A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A dipolar ionic buffer.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.

Blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cerebral arterioles inhibits vasoconstriction from hypocapnic alkalosis in cats. (1/239)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that the cerebral arteriolar dilation from hypercapnic acidosis is blocked by agents which inhibit KATP channels. These findings suggested that this response is due to opening of KATP channels. Because the repose to CO2 is a continuum, with hypercapnic acidosis causing vasodilation and hypocapnic alkalosis causing vasoconstriction, it would be expected that the response to hypocapnic alkalosis would be due to closing of KATP channels. There are no studies of the effect of inhibition of KATP channels on the response to hypocapnic alkalosis. METHODS: We investigated the effect of 3 agents that in earlier studies were found to inhibit KATP channels--NG-nitro-L-arginine, hydroxylysine, and glyburide--on the cerebral arteriolar constriction caused by graded hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation in anesthetized cats equipped with cranial windows. RESULTS: Hypocapnic alkalosis caused dose-dependent vasoconstriction that was inhibited completely by each of the 3 inhibitors of KATP channels. The blockade induced by these agents was eliminated in the presence of topical L-lysine (5 micromol/L). CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that agents which inhibit ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cerebral arterioles inhibit the vasoconstriction from hypocapnic alkalosis. These and earlier results showing that inhibition of KATP channels inhibited dilation from hypercapnic acidosis demonstrate that the response to CO2 in cerebral arterioles is mediated by the opening and closing of KATP channels.  (+info)

Intracellular pH regulation by HCO3-/Cl- exchange is activated during early mouse zygote development. (2/239)

We report here that at least one major pHi-regulatory mechanism, the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, is quiescent in unfertilized mouse eggs but becomes fully activated during early development following fertilization. Zygotes (8-12 h postfertilization) exhibited a marked intracellular alkalinization upon external Cl- removal, which is indicative of active HCO3-/Cl- exchangers, in contrast to the very small response observed in eggs. In addition, efflux of Cl- from eggs upon external Cl- removal was much slower than that from zygotes, indicating additional pathways for Cl- to cross the plasma membrane in zygotes. Furthermore, while zygotes quickly recovered from an induced alkalosis, eggs exhibited only a slow, incomplete recovery. Following in vitro fertilization (IVF), increased HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity was first detectable about 4 h postfertilization and reached the maximal level after about 8 h. The upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity after fertilization appeared to occur by activation of existing, inactive exchangers rather than by synthesis or transport of new exchangers, as the increase in activity following IVF was unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis or by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the cytoskeleton. This activation may depend on the Ca2+ transients which follow fertilization, as suppression of these transients, using the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, reduced subsequent upregulation of HCO3-/Cl- exchanger activity by about 50%. Activation of pHi-regulatory systems may be a widespread feature of the earliest period of embryonic development, not restricted to species such as marine invertebrates as previously believed.  (+info)

H+-K+-ATPases: regulation and role in pathophysiological states. (3/239)

Molecular cloning experiments have identified the existence of two H+-K+-ATPases (HKAs), colonic and gastric. Recent functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of both transporters in the kidney, which are presumed to mediate the exchange of intracellular H+ for extracellular K+. On the basis of these studies, a picture is evolving that indicates differential regulation of HKAs at the molecular level in acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Of the two transporters, gastric HKA is expressed constitutively along the length of the collecting duct and is responsible for H+ secretion and K+ reabsorption under normal conditions and may be stimulated with acid-base perturbations and/or K+ depletion. This regulation may be species specific. To date there are no data to indicate that the colonic HKA (HKAc) plays a role in H+ secretion or K+ reabsorption under normal conditions. However, HKAc shows adaptive regulation in pathophysiological conditions such as K+ depletion, NaCl deficiency, and proximal renal tubular acidosis, suggesting an important role for this exchanger in potassium, HCO-3, and sodium (or chloride) reabsorption in disease states. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent functional and molecular studies on the regulation of HKAs in physiological and pathophysiological states. Possible signals responsible for regulation of HKAs in these conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, the role of these transporters in acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis will be evaluated in the context of genetically altered animals deficient in HKAc.  (+info)

pH regulation of K(+) efflux from myocytes in isolated rat hearts: (87)Rb, (7)Li, and (31)P NMR studies. (4/239)

This study investigates the effects of intracellular (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(e)) on the efflux of Rb(+) and Li(+) in isolated rat hearts. (87)Rb and (7)Li NMR were used to measure Rb(+) and Li(+) content, respectively, of hearts, and (31)P NMR was used to monitor pH(i), pH(e), and phosphate levels. After 30-min equilibration with Rb(+) or Li(+), effluxes were initiated by switching perfusion to a Rb(+)- or Li(+)-free, high-K(+) (20.7 mM) Krebs-Henseleit buffer with 15 microM bumetanide. Monensin (2 microM) increased pH(i) from 7.10 +/- 0.05 to 7.32 +/- 0.07 and resulted in activation of Rb(+) efflux; the first-order rate constant (k x 10(3), in min(-1)) increased from 42 +/- 2 to 116 +/- 16. Glibenclamide (4 microM) did not inhibit monensin-activated Rb(+) efflux (k = 110 +/- 17), whereas quinine (0.2 mM) slightly inhibited it by 19 +/- 9%. Infusion of 15 mM NH(4)Cl during Rb(+) washout increased k for Rb(+) efflux by 93% (81 +/- 8), which was glibenclamide and quinine insensitive, and caused a transient increase in pH(i) to 7.25 +/- 0.08. Intracellular Li(+) inhibited NH(4)Cl-stimulated Rb(+) efflux by 55%. Monensin and NH(4)Cl stimulated Li(+) efflux by 40%, increasing k from 29 +/- 3 to 43 +/- 7 and 41 +/- 3, respectively. The stimulation was not sensitive to 10 microM dimethylamiloride. Intracellular acidosis that resulted from the washout of NH(4)Cl (pH 6.86 +/- 0.2) slightly inhibited Rb(+) efflux (k = 36 +/- 5), whereas NH(4)Cl itself in the absence of pH(i) changes did not markedly affect Rb(+) efflux. A moderate increase in pH(i) (7.17 +/- 0.06) produced by washout of 15 mM 2, 2-dimethylpropionate (DMP)-Tris from hearts preequilibrated with DMP did not markedly affect Rb(+) efflux. Neither global alkalosis (pH(i) 7.4, pH(e) 7.55) nor acidosis (pH(i) approximately pH(e) 6.8) produced by 3 mM Tris base or 5 mM MES, respectively, affected Rb(+) efflux. We suggest that intracellular alkalosis stimulates Rb(+) (K(+)) and Li(+) effluxes by activating a nonselective sarcolemmal K(+) (Li(+))/cation exchanger or a K(+) (Li(+))-anion symporter.  (+info)

Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis. (5/239)

Exposure to hyperoxia (500-600 torr) or low pH (4.5) for 72 h or NaHCO(3) infusion for 48 h were used to create chronic respiratory (RA) or metabolic acidosis (MA) or metabolic alkalosis in freshwater rainbow trout. During alkalosis, urine pH increased, and [titratable acidity (TA) - HCO(-)(3)] and net H(+) excretion became negative (net base excretion) with unchanged NH(+)(4) efflux. During RA, urine pH did not change, but net H(+) excretion increased as a result of a modest rise in NH(+)(4) and substantial elevation in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] efflux accompanied by a large increase in inorganic phosphate excretion. However, during MA, urine pH fell, and net H(+) excretion was 3.3-fold greater than during RA, reflecting a similar increase in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] and a smaller elevation in phosphate but a sevenfold greater increase in NH(+)(4) efflux. In urine samples of the same pH, [TA - HCO(-)(3)] was greater during RA (reflecting phosphate secretion), and [NH(+)(4)] was greater during MA (reflecting renal ammoniagenesis). Renal activities of potential ammoniagenic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and plasma levels of cortisol, phosphate, ammonia, and most amino acids (including glutamine and alanine) increased during MA but not during RA, when only alanine aminotransferase increased. The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA.  (+info)

The pathophysiological and molecular basis of Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. (6/239)

Molecular defects affecting the transport of sodium, potassium and chloride in the nephron through the ROMK K+ channel, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, the Na+/Cl- cotransporter and chloride channel have been identified in patients with Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. Defects of the angiotensin II type I receptor and CFTR have also being described. These defects are simple (i.e., most are single amino acid substitutions) but affect key elements in tubular transport. The simplicity of the genetic defects may explain why the inheritance of these conditions remains unclear in most kindreds (i.e., not just recessive or dominant) and emphasises the crucial importance of the conformational structure of these channels. Application of this molecular information will allow the early genetic identification of patients with these syndromes and enable us to differentiate between the various disorders at a functional level. It may also identify a subgroup in which the heterozygous form may make patients potentially exquisitely sensitive to diuretics.  (+info)

Defective processing and expression of thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter as a cause of Gitelman's syndrome. (7/239)

Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt wasting and hypokalemia caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. To investigate the pathogenesis of Gitelman's syndrome, eight disease mutations were introduced into the mouse thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter and studied by functional expression in Xenopus oocytes. Sodium uptake into oocytes that expressed the wild-type clone was more than sevenfold greater than uptake into control oocytes. Uptake into oocytes that expressed the mutated transporters was not different from control. Hydrochlorothiazide reduced Na uptake by oocytes expressing the wild-type gene to control values but had no effect on oocytes expressing the mutant clones. Western blots of oocytes injected with the wild-type clone showed bands representing glycosylated (125 kDa) and unglycosylated (110 kDa) forms of the transport protein. Immunoblot of oocytes expressing the mutated clones showed only the unglycosylated protein, indicating that protein processing was disrupted. Immunocytochemistry with an antibody against the transport protein showed intense membrane staining of oocytes expressing the wild-type protein. Membrane staining was completely absent from oocytes expressing mNCC(R948X); instead, diffuse cytoplasmic staining was evident. In summary, the results show that several mutations that cause Gitelman's syndrome are nonfunctional because the mutant thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter is not processed normally, probably activating the "quality control" mechanism of the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

Expression of rat kidney anion exchanger 1 in type A intercalated cells in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. (8/239)

By enzyme-linked in situ hybridization (ISH), direct evidence is provided that acid-secreting intercalated cells (type A IC) of both the cortical and medullary collecting ducts of the rat kidney selectively express the mRNA of the kidney splice variant of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) and no detectable levels of the erythrocyte AE1 (eAE1) mRNA. Using single-cell quantification by microphotometry of ISH enzyme reaction, medullary type A IC were found to contain twofold higher kAE1 mRNA levels compared with cortical type A IC. These differences correspond to the higher intensity of immunostaining in medullary versus cortical type A IC. Chronic changes of acid-base status induced by addition of NH(4)Cl (acidosis) or NaHCO3 (alkalosis) to the drinking water resulted in up to 35% changes of kAE1 mRNA levels in both cortical and medullary type A IC. These experiments provide direct evidence at the cellular level of kAE1 expression in type A IC and show moderate capacity of type A IC to respond to changes of acid-base status by modulation of kAE1 mRNA levels.  (+info)

Alkalosis is a medical condition that refers to an excess of bases or a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood, leading to a higher than normal pH level. The normal range for blood pH is typically between 7.35 and 7.45. A pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis.

Alkalosis can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Metabolic alkalosis: This type of alkalosis occurs due to an excess of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the body, which can result from conditions such as excessive vomiting, hyperventilation, or the use of certain medications like diuretics.
2. Respiratory alkalosis: This form of alkalosis is caused by a decrease in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood due to hyperventilation or other conditions that affect breathing, such as high altitude, anxiety, or lung disease.

Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on its severity and underlying cause. Mild alkalosis may not produce any noticeable symptoms, while severe cases can lead to muscle twitching, cramps, tremors, confusion, and even seizures. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and restoring the body's normal pH balance through medications or other interventions as necessary.

