes are ...
... is a class of chemical reaction in which an alkane is rearranged to give a longer or shorter alkane product. ... but alkane metathesis operates on a carbon-carbon single bond. Alkane metathesis is catalyzed by metal-containing compounds or ... "Catalytic Alkane Metathesis by Tandem Alkane Dehydrogenation-Olefin Metathesis". Science. 312 (5771): 257-261. Bibcode:2006Sci ... Numerous applications for alkane metathesis involving petrochemicals and fuels can be envisaged. For example, the conversion of ...
Perfluoroalkoxy alkanes (PFA) are fluoropolymers. They are copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4) and perfluoroethers ( ... The monomers of such perfluoroalkoxy alkane polymers, in common with other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are widespread ...
In enzymology, an alkane 1-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions an alkane + reduced ... Other names in common use include alkane 1-hydroxylase, omega-hydroxylase, fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, alkane monooxygenase, ... Alkanes of 6 to 22 carbons have been observed as substrates. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. ...
Alkanes. Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations. Vol. 48. Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 978-3-13- ...
Alkanes. Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations. Vol. 48. Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN ...
... linear alkanes branched alkanes > small aromatics > cyclic alkanes. Some compounds, such as the high molecular weight ... From the oxidation of the methyl group of n-alkanes by the alkane hydroxylase, n-alkanols are released which are further ... The n-alkanes are oxidized by monooxygenase to secondary alcohols, then to ketones and finally to fatty acids. R 1 − ( CH 2 ... Alkanes are readily biodegraded aerobically in the sea by several different pathways. The degradation of medium-length ones by ...
Chemical composition: Least to greatest resistance to biodegradation: n-alkanes > branched alkanes > low molecular weight ... aromatics > cyclic alkanes > high molecular weight aromatics = polar polymers Physical properties: Shape Exposed surface area ...
In case of an alkane, three hydrogen atoms are bound to a primary carbon (see propane in the figure on the right). A hydrogen ... Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0 ...
Alkane An alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other ... Page 379 "Alkanes". IUPAC Gold Book - alkanes. IUPAC. March 27, 2017. doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00222. ISBN 978-0-9678550-9-7. ... words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are ...
... atoms can occur in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes. The formation of chiral quaternary carbon ... Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0 ...
... atoms can occur, for example, in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes. The R is the functional group ... Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (Book) (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ... ISBN 978-0-07-337562-5. Ouellette, Robert J.; Rawn, J. David (2018), "Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Structures and Reactions", ...
In unbranched alkanes, the inner carbon atoms are always secondary carbon atoms (see figure). Smith, Janice Gorzynski (2011). " ... "Chapter 4 Alkanes". Organic chemistry (Book) (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-07-337562-5. Hans Peter ...
Eser BE, Das D, Han J, Jones PR, Marsh EN (Dec 2013). "Oxygen-independent alkane formation by non-heme iron-dependent ... Andre C, Kim SW, Yu XH, Shanklin J (Feb 2013). "Fusing catalase to an alkane-producing enzyme maintains enzymatic activity by ... Non-specific formation of alcohols rather than alkanes has also been observed, which would instead correspond to a heterolytic ... Schirmer A, Rude M, Li X, Popova E, del Cardayre SB (Jul 2010). "Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes". Science. 329 (5991): 559- ...
alkane In organic chemistry, an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms ... Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. alkene In organic chemistry, an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at ... ". "IUPAC Gold Book - alkanes". IUPAC. March 27, 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-23. Wade, L.G. (2006). Organic Chemistry (6th ed.). ...
Schirmer A, Rude MA, Li X, Popova E, del Cardayre SB (July 2010). "Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes". Science. 329 (5991): 559 ...
Crabtree, Robert H. (1985-08-01). "The organometallic chemistry of alkanes". Chemical Reviews. 85 (4): 245-269. doi:10.1021/ ...
Acids react to give alkanes. For example, alcohols give alkoxides: AlR'3 + ROH → 1/n (R'2Al−OR)n + R'H A wide variety of acids ...
In one meaning, sulfoxidation refers to the reaction of alkanes with a mixture of sulfur dioxide and oxygen. This reaction is ... Parrino, Francesco; Ramakrishnan, Ayyappan; Kisch, Horst (2008). "Semiconductor-Photocatalyzed Sulfoxidation of Alkanes". ...
In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with alkane, indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. The name is ... Seager, Spencer L.; Slabaugh, Michael (19 January 2010). "Alkane reactions". Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and ... Alkanes, Petroleum products, Food additives, E-number additives). ...
