The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC
These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (1/260)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Characterization of cytochrome P450 expression in human oesophageal mucosa. (2/260)

The expression of cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes in human oesophageal mucosa was investigated in a total of 25 histologically non-neoplastic surgical tissue specimens by using specific antibodies in immunoblots and by RT-PCR mRNA analysis. The presence of CYP1A, 2E1, 3A and 4A enzymes was demonstrated by both techniques; CYP2A reactive protein was also detected by immunoblot. The presence of CYP4B1 mRNA was established but no specific antibody was available for detection of the corresponding protein by immunoblot. CYP2B6/7 mRNA was not detected in any sample. The mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1, 2E1, 4A11 and 4B1 were consistently detected in the majority of samples (>84%), whereas CYP1A2 mRNA was only detected in 11 of 19 specimens examined. An RT-PCR method to differentiate CYP3A4 and 3A5 mRNA was developed. This demonstrated CYP3A5 mRNA expression in all samples tested, whereas CYP3A4 mRNA was not detectable, suggesting that CYP3A5 is the major CYP3A protein in human oesophagus. There were significant interindividual variations in the amount of proteins, ranging from 8-fold for CYP4A to 43-fold for CYP2E1. For each patient, data on exposure to risk factors for oesophageal cancer were available, including tobacco smoke, alcohol, gastro-oesophageal reflux and hot beverage consumption. None of these risk factors or other patient characteristics (age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage) were correlated with the protein level of the individual CYP enzymes as determined by quantitation of immunoblot staining. However, the small series of samples precludes any strong conclusion concerning the lack of such correlations. There were no differences between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas in either the qualitative or quantitative expression of the CYP enzymes. These data demonstrate that a range of CYP enzymes are expressed in human oesophageal mucosa and indicate that this tissue has the capacity to activate chemical carcinogens to reactive DNA binding metabolites.  (+info)

Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. (3/260)

The AlkS protein activates transcription from the PalkB promoter, allowing the expression of a number of genes required for the assimilation of alkanes in Pseudomonas oleovorans. We have identified the promoter from which the alkS gene is transcribed, PalkS, and analyzed its expression under different conditions and genetic backgrounds. Transcription from PalkS was very low during the exponential phase of growth and increased considerably when cells reached the stationary phase. The PalkS -10 region was similar to the consensus described for promoters recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bound to the alternative sigma factor sigmaS, which directs the expression of many stationary-phase genes. Reporter strains containing PalkS-lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that PalkS promoter is very weakly expressed in a Pseudomonas putida strain bearing an inactivated allele of the gene coding for sigmaS, rpoS. When PalkS was transferred to E. coli, transcription started at the same site and expression was higher in stationary phase only if sigmaS-RNA polymerase was present. The low levels of AlkS protein generated in the absence of sigmaS were enough to support a partial induction of the PalkB promoter. The -10 and -35 regions of PalkS promoter also show some similarity to the consensus recognized by sigmaD-RNA polymerase, the primary form of RNA polymerase. We propose that in exponential phase PalkS is probably recognized both by sigmaD-RNA polymerase (inefficiently) and by sigmaS-RNA polymerase (present at low levels), leading to low-level expression of the alkS gene. sigmaS-RNA polymerase would be responsible for the high level of activity of PalkS observed in stationary phase.  (+info)

Insulin differentially affects xenobiotic-enhanced, cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A expression in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (4/260)

Uncontrolled diabetes results in enhanced expression of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A. Because of the simultaneous and confounding metabolic and hormonal changes that occur in vivo as a consequence of diabetes, primary cultured rat hepatocytes provide an excellent model system for examination of the effects of insulin on P-450 expression and on xenobiotic-mediated P-450 expression. In the present study, we examined the effects of insulin on pyridine-, phenobarbital-, and ciprofibrate-mediated expression of CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Pyridine addition to primary rat hepatocytes cultured in the presence of 1 nM insulin or in the absence of insulin resulted in a 3.5-fold and 3-fold enhancement in CYP2E1 protein expression, respectively, in the absence of any pyridine-mediated increase in mRNA expression. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured in the standard concentration of 1 microM insulin resulted in only a 2-fold increase in protein expression. Thus, the fold-induction of CYP2E1 protein in response to pyridine was 1.5- to 1.8-fold greater in either the absence of insulin or in the presence of 1 nM insulin, respectively, than that monitored in the presence of 1 microM insulin. To examine whether insulin effects on xenobiotic-mediated CYP2E1 expression were selective, insulin effects on xenobiotic-mediated expression of transcriptionally regulated CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A were examined. Pyridine- or phenobarbital-mediated induction of CYP2B mRNA and protein expression in hepatocytes was suppressed by as much as 80% at lower insulin levels (0 and 1 nM), relative to the level monitored in the presence of 1 microM insulin. Omitting insulin from the medium resulted in a 50% decrease in CYP3A mRNA levels in response to phenobarbital treatment and a 30% decrease in CYP4A mRNA levels in response to ciprofibrate treatment, relative to the level obtained in response to these treatments in the presence of 1 microM insulin. The results of this study demonstrate that decreasing the insulin level in the primary hepatocyte culture medium enhanced xenobiotic-mediated CYP2E1 expression, whereas lower insulin levels suppressed xenobiotic-mediated CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A expression in this cell culture system.  (+info)

Hypoxia-induced production of 12-hydroxyeicosanoids in the corneal epithelium: involvement of a cytochrome P-4504B1 isoform. (5/260)

The corneal epithelium metabolizes arachidonic acid by a cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated activity to 12-hydroxy-5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(R)-HETE) and 12-hydroxy-5,8, 14-eicosatrienoic acid (12(R)-HETrE ). Both metabolites possess potent inflammatory properties, with 12(R)-HETrE being a powerful angiogenic factor, and they assume the role of inflammatory mediators in hypoxia- and chemical-induced injury in the cornea in vivo and in vitro. We used a model of corneal organ culture that exhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial CYP-dependent 12(R)-HETE and 12(R)-HETrE synthesis for isolating, identifying, and characterizing the CYP protein responsible for these eicosanoid syntheses. Northern analysis revealed the presence of a CYP4A-hybridizable mRNA, the levels of which were increased after hypoxia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with primers specific for the CYP4A family led to the isolation of a 671-base pair fragment with a 98.8% sequence homology to the rabbit lung CYP4B1 isoform, of which the levels in the corneal epithelium were greatly increased under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, phenobarbital, an inducer of hepatic CYP4B1 in the rabbit, also induced 12-HETE and 12-HETrE synthesis. Antibodies against CYP4B1, but not against CYP4A1, inhibited hypoxia-, clofibrate-, and phenobarbital-induced 12-HETE and 12-HETrE synthesis. These results suggest the involvement of a CYP4B1 isoform in the corneal epithelial synthesis of these eicosanoids in response to hypoxia.  (+info)

Arachidonic acid and PGE2 regulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression. (6/260)

N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress hepatic and adipocyte de novo lipogenesis by inhibiting the transcription of genes encoding key lipogenic proteins. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, arachidonic acid (20:4,n-6) suppression of lipogenic gene expression requires cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this study, we found no evidence to support a role for COX-1 or -2 in the 20:4,n-6 inhibition of hepatocyte lipogenic gene expression. In contrast to L1 preadipocytes, adipocytes and rat liver, RT-PCR and Western analyses did not detect COX-1 or COX-2 expression in cultured primary hepatocytes. Moreover, the COX inhibitor, flurbiprofen, did not affect the 20:4,n-6 regulation of lipogenic gene expression in primary hepatocytes. Despite the absence of COX-1 and -2 expression in primary hepatocytes, prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2alpha) suppressed fatty acid synthase, l-pyruvate kinase, and the S14 protein mRNA, while having no effect on acyl-CoA oxidase or CYP4A2 mRNA. Using PGE2 receptor agonist, the PGE2 effect on lipogenic gene expression was linked to EP3 receptors. PGE2 inhibited S14CAT activity in transfected primary hepatocytes and targeted the S14 PUFA-response region located -220 to -80 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Taken together, these studies show that COX-1 and COX-2 do not contribute to the n-6 PUFA suppression of hepatocyte lipogenic gene expression. However, cyclooxygenase products from non-parenchymal cells can act on parenchymal cells through a paracrine process and mimic the effects of n-6 PUFA on lipogenic gene expression.  (+info)

Kinetic profile of the rat CYP4A isoforms: arachidonic acid metabolism and isoform-specific inhibitors. (7/260)