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess base (bicarbonate) and/or a decrease in carbon dioxide in the body. This leads to an increase in pH level of the blood, making it more alkaline than normal. Respiratory alkalosis is usually caused by conditions that result in hyperventilation, such as anxiety, lung disease, or high altitude. It can also be caused by certain medications and medical procedures. Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis may include lightheadedness, confusion, and tingling in the fingers and toes. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

An acid-base imbalance refers to a disturbance in the normal balance of acids and bases in the body, which can lead to serious health consequences. The body maintains a delicate balance between acids and bases, which is measured by the pH level of the blood. The normal range for blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, with a pH below 7.35 considered acidic and a pH above 7.45 considered basic or alkaline.

Acid-base imbalances can occur due to various factors such as lung or kidney disease, diabetes, severe infections, certain medications, and exposure to toxins. The two main types of acid-base imbalances are acidosis (excess acid in the body) and alkalosis (excess base in the body).

Acidosis can be further classified into respiratory acidosis (caused by impaired lung function or breathing difficulties) and metabolic acidosis (caused by an accumulation of acid in the body due to impaired kidney function, diabetes, or other conditions).

Alkalosis can also be classified into respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation or excessive breathing) and metabolic alkalosis (caused by excessive loss of stomach acid or an excess intake of base-forming substances).

Symptoms of acid-base imbalances may include confusion, lethargy, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. If left untreated, these conditions can lead to serious complications such as coma, seizures, or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Bartter syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the kidneys' ability to reabsorb sodium and chloride, leading to an imbalance of electrolytes in the body. This condition is characterized by hypokalemia (low potassium levels), metabolic alkalosis (high pH levels in the blood), and normal or low blood pressure. It can also result in increased urine production, excessive thirst, and growth retardation in children. There are two major types of Bartter syndrome, based on the genes affected: type I caused by mutations in the SLC12A1 gene, and type II caused by mutations in the KCNJ1 gene. Type III is caused by mutations in the CLCNKB gene, while type IV is caused by mutations in the BSND or CLCNKB genes. Treatment typically involves supplementation of electrolytes, such as potassium and magnesium, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to help reduce sodium loss in the urine.

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Respiratory acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when the lungs are not able to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, leading to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream and a decrease in the pH of the blood. This can happen due to various reasons such as chronic lung diseases like emphysema or COPD, severe asthma attacks, neuromuscular disorders that affect breathing, or when someone is not breathing deeply or frequently enough, such as during sleep apnea or drug overdose.

Respiratory acidosis can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, coma and even death. Treatment for respiratory acidosis depends on the underlying cause but may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, or mechanical ventilation to help support breathing.

Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste and is commonly used in cooking as a leavening agent.

In a medical context, sodium bicarbonate is used as a medication to treat conditions caused by high levels of acid in the body, such as metabolic acidosis. It works by neutralizing the acid and turning it into a harmless salt and water. Sodium bicarbonate can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity of the condition being treated.

It is important to note that sodium bicarbonate should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly. These may include fluid buildup in the body, electrolyte imbalances, and an increased risk of infection.

Gitelman Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. It is characterized by low levels of potassium, magnesium, and chloride in the blood due to defects in the function of the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This results in increased urinary excretion of these ions.

The condition is caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC). The NCC protein is responsible for reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the urine back into the bloodstream. In Gitelman Syndrome, the mutations in the SLC12A3 gene lead to reduced function of the NCC protein, resulting in increased excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium in the urine.

Symptoms of Gitelman Syndrome may include muscle weakness, cramps, spasms, fatigue, salt cravings, thirst, and decreased appetite. The condition is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence but can also present in adulthood. Treatment typically involves supplementation with potassium and magnesium to correct the electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, a medication called indapamide may be used to increase sodium reabsorption in the kidney and reduce potassium excretion.

Hypocapnia is a medical term that refers to a condition where there is an abnormally low level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is produced by the body's cells as they carry out their normal metabolic processes, and it is transported in the bloodstream to the lungs, where it is exhaled out of the body during breathing.

Hypocapnia can occur when a person breathes too quickly or too deeply, which can cause too much CO2 to be exhaled from the body. This condition can also result from certain medical conditions that affect breathing, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sleep apnea.

Mild hypocapnia may not cause any noticeable symptoms, but more severe cases can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, confusion, and rapid breathing. In extreme cases, it can lead to life-threatening conditions such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest.

Hypocapnia is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the level of CO2 in the blood. Treatment for hypocapnia may involve addressing any underlying medical conditions that are causing it, as well as providing supportive care to help the person breathe more effectively.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3 (SLC12A3) is a protein that belongs to the solute carrier family, which are membrane transport proteins involved in the movement of various substances across cell membranes. Specifically, SLC12A3 is a member of the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporter (CCC) family and encodes for the protein known as downregulated in adenoma maturity alpha (DRA).

The DRA protein functions as an apical membrane transporter that mediates the coupled movement of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cells. It is primarily expressed in the colon, where it plays a critical role in maintaining electrolyte homeostasis by facilitating the absorption of sodium and chloride ions from the intestinal lumen into the bloodstream.

Mutations in the SLC12A3 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic watery diarrhea due to excessive loss of sodium and chloride ions.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropanesulfonic acid) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is often used in biology and medicine. It is a type of buffer solution that is commonly used in cell culture and laboratory experiments to maintain a stable pH level. This is important for the survival and growth of cells and organisms in artificial environments. HEPES is a weak organic acid that can donate protons (H+) and accept them back, thus maintaining a stable pH. It has a pKa of 7.5, making it suitable for use in biological systems with a physiological pH range.

Myoclonus is a medical term that describes a quick, involuntary jerking muscle spasm. These spasms can happen once or repeat in a series, and they can range from mild to severe in nature. Myoclonus can affect any muscle in the body and can be caused by several different conditions, including certain neurological disorders, injuries, or diseases. In some cases, myoclonus may occur without an identifiable cause.