Chen, H.; Schlecht, S.; Semple, T. C.; Hartwig, J. F. (2000). "Thermal, Catalytic, Regiospecific Functionalization of Alkanes ...
Alkanes are the most polarizable molecules. Although alkenes and arenes are expected to have larger polarizability than alkanes ... Water is a very polar molecule, but alkanes and other hydrophobic molecules are more polarizable. Water with its permanent ... This results because of alkene's and arene's more electronegative sp2 carbons to the alkane's less electronegative sp3 carbons ... because of their higher reactivity compared to alkanes, alkanes are in fact more polarizable. ...
... , also called tetrakosane, is an alkane hydrocarbon with the structural formula H(CH2)24H. As with other alkanes, ... List of alkanes "tetracosane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 ...
... or n-heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16. When used as a test fuel ... Alkanes". Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 23 (1): 41-53. Bibcode:1994JPCRD..23...41D. doi:10.1063/1.555943. ... unmixed with other isomers of heptane or other alkanes, distilled from the resin of Jeffrey pine and from the fruit of ...
1. Pure Alkanes, Alkanols, and Water". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 35 (12): 4727-4737. doi:10.1021/ie9602320. ... alkanes or water. The Lennard-Jones potential can also be used to model the adsorption interactions at solid-fluid interfaces, ... for practically all molecular and ionic particles can be constructed using this scheme for example for alkanes. Upon using the ...
Such organic compounds are called alkanes. They are saturated hydrocarbons. The names of the saturated hydrides of non-metals ... For instance, methane for CH4 and oxidane for H2O (water). For the etymology, see Alkane. IUPAC nomenclature of organic ...
As first described by Hartwig, alkanes can be selectively borylated with high selectivity for the primary C-H bond using Cp*Rh( ... Selective functionalization of a primary alkane bond is due to the formation of a kinetically and thermodynamically favorable ... Hartwig, J. F. (2011). "Regioselectivity of the borylation of alkanes and arenes". Chem. Soc. Rev. 40 (4): 1992-2002. doi: ... Chen, H.; Schlecht, S.; Semple, T. C.; Hartwig, J. F. (2000). "Thermal, Catalytic, Regiospecific Functionalization of Alkanes ...
Carbon forms a huge variety of hydrocarbons (among the simplest alkanes are methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8, butane ... They are germanium analogues of alkanes. Stannane SnH4, a strong reducing agent slowly decomposes at room temperature to tin ... Their volatility is intermediate between the alkanes and the germanes. Unsaturated silanes, the silenes and silynes, have been ... the same formula for the alkanes. Many other group 14 hydrides are known. ...
Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in an alkane-water mixture. The molecular structure of the alkanes directly affects their ... Alkanes also pose a threat to the environment. Branched alkanes have a lower biodegradability than unbranched alkanes. Methane ... The odd-numbered alkanes have a lower trend in melting points than even-numbered alkanes. This is because even-numbered alkanes ... such as cracking and reformation where long-chain alkanes are converted into shorter-chain alkanes and straight-chain alkanes ...
Deliverables, publications, datasets, software, exploitable results
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McCaffer, Moira Jane (1977) The Stereochemistry of Alkanes and Non-Conjugated Alkenes. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. ... The parametrization of a new and improved force field for calculations on alkanes and non-conjugated alkenes was therefore ... Molecular force fields, which were developed before 1973 to deal with calculations on alkanes and/or non-conjugated alkenes, ...
This page titled Cracking Alkanes is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jim Clark ... The alkane is brought into contact with the catalyst at a temperature of about 500 °C and moderately low pressures. ... The zeolite catalyst has sites which can remove a hydrogen from an alkane together with the two electrons which bound it to the ... Nomenclature_of_Alkanes : property get [Map MindTouch.Deki.Logic.ExtensionProcessorQueryProvider+,,c__DisplayClass230_0., ...
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... which accurately predicts viscosities for short straight-chain alkanes, produced values for branched and long-chain alkanes ... viscosity simulations of branched and linear alkanes at liquid densities were performed using both united-atom (UA) and all- ... which accurately predicts viscosities for short straight-chain alkanes, produced values for branched and long-chain alkanes ... Rowley, Richard L. and Allen, William, "Predicting the viscosity of alkanes using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Evaluation ...