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 4A omega-hydroxylation product of arachidonic acid, has potent biological effects on renal tubular and vascular functions and on the control of arterial pressure. We have expressed high levels of the rat CYP4A1, -4A2, -4A3, and -4A8 cDNAs, using baculovirus and Sf 9 insect cells. Arachidonic acid omega- and omega-1-hydroxylations were catalyzed by three of the CYP4A isoforms; the highest catalytic efficiency of 947 nM-1. min-1 for CYP4A1 was followed by 72 and 22 nM-1. min-1 for CYP4A2 and CYP4A3, respectively. CYP4A2 and CYP4A3 exhibited an additional arachidonate 11,12-epoxidation activity, whereas CYP4A1 operated solely as an omega-hydroxylase. CYP4A8 did not catalyze arachidonic or linoleic acid but did have a detectable lauric acid omega-hydroxylation activity. The inhibitory activity of various acetylenic and olefinic fatty acid analogs revealed differences and indicated isoform-specific inhibition. These studies suggest that CYP4A1, despite its low expression in extrahepatic tissues, may constitute the major source of 20-HETE synthesis. Moreover, the ability of CYP4A2 and -4A3 to catalyze the formation of two opposing biologically active metabolites, 20-HETE and 11, 12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, may be of great significance to the regulation of vascular tone.  (+info)

Regulation of P-450 4A activity in the glomerulus of the rat. (8/260)

We recently reported that an enzyme of the cytochrome P-450 4A family is expressed in the glomerulus, but there is no evidence that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) can be produced by this tissue. The purpose of present study was to determine whether glomeruli isolated from the kidney of rats can produce 20-HETE and whether the production of this metabolite is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and dietary salt intake. Isolated glomeruli produced 20-HETE, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (4.13 +/- 0.38, 4.20 +/- 0.38, and 2. 10 +/- 0.20 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1, respectively) when incubated with arachidonic acid (10 microM). The formation of 20-HETE was dependent on the availability of NADPH and the PO2 of the incubation medium. The formation of 20-HETE was inhibited by NO donors in a concentration-dependent manner. The production of 20-HETE was greater in glomeruli isolated from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet (5.67 +/- 0.32 vs. 2.83 +/- 0.32 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1). Immunoblot experiments indicated that the expression of P-450 4A protein in glomeruli from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet was sixfold higher than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet. These results indicate that arachidonic acid is primarily metabolized to 20-HETE and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids in glomeruli and that glomerular P-450 activity is modulated by NO and dietary salt intake.  (+info)

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Subject: PGEC Web Page for Arabidopsis Genome Sequencing From: A. Theologis To: Arabidopsis Community The Plant Genome Sequencing Laboratory at the PGEC created in my lab a few months ago is pleased to announce the establishment of its web site at the following address: We will post information at this site regarding our progress on sequencing part of Chromosome 1 in collaboration with the Stanford Genome Center and the University of Pennsylvania (the SPP Consortium). Lists of (a) BACs selected for sequencing during the first year, (b) M13 libraries constructed for sequencing, (c) and BACs currently sequenced at the three SPP sites, and other useful information, are now available at this site. In addition, our progress on sequencing the YAC Y8H12 is also available. Our policy for data release and how it can be accessed is also posted at this site. Hyperlinks to the sites of the other two SPP members are also possible through this site. -- i,JJLL,i A. Theologis , @ ...
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As explained earlier the catalytic component of the alkane hydroxylase system is an integral membrane protein. Characterization must thus be done using an intact-membrane setup. An option which has been explored in literature [1] is the resting-cell assay a.k.a. biotransformation assay. These assays will indicate the presence or absence of the desired enzymes, regardless of the alkanes utilization for growth. The logic behind this is to stall the growth of a large volume of cells by using nitrogen-deficient medium to test their alkane conversion capabilities at near-zero growth. Extraction hydrocarbons from the medium using an apolar solvent (such as ethyl acetate) after the reaction and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography would indicate the presence of the corresponding alkanol and/or the decrease of alkane. For more on the experimental setup see the following pages: ...
As explained earlier the catalytic component of the alkane hydroxylase system is an integral membrane protein. Characterization must thus be done using an intact-membrane setup. An option which has been explored in literature [1] is the resting-cell assay a.k.a. biotransformation assay. These assays will indicate the presence or absence of the desired enzymes, regardless of the alkanes utilization for growth. The logic behind this is to stall the growth of a large volume of cells by using nitrogen-deficient medium to test their alkane conversion capabilities at near-zero growth. Extraction hydrocarbons from the medium using an apolar solvent (such as ethyl acetate) after the reaction and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography would indicate the presence of the corresponding alkanol and/or the decrease of alkane. For more on the experimental setup click here, for the extraction method [here] and for the gas chromatography program [here]. ...
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Definition of Alkane 1-monooxygenase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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Background: Lauric acid (LA) has antimicrobial effects and the potential to replace antibiotics in feeds to prevent postweaning diarrhea and increase overall sw
This video lecture from Chemistry Class 10Th covers topic of Physical properties of Alkanes. In this Video Lecture Instructor has explained in
The molecular structure of alkanes have single covalent bonds High_School_Diploma and GCSE revision guides for higher and lower tier students studying chemistry
The compounds [Cp(CO)3W{(CH2)nX}] (X = Br, I; n = 3 - 6) were prepared in high yield by the reaction ofNa[Cp(CO)3W ] with Br(CH2)nBr. The bromoalkyl compounds were subsequently reacted with NaI to give the corresponding ...
| Temelleri 1940l y llara dayanan Acar Kimya, kimyevi hammadde ithalat , ihracat ve pazarlamas yapmaktad r. Firmam z, m teri talepleri do rultusunda fason retim, dan manl k hizmeti ve teknik destek hizmeti de vermektedir.
Other names: ATCC 8062, CCUG 2087, CFBP 5589, CIP 59.11, IFO 13583, JCM 11598, LMG 2229, NBRC 13583, NCIMB 6576, NCTC 10692, NRRL B-778, P. oleovorans, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Pseudomonas sp. MGY01 ...
Other names: ATCC 8062, CCUG 2087, CFBP 5589, CIP 59.11, IFO 13583, JCM 11598, LMG 2229, NBRC 13583, NCIMB 6576, NCTC 10692, NRRL B-778, P. oleovorans, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Pseudomonas sp. MGY01 ...
Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transport of octanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans. AU - Toscano, W. A.. AU - Hartline, R. A.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 4745429. AN - SCOPUS:0015805572. VL - 116. SP - 541. EP - 547. JO - Journal of Bacteriology. JF - Journal of Bacteriology. SN - 0021-9193. IS - 2. ER - ...
Zhang X, Li S, Zhou Y et al.. Advanced Institute for Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar 2017.. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by simple hepatic steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 (CYP4A14) is a homolog of human CYP4A hydroxylase that catalyzes omega-hydroxylation of medium-chain fatty acids and arachidonic acid in mice. The goal of this study was to determine the role of CYP4A14 in the development and the progression of NAFLD. Here, we showed that hepatic CYP4A expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients and three murine models of NAFLD. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CYP4A14 in the livers of C57BL/6 mice resulted in a fatty liver phenotype with a ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of HET0016, a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, decreases pro-angiogenic factors and inhibits growth of triple negative breast cancer in mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The complete structural and molecular formula for the alkane series of hydrocarbons.. Click on each image to show or hide the proper name of the alkane and its molecular formula.. ...
Lauric acid is a saturated fat found in vegetables that provides a multitude of health benefits, such as helping to treat viral infections, according to WebMD. It is also used to make vegetable...
Pris: 1559 kr. Inbunden, 2008. Skickas inom 7-10 vardagar. Köp Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Alkanes av Jack G Calvert på
90622-49-4 - Alkanes, C10-32, chlorosulfonated, reaction products with ammonia - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Correct spelling for the English word alkane is [ˈalke͡ɪn], [ˈalke‍ɪn], [ˈa_l_k_eɪ_n] (IPA phonetic alphabet).. ...
15H-11,12-EETA; (5Z,8Z,13E)-(15S)-11,12-Epoxy-15-hydroxyeicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid; (5Z,8Z,13E)-(15S)-11,12-Epoxy-15-hydroxyicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid; 15-Hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; C14781 ...
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In the new practice depth paper (the one on the google drive link) question 5c where it asks you to identify the molecular formula of alkane X, I identified that the alkane has 7 carbon atoms in it so assumed its formula was C7H16 due to this being the general formula of alkanes. Yet the answer was C7H14, why is this ...
Isohexadecane is part of the paraffin or alkane family of molecules. Alkanes are acyclic saturated hydrocarbon, i.e. molecules made of…. ...
In butane it is the rotation about the C2-C3 bond that is of most interest since the relative position of the two methyl groups is important. This can be seen most easily by rotating the molecule to view it down the C2-C3 bond. The more important conformations are shown below ...