There are various types of myoclonus, classified based on their underlying causes, patterns of occurrence, and associated symptoms. Some common forms include:

1. Action myoclonus: Occurs during voluntary muscle movements
2. Stimulus-sensitive myoclonus: Triggered by external or internal stimuli, such as touch, sound, or light
3. Physiological myoclonus: Normal muscle jerks that occur during sleep onset (hypnic jerks) or during sleep (nocturnal myoclonus)
4. Reflex myoclonus: Result of a reflex arc activation due to a peripheral nerve stimulation
5. Epileptic myoclonus: Part of an epilepsy syndrome, often involving the brainstem or cortex
6. Symptomatic myoclonus: Occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as metabolic disorders, infections, or neurodegenerative diseases

Treatment for myoclonus depends on the specific type and underlying cause. Medications, physical therapy, or lifestyle modifications may be recommended to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Distal kidney tubules are the final segment of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. The nephron is the basic unit of the kidney that filters blood and produces urine. After the filtrate leaves the glomerulus, it enters the proximal tubule where most of the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients occurs.

The filtrate then moves into the loop of Henle, which is divided into a thin and thick descending limb and a thin and thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to establish a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitium, allowing for the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts.

The distal tubule is the last segment of the renal tubule before the filtrate enters the collecting duct. It is a relatively short structure that receives filtrate from the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The distal tubule plays an important role in regulating electrolyte and water balance by actively transporting ions such as sodium, potassium, and chloride.

The distal tubule also contains specialized cells called principal cells and intercalated cells that are responsible for secreting or reabsorbing hydrogen and potassium ions to maintain acid-base balance. Additionally, the distal tubule is a site of action for several hormones, including aldosterone, which stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which promotes water reabsorption in the collecting ducts.

