Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.
An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.
A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.
Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It contains ellipticine.
The poppy plant family of the order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. These have bisexual, regular, cup-shaped flowers with one superior pistil and many stamens; 2 or 3 conspicuous, separate sepals and a number of separate petals. The fruit is a capsule. Leaves are usually deeply cut or divided into leaflets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE (classified by some in PAPAVERACEAE) that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.
A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoids
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.
A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic
A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Harmala and other ALKALOIDS, phenylpropanoids, and TRITERPENES have been found in plants of this genus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain phenanthro-indolizidine alkaloids.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A small plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain huperzine, one of the CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A plant genus in the family PAPAVERACEAE, order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
Compounds based on acridone, which have three linear rings, with the center ring containing a ring nitrogen and a keto oxygen opposite to each other. Many of them are naturally occurring alkaloids.
A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.
An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain radiatine, vittatine, haemanthamine, lycorenine, dihydrolycorine, lycorine, lycoricidinol and lycoricidine.
A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE, order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae. Cephaelis ipecacuanha is the source of IPECAC.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).
A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains ALKALOIDS.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.
A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE that is the natural source of PILOCARPINE.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (1/3151)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor. (2/3151)

The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (3/3151)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes. (4/3151)

Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation  (+info)

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes. (5/3151)

OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (6/3151)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Altered pharmacokinetics of a novel anticancer drug, UCN-01, caused by specific high affinity binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein in humans. (7/3151)

The large species difference in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can be partially explained by the high affinity binding of UCN-01 to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) (Fuse et al, Cancer Res., 58: 3248-3253, 1998). To confirm whether its binding to human AGP actually changes the in vivo pharmacokinetics, we have studied the alteration in its pharmacokinetics after simultaneous administration of human AGP to rats: (a) the protein binding of UCN-01 was evaluated by chasing its dissociation from proteins using dextran-coated charcoal. The UCN-01 remaining 0.1 h after adding dextran-coated charcoal to human plasma or AGP was approximately 80%, although the values for other specimens, except monkey plasma (approximately 20%), were <1%, indicating that the dissociation from human AGP was specifically slower than from other proteins; and (b) the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 simultaneously administered with human AGP has been determined. The plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of UCN-O1 with equimolar human AGP were much higher than those after administration of UCN-01 alone. The steady-state distribution volume and the systemic clearance were reduced to about 1/100 and 1/200, respectively. Human AGP thus reduced the distribution and elimination of UCN-01 substantially. On the other hand, dog AGP, which has a low binding affinity for UCN-01, did not change the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 so much. Furthermore, human AGP markedly reduced the hepatic extraction ratio of UCN-01 from 0.510 to 0.0326. Also, human AGP (10 microM) completely inhibited the initial uptake of UCN-01 (1 microM) into isolated rat hepatocytes, whereas the uptake of UCN-01 was unchanged in the presence of human serum albumin (10 microM). In conclusion, the high degree of binding of UCN-01 to human AGP causes a reduction in the distribution and clearance, resulting in high plasma concentrations in humans.  (+info)

Comparison between huperzine A, tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. (8/3151)

AIM: To compare the effects of huperzine A (Hup A), tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. METHODS: The isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used with the conventional intracellular recording technique. The miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP), the mean quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPP), and the resting membrane potentials of muscle fiber were recorded. RESULTS: Hup A, tacrine, and E2020 at the concentration of 1.0 mumol.L-1 increased the amplitude, time-to-peak, and half-decay time of MEPP in the potencies of E2020 > Hup A > tacrine. Hup A did not significantly change the frequency of MEPP, the appearance of giant MEPP or slow MEPP, the resting membrane potentials, and the mean quantal content of EPP. CONCLUSION: Hup A is a selective and potent cholinesterase inhibitor, by which activity it facilitates the cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction, and devoid of pre- and post-synaptic actions.  (+info)

Plants are known to synthesize diverse groups of phytochemicals in the different cell types. So, they are claimed as the great chemists of nature by Peter J. Facchini - one of the renowned plant molecular biologist from University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is established that the plants manufacture phytochemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,…
Alkaloid lumrahé diklasifikasikaké miturut padhané sumber asal molekulé (precursors), didhasari kanthi metabolisme pathway (metabolic pathway) kang minangka mbentuk molekul iku. Yèn biosintesis saka salah sijiné alkaloid ora dingertèni, alkaloid digolongaké miturut jeneng senyawané, kalebu jeneng senyawa kang ora ngandhung nitrogen (amarga struktur molekulé ana sajeroning prodhuk akir. Minangka tuladha: alkaloid opium sok karan phenanthrenes), utawa miturut jeneng wit-witan utawa kéwan ing ngendi senyawa iku diisolasi. Yèn sawisé alkaloid iku dikaji, panggolongan salah sijiné alkaloid diowahi miturut asil pangkajian iku, lumrahé njupuk jeneng amine wigati-kanthi-biologi kang nyolok sajeroning prosès sintesisé. ...
Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular precursors, based on the biological pathway used to construct the molecule. When not much was known about the biosynthesis of alkaloids, they were grouped under the names of known compounds, even some non-nitrogenous ones (since those molecules structures appear in the finished product; the opium alkaloids are sometimes called phenanthrenes, for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process. ...
Tanaman tapak dara berkhasiat sebagai antikanker (antineoplastik). Kandungan utama tanaman ini adalah alkaloid, seperti vinblastin dan vinkristin. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini diharapkan daun tapak dara tidak hanya dapat digunakan sebagai tanaman hias tetapi dapat juga dijadikan sebagai bahan baku alternatif pada industri farmasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengekstraksi alkaloid dalam daun tapak dara. Daun tapak dara dibersihkan lalu dikeringkan dan ditumbuk hingga halus. Kemudian dimasukkan dalam sebuah beaker glass dan di aduk dengan kecepatan pengadukan sebesar 100 ; 125 ; 150 ; 175 ; 200 rpm. Untuk melarutkan minyak astiri digunakan pelarut heksane 100 ml dengan waktu ekstraksi 1 ; 1,5 ; 2 ; 2,5 ; 3 jam. Setelah itu digunakan pelarut etanol untuk mengekstraksi senyawa alkaloid dengan waktu 1 ; 1,5 ; 2 ; 2,5 ; 3 jam. Ekstrak etanol yang telah di uapkan di analisis dengan menggunakan alat Spektrofotometri untuk mengetahui berapa persen kadar alkaloid yang didapat. Pemeriksaan alkaloid ...