Today room thirteen were building bridges out of straws. We were working hard with our straws. We worked as a team. At the beginning we w ...
We all have our own history of medicine. From birth and broken bones in our adventurous youth to routine trips to the dentist, doctor and optician, visits to loved ones in hospital and experiences of loss. We are deeply invested in our own health and that of friends and family. Opening on 16 November, Medicine: The Wellcome Galleries creates a magnificent new home for the most significant medical collections in the world, providing a rich historical context for our experience of medicine today and featuring moving personal stories from patients and practitioners. The vast galleries cover more than 3000m², an area equivalent to 1,500 hospital beds. The five new galleries reveal how the quest to better understand the human body has transformed medicine. They examine treatments that save, improve and sometimes harm lives, highlight the health challenges faced by populations and uncover our hopes and fears about health. Over three thousand medical artefacts from the extraordinary collections of ...
Many bacteria capable of degrading long-chain alkanes have been isolated, and the enzyme systems that oxidize long-chain n-alkanes up to C16 have been characterized (see references 18, 26, and 30 for reviews). Although long-chain alkanes are more persistent in the environment than shorter-chain alkanes, genes involved in degradation of n-alkanes longer than C16 had not been reported prior to the work of Throne-Holst et al. (25) and Feng et al. (5). A flavin-binding monooxygenase involved in oxidation of very-long-chain n-alkanes up to C32 has been characterized in Acinetobacter sp. strain DSM17874 (25), and LadA from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 is the first long-chain n-alkane monooxygenase functional on alkanes in the range from C15 to C36 to be cloned and structurally characterized from a Gram-positive strain (5). Both enzymes show little or no homology with the widespread and well-characterized AlkB-type alkane hydroxylases usually reported as being functional on long-chain ...
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0004] Provided herein are recombinant phototrophic microorganisms, comprising one or more alkane oxidation genes whose expression results in oxidation of alkanes and assimilation of the resulting products into the central metabolic pathways in phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria. The one or more alkane oxidation genes can be an alkane monooxygenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase or an aldehyde assimilatory gene. The recombinant photosynthetic organism converts the entire feed of alkane into the targeted product because it uses sunlight to provide energy and oxygen needed for oxidation of alkanes. Having the ability to couple oxidation of alkanes such as methane with sunlight in the recombinant phototrophic organism and energy can allow molecules of interest (e.g., butanol) to be produced biologically from natural gas in an efficient and cost effective manner. Because the recombinant phototrophic organism converts alkanes into metabolic products that are natively part of central metabolic ...
Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC ® 8062™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Assay of antimicrobial preservatives Bioresistance testing
22 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is the principal arachidonic acid metabolite in tubular and vascular structures of the rat kidney. In the tubules it inhibits sodium reabsorption, while in the renal microcirculation it is a vasoconstrictor and a regulator of myogenic tone. 20-HETE synthesis is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A isoforms (4A1, 4A2, 4A3 and 4A8). Our studies indicated that despite the high homology, these isoforms display distinct catalytic properties. CYP4A1 is the low Km isoform and thus, by far, the most efficient 20-HETE synthesizing enzyme. Whereas CYP4A1 is solely an ω-hydroxylase, CYP4A2 and CYP4A3 also catalyze arachidonate 11,12-epoxidation. Systemic administration of CYP4A1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reduced the level of CYP4A proteins and 20-HETE synthesis in renal vessels by 50%, and decreased blood pressure in SHR from 137±3 to 121±4 mmHg (p , 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and inhibitor studies indicated that within the renal vasculature CYP4A1 ...
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Advances in fossil fuel exploration have continued to drive availability of lower alkane feedstocks for the chemical industry. Lower alkanes are potential precursors to the plethora of basic organic chemicals. However, conversion of lower alkanes to valuable chemicals often involves indirect or multi-step reaction routes. Developing direct routes to obtain key organic chemicals from lower alkanes would benefit industry. Dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes are particularly of interest as alternatives to steam cracking and fluid catalytic cracking for obtaining C2 and C3 alkenes. This review highlights developments in non-oxidative, autothermal and oxidative dehydrogenation of C2 and C3 alkanes.We examine reaction routes to dehydrogenation of lower alkenes, and analyze the C-H activation mechanismof commercial catalysts in order to gain insight into rational design of improved catalysts for C2 and C3 alkane dehydrogenation at lower temperatures.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of the cerebral circulation by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase activity. AU - Peng, Xinqi. AU - Carhuapoma, Juan R.. AU - Bhardwaj, Anish. AU - Alkayed, Nabil J.. AU - Harder, David R.. AU - Traystman, Richard J.. AU - Koehler, Raymond C.. PY - 2002/7/1. Y1 - 2002/7/1. N2 - Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which can dilate cerebral vessels. In glial cell cultures, glutamate stimulates the release of EETs. Thus, an astrocyte-based epoxygenase pathway could form a link in the coupling of blood flow to neuronal activity. To test this hypothesis, neuronal activation was produced by mechanical displacement of the whiskers of anesthetized rats while monitoring red cell flux by laser-Doppler flowmetry over whisker barrel sensory cortex. N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenol) hexanamide (MS-PPOH) or miconazole, two different types of P450 epoxygenase inhibitors, were superfused over the cortical surface in different ...
Looking for online definition of alkane in the Medical Dictionary? alkane explanation free. What is alkane? Meaning of alkane medical term. What does alkane mean?
Elshenawy OH, Shoieb SM, Mohamed A et al.. Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, AB, Canada. [email protected] Pharmaceutics. Feb 2017.. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport. Furthermore, 20-HETE is involved in renal 19 ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and polycystic kidney diseases. The role of 20-HETE in the liver is not clearly understood although it represents 50%-75% of liver CYP-dependent AA ...
Introduction. Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and dont cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. more. ...
Tī piau-chún chōng-hóng hā, CH4 kàu C4H10 sī khì-thé, C5H12 kàu C17H36 sī e̍k-thé, C18H38 chi-āu tō lóng-sī kò͘-thé. In-ūi hun-chú ê tāng-liōng sī éng-hióng alkane hut-tiám tōa-sè ê chú-iàu in-sò͘, in-chhú alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám hām hun-chú-liōng ê tōa-sè ū sòaⁿ-sèng koan-hē. Iû piⁿ-á ê chhu-sè-tô͘ ē-sái khòaⁿ-chhut: múi cheng-ka chi̍t-ê carbon, alkane hun-chú ê hut-tiám tō ē cheng-ka 20 kàu 30°C.[3] Ti̍t-liān alkane ê hut-tiám lóng pí ū hun-chi ê kôaiⁿ, in-ūi hun-chi ē kiám-chió hun-chú chi-kan ê chiap-chhiok piáu-bīn-chek, khì éng-hióng-tio̍h alkane hun-chú chi-kan ê van der Waals le̍k. Pí-lūn-kóng, pí-kàu n-butane kah isobutane (2-methylpropane), in-ê hut-tiám hun-pia̍t sī 0°C kah -12°C.[3] ...
By synthesizing alkanes in organisms, alkanes can become a useful renewable energy source; CO2 emitted from burning the alkanes are converted to glucose through photosynthesis, and then the glucose can be fed to alkane-synthesizing organisms to restart the cycle. This cycle can be drastically improved if there were fewer steps in the cycle. We explored the possibility of optimizing the alkane biosynthesis system in different micro-organisms, with the idea that perhaps with autotrophic organisms, we do not need to obtain glucose for the reaction ...
View Notes - Chapter 3 from CHE 201 at SUNY Buffalo. Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated with hydrogens Ratio: CnH2n+2 Alkane homologs: CH3(CH2)nCH3 Same ratio for branched
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Methods and catalysts for producing alcohols, ethers, and/or alkenes from alkanes are provided. More particularly, novel caged, or encapsulated, metal oxide catalysts and processes utilizing such catalysts to convert alkanes to alcohols and/or ethers and to convert alcohols and/or ethers to alkenes are provided.