The alkane-degrading bacteria (HUB) from this environment served as basis on which biodegradation capabilities of alkanes (TPH ... Alkane Degradative Potentials of Bacteria Isolated From the Deep Atlantic Ocean of the Gulf of Guinea Sunday Babatunde Akinde1* ... The gas chromatograms showed a distribution from n-C11 to n-C36 alkanes with the fractions of n-C15, n-C17 and n-C19 showing ... Presence of alkane-degrading bacteria (HUB) in the deep-seawater column and superficial sediments have been reported by various ...
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Mixtures of acetonitrile and alkane must be strictly avoided as they are not miscible and will destroy those columns. In ... 4. My sample isnt soluble in alkane-alcohols. What sample solvents can I use?. ... My sample isnt soluble in alkane-alcohols. What sample solvents can I use?. ...
Cyclic, branched or linear completely fluorinated alkanes * Cyclic, branched or linear completely fluorinated tertiary amines ... Is anyone else interested in sharing the cost of a GreenScreen assessment of POLYCHLORINATED ALKANES []? ... Hi! Can I get a quote for a GreenScreen Assessment of POLYCHLORINATED ALKANES []?. ... Profile for "POLYCHLORINATED ALKANES" on Pharos: https://pharos.habitablefuture.org/chemicals/2072076 ...
Alkanes are always saturated.. Alkanes can have branchings. The ones you have in mind are called normal alkanes, in which no ... Small alkanes are gases, middle-sized alkanes are volatile liquids, larger alkanes (dozens of carbons) are often waxy solids. ... A normal alkane has some similarities with polymers, tho. As others mentioned it, the size is the deciding factor there. A ... The first one is an Alkane, but if the chain was much longer, it would be structurally the same as the Polymer (Second image). ...
4:19 know the general formula for alkanes. Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 ... 4:20 explain why alkanes are classified as saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated: A molecule containing only single bonds between ... For example, alkanes as described as saturated molecules.. Unsaturated: A molecule containing a carbon-carbon double or triple ... Hydr0Gen2023-01-10T08:37:06+00:00Categories: (c) Alkanes, 4 Organic chemistry, Edexcel iGCSE Chemistry,Tags: 4:19, Chemistry, ...
Can you tell me the simplest example of alkane? It is methane. This hydrocarbon consists of a carbon. It is surrounded by four ... Facts about Alkanes present the information about the hydrocarbons. This element contains carbon and hydrogen. ... Facts about Alkanes 1: the linear alkane. Can you tell me the general formula of linear alkane? It is Cn H2n+2. All Alkanes are ... Facts about Alkanes 8: an alkane in ring structure. When you want to call an alkane in a ring structure, you can use the term ...
Question 1 What are the differences between alkanes, alkenes and alkynes? What are the differences between cis- and trans- ...
These numbers become prefixes to the name of the parent alkane. In this example the substituents and positions are 2‑methyl, 3‑ ... The name of the alkane is written as one word. The demonstration com-pound, then, would be written as dimethylheptane, not ...
Alkane and cycloalkane are the simplest organic compounds with Nomenclature, Structure, Types, I.U.P.A.C. System etc. ... Tags: alkane properties, alkane reaction, alkane structure, alkane type, ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES ... Nitration Alkane:. It involves the substitution of a hydrogen atom of alkane by nitro (-NO,) group. When a mixture of an alkane ... Sulphonation alkane :. It involves the substitution of a hydrogen atom of alkane with sulphonic( -SOZH) group. When alkane are ...
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Alkanes. The transportation sector is one the sectors having the largest GHG emissions in many countries. In Canada, for ... Fischer-Tropsch and methanol are the two main production pathways to produce alkanes through PtL technologies (Figure 4). To ... Among the many useful chemicals that can be synthesized directly from CO2, methane, methanol, alkanes, formic acid and ... The following sections will present a few recent studies on the production of these alkanes via CO2 hydrogenation. ...
Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. Trionfetti, C., ... Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. / Trionfetti, C ... Alkane activation at ambient temperature - Unusual selectivities, C-C, C-H bond scission vs C-C bond coupling. 10th ... Trionfetti, C., Agiral, A., Gardeniers, H. J. G. E., Lefferts, L., & Seshan, K. (2008). Alkane activation at ambient ...
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Alkanes. ALKANES. Alkanes are a class of saturated open chain hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds. Methane ... Halogenation of alkanes. Halogenation of alkanes involves the substitution of one or more hydrogen atoms of an alkane with a ... Pyrolysis of alkanes. Higher alkanes on heating to higher temperature decompose into lower alkanes, alkenes etc. Such a ... Isomerisation of alkanes. Isomerization of alkanes involves the conversion of straight chain alkanes into branched-chain ...