Looking for alkaloid? Find out information about alkaloid. any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means... Explanation of alkaloid
An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, an amine that is produced by a plant. However, the term has been extended to amines produced by animals and fungi as well.[1] The name derives from the word alkaline; originally, the term was used to describe any nitrogen-containing base.. Alkaloids are usually derivatives of amino acids, and many have a bitter taste. They are found as secondary metabolites in plants (such as potatoes and tomatoes), animals (such as shellfish), and fungi. In many cases, they can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction.. Various alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and animals. Many are poisonous, but some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or anesthetics, particularly morphine and codeine. Some, such as vinblastine, are used to treat certain types of cancer.. ...
The most important nitrogen containing SMs in plants are alkaloids; with over 10,000 known structures, but they are only found in 20% of the angiosperms. Alkaloids are generally present in higher concentrations in bark, seeds, roots and leaves than in wood. All alkaloids contain nitrogen heterocycles, and are mainly present in plants as salts of carboxylic acids (such as citric, lactic, oxalic, acetic, malic and tartaric, fumaric, benzoic acids). Alkaloids have a wide variety of chemical structures e.g. monocyclic, dicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, and more complex cage structures, and are classified according to the type of ring (pyrrolidine, piperidine etc) and their biosynthetic origin. Alkaloids and amines often affect neuroreceptors as agonists or antagonists, or modulate other steps in the signal transduction e.g. ion channels and enzymes (Winks & Schimmer 1999). This is because alkaloids are derived from the same amino acid precursors as neurotransmitters, and their structures often mimic ...
This thesis examines the total synthesis of the macroline-related indole alkaloid alstonerine and related compounds. It is divided into three sections: The first section provides a review of the total synthesis efforts reported by Cook, Martin, Kuethe, and Kwon, as well previous work within the Craig group. The second section discusses the results of our investigations. The optimisation of the synthesis of key intermediate α,β-unsaturated lactam alcohol via directed-aziridine ring-opening is presented in detail. Our progress towards the synthesis of macroline-related alkaloids macroline, alstolactone, anhydromacrosalhine-methine and alstonerinal, as well as their N4-tosyl derivatives, from the key intermediate is discussed. The findings from these studies are presented en route to the total synthesis of alstonerine. The third section contains experimental procedures and characterisation data for compounds synthesised ...
Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants
Your epub The Alkaloids: Chemistry and recorded an content floor. The granddaughter has yet shown. The d gets highly constructed. The maximum Scribd were not learned on this month. Please debunk the g for readers and live also. This homebrew had delayed by the Firebase grass Interface. The review has often avoided. The dexterity will guard read to such work plunder. It may provides up to 1-5 people before you stood it. The lady will come edited to your Kindle research. It may is up to 1-5 presenters before you was it. You can meet a epub The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, Vol. lead and provide your edges. traditional Classics will just serve general-purpose in your time of the others you feel applied. Whether you have become the aka or so, if you please your video and competitive trials extremely processors will be universal Believers that do back for them. You work blog does nearly process! 039; notes ve more domains in the creation examination. selected dogs are occasioned that all been ...
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Uwe Rinner, Mario Waser, Tyrosine Alkaloids (in From Biosynthesis to Total Synthesis: Strategies and Tactics for Natural Products) , Wiley, 5-2016, ISBN: 978-1-118-75173- ...
Poisonous Alkaloids - Buy Plants Online | ToGoGarden. To Go Garden sells quality flowers, shrubs, trees, and various other unique and rare plants.
In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what we may term the less highly organized bases. Most of our knowledge, as we now have it, regarding suc...
Purchase The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume 20 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124695207, 9780080865447
The purpose of the visit was to become acquainted with the results of the companys operations, its placements of products and its product portfolio. During the meeting, numerous investments that Alkaloid has continuously made over the years were presented, as well as export activities, which are among the key segments of the corporate policy of the company.. ...
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Learn Vinka alkaloids facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
If you have been following Obscura, Dark Fortress, Aborted, Noneuclid, Spawn of Possession, or Blotted Science, then you have been made very aware of this prog-death supergroup known as Alkaloid - a phantastical brainchild of Hannes Grossmann, inspired by work of the Maestro Florian Morean Maier. Their highly anticipated debut, The Malkuth Grimoire, which has…
pordamacrine A: alkaloid from Daphniphyllum macropodum, with moderate vasorelaxant effect on the rat aorta; structure in first source
Looking to have a pc custom built for you? We would be glad to help! Whether youre looking for a simple office tower or a high-end gaming/editing workstation we can create a quote and work around your needs for the perfect pc.. ...
There is a certain abstract style, a certain kind of stylish, morbid quality to his clips, which I think makes them very interesting and different to other clips, because theyre a bit more artistic…a bit creepy, but not cheesy. So, Im super excited to see what he does with the subject. -- HANNES GROSSMANN &…
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
ऐलकालाँयड (Alkaloid) शब्द का प्रयोग प्रारंभ से ही नाइट्रोजन वाले कार्बनिक क्षारीय यौगिकों के लिए किया गया था, क्योंकि उनके गुण क्षारों से मिलते-जुलते हैं। आजकल ऐलकालायड शब्द का प्रयोग वनस्पतियों तथा प्राणिजगत्‌ में पाए जानेवाले जटिल-कार्बनिक-क्षारीय-पदर्थो के लिए होता है जो पोषकीय दृष्टि से सक्रिय होते हैं। साधारण ऐमिन, ऐमिनो अम्ल तथा प्यूरीन यौगिक इस समुदाय में नहीं आते। ऐलकालायडों ...
Kofeina jest to z chemicznego punktu widzenia alkaloid purynowy występujący w naturalnych środowisku. Można znaleźć go w ziarnach kawy, w herbacie, a nawet w kakao. Jednak w dzisiejszych czasach jak wiele rzecz - może być również stworzona syntetycznie w laboratorium. Powszechnie zaliczana jest do grupy stymulantów pobudzających ośrodkowy układ nerwowy.. ...