P450BM3 (CYP102A1), a fatty acid hydroxylase from Bacillus megaterium, has been extensively studied over a period of almost forty years. The enzyme has been redesigned to catalyse the oxidation of non-natural substrates as diverse as pharmaceuticals, terpenes and gaseous alkanes using a variety of engineering strat
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The Bertz indices, derived by counting the number of connecting edges of line graphs of a molecule were used in deriving the QSPR models for the physicochemical properties of alkanes. The inability of these indices to identify the hetero centre in a chemical compound restricted their applications to hydrocarbons only. In the present work, a novel molecular descriptor has been derived from the weighted line graph of the molecular structure and applied in correlating the physicochemical properties of alkane isomers with these descriptors. A weight is tagged at the vertex of the line graph, which consequently modifies the weight of the edge. These descriptors were found to classify the alkane isomers and served well in deriving the QSPR models for various physicochemical properties. The mathematical calculations include the quantitative treatment on the role of substituents (alkyl) in governing the properties under study of the alkane isomers. Further, the use of weighted line graph in the enumeration of
Chemistry: The Molecular Science (5th Edition) answers to Chapter 2 - Chemical Compounds - Exercise 2.12 - Alkane Boiling Points - Page 73 c including work step by step written by community members like you. Textbook Authors: Moore, John W.; Stanitski, Conrad L., ISBN-10: 1285199049, ISBN-13: 978-1-28519-904-7, Publisher: Cengage Learning
Big molecules of Alkanes are heavy, they do not flow or burn easy. Our industry needs smaller and more reactive materials. We can use themal cracking to break these large molecules into smaller ones. The sample is vaporized and passed over a hot catalyst. Bonds inside the molecule are broken and double bonds are formed since there is a lack of hydrogens saturate the new compounds. It is a random process so the double bonds can produce a mixture of compounds. Since one molecule is broken in two, cracking is an example of a thermal decomposition reaction. ...
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... alkane monooxygenase, 1-hydroxylase, AlkB, and alkane hydroxylase. It contains a diiron non-heme active site. McKenna EJ, Coon ... In enzymology, an alkane 1-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions an alkane + reduced ... Alkanes of 6 to 22 carbons have been observed as substrates. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ...
... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.557 - kynurenine 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.601 - ... trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase MeSH D08.622.509.700 - pepsinogen a MeSH D08.622.509.725 - pepsinogen c MeSH D08.622.610.500 - ... monophenol monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 - cytochrome p-450 enzyme system MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040 - aryl ...
... alkane,reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase) octane + reduced rubredoxin + O2 = 1-octanol + oxidized rubredoxin + H2O EC ... 2-monooxygenase [(+)-camphor,reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-lactonizing)] (+)-bornane-2,5-dione + reduced ... rubredoxin + O2 = 5-oxo-1,2-campholide + oxidized rubredoxin + H2O EC alkane 1-monooxygenase ( ...
... olei to utilize petroleum hydrocarbons in farmland soil can be explained by its lack of alkane monooxygenase and aromatic ring- ... 1-13. ISBN 978-1-118-96060-8. Yabuuchi, E.; T. Kaneko; I. Yano; C.W. Moss; N. Miyoshi. (1 July 1983). "Sphingobacterium gen. ... Liu, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Sheng, Mengyao; Yang, Zhou; Qiu, Jiguo; Wang, Chenghong; He, Jian (1 March 2020). "Sphingobacterium ... 1 June 2017). "Sphingobacterium alkalisoli sp. nov., isolated from a saline-alkaline soil". International Journal of Systematic ...
Rasche ME, Hicks RE, Hyman MR, Arp DJ (September 1990). "Oxidation of monohalogenated ethanes and n-chlorinated alkanes by ... "Evidence that particulate methane monooxygenase and ammonia monooxygenase may be evolutionarily related". FEMS Microbiology ... Ammonia monooxygenase (EC, AMO) is an enzyme, which catalyses the following chemical reaction ammonia + AH2 + O2 ... Ammonia+monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Basch, Harold; Morokuma, Keiji (2002). "Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of Alkane Hydroxylation and ... "Computational studies of reaction mechanisms of methane monooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase". Journal of Computational ... 23 (1): 59-76. doi:10.1002/jcc.1157. ISSN 0192-8651. PMID 11913390. Basch, Harold; Ratner, Mark A. (2003). "Binding at molecule ...
It has also been shown that AK-01 utilizes not only alkanes but also 1-alkenes, 1-alkanols, fatty acids and other organic acids ... but serves as a reactant in the hydroxylation of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons via monooxygenase and dioxygenase ... AK-01 is a delta-proteobacterium capable of utilizing C13-C18 alkanes as growth substrates (So et al., 1999). Analysis of ... Heat and pressure lead to the formation of a wide variety of hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, and cyclic/polycyclic ...
... (MMO) is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes. Methane ... The particulate methane monooxygenase and related ammonia monooxygenase are integral membrane proteins, occurring in ... "Evidence that particulate methane monooxygenase and ammonia monooxygenase may be evolutionarily related". FEMS Microbiol. Lett ... This is a classic monooxygenase reaction in which two reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H are utilized to split the O-O bond of ...
The transformation can also performed biologically by methane monooxygenase. Overall Transformation RH + H2O + [PtCl6]2− → ROH ... "Reactions of alkanes in solutions of platinum chloride complexes" Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1972, 46, 1353-13544 Gol'dshleger, N. F.; ... and the nucleophilic oxidation of the alkane substrate. An equivalent transformation is performed industrially by steam ... 1] and [2] ). Such premature oxidation shuts down the catalysis. Finally the PtIV-CH2R undergoes nucleophilic attack by OH− or ...
These monooxygenases are especially important, as they account for long-chain n-alkane hydroxylation. A. Pacificus is closely ... Found were genes encoding for four integral-membrane alkane monooxygenases, three cytochrome P450 enzymes, and four genes ... Part of this difference results from a 549 nucleootide fragment of the alkane hydroxylase gene alkB, which was amplified from ... Lai Q, Shao Z (December 2012). "Genome sequence of an alkane-degrading bacterium, Alcanivorax pacificus type strain W11-5, ...
Another example is Mycobacterium vaccae, which uses an alkane monooxygenase enzyme to oxidize propane. Accidentally, this ... OX1 can degrade PCE under aerobic conditions by using toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO), an enzyme they produce to derive ... Several aerobic microorganisms have been demonstrated to be capable of doing this, including n-alkane, aromatic compound (e.g. ... These bacteria degrade their growth-substrate methane with the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO). MMO was discovered to be ...
The methanol reacts in the presence of a zeolite catalyst to form alkanes. In terms of mechanism, methanol is partially ... The relevant enzymes are methane monooxygenases, which are found both in soluble and particulate (i.e. membrane-bound) ... alkanes), aromatics, naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and small amounts of olefins (alkenes), mostly from C 6 (number of carbon atoms ... Most of the non-condensed gas from the product separator becomes recycled gas and is sent back to the feed stream to Reactor 1 ...
The aerobic metabolism of alkanes is carried out through the terminal alkane oxidation pathway, where monooxygenases initiate ... borkumensis can consume a wider variety of alkanes than other known species. A. borkumensis primarily uses alkanes as its ... The A. borkumensis genome has many sequences that each code for a different type of alkane, allowing it to be highly adaptable ... Whereas most organisms use sugars or amino acids for their source of carbon/energy, A. borkumensis uses alkanes, a type of ...
Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene ... certain fungi possess intracellular networks which constitute the xenome, consisting of cytochrome (CYP) P450 monooxygenases ... The subphylum Saccharomycotina mostly consists of yeasts and includes degraders of n-alkanes, n-alkylbenzenes, crude oil, the ... 198 (Pt 2): 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.010. PMID 28499155. The levels of adsorption of the phenolic and PAHs were ...
Thermophilic Thermus and Bacillus species have demonstrated higher gene expression for the alkane mono-oxygenase alkB at ... 5 (1): 109-16. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2012.00348.x. PMID 23757139. Krupovic M, Gonnet M, Hania WB, Forterre P, Erauso G (2013 ... 26 (1): 44-71. doi:10.1039/b800164m. PMID 19374122. Rossi M, Ciaramella M, Cannio R, Pisani FM, Moracci M, Bartolucci S (July ... 4 (1): 110-121. Fakayode, S.O. (2005). "Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro River ...
... or methane monooxygenase (MMO), which degrade various environmental pollutants (i.e.: alkanes, alkenes, and mono- and poly- ... encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase), and fae (encoding formaldehyde activating enzyme) genes." The data ... 1. p. 233-238. Baev M V, Chistoserdova L V, Polanuer B M, et al. "Effect of formaldehyde on growth of obligate methylotroph ... p. 1-10. Marchenko GN, Marchenko ND, Tsygankov YD, Chistoserdov AY. "Organization of threonine biosynthesis genes from the ...
The enzyme methane monooxygenase produces methanol from methane, but cannot be used for industrial-scale reactions. Some ... Hydrogen Cycle Industrial gas Lake Kivu (more general: limnic eruption) List of straight-chain alkanes Methanation Methane ... 57-58 McBride, James Michael (1999) "Development of systematic names for the simple alkanes". Chemistry Department, Yale ... It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane ...
... alkane monooxygenase, 1-hydroxylase, AlkB, and alkane hydroxylase. It contains a diiron non-heme active site. McKenna EJ, Coon ... In enzymology, an alkane 1-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions an alkane + reduced ... Alkanes of 6 to 22 carbons have been observed as substrates. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ...