... Latini G.;Di Nicola G.;Pierantozzi M.. 2017-01-01. ... The families of n-alkanes, ketones and silanes were chosen to verify the general reliability of the method when used in large ... The families of n-alkanes, ketones and silanes were chosen to verify the general reliability of the method when used in large ... 2017_Liquid thermal conductivity prediction for alkanes ketones and silanes.pdf Solo gestori archivio ...
While we love clean companies like these we wish they wouldnt use coconut alkanes in their formulas because coconut alkanes is ... It too has coconut alkanes.. PRO TIP: Memorize the chemical name Ethylhexyl Palmitate. This is the most common pore-clogging ... On a comedogenic scale of 0-5, coconut alkanes is a 4 or 5. Meaning its pretty much guaranteed to clog your pores and break ...
Estimate the boiling point (in Kelvin) of n-Alkanes (n ,= 2) using the group contribution method of Joback ...
... - Chemistry Mcqs - Chapter 9: Organic Chemistry Mcqs for High School - Grade ... MCQs: An alkane with molecular formula C9H20 is called Category: Chemistry Mcqs, Published by: teswesm ... MCQs: Which of the following is the simplest alkane? Category: Chemistry Mcqs, Published by: teswesm ... MCQs: Simple alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons) are Category: Chemistry Mcqs, Published by: teswesm ...
Surface Tension in Normal Alkanes. Molecular Physics. Ismail, Ahmed I.; In t Veld, Pieter J.; Grest, Gary S. ...
Standard Partition Coefficient studies for this endpoint are intended for monoconstituent substances and are not appropriate for petroleum UVCB substances. In accordance with Annex XI Section 1.3 the endpoint has been fulfilled using QSAR calculations for representative hydrocarbon structures that comprise the hydrocarbon blocks used to assess the environmental risk of this substance with the PETRORISK model (see the representative structures from the PETRORISK Product Library in the spreadsheet attached in IUCLID section 13.2). As such, testing is not scientifically necessary. Full justifications for these QSAR are presented in Attached justification within the associated endpoint records, but in brief these are justified because: -the results are obtained from a QSAR model whose scientific validity has been established -petroleum substances fall within the applicability domain of the QSAR model -results are adequate for the purposes of risk assessment -adequate and reliable documentation is ...
  • The efficiency of bacterial strains isolated from Nigeria Deep Atlantic Ocean water and sediment (2450 m - 2774 m depths) to biodegrade total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, n-alkanes) constituents of 1% crude oil was compared with that of similar isolate from oily wastewater reservoir in Imo State, Nigeria. (omicsonline.org)
  • Facts about Alkanes present the information about the hydrocarbons. (factfile.org)
  • Those compounds are called 'saturated hydrocarbons', this is due to the fact that the carbon skeleton of alkane is fully satisfied or saturated with hydrogens. (bscbooks.com)
  • The alkanes having a straight or normal chain are called 'normal' (or n -) hydrocarbons. (bscbooks.com)
  • Branched Chain Hydrocarbons : The alkanes in which the carbon chains has branches are called branched chain hydrocarbons. (bscbooks.com)
  • Iso hydrocarbons (Greek, isos = equal) : such alkane possess a one carbon branch on the second carbon of the basic normal chain. (bscbooks.com)
  • Alkanes are a class of saturated open chain hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds. (easetolearn.com)
  • The SPME fiber coupled with gas chromatograph (GC) is then used to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anilines, phenols, and alkanes from standard and real water samples, and exhibits high selectivity for PAHs. (who.int)
  • With their repeated -CH2 units, the alkanes constitute a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ in molecular mass by multiples of 14.03 u (the total mass of each such methylene-bridge unit, which comprises a single carbon atom of mass 12.01 u and two hydrogen atoms of mass ~1.01 u each). (wikipedia.org)
  • All Alkanes are included in a homologous series. (factfile.org)
  • The homologous series of alkanes can be extended by adding one or more methylene (-CH 2 -) groups to the molecule. (easetolearn.com)
  • Methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria and some long-chain alkanes function as pheromones in certain animal species or as protective waxes in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The commonly used Ryckaert-Bellemans intermolecular potential model, which accurately predicts viscosities for short straight-chain alkanes, produced values for branched and long-chain alkanes that were significantly below experimental values. (byu.edu)
  • In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical trivial name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane (CH4), where n = 1 (sometimes called the parent molecule), to arbitrarily large and complex molecules, like pentacontane (C50H102) or 6-ethyl-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl) octane, an isomer of tetradecane (C14H30). (wikipedia.org)