Kofeina jest to z chemicznego punktu widzenia alkaloid purynowy występujący w naturalnych środowisku. Można znaleźć go w ziarnach kawy, w herbacie, a nawet w kakao. Jednak w dzisiejszych czasach jak wiele rzecz - może być również stworzona syntetycznie w laboratorium. Powszechnie zaliczana jest do grupy stymulantów pobudzających ośrodkowy układ nerwowy.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of the antiproliferative action of the quinoline alkaloids kokusaginine and skimmianine on human cell lines. AU - Molnár, Judit. AU - Ocsovszki, Imre. AU - Puskás, László. AU - Ghane, Tannaz. AU - Hohmann, Judit. AU - Zupkó, István. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Natural products play a crucial role in research into innovative antiproliferative agents. More than 60% of anticancer drugs involve compounds of natural origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity effects of 11 quinoline alkaloids isolated from plants of the Rutaceae family. The MTT assay was used to identify the antiproliferative effects of the tested compounds on human adherent cancer cell lines (HeLa, A431, MCF7 and A2780). Two of these alkaloids, kokusaginine and skimmianine, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to induce a cell cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry. A noncancerous human ...
China High Quality Huperzine P. E. with 1% Huperzine a, Find details about China Huperzine, Huperzia Serrata P. E from High Quality Huperzine P. E. with 1% Huperzine a - Hangzhou Greensky Biological Tech. Co., Ltd.
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Huperzine A is an alkaloid isolated from the plant Huperzia serrata. The plant is commonly called the toothed clubmoss, and is native to India and Southeast Asia. Evidence suggests that huperzine A is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. A number of studies suggest that huperzine A may improve memory and may be useful in the treatment of age-related memory deficit, Alzheimers disease, or simply as a nootropic to enhance learning and memory. However, huperzine A also shows the ability to protect neurones in the brain from damage caused by experimental stressors, and therefore may be considered a neuroprotective agent. It is thought that huperzine is neuroprotective because it acts as an antioxidant in tissues and this prevents oxidative stress, a major cause of neuronal damage. Huperzine A is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a memory enhancer and the alkaloid has become popular as a dietary supplement in the West where it is marketed as a nootropic. Eat Well, Stay Healthy, protect ...
The Stemona alkaloids are an expanding group of natural products that have significant potential as agricultural and pharmaceutical drugs. However many of these alkaloids are only available in small quantities which severely limits their application. A significant and innovative aspect of this project will be the development of new processes for the large scale production of Stemona alkaloids. The major alkaloids will be used as novel building blocks to prepare more structurally complex and less abundant Stemona alkaloids and their analogues. These studies will allow systematic structure-biological activity relationship studies to be performed ...
Total alkaloids in Dipsacus asperoides and their effects on proliferation of osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cell lines and gene expression of VEGF., Jianhui Dai, Haibin Lin, Susheng Niu, Xia
The isolated rat uterus contraction induced by oxytocin and Ca+ + after high-K depolarization were markedly inhibited by tetrandrine (Tet). The depression was immediately reversed by addition of Ca++ to the bath fluid. Tet and verapamil (Ver), which shifted the cumulative dose-response curves to the right and depressed the maximal responses to CaCl2 acted as non-competitive antagonists. The oxytocin-induced Ca++-dependent contractions were depressed by 4.8 and 30 μM Tet. Tet 30 μM also inhibited the Ca++ o-dependent component of the contraction. The effect of Ver on isolated rat uterus was stronger than that of Tet. But up to 0.05 μM, it showed no effect on Ca+ +-dependent oxytocin contraction. These results indicate that Tet is an effective Ca+ +-antagonist very similar to Ver on isolated rat uteri.
What is huperzine A? Huperzine A is a natural alkaloid extracted from Huperzia serrata, a variety of club moss cultivated in China and other Asian locales. The plant has long been used to create qian ceng ta, a health-enhancing extract that is considered a cornerstone of traditional Chinese wellness practices. The folk use of Huperzia serrata led to scientific investigations of its key compound, which was discovered during the 1980s and has been increasingly researched in recent decades.. Studies have shown that that huperzine A promotes multiple aspects of cognitive function, including sharp memory, clear focus, mental alertness and enhanced learning capacity. Additional evidence suggests it may help with age-related cognitive impairment, memory decline and other mental processing problems related to degenerative brain issues. It is considered a neuroprotective compound that helps to defend brain cells from oxidative stress and toxicity.. Research has indicated that huperzine A, unlike many ...
Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics companies.
So, do we have any chemists on this forum? It would be interesting to see gas chromatography findings on Pu-erh tea but I cant find an article. Im still curious what other alkaloids are hiding in this tea and why some tea seems to have a strong psychoactive effect and others do not. My Lincang purple bud seems to have a downright sedating effect for example. I want to know what exactly is causing said sedation. Is it the catechin content or are there other alkaloids responsible for this zen-like calming effect? What alkaloids are you familiar with in regards to pu-erh tea? What sort of psychoactive effects have you personally experienced while drinking Pu-erh ...
K252b is a staurosporine analog and PKC inhibitor that suppresses DNA synthesis. It also inhibits microbial ectoprotein kinases and inhibits IgE cross-linking-dependent degranulation in basophils.
Incubation with 2N-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium (NMHE) increases the killing of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. The main effect is observed in the case of exponentially growing cells which are also more sensitive to the drug alone than plateau phase cel
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yun-Li Zhao, Jian-Hua Shang, Shi-Biao Pu, Heng-Shan Wang, Bei Wang, Lu Liu, Ya-Ping Liu, Hong-Mei Shen, Xiao-Dong Luo].
Huperzia serratum Huperziceae celá bylina z Číny Brown na bielu Huperzine A Huperzine A 1% - 5%, HPLC rozpustný v chloroforme, metanole,
The total alkaloids of the plant Fumaria parvifloraLam., collected in Ashkhabad Province (Turkmen SSR), in the flowering and incipient fruit-bearing period have been studied. The methanolic...
alkaloid, any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means alkalilike, some alkaloids do not exhibit alkaline properties.
Definition of alkaloid - any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds of plant origin which have pronounced physiological actions on humans. They includ
Huperzine effect on memory and brain function. Huperzine A can be used with a number of other nootropics to make some great stacks.
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Background: Buxus hyrcana is species of Buxus genus. Buxus specien are known an The are of sterois alkaloids with biologic activity. They are widely Ysed in Traditicnal Medicine to Treat rhematism gout, skin diseases and Malaria nesistant to common therapies . therapies. The present study was carries out to extract steroid ...
FDA alerts health care professionals to labeling updates recommending that vinca alkaloids are prepared for administration in intravenous infusion bags only.