Definition of Alkane 1-monooxygenase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... alkane. alkane 1-monooxygenase (current term). alkane series. alkanediyl. alkanediyls. alkanes. alkanesulfonates. ... Medical Definition of Alkane 1-monooxygenase. 1. Alkb is an integral membrane protein component Registry number: EC ... Alkane 1-monooxygenase Pictures. Click the following link to bring up a new window with an automated collection of images ...
Computational-based insights into the phylogeny, structure, and function of Rhodococcus alkane-1-monooxygenase Authors. * ...
2-monooxygenase Pages 9-15 * Alkane 1-monooxygenase Pages 16-25 ... Page 1 Navigate to page number. of 3 Next Navigate to page ...
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH- ... leukotriene-B4 20-monooxygenase activity Source: MGI. *monooxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/ ... alkane 1-monooxygenase activity Source: MGI. *arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity Source: MGI ... Long-chain fatty acid omega-monooxygenase (EC: similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ...
... omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate and palmitate. Shows no activity towards arachidonic acid and ... alkane 1-monooxygenase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic ... arachidonic acid monooxygenase activity Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based ... Long-chain fatty acid omega-monooxygenase (EC:*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane ... To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and ... BBa_K398017 - Long-chain (C15-36) alkane conversion. For the first step in the long-chain alkane degradation pathway the ... BBa_K398014 - Medium-chain (C5-13) alkane conversion. Our medium-chain hydrocarbon degrading strain contains the alkane ...
Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane ... oxidizes (cyclo)alkanes to their respective (cyclo)alkanols by transferring one oxygen atom from molecular oxygen to the alkane ... To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and ... BBa_K398017 - Long-chain (C15-36) alkane conversion. For the first step in the long-chain alkane degradation pathway the ...
Nucleotide (GenBank) : AJ293344 Burkholderia cepacia partial alkB gene for putative alkane 1-monooxygenase. ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : L36602 Rhizobium meliloti (clone Rhizo70-1) heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene, complete cds. ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : L36603 Pseudomonas cepacia (clone Psudom70-1) heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene, complete cds. ...
Search Medline for alkane 1-monooxygenase AND tert-Butyl alcohol. 2 citations on August 16, 2012. tert-Butyl alcohol , , O2 + ... RH2 alkane , / 1-monooxygenase ,/ , Search GenBank, 684 hits on Apr. 03, 2012 Kyoto ,\ ExPASy , \ , H2O + R v 2- ... From tert-Butyl alcohol to 2-Methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol. Graphic of the reaction.. Medline reference Steffan RJ, McClay K, ... Methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol Display a pathway starting from this reaction. EAWAG-BBD Biotransformation rules in accord with ...
Gordonia bronchialis DSM 43247 putative alkane 1-monooxygenase (alkB) gene, partial cds. DSM 43247 T ... Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of the alkane 1-monooxygenase gene from Gordonia spp ... 43 items found, displaying 1 to 25.[First/Prev] 1, 2 [Next/Last] ... 43 items found, displaying 1 to 25.[First/Prev] 1, 2 [Next/Last ... Gordonia bronchialis DSM 43247 catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (catA) gene, partial cds. DSM 43247 T ...
... putida GPo1 and were shown to oxidize alkanes ranging from C10 to C16 (21). Four alkane monooxygenase homologs (two as part of ... and LadA from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 is the first long-chain n-alkane monooxygenase functional on alkanes in ... Two distinct monooxygenases for alkane oxidation in Nocardioides sp. strain CF8. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:4992-4998. ... Involvement of an Alkane Hydroxylase System of Gordonia sp. Strain SoCg in Degradation of Solid n-Alkanes Luca Lo Piccolo, ...
alkane 1-monooxygenase activity. CYP4A12A; CYP4F18; CYP4F12; CYP4A14; CYP4A10; CYP4F2; CYP4A11. aromatase activity. CYP2J2; ... monooxygenase activity. CYP2AD6; CYP2X7; CYP2AD3; CYP3A5; CYP1A4; CYP26C1; CYP46A1.4; CYP2P6; CYP4F22; CYP27C1. ... cyp4a12a has several biochemical functions, for example, alkane 1-monooxygenase activity, aromatase activity, heme binding. ...
Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b ... and styrene monooxygenase (Nfa12190, Nfa32440, and Nfa32460). Of 103 oxygenases, 27 are putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenases ... Involvement of an Alkane Hydroxylase System of Gordonia sp. Strain SoCg in Degradation of Solid n-Alkanes ... Two Novel Alkane Hydroxylase-Rubredoxin Fusion Genes Isolated from a Dietzia Bacterium and the Functions of Fused Rubredoxin ...
20-monooxygenase 2).. CYP4F3: Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. This enzyme requires molecular ... Molecular Function: alkane 1-monooxygenase activity; arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity; leukotriene-B4 20-monooxygenase ... Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. This enzyme requires molecular oxygen and NADPH for the omega- ... EPS8-like 1 (EPS8L1) ELISA Kit. • DRD3 Antibody. • 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) ELISA Kit. • TRIM10 Antibody. more .... ...
In addition, alkane biodegradation genes are described for the first time in members of Planctomycetes. ... Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes: An In Silico Approach Marine Drugs. Apr ... Jan, 2016 , Pubmed ID: 26547568 We aimed to gain insight into the alkane degradation potential of microbial communities from ... A total of 6178 sequences annotated as alkane-1-monooxygenases (EC were retrieved from a shotgun metagenomic dataset ...
We identify an array of alkane monooxygenases, osmoprotectants, siderophores and micronutrient-scavenging pathways. We also ... Amidohydrolase family Protein OLEI01672_1_465. A. 468. Oleispira antarctica. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: mtaD. EC: ( ... Crystal Structure of Amidohydrolase family Protein OLEI01672_1_465 from Oleispira antarctica. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3LNP/pdb ...
The detection and phylogenetic analysis of the alkane 1-monooxygenase gene of members of the genus Rhodococcus, SYSTEMATIC AND ... 1-7.. type of document: Journal paper/Article. number of independent citations: 2. language: English. DOI ... Part 1) pp. 298-301.. type of document: Journal paper/Article. number of independent citations: 10. language: English. DOI ... 1) pp. 87-98.. type of document: Journal paper/Article. number of independent citations: 6. language: English. DOI ...
... and alkane monooxygenase) (3, 31, 34, 50). Thus, the developed microarray should be useful for assessing possible horizontal ... Bacterial strains, growth conditions, and soil samples.Pseudomonas putida Gpo1 (γ-proteobacterium; aerobic alkane degrader) and ... In addition, 4-chlorobenzate CoA ligase, alkane-1 monooxygenase, benzoyl CoA ligase, and cis-naphthalene dihydrodiol ... whereas very strong hybridization was observed for the alkane 1-monooxygenase gene (gi5824143) when the probe was 94% similar. ...
Alkane 1-monooxygenase Current Synonym true false 142324010 Alkane 1-hydroxylase Current Synonym true false ...
... and chemoselective manner is efficiently catalyzed by monooxygenases such as the AlkBGT enzyme complex from Pseudomonas putida ... The direct ω-oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic alkanes in a regio- ... a robust high-throughput microwell platform for whole-cell two-liquid phase bio-oxidations of highly volatile n-alkanes. Using ... combining 1-dodecanol, dodecanal and dodecanoic acid) of up to 1.5 mmol g DCW −1 . Overall, the developed microwell plate ...
... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.557 - kynurenine 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.601 - ... trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase MeSH D08.622.509.700 - pepsinogen a MeSH D08.622.509.725 - pepsinogen c MeSH D08.622.610.500 - ... monophenol monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 - cytochrome p-450 enzyme system MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040 - aryl ...
Shen F.T., Young L.S., Hsieh M.F., Lin S.Y., Young C.C. ( 2010;). Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of the alkane 1 ... monooxygenase gene from Gordonia spp. Syst Appl Microbiol 33 53-59 [CrossRef] [PubMed] . ... 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait ...
... lyase were identified along with oxidoreductases involved in oxidation reactions downstream of the initial monooxygenase ... Here, both molecular and metabolic features of BCP1 cells grown on gaseous and short-chain n-alkanes (up to n-heptane) were ... Here, both molecular and metabolic features of BCP1 cells grown on gaseous and short-chain n-alkanes (up to n-heptane) were ... Two gene clusters, prmABCD and smoABCD-coding for Soluble Di-Iron Monooxgenases (SDIMOs) involved in gaseous n-alkanes ...