  • The alkane which comes in gas form in the room temperature includes butane, propane, ethane and methane. (factfile.org)
  • The structure of methane (CH 4 ), which is the simplest alkane, is tetrahedral in shape according to the VSEPR theory. (easetolearn.com)
  • The first three alkanes (methane, ethane, and propane) have only one structure each. (easetolearn.com)
  • These numbers become prefixes to the name of the parent alkane. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • To write the structure, first identify the parent alkane and write its longest chain of carbon atoms. (easetolearn.com)
  • The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can you tell me the simplest example of alkane? (factfile.org)
  • Alkane are the simplest organic compounds. (bscbooks.com)
  • In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an alkane, each carbon atom is sp3-hybridized with 4 sigma bonds (either C-C or C-H), and each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms (in a C-H bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen atom in the alkane is replaced by a bromine atom. (tutormyself.com)
  • The molecules of alkane are made up of carbon atoms joined to each other by single covalent bonds while the remaining valency of carbon is satisfied by hydrogen atoms. (bscbooks.com)
  • By replacing additional hydrogen atoms with methyl groups, we can generate a series of alkanes with increasing numbers of carbon atoms. (easetolearn.com)
  • Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in various ways, forming structural isomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural isomerism can only be presented if an alkane has four carbon atoms. (factfile.org)
  • The structural formulae of alkanes and their derivatives contain four pes of carbon atoms. (bscbooks.com)
  • Straight-chain alkanes are sometimes indicated by the prefix "n-" or "n-"(for "normal") where a non-linear isomer exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first alkane which can present an isomer is butane. (factfile.org)
  • The essential differences between a polymer like polypropylene or polyethylene and an alkane are the size of the molecule and the purity of the molecules. (stackexchange.com)
  • For example, alkanes as described as saturated molecules. (tutormyself.com)
  • The physical and chemical properties of the alkanes vary as the chain length increases due to an increase in the van der Waals' forces between the molecules, as well as an increase in surface area and molecular weight. (easetolearn.com)
  • Molecular force fields, which were developed before 1973 to deal with calculations on alkanes and/or non-conjugated alkenes, were each known to have certain defects in that they could not adequately reproduce all the experimental data. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The parametrization of a new and improved force field for calculations on alkanes and non-conjugated alkenes was therefore undertaken. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Question 1 What are the differences between alkanes, alkenes and alkynes? (homeworkowl.com)
  • When the alkane has the complete combustion, it will produce carbon dioxide and water. (factfile.org)
  • My expertise lies in Chemistry and Material Science, with a focus on in-situ X-ray Absorption spectroscopy of zeolites for the conversion of lighter alkanes. (lu.se)
  • And, they are often made of mixtures rather than a pure alkane of a fixed number of carbons. (stackexchange.com)
  • Small alkanes are gases, middle-sized alkanes are volatile liquids, larger alkanes (dozens of carbons) are often waxy solids. (stackexchange.com)
  • The Alkanes which have solid and liquid form are the ones with the five to 16 carbons atoms. (factfile.org)
  • An alkyl group is an alkane-based molecular fragment that bears one open valence for bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an alkane reacts with a halogen, it can form Alkyl halogenide, Haloalkane and Halogenalkane. (factfile.org)
  • When you want to call an alkane in a ring structure, you can use the term Cycloalkane. (factfile.org)
  • One group of the higher alkanes are waxes, solids at standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP), for which the number of carbon atoms in the carbon backbone is greater than about 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixtures of acetonitrile and alkane must be strictly avoided as they are not miscible and will destroy those columns. (chiraltech.com)
  • The IUPAC nomenclature (systematic way of naming compounds) for alkanes is based on identifying hydrocarbon chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nomenclature and isomerism in alkanes can be understood through examples. (easetolearn.com)
  • These sp 3 hybrid orbitals are utilized for the formation of C-C or C-H single bonds in alkane. (bscbooks.com)
  • In all higher alkane, the carbon atoms are joined each other by sp 3 - sp 3 , o - bonds and to hydrogens by sp 3 -s, o- bonds. (bscbooks.com)
  • Since these o-bonds are remarkably strong hence the alkane are chemically inert. (bscbooks.com)
  • Alkanes react with bromine in the presence of UV light, e.g. sunlight. (tutormyself.com)