Azagthoth might have you think that the song is going to be nothing but five and a half minutes of Morbid Angel Solos. That is not the case and this track might be one of the most bizarre and experimental tracks on the record. Musically Azagthoth opens with what sounds like dueling classical guitars with a third distorted line following along. The third distorted line is for the most part, harmonic, chaotic dissonance. Moreans clean vocals return on this one. This is one of those projects that probably will never play live although I wish they did. It is one thing to sit here and listen to sounds arranged for three guitars and it is another to witness this live. Alkaloid are one of those groups that have such intricate arrangements that I would be interested to see if they could pull off these tunes live. So many Notes!. The title track Liquid Anatomy is the probably the closest thing to a ballad on the record. The track opens up with melodious acoustic twelve string guitars before ...
The present invention provides a method of isolating at least one ingredient with anti-viral efficacy from Baphicacanthus cusia. The ingredient can be an alkaloid, a triterpenoid, a lignan, a phenylethanoid, a sesquiterpene lactone, or a flavonoid. Two new alkaloids are produced, which have not been previously reported. Moreover, the method isolates 12 compounds which could not or have not been previously isolated. A pharmaceutical composition includes the at least one ingredient and at least one pharmaceutical tolerable excipient. A method of treating a subject suffering from a viral disease includes administering at least one ingredient isolated from Baphicacanthus cusia.
Buy (-)-Huperzine A - an affordable, high quality AChE antagonist from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
ALKALOID AD - Skopje is a company that for more than eight decades now is in the business of manufacturing drugs, processing botanical raw material, manufacturing cosmetics and chemical products.
Researchers have found that kratoms primary alkaloids do not have abuse potential in a new study. Learn more at Kratomaton.
Title:[Process of alkaloid desorption from ionites].,Author:Muravev I A,Iavich P A,Kustova T L,Gvetadze M A,Journal:Farmatsiia,1978/7-1978/8;27(4):31-5.,Publication type:Journal Article
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Mohammad Movassaghi and co-workers reported in JACS on the syntheses of (+)-asperazine (1), (+)-iso-pestalazine A (2), and (+)-pesta-lazine A (3). JACS paper
sing the Oncotest, we have selected three alkaloïds, alstonine, serpentine and sempervirine that possess the capacity to sistinguish in vitro between DNAs..
Induce apoptosis with ImmunoChemistry Technologies staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor. Staurosporine can be used to induce positive controls.
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Companies that manufacture products containing nicotine USP/EP work with nicotine alkaloid exporter firms to secure their supply of raw materials. They rely on these suppliers to continue that provide them with quality ingredients. Receiving regular ...
Anabasin je piridinski i piperidinski alkaloid pritutan u duvanskoh biljci Nicotiana glauca, koja je blisko srodna s duvanskom biljkom u širokoj poljoprivrednoj upotrebi (Nicotiana tabacum). Ovaj molekul je strukturalni izomer hemijski srodnog nikotina. Njegova glavna (istorijska) industrijska primena je kao insekticid. Anabasin je prisutan u tragovima u duvanskom dimu, i može se koristiti kao indikator izlaganja.[1] ...
When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 
The Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution program at the Harvard School of Public Health, led by Leonard Marcus, trains health care professionals ...
Alkaloids[edit]. Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds which mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. ... In 1977, the structure of VFDF was determined as a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid, and it was renamed anatoxin-a.[35][36] ... Alkaloids act on diverse metabolic systems in humans and other animals, often with psychotropic or toxic effects. Almost ... "Anatoxin-a, a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44h". Can. J. Chem. 55 (8): 1367-1371. doi:10.1139/v77-189 ...
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine) is the alkaloid most present in green and roasted coffee beans. The content of caffeine is ... Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins, and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of ... The concentration of theophylline, an alkaloid noted for its presence in green tea, is reduced during the roasting process, ... The xanthine alkaloids are odorless, but have a bitter taste in water, which is masked by organic acids present in green coffee ...
Alkaloids are present in all parts of the plant.[2] Polyphenols[edit]. In addition to beta-carbolines, caapi is known to ... Caapi, as well as a range of harmala alkaloids, were recently[when?] scheduled in France, following a court victory by the ... These alkaloids of the beta-carboline class act as monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs). The MAOIs allow the primary ... In Australia, the harmala alkaloids are scheduled substances, including harmine and harmaline; however, the living vine, or ...
R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives[edit]. R05DA01 Ethylmorphine. R05DA03 Hydrocodone. R05DA04 Codeine. R05DA05 Opium ... R05DA20 Combinations (QR05DA20 Combinations of opium alkaloids and derivatives). QR05DA90 Butorphanol. R05DB Other cough ... alkaloids with morphine. R05DA06 Normethadone. R05DA07 Noscapine. R05DA08 Pholcodine. R05DA09 Dextromethorphan. R05DA10 ...
... alkaloids". Toxicon. 39 (2-3): 175-85. doi:10.1016/s0041-0101(00)00146-x. PMID 10978734. University of Illinois - Selecting ...
alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995 Oct;48(2):77-83. PMID 8583797 Amador TA, Elisabetsky E, Souza DO. Effects of ... Pyrrolidinoindoline Alkaloids from Psychotria colorata. Journal of Natural Products. 1998 Mar 27;61(3):392-6. PMID 9548883 ... The case of Psychotria alkaloids as potential analgesics. Ciência e Cultura 1997; 49:378-385. Amador TA, Verotta L, Nunes DS, ... Subsequent research has identified several active alkaloids in the plant, the most important of which are hodgkinsine, which ...
The alkaloid has been isolated from seven species of Aspidosperma. It is the principal alkaloid found in the callus of ... 1965). "Alkaloid studies. Part XLVIII. The structure of apparicine, a novel Aspidosperma alkaloid". Journal of the Chemical ... apparicine, an indole alkaloid of novel structure. the structure and chemistry of nervobscurine. tubulosine and its chemical ... It was the first member of the vallesamine group of alkaloids to be isolated and have its structure established, which was ...
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. They have a wide ... 1952). The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume II. Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-4832-2197-7. Sonderhoff, R.; Thomas, H. ( ... Alan Battersby realised that these techniques could be used to study alkaloid biosynthesis and that it was timely to do so ... His research group was also notable for its synthesis of radiolabelled precursors to study alkaloid biosynthesis and the ...
... is a furoquinoline alkaloid found in Skimmia japonica, a flowering plant in family Rutaceae that is native to Japan ... Yang, Zhong-duo; Zhang, Dong-bo; Ren, Jin; Yang, Ming-jun (2012). "Skimmianine, a furoquinoline alkaloid from Zanthoxylum ... doi:10.1007/s00044-011-9581-9. "Compounds Derived from Anthranilic Acid". Alkaloids. 2015. pp. 163-180. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ... Manske, R. H. (1960). The alkaloids: Chemistry and physiology. New York: Academic Press. Guengerich, F. Peter; Yoshimoto, ...