Alkane 1-Monooxygenase. Cytochrome P-450 CYP4A. Carboxypeptidase U. Carboxypeptidase B2. Receptor, erbB-2. Receptor, ErbB-2. ...
Alkane 1-monooxygenase; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology (332 aa) ... Alkane 1-monooxygenase; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology ... Alkane 1-monooxygenase; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology ... Alkane 1-monooxygenase; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology ...
4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase small chain (NCBI). 192, 337. PA4187. PA4187. probable major facilitator superfamily ( ... alkane-1-monooxygenase (NCBI). 30, 192. PA3387. rhlG. beta-ketoacyl reductase (NCBI). 192, 550. ... POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.25 0.0 0.0 0.75 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.0 6 1.0 0.0 0.0 ... 1. All genomic elements for the organism are represented as a circle and each element is separated by black tick marks. In this ...
alkane-1-monooxygenase (NCBI). 30, 192. PA2584. pgsA. CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase (NCBI) ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 4 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 7 ... POSITION A C G T 1 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.6 3 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.4 6 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 7 ... 1. All genomic elements for the organism are represented as a circle and each element is separated by black tick marks. In this ...
There is experimental evidence that it has the molecular function: alkane 1-monooxygenase activity. There is experimental ... 1; R2: Replicate No.2; R3: Replicate No. 3. Primary screen data - CG10248: SN. RN. WN. Fint1. Fint2. Fint3. Fint4. Fnum. Fmph1 ... 1. 65. 0.049072431. -0.121728901. -0.374768319. -0.386066868. 1.233482494. 1.752211326. 1.62871669. 1.814638184. 2.696060555. ...
Alkane 1-monooxygenase ( C12Y 203/01012 C. CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY. 12. BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; ... Oxidoreductases (1.). 0071. acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (1.14). 0077. with a reduced iron- ... Oxidoreductases (1.). 0071. acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (1.14). 0077. with a reduced iron- ... Oxidoreductases (1.). 0008. acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors (1.2). ...
  • Figure 1 - Schematic description of the alkane degradation pathway with the corresponding genes. (
  • To create the alkane degradation constructs a number of genes encoding for alkane degradation enzymes were synthesized and combined with promoters and ribosome binding sites obtained from the BioBrick distribution plates. (
  • This work describes the alkane degradation system of the n -alkane degrader actinobacterium Gordonia sp. (
  • A SoCg alkB disruption mutant that is completely unable to grow on n -triacontane was obtained, demonstrating the role of an AlkB-type AH system in degradation of solid n -alkanes. (
  • Five chromosomal genes ( alkM , rubA , rubB , alkR , and xcpR ) in at least three different loci are required for degradation of C 12 to C 18 alkanes in Acinetobacter sp. (
  • strain BCP1 was initially isolated for its ability to grow on gaseous n -alkanes, which act as inducers for the co-metabolic degradation of low-chlorinated compounds. (
  • In this study we analyzed the functional diversity of genes for alkane hydroxylases, the enzymes responsible for converting alkanes to more labile alcohols, as found in the genomes of nineteen psychrophiles for which alkane degradation has not been reported. (
  • Thirteen genes in charge of the degradation of PAHs and alkanes had been determined, including 1 alkane 1-monooxygenase gene, 5 catechol 1,2-dioxygenase genes, 2 benzene 1,2-dioxygenase genes, and 5 naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase genes. (
  • Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and its degradation products are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans and other biological systems. (
  • Nevertheless, significant changes in the distribution patterns of short- and middle-chained alkanes suggest an interaction of MCPA and alkane degradation. (
  • The alkane hydroxylase (AlkB), which catalyse the first reaction, is the key enzyme in the process of alkane degradation and has received increasing attention. (
  • Degradation of alkanes is a widespread phenomenon in nature, and numerous microorganisms capable of utilizing these substrates as a carbon and energy source have been isolated and characterized (Wentzel, A., Ellingsen, T.E., Kotlar, H.-K., Zotchev, S.B. and Throne-Holst, M. 2007. (
  • Extensive knowledge of the microbiology of long-chain n-alkanes degradation has been accumulated. (
  • The primary route of degradation for alkanes is to the alcohol. (
  • This chapter focuses on the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, with an emphasis on alkanes, and the applications of enzymes involved in these processes for biocatalysis. (
  • Pathways for the degradation of alkanes by terminal, subterminal, and biterminal oxidation. (
  • Strain DS-1 T is a non-pigmented, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium and represents the first tier member of environmentally important bacterial communities that catalyze the complete degradation of synthetic laundry surfactants. (
  • The initial degradation as catalyzed by strain DS-1 T involves the activation and shortening of the alkyl-chain of the surfactant molecules, and the excretion of short-chain degradation intermediates. (
  • As bioremediation can be effective only where environmental conditions permit microbial growth and activity, its application often involves the manipulation of environmental parameters to allow microbial growth and degradation to proceed at a faster rate (Figure 1 ). (
  • In enzymology, an alkane 1-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions an alkane + reduced rubredoxin + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a primary alcohol + oxidized rubredoxin + H2O. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. (
  • The direct ω-oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic alkanes in a regio- and chemoselective manner is efficiently catalyzed by monooxygenases such as the AlkBGT enzyme complex from Pseudomonas putida under mild conditions. (
  • Collectively, the results of this study suggest that GSPALK1 is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial oxidation of alkanes and ethers but is not involved in the later steps of alkane or ether metabolism. (
  • Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. (
  • One or more recombinant genes encoding one or more enzymes having enzyme activities which catalyze the production of medium chain-length alkanes are identified and selected. (
  • The enzyme activities include: an alkane deformylative monooxygenase activity, a thioesterase activity, a carboxylic acid reductase activity, and a phosphopanthetheinyl transferase activity, a long-chain fatty acid CoA-ligase activity, and/or a long-chain acyl-CoA reductase activity. (
  • The oxygenases that are required for the initial activation of alkanes belong to several different enzyme classes, some of which act on medium- and long-chain alkanes, while others oxidize only short-chain alkanes. (
  • Studies of alkane hydroxylase (AH) gene diversity, coupled with information on substrate range, induction, enzyme kinetics, and host properties, should help in understanding and optimizing the biodegradative activity of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains, benefit biocatalytic applications, and promote fundamental research on the activation of oxygen by enzymes and biomimetic catalysts. (
  • This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. (
  • The goal of the present work was to characterize microbial communities involved in short-chain alkane metabolism, namely methane, ethane and propane, in samples from a petroliferous (P) soil through clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene of the Domains Bacteria and Archaea and the catabolic gene coding for the soluble di-iron monooxygenase (SDIMO) enzyme alpha subunit. (
  • Aerobic methanotrophs bacteria can oxidize methane through the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO). (
  • AJ293344 Burkholderia cepacia partial alkB gene for putative alkane 1-monooxygenase. (
  • L36602 Rhizobium meliloti (clone Rhizo70-1) heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene, complete cds. (
  • L36603 Pseudomonas cepacia (clone Psudom70-1) heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene, complete cds. (
  • The detection and phylogenetic analysis of the alkane 1-monooxygenase gene of members of the genus Rhodococcus , SYSTEMATIC AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 38: pp. 1-7. (
  • Two gene clusters, prmABCD and smoABCD -coding for Soluble Di-Iron Monooxgenases (SDIMOs) involved in gaseous n -alkanes oxidation-were detected in the BCP1 genome. (
  • A gene, CYP52L1, was identified, cloned and functionally characterized as an alkane-oxidizing cytochrome P450 (GSPALK1). (
  • Post-transcriptional ds-RNA-mediated gene silencing of CYP52L1 severely reduced the ability of this fungus to oxidize alkanes and ethers, however, downstream metabolic steps in these pathways were unaffected. (
  • The influence of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the mineralization of litter-derived alkanes and the abundance of the alkane monooxygenase gene ( alkB ) in the detritusphere of Pisum sativum (L. (
  • In the present study, the temporal and spatial variation of the abundance of the alkane monooxygenase gene alkB and 16S rRNA genes in different soil compartments was analysed in the presence or absence of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) after the addition of pea litter to soil in a microcosm study. (