... is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/ ... metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular ... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to ... Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. ...
Luke, R. G.; Galla, J. H. (2012). "It is Chloride Depletion Alkalosis, Not Contraction Alkalosis". Journal of the American ... "contraction alkalosis" is actually a misnomer, and that the alkalosis observed during volume contraction is actually ... Contraction alkalosis refers to the increase in blood pH that occurs as a result of fluid losses (volume contraction). The ... Metabolic alkalosis in the presence of decreased effective circulatory volume, loop diuretic use, or other causes of ...
Mild cases of metabolic alkalosis often cause no symptoms. Typical manifestations of moderate to severe metabolic alkalosis ... Congenital chloride diarrhea - rare for being a diarrhea that causes alkalosis instead of acidosis. Contraction alkalosis - ... Hypokalemia Metabolic acidosis Respiratory acidosis Respiratory alkalosis "Alkalosis, Metabolic: eMedicine Pediatrics: Cardiac ... Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35-7.45). This is ...
Acidosis Alkalosis Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium Hypocalcemia Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis pCO2 pH pKa ... Signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis are as follows: Palpitation Tetany Convulsion Sweating Respiratory alkalosis may be ... alkalosis). The diagnosis of respiratory alkalosis is done via test that measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels (in the ... Alkalosis refers to the process due to which there is elevation of blood pH. Alkalemia refers to an arterial blood pH of ...
As the pH decreases (< 7.35), it implies acidosis, while if the pH increases (> 7.45) it implies alkalosis. In the context of ... Respiratory alkalosis (Pa CO2 < 35 mmHg) occurs when there is too little carbon dioxide in the blood. This may be due to ... lowering the carbon dioxide abruptly means that the bicarbonate will be in excess and will cause a metabolic alkalosis. In such ...
... leading to respiratory alkalosis. The symptoms of respiratory alkalosis include dizziness, tingling in the lips, hands, or feet ... Brandis, Kerry (30 August 2015). "6.2 Respiratory Alkalosis - Causes". Acid-base Physiology (Reviewed in 2006 by the American ... 5 August 2016). "Respiratory Alkalosis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". eMedicine. "eMedicine - Hyperventilation ... syncope and euphoria Control of respiration Kussmaul breathing List of terms of lung size and activity Respiratory alkalosis ...
In addition to alkalosis, other factors can cause transient shifting of potassium into cells, presumably by stimulation of the ... 3) During metabolic alkalosis, the acute rise of plasma HCO3− concentration (caused by vomiting, for example) will exceed the ... An increase in the pH of the blood (alkalosis) can cause temporary hypokalemia by causing a shift of potassium out of the ... See discussion of alkalosis below.) Other gastrointestinal causes include pancreatic fistulae and the presence of adenoma. ...
Alkalosis interferes with normal oxygen utilization by the brain. The symptoms of alkalosis are neuromuscular irritability, ... In the body alkalosis generally induces vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels) but in the brain alone it causes ... Increase in blood pH, (respiratory alkalosis). Vasoconstriction of blood vessels supplying brain. Pooling of the blood present ... The alkalosis-induced euphoria can be followed rapidly by hypoxia-induced unconsciousness. The sequence of events leading to ...
However, that this effect is not seen in metabolic alkalosis, for in such cases the cause of the alkalosis is increased ... Respiratory alkalosis - Any alkalemic condition moves phosphate out of the blood into cells. This includes most common ... O'Brien, Thomas M; Coberly, LeAnn (2003). "Severe Hypophosphatemia in Respiratory Alkalosis" (PDF). Advanced Studies in ... and acute respiratory alkalosis.[citation needed] Hypophosphatemia is diagnosed by measuring the concentration of phosphate in ...
Respiratory alkalosis may also be present. Peripheral lymphocytosis can be observed. A lung biopsy may also be indicated. ...
Alkalosis, in turn, increases calcium-reabsorption from the distal tubules of the nephron, thus exacerbating the hypercalcemia ... However, it is well known that MAS is usually associated with a triad of symptoms that include hypercalcemia, alkalosis, and ... Altogether, these result in a cycle of hypercalcemia, alkalosis, and renal injury characteristic of MAS. Prior to an official ... In summary, the symptoms of alkalosis is the net result of over-consumption of absorbable alkali, hypercalcemia-induced ...
Seldin, Donald W.; Rector, Floyd C. (1972). "The generation and maintenance of metabolic alkalosis". Kidney International. 1 (5 ... protracted vomiting can result in metabolic alkalosis. Margaret E. Smith; Dion G. Morton (18 November 2011). The Digestive ...
Maini AA, Maxwell-Scott H, Marks DJ (February 2014). "Severe alkalosis and hypokalemia with stanozolol misuse". The American ...
Lavie, CJ; Crocker, EF; Key, KJ; Ferguson, TG (October 1986). "Marked hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with severe ...
If it occurs together with metabolic alkalosis (decreased blood acidity) it is often due to vomiting. It is usually the result ... Lavie CJ, Crocker EF, Key KJ, Ferguson TG (October 1986). "Marked hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with severe compensatory ...
The acronym stands for Hyperuricemia, Pulmonary hypertension, Renal failure in infancy and Alkalosis. And it's due to mutations ... "OMIM Entry - # 613845 - HYPERURICEMIA, PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, RENAL FAILURE, AND ALKALOSIS SYNDROME; HUPRAS". www.omim.org. ... "Orphanet: Hyperuricemia pulmonary hypertension renal failure alkalosis syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 20 January 2017. " ... Renal Failure in Infancy and Alkalosis, HUPRA Syndrome". The American Journal of Human Genetics. Am J Hum Genet. 88 (2): 193- ...
This leads to shifts in blood pH (respiratory alkalosis or hypocapnia), causing compensatory metabolic acidosis activating ... "Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid ... Hyperventilation syndrome can cause respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia. This syndrome often involves prominent mouth ...
Acidosis would cause an acidemia on its own (i.e. if left "uncompensated" by an alkalosis). Similarly, an alkalosis would cause ... metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis. One or a combination of these conditions may occur simultaneously. For instance ... In medical terminology, the terms acidosis and alkalosis should always be qualified by an adjective to indicate the etiology of ... Two other similar sounding terms are acidosis and alkalosis. They refer to the customary effect of a component, respiratory or ...
Arginine hydrochloride is used to treat refractory metabolic alkalosis. The arginine ions can enter cells and displace ...
Metabolic alkalosis may also be seen with loop diuretic use. Ototoxicity (damage to the inner ear) is a serious, but rare ADR ...
Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid-base imbalance observed. Other significant adverse effects include rhabdomyolysis, ...
Such a disturbance is called a metabolic alkalosis (Fig. 12). Alternatively, if protons are added to the bloodstream in the ... An increase in blood pH due to hyperventilation is called respiratory alkalosis (Fig. 11). Changes in the metabolic composition ... Four fundamental changes may occur that affect acid-base balance in the body: respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, ... such as respiratory acidosis followed by a compensatory shift towards metabolic alkalosis. To understand how changes in ...
... alkalosis, and cardiac arrhythmia. Potassium content in the plasma is tightly controlled by four basic mechanisms, which have ...