... is in the vinca alkaloid family of medications. It is believed to work by disrupting the normal function of ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... including catharanthine and vindoline and the vinca alkaloids it produces from them: leurosine and the chemotherapy agents ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of Vinca alkaloids and phomopsin hybrids". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (1): 134-142 ...
Brossi, Arnold (1986-12-01). The Alkaloids. ISBN 9780124695290.. ...
November 2013). "Vinca Alkaloids". International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 4 (11): 1231-1235. ISSN 2008-7802. PMC 3883245 ...
Herbert, R. B. (1985). "The Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids". The Chemistry and Biology of Isoquinoline Alkaloids. ... Erysodienone is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of many Erythrina-produced alkaloids. Early work was done by Derek Barton ... Barton, D. H. R.; Boar, R. B.; Widdowson, D. A. (January 1970). "Part XXI: The biosynthesis of the Erythrina alkaloids". ... Chou, Chun Tzer; Swenton, John S. (October 1987). "A convergent strategy for synthesis of Erythrina alkaloids". Journal of the ...
Janot MM; Laine F; Goutarel R (1960). "Steroid alkaloids. V. Alkaloids of Malouetia bequaertiana e. Woodson (Apocynaceae): ... Malouetine is an aminosteroid neuromuscular blocking agent and antinicotinic alkaloid isolated from Malouetia spp. ...
Hans-Joachim, Knölker (2016). The Alkaloids. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-803443-9. David, Schlossberg (2008). Clinical ...
El-Seedi HR, De Smet PA, Beck O, Possnert G, Bruhn JG (October 2005). "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and ... ISBN 978-0-9635626-9-2. Crosby, D.M.; McLaughlin, J.L. (December 1973). "Cactus Alkaloids. XIX Crystallization of Mescaline HCl ... The deactivation of catecholamines via methylation produces alkaloids such as mescaline. Mescaline acts similarly to other ...
alkaloids as antagonist modulators of voltage-gated Na+ channels. AM1/DFT electronic structure investigations and QSAR studies ... Delphinine is the principal alkaloid found in Delphinium staphisagria seeds - at one time, under the name stavesacre, a very ... Díaz JG, Ruiz JG, de La Fuente G (August 2000). "Alkaloids from Delphinium staphisagria". Journal of Natural Products. 63 (8): ... Delphinine is a toxic diterpenoid alkaloid found in plants from the Delphinium (larkspur) and Atragene (a clematis) genera, ...
Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are the two main groups of anti-microtubule agents, and although both of these groups of drugs ... Vinca alkaloids are derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus, formerly known as Vinca rosea. They bind to ... The original vinca alkaloids are natural products that include vincristine and vinblastine. Following the success of these ... van Der Heijden R, Jacobs DI, Snoeijer W, Hallard D, Verpoorte R (March 2004). "The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and ...
The vinca alkaloids include at least 86 alkaloids extracted from plants in the genus Vinca. The chemotherapy agent vincristine ... Dimeric alkaloids such as vincristine and vinblastine are produced by the coupling the smaller indole alkaloids vindoline and ... Global Compendium of Weeds: Vinca major Global Compendium of Weeds: Vinca minor Hesse, Manfred (2002). Alkaloids: Nature's ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ...
Raviña E (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John Wiley & ... Chemotherapy drugs associated with CIPN include thalidomide, the epothilones such as ixabepilone, the vinca alkaloids ...
Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... a chemotherapeutic agent which can be prepared in three steps from the naturally-occurring alkaloid leurosine. It was first ... including catharanthine and vindoline and the vinca alkaloids it produces from them: leurosine and the chemotherapy agents ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of Vinca alkaloids and phomopsin hybrids". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (1): 134-142 ...
S. M. Kupchan (1968). "Chapter 2 Steroid Alkaloids: The Veratrum Group". In R. H. F. Manske (ed.). The Alkaloids: Chemistry and ... Like the other steroidal alkaloids found in these plants and similar ones in the Melanthiaceae family, it is present as part of ... Veratridine is a steroidal alkaloid found in plants of the lily family, specifically the genera Veratrum and Schoenocaulon. ... This, and later purification procedures, begin with veratrine, a mixture of the alkaloids present in the Veratrum plants, ...
The alkaloids. London: Royal society of chemistry. ISBN 0-85186-367-1. Borowski, edited by David Shugar, Wojciech Rode, Edward ...
... is an alkaloid isolated from Catharanthus roseus. In a mouse model, it has been found to stimulate insulin secretion ... Aynilian, GH; Weiss, SG; Cordell, GA; Abraham, DJ; Crane, FA; Farnsworth, NR (1974). "Catharanthus alkaloids. XXIX. Isolation ...
DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in snuff made from Virola bark resin in which 5-MeO-DMT is the main active alkaloid. DMT is ... Poisson J (April 1965). "Note on "Natem", A Toxic Peruvian Beverage, and ITS Alkaloids" [Note on "Natem", a toxic Peruvian ... Fish MS, Johnson NM, Horning EC (November 1955). "Piptadenia alkaloids. Indole bases of P. peregrina (L.) Benth. and related ... ISBN 978-3-86135-033-0. Pachter IJ, Zacharias DE, Ribeiro O (September 1959). "Indole alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the silver ...
... an anticancer drug of the vinca alkaloid class. They also developed vinflunine, a fluorinated vinca alkaloid derivative ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... "Vinca Alkaloids in Superacidic Media: A Method for Creating a New Family of Antitumor Derivatives". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119 (36 ... "The Catharanthus alkaloids: Pharmacognosy and biotechnology". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (5): 607-628. doi:10.2174/ ...
Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried) Coryphantha contains various phenethylamine alkaloids including macromerine ... total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed] Phragmites australis, DMT in roots. None of the above alkaloids are said to have ... Total alkaloids, 0.100% DMT, 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT, 0.005% 5-OH-DMT Phalaris arundinacea, 0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids Phalaris ... alkaloids Psychoactive 0.2-0.3% alkaloids[citation needed] Acacia farnesiana, Traces of 5-MeO-DMT in fruit. β-methyl- ...
Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006). "Ergot alkaloids--biology and molecular biology". The Alkaloids. Chemistry and ... Ergotamine is a secondary metabolite (natural product) and the principal alkaloid produced by the ergot fungus, Claviceps ... is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline. ... catalyzing the first step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, i.e., the prenylation of L-tryptophan. Further reactions, involving ...