  • The alkane hydroxylase ( alkB ) gene of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was constructed in a pCom8 expression vector, and the pCom8-GPo1 alkB plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. (
  • In a previous work, it was reported that the Bacillus subtilis des gene codes for a unique desaturase, Des ( 1 ). (
  • It was previously shown that expression of the des gene in Escherichia coli resulted in desaturation of the palmitic moieties of the membrane phospholipids to give cis -5-hexadecenoic acid, indicating that the B . subtilis desaturase is a Δ5 acyl lipid desaturase ( 1 ). (
  • The bacterial communities and alkane monooxygenase gene fragment, alkB, were compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (
  • Degenerate primers were used to amplify a portion of an alkane monooxygenase gene. (
  • Soluble and particulate mono-oxygenases are known to oxidize the same compounds, and some of the gene diversity detected with primers that amplify membrane-bound methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) genes may well be due to short-chain alkane-degrading bacteria instead of methanotrophs. (
  • Under aerobic conditions, activation is usually achieved by oxidation of one of the terminal methyl groups to generate the corresponding primary alcohol by alkane hydroxylases (AHs) ( 18 , 26 ). (
  • To identify possible mechanisms of low temperature optimization we compared putative alkane hydroxylases from these psychrophiles with homologues from nineteen taxonomically related mesophilic strains. (
  • These candidates were mostly related to the AlkB and cytochrome p450 alkane hydroxylases, but several homologues of the LadA and AlmA enzymes, significant for their ability to degrade long-chain alkanes, were also detected. (
  • These putative alkane hydroxylases showed significant differences in primary structure from their mesophile homologues, with preferences for specific amino acids and increased flexibility on loops, bends, and α-helices. (
  • In the most described cases, the n-alkane is oxidized to the corresponding primary alcohol by substrate-specific terminal monooxygenases/ hydroxylases. (
  • This metabolism and excretion mechanism, suggesting low bioaccumulation potential, is expected to cover all of the components of HAB because all contain at least one linear alkyl chain with unblocked terminal carbons that are known substrates for terminal monooxygenases/hydroxylases as described by Wentzel et al. (
  • The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these engineered P450s, and (3) the changes in redox control resulting from protein engineering. (
  • Also known as Leukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 2 (CYPIVF3) (Cytochrome P450 4F3) (Cytochrome P450-LTB-omega) (Leukotriene-B(4) 20-monooxygenase 2). (
  • RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. (
  • Because the dirivatives of these compounds are commonly used as growth substrates by many organisms, the identification of this unique protein, which belongs to the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase family, provides knowledge about the biochemical step that allows Graphium to occupy this strange ecological niche. (
  • Analysis of CYP52L1 suggests that it is a member of the CYP52 cytochrome P450 family, which is comprised of medium- and long-chain alkane-oxidizing enzymes found in yeasts. (
  • 9. Directed Evolution of a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase for Alkane Oxidation. (
  • The in vitro effects of alkanes, alcohols, and ketones on rat lung cytochrome P450-dependent alkoxyphenoxazone dealkylase activities. (
  • This inhibition was directed at the cytochrome-P450 dependent monooxygenase activity. (
  • Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are a diverse collection of enzymes acting on various endogenous and xenobiotic molecules. (
  • In this work, we have generated a new non-heme iron(IV)-oxo complex, [Fe(IV)(O)(BQEN)]2+ (1) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), that shows a high reactivity in the oxidation of alkanes and alcohols. (
  • More importantly, we have obtained strong evidence that an iron(V)-oxo species is involved as an active oxidant in the catalytic oxidation of alkanes and alcohols by an iron catalyst and a terminal oxidant. (
  • These ligands form diiron complexes, which rapidly and efficiently catalyzed the oxidation of alkanes with m-CPBA as an oxidant to show high A/K ratio, large turnover number, large turnover frequency in the catalytic oxidations. (
  • We show that propane metabolism generated terminal and sub-terminal oxidation products such as 1- and 2-propanol, whereas 1-butanol was the only terminal oxidation product detected from n -butane metabolism. (
  • Our present knowledge on the metabolism of short-chain n -alkanes is based on studies in Gram-negative bacteria, when the most common bacterial species isolated from natural habitats that utilize gaseous n -alkanes are Gram-positive strains belonging to the CMNR group (including Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Mycobacterium , and Rhodococcus genera). (
  • Alkane monooxygenases initiate the metabolism of alkanes by catalyzing the oxidation of the alkanes to alcohols. (
  • This work will provide the detailed molecular description of a pathway of gaseous alkane metabolism (other than methane). (
  • However, metabolism data on linear alkyl chains includes conversion of the terminal carbons of linear alkyl chains (alkanes) to carboxylic acids followed by metabolism of the resulting fatty acids. (
  • Bacterial metabolism of long-chain n-alkanes. (
  • The major difference between the metabolism under aerobic conditions of alkanes and isoalkanes relates to the impact of the branching on the rate of metabolism (Fritsche and Hofrichter, 2000). (
  • Alkanes of 6 to 22 carbons have been observed as substrates. (
  • Bacteria can utilize n -alkanes as growth substrates under aerobic conditions through the use of a monooxygenase reaction. (
  • Gaseous and liquid alkanes can serve as growth substrates for several bacteria. (
  • Subterminal oxidation has also been described both for long-chain n-alkane substrates up to C16 and for n-alkanes of shorter chain lengths (Wentzel et al. (
  • 1, 2) "In general methylotrophs can use green-house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as substrates to fulfill their energy and carbon needs. (
  • Involvement of an Alkane Hydroxylase System of Gordonia sp. (
  • Among these, the alk system found in Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which degrades C 5 to C 12 n -alkanes, remains the most extensively characterized alkane hydroxylase system ( 27 ). (
  • Similar to the case for P. putida GPo1, the initial terminal alkane oxidation is also catalyzed by a three-component alkane hydroxylase system, which comprises an alkane monooxygenase (AlkM), rubredoxin (RubA), and rubredoxin reductase (RubB). (
  • Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the saline Lake Red located in Sovata, Romania , EXTREMOPHILES : LIFE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS 17: (1) pp. 87-98. (
  • Enzymes involved in oxidation of long-chain n -alkanes are still not well known, especially those in Gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Alkanes constitute about 20 to 50% of crude oil, depending on the source of the oil, but living organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and some animals, also produce them as pheromones ( 4 ). (
  • Alkene monooxygenase (AMO) fromRhodococcus rhodochrous(formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276 belongs to a family of multicomponent nonheme binuclear iron-centre oxygenases that includes the soluble methane mono-oxygenases (sMMOs) found in some methane-oxidizing bacteria. (
  • In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes. (
  • Andria V, Reichenauer TG, Sessitsch A (2009) Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil. (
  • The employability of various organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants for efficient bioremediation of pollutants has been reported [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Both bacteria and fungi rely on the participation of different intracellular and extracellular enzymes respectively for the remediation of recalcitrant and lignin and organopollutants [ 1 , 6 ]. (
  • Although many microorganisms are capable of degrading aliphatic hydrocarbons and they are readily isolated from contaminated and noncontaminated sites, relatively little is known about the molecular characteristics of their alkane-degradative systems. (
  • Volatile aliphatic n -alkanes comprise of gaseous and liquid n -alkanes up to n -heptane (C 7 ). (
  • It also present almost everywhere that can cometabolize various aliphatic compounds like alkanes, and aromatic compounds in which methanotrophs have been extremely studied for the use in degrading chlorinated solvents to environmentally suitable application in soils, sediment, and groundwater. (
  • Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C 3 -C 12 ). (
  • PCC6803 was engineered to synthesize the alkane monooxygenase AlkBGT from Pseudomonas putida GPo1. (
  • This reaction, which is difficult to achieve by chemical means, is catalyzed by Escherichia coli featuring the monooxygenase system AlkBGT and the uptake facilitator AlkL from Pseudomonas putida GPo1. (
  • This system facilitates the initial oxidation step of C5-C13 alkanes along with that of C5-C8 cycloalkanes towards their respective alcohols. (
  • This protein facilitates the conversion of long-chain alkanes (from C15 up to at least C36) to their corresponding primary alcohols in the presence of flavin mononucleotide, oxygen and NADH. (
  • Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate and palmitate. (