... consists of low levels of potassium in the blood, alkalosis, normal to low blood pressures, and elevated ... The clinical findings characteristic of Bartter syndrome is hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and normal to low blood pressure ... alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure. There are two types of Bartter syndrome: neonatal and classic. A closely ... leading to metabolic alkalosis.[citation needed] Bartter and Gitelman syndromes can be divided into different subtypes based on ...
"Hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular complex with hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemic alkalosis. A new syndrome". Am J Med. 33 (6 ... "Hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular complex with hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemic alkalosis. A new syndrome. 1962". J. Am. Soc ...
In contrast, alkalosis is characterized by excessively high blood pH. Blood pH is usually slightly basic, with a pH of 7.365, ...
Additionally, electrolyte disturbances, systemic alkalosis or gastric irritation may occur. Furthermore, anorexia, nausea, ...
Salicylic acid overdose can lead metabolic acidosis with compensatory respiratory alkalosis. In people presenting with an acute ...
"OMIM Entry - # 613845 - HYPERURICEMIA, PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, RENAL FAILURE, AND ALKALOSIS SYNDROME; HUPRAS". www.omim.org. ...
... and metabolic alkalosis. Finer notes on aldosterone include the fact that it stimulates sodium-potassium ATPase in muscle cells ...
Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/ ... metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular ... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to ... Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. ...
Alkalosis is a condition in which the body fluids have excess base (alkali). This is the opposite of excess acid (acidosis). ... Compensated alkalosis occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance to near normal in cases of alkalosis, but bicarbonate ... There are different types of alkalosis. These are described below. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by a low carbon dioxide ... Prevention depends on the cause of the alkalosis. People with healthy kidneys and lungs do not usually have serious alkalosis. ...
Respiratory alkalosis is one of many acid-base disorders found among critically ill patients. It is detected by ABG and ... encoded search term (Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis) and Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis. Updated: Dec 22, 2019 * Author: Mary C Mancini, MD, PhD, MMM; Chief Editor: Michael R Bye, MD ... Alkalosis, by definition, is a pathologic state that causes or tends to cause an increase in blood pH. Hence, one can have an ...
Metabolic alkalosis is a type of alkalosis that occurs when your blood becomes overly alkaline. Its most often caused by ... Metabolic alkalosis is one of the four main types of alkalosis. There are two kinds of metabolic alkalosis: *Chloride- ... Some cases of alkalosis are caused by serious underlying heart, kidney, or liver conditions. While the alkalosis can often be ... Metabolic alkalosis may not show any symptoms. People with this type of alkalosis more often complain of the underlying ...
To determine the effects of acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on leucine metabolism in vivo, mongrel dogs were infused ... with alkalosis. Compared with saline controls, acidosis increased (P less than .01) leucine oxidation. During alkalosis ... Effects of acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on leucine metabolism in conscious dogs Diabetes. 1989 Jul;38(7):847-53. doi ... To determine the effects of acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on leucine metabolism in vivo, mongrel dogs were infused ...
Is emphysema acidosis or alkalosis?. In the mild and moderate stages, the PaO2 and the PaCO2 measurements may remain normal or ... while the PaO2 stays normal, the PaCO2 can be decreased (respiratory alkalosis). In the moderately severe and severe forms of ...
Alkalosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Sometimes alkalosis causes no symptoms at all. If the alkalosis is severe, painful muscle spasms (tetany) can develop. ... Causes of Alkalosis If too much bicarbonate in the blood, a loss of acid from the blood, or a low level of carbon dioxide in ... In respiratory alkalosis, the first step is to ensure that the person has enough oxygen. The doctor then looks for a serious ...
It seems we cant find what youre looking for. Perhaps searching can help.. ...
Respiratory alkalosis is one of many acid-base disorders found among critically ill patients. It is detected by ABG and ... encoded search term (Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis) and Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Respiratory Alkalosis Medication. Updated: Jan 16, 2015 * Author: Mary C Mancini, MD, PhD, MMM; Chief Editor: Michael ... Respiratory alkalosis: a quick reference. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2008 May. 38(3):427-30, vii. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
Metabolic alkalosis. Notes. Overview. Metabolic alkalosis is characterised by a pH , 7.45 and raised plasma bicarbonate level ... For metabolic alkalosis to develop, there needs to be an initiating event and then maintenance of alkalosis. In some cases ... Chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis. The most common cause of chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis is GI losses (e.g. ... Chloride-resistant metabolic alkalosis. The causes of chloride-resistant metabolic alkalosis are broadly divided based on the ...
What is responsible for the development of metabolic alkalosis and how would you correct the alkalosis?. ... Metabolic Alkalosis. Case Study 1. A 15-year-old male patient with cirrhosis and ascites secondary to Wilson disease is ... The patient had metabolic alkalosis (blood gas pH, 7.55; HCO 3 − , 28.4 mmol/L) together with high plasma renin activity (983 ... The alkalosis and hypokalemia did not recur with appropriate sodium polystyrene dosing (changed back to liquid formulation) and ...
39] Previous studies have shown that the pulmonary vascular response to alkalosis is transient, and prolonged alkalosis may ... Acidosis and alkalosis correction. Acidosis can act as a pulmonary vasoconstrictor and should be avoided. The use of sodium ... 40] Further, alkalosis causes cerebral constriction and reduces cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain and thus ... Injurious effects of hypocapnic alkalosis in the isolated lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug. 162(2 Pt 1):399-405. [QxMD ...
Acidosis & Alkalosis- Part 1 ,Acidosis & Alkalosis- Part 2, Acidosis & Alkalosis- Part 3, Acidosis & Alkalosis- Part 4 ... B. Acute respiratory alkalosis. C. Chronic respiratory acidosis. D. Chronic respiratory alkalosis. 14. What is the anion gap in ... In pure respiratory alkalosis, plasma HCO3- is usually more than ?. A. 12 mmol/L. B. 14 mmol/L. C. 16 mmol/L. D. 18 mmol/L. 11 ... 7. In chronic respiratory alkalosis a 1-mm Hg fall in PaCO2 causes a drop in [HCO3-] of ?. A. 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/L. B. 0.2 to 0.3 ...
"It is chloride depletion alkalosis, not contraction alkalosis." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 23.2 (2012): 204- ... "Metabolic alkalosis." studies 28 (2006): 29.. Eiam-ong, S. O. M. C. H. A. I., et al. "Effect of respiratory acidosis and ... "Extreme metabolic alkalosis in intensive care." Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication ... Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis; Organised by Diagnostic Features. Classification. Causes and pathophysiology. Literature ...
Learn about Respiratory Alkalosis (including Uncompensated, Partially compensated, and Fully compensated) and the causes, ... Uncompensated respiratory alkalosis. Uncompensated respiratory alkalosis occurs when respiratory alkalosis is present, with pH ... Fully compensated respiratory alkalosis. Fully compensated respiratory alkalosis occurs when respiratory alkalosis is present, ... Partially-compensated respiratory alkalosis. Partially compensated respiratory alkalosis occurs when respiratory alkalosis is ...
Autoimmunologiczna proteinoza pęcherzyków płucnych (aPAP) jest rzadką miąższową chorobą płuc charakteryzującą się gromadzeniem się surfaktantu […]. ...