  • The alkanes have two main commercial sources: petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkane can be obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum and natural gas. (bscbooks.com)
  • The families of n-alkanes, ketones and silanes were chosen to verify the general reliability of the method when used in large temperature ranges for very different organic families, above all the silanes (compounds containing silicon), whose liquid thermal conductivity is experimentally investigated in very few cases. (unich.it)
  • In this work a simple equation already proposed by the authors for the estimation of the liquid thermal conductivity of alcohols is generalized in order to allow the calculation of λ for the compounds belonging to the families of n-alkanes, ketones and silanes. (unich.it)
  • There are two types of common polymers that are basically just alkanes with very long chains: polyethylene and polypropylene. (stackexchange.com)
  • This will position Alkane as a strategic and significant world producer of zirconium products and heavy rare earths. (theaureport.com)
  • This report could provide insights into the financial performance and strategic direction of Alkane Resources, which could impact their collaboration with Lynas. (raremetalblog.com)
  • In addition to the alkane isomers, the chain of carbon atoms may form one or more rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one is an Alkane, but if the chain was much longer, it would be structurally the same as the Polymer (Second image). (stackexchange.com)
  • 1.The LII.P.A.C. names of alkane with a continuous carbon chain or straight carbon chain without a branch are similar to the common names except that the prefix 'n' is not used in the I.U.P.A.C. names. (bscbooks.com)
  • Higher alkanes can have more than one structure due to the possibility of branching in the carbon chain. (easetolearn.com)
  • Very complicated structures are possible by combining linear, branch, cyclic alkanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general formula for alkanes is C n H 2n+2 , where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. (easetolearn.com)
  • Can you tell me the general formula of linear alkane? (factfile.org)
  • Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) viscosity simulations of branched and linear alkanes at liquid densities were performed using both united-atom (UA) and all-atom (AA) intermolecular potential models in order to study the relative efficacy of the models in predicting fluid viscosity. (byu.edu)
  • Rowley, Richard L. and Allen, William, "Predicting the viscosity of alkanes using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Evaluation of intermolecular potential models" (1997). (byu.edu)
  • Alkane Resources' quarterly report has the potential to significantly impact the supply estimate for Alkane . (raremetalblog.com)
  • Alkane Resources has outdone its production guidance at the Tomingley gold operations in New South Wales off the back of higher ore grades. (mqworld.com)
  • The ones you have in mind are called normal alkanes, in which no carbon has higher order than two. (stackexchange.com)
  • For higher alkanes, there can be an even larger number of isomers. (easetolearn.com)
  • Alkane commenced gold production in early 2014, after commissioning its Tomingley gold project in February, on time and on budget. (theaureport.com)
  • The prefix hep means that this alkane has seven carbon atoms. (factfile.org)
  • Synthetic methods are, however, more practical when a pure alkane is desired. (bscbooks.com)
  • What Progress Has Alkane Resources Made in Becoming a Top Tier Heavy Rare Earth Producer Since 2012? (raremetalblog.com)
  • Alkane Resources has made significant progress in becoming one of the top tier rare earth producers since 2012. (raremetalblog.com)
  • Though you can get some idea of the types of property to expect by following the properties of progressively larger alkanes. (stackexchange.com)
  • Alkane Resources Ltd. (theaureport.com)
  • Alkane Resources Ltd. is a multicommodity mining and exploration company with a focus on gold, copper, zirconium, niobium and rare earths. (theaureport.com)
  • How Does Alkane Resources' Quarterly Report Impact the Supply Estimate from the Broker? (raremetalblog.com)
  • What is the significance of the Quarterly Report for Alkane Resources in the context of their potential co-operation with Lynas? (raremetalblog.com)
  • In June, Alkane announced it would be mining the Roswell and San Antonio resources at Tomingley as part of its mine life extension. (mqworld.com)
  • It indicates a form of alkane because of the suffix -ane on the word heptane. (factfile.org)
  • The number of carbon atoms may be considered as the size of the alkane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkane has anticipated it will mine around 745,000 ounces of gold through to 2031 with processing increasing to a 1.5 million tonne per annum feed rate. (mqworld.com)
  • Perfluorohexyloctane is in a class of medications called semifluorinated alkanes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This process can be continued to produce alkanes with any desired number of carbon atoms. (easetolearn.com)