  • 1. Microsomal P450 and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation activities were studied in liver of rats after long-term ethanol consumption. (
  • After initial oxidation of the n-alkane, the corresponding alcohol is subsequently oxidized further by alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenase to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid, respectively. (
  • Alkanes are saturated, linear hydrocarbons whose chain length can vary from 1 (in methane) to more than 50 carbon atoms. (
  • Gaseous n -alkanes ranging from ethane (C 2 ) to n -butane (C 4 ) are categorized as non-methane hydrocarbons. (
  • Diesel oil is a complex mixture of different types of hydrocarbons (C 6 to C 22 ) and branched alkanes, such as 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane (pristine) and 2,4,6,10-tetramethyl hexadecane (phytane). (
  • Yeasts and fungi are often mentioned as alkane degraders, for example in connection with the production of single-cell proteins or organic acids and amino acids from hydrocarbons. (
  • U.S. Patent #9,034,629, issued on May 19, covers both the cyanobacterium and the process for directly converting CO2 into medium-chain alkanes, which are the molecular basis of diesel, jet fuel and gasoline. (
  • Our medium-chain hydrocarbon degrading strain contains the alkane hydroxylase (AH) system from ''Gordonia sp. (
  • Our medium-chain hydrocarbon degrading strain contains the alkane hydroxylase (AH) native to Gordonia sp. (
  • Primers based upon the sequences of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dioxygenases nidAB (from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii strain PYR-1) and pdoA2B2 (from Mycobacterium sp. (
  • Clones related to the ethene monooxygenase (EtnC) and methane monooxygenase (MmoX) coding genes occurred only in P soil, which also presented higher levels of methane and lower levels of ethane and propane, revealed by short-chain hydrocarbon measures. (
  • 본 연구에서는 새로운 non-heme iron(Ⅳ)-oxo 종인 [FeⅣ(O)(BQEN)]2+(1) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine)를 생성시켜 큰 반응성을 보여주었다. (
  • Hydrogen-Atom Transfer Oxidation with H2O2 Catalyzed by [FeII(1,2-bis(2,2 '-bipyridyl-6-yl)ethane(H2O)(2)](2+): Likely Involvement of a (mu-Hydroxo)(mu-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) Intermediate. (
  • Using these, we were able to determine that CYP153A6 is proficient for hydroxylation of alkanes as small as ethane, an activity that has never been observed previously in any natural P450. (
  • The Alkanivore E.coli strain has been designed to carry the genes required for the conversion of medium (C 5 -C 13 ) and long chain (C 15 -C 36 ) alkanes. (
  • strain SoCg, which is able to grow on n -alkanes from dodecane (C 12 ) to hexatriacontane (C 36 ) as the sole C source. (
  • In addition, strain CH-2 could utilize phenanthrene, pyrene and a wide range of alkanes as a sole carbon and energy source. (
  • Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrobacter vulgaris Strain Ab 1 , a Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium. (
  • The Gordonia SoCg alkB was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, and both hosts acquired the ability to transform n -hexadecane into 1-hexadecanol, but the corresponding long-chain alcohol was never detected on n -triacontane. (
  • Search Medline for alkane 1-monooxygenase AND tert-Butyl alcohol . (
  • a non-haem diiron monooxygenase membrane protein of which homologs have been reported for varying genus and species. (
  • 2012. Biodegradation of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane by soluble diiron monooxygenase in Pseudonocardia sp. (
  • The transformation of environmental contaminants is a complex process that is influenced by the nature and amount of the contaminant present, the structure and dynamics of the indigenous microbial community, and the interplay of geochemical and biological factors at contaminated sites ( 1 , 14 , 26 , 36 ). (
  • In recent years, there have been intensive efforts to develop synthetic microbial platforms for the production, biosensing and bio-remediation of fossil fuel constituents such as alkanes. (
  • soluble and particulate methane monooxygenases. (
  • Soluble methane monooxygenases (sMMO) are nonheme diiron enzymes that catalyze oxidation of various organic compounds. (
  • The chromosome of N. farcinica , unlike that of Streptomyces ( 13 , 14 ), has a circular topology ( Fig. 1 ) and encodes 53 tRNA genes, three copies of ribosomal RNA operons, and 5,674 predicted protein-coding sequences. (
  • Finally, proteomic studies revealed changes in the protein pattern induced by growth on gaseous- ( n -butane) and/or liquid ( n -hexane) short-chain n -alkanes as compared to growth on succinate. (
  • Among the differently expressed protein spots, two chaperonins and an isocytrate lyase were identified along with oxidoreductases involved in oxidation reactions downstream of the initial monooxygenase reaction step. (
  • In this paper, we identified the protein that converts propane, THF, MTBE, 1-4-dioxane into more palatable compounds that can be readily consumed by the fungus. (
  • This is the catalytic component of the AH system and oxidizes (cyclo)alkanes to their respective (cyclo)alkanols by transferring one oxygen atom from molecular oxygen to the alkane. (
  • Part I. Nonheme iron의 active site를 가지고 있는 산소화 효소들은 Biological system에서 dioxygen activation과 유기물질들과의 산화반응에 관여된다.1 이 효소들의 catalytic mechanism에서 metal-peroxo나 high-valent metal-oxo종은 bleomycin, superoxide reductase, α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase에 중요한 활성 중간체들로 밝혀졌다. (
  • Iron(Ⅴ)-oxo 종은 nonheme iron catalyst에 의한 organic substrate의 산화반응에서 활성 산화제로서 생각되어지고 있다.1 최근에 Iron(Ⅴ)-oxo 중간체가 합성되고, 다양한 분광학적 기술로 characterization 되었지만,1 catalytic oxygenation 반응에서 활성산화제로서 Iron(Ⅴ)-oxo 종이 관여한다는 증거는 간접적으로 product analysis로부터 알 수 있다. (
  • 그 예로는 Alkane hydroxylation 반응 생성물인 alcohol과 ketone의 selectivity, 4 이하의 H-KIE값, labeled water 실험에서 H218O의 18O가 생성물로의 incorporation가 있다.1 그렇지만, iron(Ⅳ)-oxo complex 역시 매우 큰 KIE 값을 갖고,2 H218O와의 산소교환을 보여준다.3 그러므로 catalytic oxygenation 반응에서 중간체들을(예를 들면 iron(Ⅳ)-oxo 또는 Iron(Ⅴ)-oxo )구분하기에는 어렵다. (
  • 더욱 중요한 것은 Iron(Ⅴ)-oxo 종이 Fe catalyst와 terminal oxidant에 의한 alkane과 alcohol의 catalytic oxidation 반응에서 활성산화제라는 강력한 증거를 알아낼 수 있었다. (
  • In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. (
  • reported the cloning and characterization of several genes from M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in the lower portion of the MTBE pathway (from 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate). (
  • We identify an array of alkane monooxygenases, osmoprotectants, siderophores and micronutrient-scavenging pathways. (
  • The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO), 4-hydroxy-acetophenone monooxygenase (HAPMO), uses NADPH andO2 to oxidize a variety of aromatic ketones and sulfides. (
  • Transcriptomic data delineate active members of the community and give insights that Acinetobacter species completely oxidize alkanes into carbon dioxide with the involvement of oxygen, and Archaeoglobus species mainly ferment alkanes to generate acetate which could be consumed by Methanosaeta species. (
  • The first metrical data has been obtained for the high valent intermediates Q and X of methane monooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase, respectively. (
  • Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, gyrB and catA genes and DNA-DNA hybridization reveal that Rhodococcus jialingiae is a later synonym of Rhodococcus qingshengii , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 64: (Part 1) pp. 298-301. (
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the genes encoding AlkB (alkane 1-monooxygenase), RubA3 (rubredoxin), RubA4 (rubredoxin), and RubB (rubredoxin reductase) were induced by both n -hexadecane and n -triacontane, which were chosen as representative long-chain liquid and solid n -alkane molecules, respectively. (
  • The initial terminal oxidation of the alkane substrate to a 1-alkanol is catalyzed by a three-component alkane hydroxylase complex consisting of a particulate nonheme integral membrane alkane monooxygenase (AlkB) and two soluble proteins, rubredoxin (AlkG) and rubredoxin reductase (AlkT). (
  • P450 BM3 (CYP102A1) from Bacillus megaterium is a self-sufficient monooxygenase as it is fused to its redox partner, an eukaryotic-like diflavin reductase. (
  • His research interests include biochemistry and bioengineering of methane monooxygenase, mechanism of molecular recognition and product selectivity of alkane monooxygenase, and oxidative stress due to the oxidation reaction with tyrosinase. (
  • Some degrees of methanotrophs have a genetic ability to produce a soluble methane monooxygenase that can catalyze the fast corrosion of environmental contaminants including trichloroethylene. (
  • Here, both molecular and metabolic features of BCP1 cells grown on gaseous and short-chain n -alkanes (up to n -heptane) were examined in detail. (
  • Alkanes are chemically quite inert and have to be activated to allow further metabolic steps to take place. (
  • 3) Using small-subunit 16S rRNAs (1) and comparing metabolic/ phylogenetic similarities and differences (2) between M. flagellatus and its relatives, scientists have determined that Methylobacillus flagellatus (betaproteobacteria) is more closely related to Methylobacterium extorquens (alphaproteobacteria) and Methylococcus capsulatus (gammaproteobacteria), than to Methylibium petroleiphilum (betaproteobacteria). (
  • Formation of Alkanes by Aerobic Carbon-Carbon Bond Coupling Reactions Catalyzed by a Phosphovanadomolybdic Acid. (
  • Mineralization assays and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the alkane monooxygenase was constitutively expressed, while nidAB and pdoA2B2 were expressed only in the presence of PAHs. (