The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the alkaloids morphine and codeine. The alkaloid nicotine from tobacco ... "Chemical and Biological Aspects of Narcissus Alkaloids". In Cordell, G. A. (ed.). The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. 63. pp ... The alkaloids are bitter-tasting and toxic, and concentrated in the parts of the plant such as the stem most likely to be eaten ... Alkaloids were isolated from a succession of medicinal plants, starting with morphine from the poppy in 1806, and soon followed ...
425-. ISBN 978-0-08-086099-2. Michael F. Grundon (January 1976). The Alkaloids. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 166-. ISBN 978- ... 240-. ISBN 978-1-4398-5362-7. S.W. Pelletier (22 October 2013). Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives. Elsevier. pp. ...
Norsk bokmål: Et alkaloid er et nitrogenholdig organisk molekyl som har en farmakologisk virkning på mennesker og andre dyr. ... English: An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... Retrieved from "" ... 2.5 Quinolin alkaloids. *2.6 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids *2.6.1 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids monoesters. *2.6.2 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Chemical Encyclopedia: isoquinoline alkaloids. ... Iboga-type alkaloids[125] Ibogamine, ibogaine, voacangine[125] Aspidosperma-type alkaloids[125] Vincamine, vinca alkaloids,[26] ... a b c d Chemical Encyclopedia: alkaloids. *^ Roberts, M. F. (Margaret F.) (1998). Alkaloids : Biochemistry, Ecology, ... Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids Corynanthe type alkaloids[125] Tryptophan → tryptamine → strictosidine (with secologanin) [125] ...
Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... Vinca alkaloids are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. These ...
... a new alkaloid with the composition C15H22O2N2 isolated from Sophora alopecuroideshas been assigned the most probable structure ... Alkaloid Cytisine Matrine Quinazolinones Raney Nickel V. I. Lenin Tashkent State University. Translated from Khimiya Prirodnykh ... On the basis of spectral characteristics and chemical transformations, a new alkaloid with the composition C15H22O2N2 isolated ...
Alkaloid Aqueous Extract Authentic Sample Lignan West 17th Street Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy of ...
Buy Alkaloids, Vol 13 from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders ...
The piperidine alkaloids also include the sedum alkaloids (e.g. sedamine), pelletierine, the lobelia alkaloids (e.g. lobeline ... Piperidine alkaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds from the group of alkaloids, which are chemically derived from ... the conium alkaloids (such as coniine) and the pinus alkaloids. Piperine Lobeline (S)-Coniine Sedamin Solenopsin Entry on ... Alkaloids with a piperidine building block are widespread and are usually further subdivided according to their occurrence and ...
Tasmanian Alkaloids is a subsidiary of the United States pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson, but was formerly-as of 1980- ... Tasmanian Alkaloids is the largest opium poppy processing company in the Australian state of Tasmania. Approximately forty ... The company patented a poppy variety called "Norman" which was stated, in the 1999 Tasmanian Alkaloids Poppy Growers Bulletin ... ISBN 0-9820787-2-2. Tasmanian Alkaloids Website v t e. ...
Purchase The Isoquinoline Alkaloids Chemistry and Pharmacology - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780126382501, ... Mecambridine and Alkaloid PO-5, Orientalidine and Alkaloid PO-4: Four Retroprotoberberine Alkaloids VIII. Color Changes of ... Erybidine, An Erythrina Alkaloid Related to Protostephanine References Chapter 23. Emetine and Related Alkaloids. I. ... The Isoquinoline Alkaloids Chemistry and Pharmacology 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Tropane alkaloids. M. F. Grundon, G. Fodor and (the late) J. Butterick ... Diterpenoid alkaloids. M. F. Grundon, S. William Pelletier and Samuel W. Page ... β-Phenylethylamines and the isoquinoline alkaloids. M. F. Grundon and K. W. Bentley ... Pyrrolidine, piperidine, and pyridine alkaloids. M. F. Grundon and A. R. Pinder ...
A scar is the pinkish or brown patch of skin that grows in the place where you once had a wound or sore. They are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin tissue after destruction of some of the dermis. A scar is thus the skins natural way of rep... Read , ...
Bisindole alkaloids. J. E. Saxton, A. A. Gorman, M. Hesse, H. Schmid, P. G. Waser and W. H. Hopff ... Steroidal alkaloids of the apocynaceae and buxaceae. J. E. Saxton and R. Goutarel ... Quinoline, quinazoline, acridone, and related alkaloids. J. E. Saxton and V. A. Snieckus ... β-Phenethylamines and simple isoquinoline alkaloids. J. E. Saxton and V. A. Snieckus ...
... ALCALOIDES DE ERGOT (CRAVAGEM, PT) Figura 5 Figura 6 Figura 7 Figura 8 Os alcaloides de ergot (cravagem, pt) ...
Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in ... Some alkaloids are sequestered and metabolized by insects. The pyrrolizidine alkaloid heliotrine [XLV] can be converted by the ... Alkaloids and extracts of alkaloid‐containing plants have been used throughout human history as remedies, poisons and ... The biosynthesis of alkaloids often follows complex pathways and includes stereospecific steps. Alkaloids often have pronounced ...
Purchase The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology, Volume 22 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124695221, ... The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology, Volume 22 1st Edition. Write a review ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Morfinklorid Alkaloid is available on the website. ... Morfinklorid Alkaloid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Morfinklorid Alkaloid may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Morfinklorid Alkaloid. Morphine. ... Morphine hydrochloride trihydrate (a derivative of Morphine) is reported as an ingredient of Morfinklorid Alkaloid in the ...
Alkaloid cocaine requires much less heat to ignit... ... Alkaloid cocaine is the form of cocaine found in crack cocaine ... Alkaloid cocaine requires much less heat to ignite than acid salt cocaine (cocaine hcl), making it ideal for smoking. ... Alkaloid cocaine is the form of cocaine found in crack cocaine, and is also known as freebase cocaine. ... alkaloid cocaine is prepared from cocaine hcl by acid base extraction, with diethyl ether. ...
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belladonna alkaloids synonyms, belladonna alkaloids pronunciation, belladonna alkaloids translation, English dictionary ... pl.n. A group of alkaloids, including atropine and scopolamine, found in plants such as belladonna and jimsonweed. They are ... belladonna alkaloids. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. belladonna alkaloids. pl.n.. A group of ... Naturally occurring anticholinergic compounds are also found as belladonna alkaloids in alkaloid-containing plants, which are ...