Alkalosis. Step 2. pCO2. Opposite Direction As pH. Respiratory Acidosis. Respiratory Alkalosis. Step 3. HCO3 (Bicarbonate). ... Metabolic Alkalosis Assessment. Signs and Symptoms. Increased pH > 7.45. Increased HCO3 > 26. Excitable State. Arrhythmias. ... Metabolic Alkalosis Interventions. Interventions Treat Underlying Cause. Stop Potassium (K+) Wasting Diuretics. Spironolactone ... metabolic acidosis vs alkalosis. - 5. Picmonics. With Picmonic, facts become pictures. Weve taken what the science shows - ...
... alkalosis respiratoryの音声読み方,クリックして詳細なコンテンツを表 ... alkalosis respiratory日本語の意味:呼吸性
Study objectives: Effects of chronic metabolic alkalosis and acidosis and their relation to central chemoregulation may differ ...
Fluids, Electrolytes Section 4 - Acid-Base Disorders: Metabolic Acidosis & Alkalosis. This content is for Early Access - 2 Year ...
Alkalosis. You can expect your food prices to increase and experience unavailability of certain foods at certain times.. For ...
... Publication , Journal Article ... "Myocardial function capacity in response to compensated and uncompensated respiratory alkalosis." Surgical Forum, vol. 16, 1965 ... "Myocardial function capacity in response to compensated and uncompensated respiratory alkalosis." Surgical Forum 16 (1965): 186 ... Myocardial function capacity in response to compensated and uncompensated respiratory alkalosis. Surgical Forum. 1965;16:186-8. ...
High alkalinity of body fluids (alkalosis). Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms or ...
FCAP Acidosis vs Alkalosis: Perspectives from Cardiology Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC Your concern about alkylosis is ... Acidosis vs Alkalosis: Perspectives from Cardiology and from Pulmonology Authors: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Larry H ... Acidosis vs Alkalosis: Perspectives from Pulmonology. Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP. As the state of alkalosis develops, there is ... Acidosis vs Alkalosis: Perspectives from Cardiology and from Pulmonology. Authors: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Larry H ...
Alkalosis. *Asthma. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Benign Neoplasm of the Digestive System. *Bird Flu ...
Alkalosis. Cardiovascular Disorders. Cardiac arrest, circulatory overload, thromboembolism, tachycardia. Respiratory, Thoracic ...
Dr. Mohammad Farooq, MD is a pulmonologist in Richmond, VA and has over 36 years of experience in the medical field. He graduated from Bolan Med College University Of Balochistan in 1986. He is affiliated with medical facilities Tricities Hospital and Southside Regional Medical Center. His office accepts new patients.
Alkalosis: Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation; metabolic alkalosis occurs with the administration of ...
Effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at the onset of submaximal exercise Journal Articles ... The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and ... The results from the present study suggest that respiratory alkalosis may play an important role in lactate accumulation during ...
Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients; fluid retention; hypertension; hypokalemic alkalosis; potassium loss; sodium ...
  • Metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis? (medscape.com)
  • To determine the effects of acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on leucine metabolism in vivo, mongrel dogs were infused with [1-14C]leucine for 8 h, along with NaCl, HCI, or NaHCO3 over the last 4 h. (nih.gov)
  • Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis in a child treated with sulthiame. (medscape.com)
  • If you established that your patient has either Metabolic Acidosis or Alkalosis, then is their CO2 outside of 35-45? (selectsmart.com)
  • Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • For alkalosis caused by hyperventilation, breathing into a paper bag allows you to keep more carbon dioxide in your body, which improves the alkalosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Central lactic acidosis, hyperventilation, and respiratory alkalosis: leading clinical features in a 3-year-old boy with malignant meningeal melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • So, low carbon dioxide in the blood will create acidosis, not alkalosis, and it is created by hyperventilation and not hypoventilation. (24x7mag.com)
  • According to medical interviews of 252 of 297 affected employees, subsequent incidents appeared to have been the result of a fear-anxiety reaction which was potentiated by the previous conditions, resulting in a hyperventilation syndrome due to respiratory alkalosis. (cdc.gov)
  • In chronic respiratory alkalosis, increased urinary bicarbonate excretion resists the pH change caused by hypocapnia. (medscape.com)
  • The kidneys can help combat alkalosis by increasing the excretion of bicarbonate ions through the urine. (healthline.com)
  • For development of metabolic alkalosis, the kidneys ability to regulate bicarbonate through excretion needs to be interrupted. (pulsenotes.com)
  • Owing to the highly successful renal bicarbonate excretion mechanism, metabolic alkalosis cannot continue without some sort of maintenance process. (derangedphysiology.com)
  • in 1962 [3], is a primary tubulopathy that present with failure to thrive and is associated with a characteristic biochemical abnormalities such as hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia, metabolic alkalosis, increased urinary excretion of chloride and hyper-reninaemia. (who.int)
  • We report here such a case which initially high, urinary chloride excretion alkalosis to extra cellular compartment presented in infancy. (who.int)
  • If pH is over 7.45* and PaCO₂ is under 35 mmHg, it's respiratory alkalosis. (leveluprn.com)
  • we stated that a pH over 7.45 indicates alkalosis. (leveluprn.com)
  • That rule is still true, however: in cases of fully compensated respiratory alkalosis, the pH will be normal but on the alkalotic side (7.4 - 7.45). (leveluprn.com)
  • What is responsible for the development of metabolic alkalosis and how would you correct the alkalosis? (abdominalkey.com)
  • Hypochloremic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, such as from prolonged vomiting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control received reports that hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (HMA) had developed in 141 children as a result of exposure to these formulas. (montclair.edu)
  • Comment: The acute metabolic alkalosis is due to the citrate load from the multiple blood transfusions. (abdominalkey.com)
  • In chronic respiratory alkalosis a 1 mm Hg fall in PaCO2 causes a 0.4 to 0.5 mmol/L drop in [HCO3- ] and a 0.003 rise in pH. (medquizzes.net)
  • If the HCO3 level is acidic (under 22 mEq/L), it means the metabolic system is trying to compensate for respiratory alkalosis. (leveluprn.com)
  • If HCO3 is acidic (under 22 mEq/L), the metabolic system is doing some level of compensation for the respiratory alkalosis. (leveluprn.com)
  • If you established that your patient has either Respiratory Acidosis or Alkalosis, then is their HCO3- outside of 22-26? (selectsmart.com)
  • In the mild and moderate stages, the PaO2 and the PaCO2 measurements may remain normal or, while the PaO2 stays normal, the PaCO2 can be decreased (respiratory alkalosis). (draftlessig.org)
  • Hypokalemic alkalosis is caused by the kidneys' response to an extreme lack or loss of potassium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with healthy kidneys and lungs do not usually have serious alkalosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two organs help to compensate for metabolic alkalosis - our lungs and our kidneys. (healthline.com)
  • In addition, metabolic alkalosis can develop when excessive loss of fluids and electrolytes (such as sodium or potassium) affects the kidneys' ability to maintain the blood's acid-base balance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic alkalosis usually results from severe vomiting or a potassium or chloride deficiency. (healthline.com)