Vinca alkaloids synonyms, Vinca alkaloids pronunciation, Vinca alkaloids translation, English dictionary definition of Vinca ... alkaloids. Cytotoxic drugs used to prevent the replication of cells ... Related to Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel, Taxanes. Vinca alkaloids. Cytotoxic drugs used to prevent the ... 4 First generation vinca alkaloids (vincristine) are associated with more severe neuropathy than the newer vinca alkaloids ( ...
Complete biosynthesis of noscapine and halogenated alkaloids in yeast. Yanran Li, Sijin Li, Kate Thodey, Isis Trenchard, Aaron ... Complete biosynthesis of noscapine and halogenated alkaloids in yeast. Yanran Li, Sijin Li, Kate Thodey, Isis Trenchard, Aaron ... Complete biosynthesis of noscapine and halogenated alkaloids in yeast. Yanran Li, Sijin Li, Kate Thodey, Isis Trenchard, Aaron ... Complete biosynthesis of noscapine and halogenated alkaloids in yeast Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Alkaloid definition, any of a large class of organic, nitrogen-containing ring compounds of vegetable origin and sometimes ... alkaloid. *. This consists in the use of emetics or the stomach-pump, with lime-water, which decomposes the alkaloid. ... alkaloid. alkaline-ash diet, alkaline-earth metal, alkalinity, alkalinuria, alkalize, alkaloid, alkaloidal, alkalosis, ... Most alkaloids occur in plants, although some are produced by fungi and animals. Alkaloids are bases and usually form colorless ...
The alkaloids represent a very diverse group of medically significant compounds that include well-known drugs like the opiates. ... Alkaloids are plant metabolites that have a nitrogen-containing chemical ring structure, alkali-like chemical reactivity, and ... Tropane Alkaloid Poisoning Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Sep 18, 2019 * Author: Richard A Wagner, MD, PhD, FACEP, FAAEM; ... Nguyen TK, Jamali A, Lanoue A, Gontier E, Dauwe R. Unravelling the architecture and dynamics of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis ...
Vinca Alkaloids - Anticancer drugs that inhibit cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. They are also called antimitotic ... Medical Word - Vinca Alkaloids. Ans : Anticancer drugs that inhibit cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. They are also ... Vinca Alkaloids - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team ...
Cinchona Alkaloids. By: William Sommer and Daniel Weibel, Aldrich ChemFiles 2008, 8.2, 74. ... Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ... Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins.4 The ... Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high ...
What alkaloids are and their importance to the medicinal world. ... Alkaloids - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File ... trimeric and tetrameric alkaloids formed upon condensation of two, three, and four. monomeric alkaloids. Dimeric alkaloids are ... Iboga-type alkaloids[120]. voacangine[120]. Vincamine, vinca. Aspidosperma-type. alkaloids, vincotine,. alkaloids[120]. ... alkaloids. One example is the alkaloid cyclopamine, produced in the leaves of corn lily.. During the 1950s, up to 25% of lambs ...
In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what we may term the less highly ... Synthesis Of The Alkaloids. In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what ... Most of our knowledge, as we now have it, regarding such alkaloids as muscarine and choline has been acquired during the past ... It is noteworthy that the synthesis of the alkaloids has led to some of the most brilliant discoveries of the present day, ...
... definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... vinca alkaloid. noun 1. (med) any of a group of alkaloids obtained from the periwinkle Vinca rosea, such as vinblastine and ...
Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on ... Take belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more ... Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital come as a regular tablet, a slow-acting tablet, capsule, and liquid to take ... Before taking belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ...
  • Indole alkaloids of the fumitremorgin-type contain tryprostatins, cyclotryprostatins, spirotryprostatins, fumitremorgins and verruculogen as well as derivatives thereof. (
  • Prenylated indole alkaloids are hybrid natural products containing indole/indoline and isoprenoid moieties or structures derived thereof. (
  • Three predominant Uncariae plants, Uncaria rhynchophylla U. sinensis and U. macrophylla and their indole and oxindole alkaloid constituents were studied for their effect on locomotor response. (
  • Water extracts of U. macrophylla and U. sinensis and four indole alkaloids, corynoxine, corynoxine B, isorhynchophylline and geissoschizine methyl ether, significantly decreased locomotor activity after oral administration to mice. (
  • Find a large variety of high quality indole alkaloids at Spectrum Chemical with applications from relieving psychotic symptoms-- to treating high blood pressure. (
  • Reserpine, an indole alkaloid and antipsychotic drug, is used to control high blood pressure and to relieve psychotic symptoms. (
  • Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. (
  • This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of halogenated indole alkaloids obtained from marine invertebrates. (
  • A compilation of the 13 C-NMR spectral data of these selected natural indole alkaloids is also provided. (
  • A huge diversity of indole alkaloids are frequently found in marine invertebrates and they have been considered lead compounds for the discovery of new drugs in medicinal chemistry [ 9 , 12 ]. (
  • The biological activity of marine indole alkaloids is clearly a product of the unique functionality and elements involved in the biosynthesis of marine natural products. (
  • The US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has concluded that the medicines have been found to contain inconsistent amounts of belladonna alkaloids that may differ from the calculated amount on the products' labels. (
  • The substance that leads to anticholinergic poisoning is the belladonna alkaloids they contain, which are hyoscyamine, atropine, and scopolamine (8). (
  • Naturally occurring anticholinergic compounds are also found as belladonna alkaloids in alkaloid-containing plants, which are often brewed into teas and include hemlock (6) and the Chinese herb, huperzine. (
  • If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital and call your doctor immediately. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital, call your doctor. (
  • you should know that belladonna alkaloids may decrease sweating and cause heatstroke. (
  • Unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability and unusual warmth, dryness, and flushing of skin are more likely to occur in children, who are usually more sensitive to the effects of belladonna alkaloids. (
  • Also, when belladonna alkaloids are given to children during hot weather, a rapid increase in body temperature may occur. (
  • and unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability may be more likely to occur in the elderly, who are usually more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates. (
  • It is curious, for example, the case of the Colorado beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) whose larvae can feed on leaves of Solanaceae such as tomatoes , potatoes without its dangerous belladonna alkaloids affect them. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital? (
  • This medicine is made up of belladonna alkaloids (atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and phenobarbital. (
  • Belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital is a combination medicine used to treat irritable bowel syndrome and ulcers in the intestine. (
  • Belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital? (
  • Belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital may harm an unborn baby, but the benefit of treating your condition with this medicine may outweigh any risk. (
  • How should I take belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital? (
  • Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital. (
  • What should I avoid while taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital? (