  • If you have chloride-resistant alkalosis, your body may be depleted of potassium. (healthline.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis is treated by replacing water and mineral salts such as sodium and potassium (electrolytes) and correcting the cause. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bartter syndrome is a rare metabolic renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis, normal blood pressure, hyper-reninaemia and increased urinary loss of sodium, potassium and chloride [1]. (who.int)
  • In hepatic cirrhosis with ascites, Amiloride Hydrochloride usually provides adequate diuresis, with diminished potassium loss and less risk of metabolic alkalosis, when used alone. (janusinfo.se)
  • The severe symptoms are most common when the alkalosis is caused by chronic liver disease. (healthline.com)
  • Chronic respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disturbance in critically ill patients. (medquizzes.net)
  • Study objectives: Effects of chronic metabolic alkalosis and acidosis and their relation to central chemoregulation may differ between normocapnic and chronic hypercapnic patients with COPD. (artinis.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis is caused by too much bicarbonate in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alkalosis is excessive blood alkalinity (a measure of blood pH) caused by an overabundance of bicarbonate in the blood or a loss of acid from the blood (metabolic alkalosis), or by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from rapid or deep breathing (respiratory alkalosis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chloride-responsive alkalosis results from loss of hydrogen ions, usually by vomiting or dehydration. (healthline.com)
  • Treatment for metabolic alkalosis depends on whether your alkalosis is chloride-responsive or chloride-resistant. (healthline.com)
  • If you have only a mild chloride-responsive alkalosis, you may only need to make an adjustment in your diet, such as increasing your intake of salt (sodium chloride). (healthline.com)
  • The causes of metabolic alkalosis are numerous and broadly divided into chloride-responsive and chloride-resistant . (pulsenotes.com)
  • The most common cause of chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis is GI losses (e.g. vomiting) . (pulsenotes.com)
  • Coadministration of sodium polystyrene and antacids (calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide, in this case) has been reported to cause metabolic alkalosis in patients with end-stage renal disease and advanced stages of CKD. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Electrolytes test, such as basic metabolic panel to confirm alkalosis and show whether it is respiratory or metabolic alkalosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many people don't experience any symptoms of metabolic alkalosis, so you may not know that you have it. (healthline.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis may not show any symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • In this article, we'll teach you all about respiratory alkalosis, including: the difference between uncompensated, partially-compensated, and fully compensated, and the lab values you can expect to see with each of those, what causes respiratory alkalosis, and its symptoms and treatment. (leveluprn.com)
  • Decreased carbon dioxide (an acid) level or increased bicarbonate (a base) level makes the body too alkaline, a condition called alkalosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Metabolic alkalosis is a condition that occurs when your blood becomes overly alkaline. (healthline.com)
  • Chloride-resistant alkalosis results when your body retains too many bicarbonate (alkaline) ions, or when there's a shift of hydrogen ions from your blood to your cells. (healthline.com)
  • With an alkaline urine pH, additional testing often is unnecessary because all other causes of metabolic alkalosis are associated with aciduria. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Many people wonder if you can get alkalosis from drinking alkaline water. (lifeionizers.com)
  • Compensated alkalosis occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance to near normal in cases of alkalosis, but bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels remain abnormal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In acute respiratory alkalosis, an initial small decrease may occur in plasma bicarbonate concentration because of chemical mass action. (medscape.com)
  • Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory alkalosis is caused by a low carbon dioxide level in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • Alkalosis is a condition in which the body fluids have excess base (alkali). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In rare cases, metabolic alkalosis develops in a person who has ingested too much base from substances such as baking soda (bicarbonate of soda). (msdmanuals.com)
  • alkalosis develops from exogenous administration of bicarbonate (e.g. sodium bicarbonate) or substances that can be broken down to bicarbonate (e.g. citrate within blood transfusion). (pulsenotes.com)
  • As the state of alkalosis develops, there is a disequilibrium across the cell membrane with excess OH- uncompensated by a positive ion. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • The chloride ions will make your blood more acidic and reduce the alkalosis. (healthline.com)
  • As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caution also should be used when interpreting urine chloride results after administration of diuretics because this would mask the presence of a chloride-dependent alkalosis. (abdominalkey.com)
  • The patient's elevated urine pH indicates alkali loading, resolving metabolic alkalosis, or very recent vomiting prior to establishing a new steady state. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions. (medscape.com)
  • For metabolic alkalosis to develop, there needs to be an 'initiating event' and then 'maintenance of alkalosis' . (pulsenotes.com)
  • Ueda Y, Aizawa M, Takahashi A, Fujii M, Isaka Y. Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production. (medscape.com)
  • Your body compensates for both alkalosis and acidosis mainly through your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic alkalosis, put simply, can result from a loss of hydrogen ions or gain of bicarbonate . (pulsenotes.com)
  • To diagnose respiratory alkalosis or assess the severity of the condition, the physician must understand clinical acid-base balance. (medscape.com)
  • To compensate for alkalosis, signals are sent to slow the rate of respiration. (healthline.com)
  • If HCO₃ is in the normal range (22 - 26 mEq/L), the metabolic system is not trying to compensate for the alkalosis. (leveluprn.com)
  • Clinical Course and Prognosis of Tubulopathies Characterized by Metabolic Alkalosis in Children. (cdc.gov)
  • The term respiratory in respiratory alkalosis refers to the primary respiratory mechanism responsible for the change. (medscape.com)
  • Bicakci Z, Olcay L. Citrate metabolism and its complications in non-massive blood transfusions: association with decompensated metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis and serum electrolyte levels. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during submaximal exercise. (mcmaster.ca)
  • If your doctor determines your alkalosis needs immediate attention, they may give you an IV (intravenous drip) containing a saline solution (sodium chloride). (healthline.com)
  • Blood is tested to diagnose alkalosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although the differential diagnosis of metabolic alkalosis is broad, simple blood and urine tests combined with a detailed history can often lead to a diagnosis. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid in the stomach contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this stage a diagnosis of neonatal Bartter syndrome was considered in view of persistent hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis in a baby with failure to thrive and polyuria. (who.int)
  • Patients may be given volume expansion with normal saline empirically to see whether metabolic alkalosis will improve. (pulsenotes.com)
  • If the pH has been pushed into the normal range, the metabolic system has succeeded and the respiratory alkalosis has been fully compensated . (leveluprn.com)