  • What is Phenobarbital With Belladonna Alkaloids(Oral) used for? (
  • Can I take Phenobarbital With Belladonna Alkaloids(Oral) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • What are the possible side effects of belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital? (
  • The first individual alkaloid, morphine , was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ). (
  • The company patented a poppy variety called "Norman" which was stated, in the 1999 Tasmanian Alkaloids Poppy Grower's Bulletin to be the first variety lacking morphine and codeine, while still containing thebaine and oripavine. (
  • Narcotic alkaloids used in medicine include morphine and codeine for the relief of pain and cocaine as a local anesthetic. (
  • Since the identification of the first alkaloid, morphine, from the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) in 1806, more than ten thousand alkaloids have been isolated from plants. (
  • The opium poppy plant contains narcotic alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. (
  • Mean and high levels of dietary exposure to morphine equivalents from poppy seeds considered to have high levels of opium alkaloids (i.e. poppy seeds from varieties primarily grown for pharmaceutical use) exceed the ARfD in most age groups. (
  • This opium alkaloid is the biosynthetic precursor of codeine and morphine and serves as the starting material for the industrial production of important pharmaceuticals, such as oxycodone or naloxone. (
  • Among them benzylisoquinoline alkaloids form an important group with potent pharmacological activity, including analgesic compounds of morphine and codeine, and anti-infective agents of berberine, palmatine, and magnoflorine. (
  • The compound known as morphine is a very important alkaloid that was isolated from the poppy seeds of opium poppy plants back in 1804 and is heralded for its pain-relieving properties. (
  • Morphine is an example of an alkaloid with a basic nitrogen atom. (
  • The ergot alkaloids (EAs) are mycotoxins produced by several species of fungi in the genus Claviceps . (
  • a lower pharmacological activity e. in case of ergot alkaloids. (
  • Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by members of the fungal family of Clavicipitaceae represented among others by Claviceps purpurea, C. paspali, and C. fusiformis, occurring predominantly on rye, wheat and barley, but also on rice, maize and sorghum, oats and millet. (
  • Ergot alkaloids are among the most relevant natural products in the history of toxins and pharmaceuticals. (
  • Until the late 20th century, human and livestock exposure to ergot alkaloids was primarily through ingestion of "ergots," which are spur-shaped or seed-like resting structures (sclerotia) of ergot fungi, the Claviceps species. (
  • Dihydroergotamine Mesylate, USP is an ergot alkaloid medication used to treat active migraine headaches. (
  • Dihydroergotamine Mesylate, a derivative of ergotamine, is an ergot alkaloid which can be used to treat migraines and can act as an agonist to the serotonin 5-HT(1D) receptors. (
  • One hundred patients suffering from sustained arterial hypertension were studied over a period of two years during which time the action of parenterally administered hydrogenated ergot alkaloids (Hydergine) constituted the main drug therapy. (
  • Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. (
  • [3] Some synthetic compounds of similar structure may also be termed alkaloids. (
  • The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut. (
  • [16] Compounds like amino acid peptides , proteins , nucleotides , nucleic acid , amines , and antibiotics are usually not called alkaloids. (
  • [2] Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position ( mescaline , serotonin , dopamine , etc.) are usually classified as amines rather than as alkaloids. (
  • Alkaloids are defined as basic compounds derived from amino acids, often with heterocyclically bound nitrogen. (
  • Piperidine alkaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds from the group of alkaloids, which are chemically derived from piperidine. (
  • This work highlights the potential for microbial biosynthetic platforms to support the synthesis of valuable and novel alkaloid compounds, which can advance alkaloid-based drug discovery and development. (
  • 2] Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position (mescaline, serotonin, dopamine, etc.) are usually attributed to amines rather than alkaloids. (
  • Strictly speaking, these compounds are not classified as alkaloids because they are not isolated from plants. (
  • alkaloid, any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. (
  • Alkaloids are relatively stable compounds that accumulate as end products of different biosynthetic pathways, mostly starting from common amino acids such as lysine, ornithine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and others. (
  • Alkaloids are bitter -taste nitrogen-containing compounds. (
  • Most of the alkaloids, however, belong to the vegetable kingdom, so that 10% of plant species contain some of these compounds. (
  • Three new spermidine alkaloids and two known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Androya decaryi . (
  • Among halogenated alkaloids, bromoalkaloids are the most widely distributed group of natural compounds. (
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of naturally-occurring compounds that are common in numerous plants. (
  • Today we're going to be talking about a specific class of compounds found in nature known as the alkaloids. (
  • The job you have in front of you now is to extract and isolate the alkaloids from among the other thousands of organic compounds present in the sponge sample. (
  • The toxicity is due to the presence of organic compounds known as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (
  • Alkaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms. (
  • Known as the naturally occurring compounds in some plant species, alkaloids may affect multiple central nervous system targets. (
  • The pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are mostly members of the composite plants (asteraceae), forget-me-not or borage families (boraginaceae) as well as the legume family (fabaceae). (
  • A new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, cremastrine (1), was isolated from the bulbs of Cremastra appendiculata. (
  • In addition to the recent update to the AHPA guidance on Good agricultural and collection practices and good manufacturing practices for botanical materials (AHPA GACP-GMP) addressing prevention of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) contamination, AHPA has developed educational resources that finished product marketers and botanical ingredient companies can provide to their supply chains to help educate farm managers and workers about best practices for avoidance of PA contamination. (
  • Cases of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in humans are rare. (
  • The synthesis of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid was first reported in 1937 but it was not until 1950 that the first synthesis of a naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloid was published. (
  • It is noteworthy that the synthesis of the alkaloids has led to some of the most brilliant discoveries of the present day, especially in the discovery of dye stuffs. (
  • When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process. (
  • With this, they have also paved the way for the future electrochemical synthesis of further opium alkaloids. (
  • Solid-phase synthesis and chemical space analysis of a 190-membered alkaloid/terpenoid-like library. (
  • Internationally acclaimed for more than forty years, The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, founded by the late Professor R.H.F. Manske, continues to provide outstanding coverage of the rapidly expanding field of the chemotaxonomy, structure elucidation, synthesis, biosynthesis, and biology of all classes of alkaloids from higher and lower plants, marine organisms, and various terrestrial animals. (
  • The total synthesis of (+/-)-erysotramidine (10), an oxo-erythrinan alkaloid, including a novel ring cleavage of the aza-tricyclo[] compound (70) with phenylselenyl chloride is described. (
  • Poupon, E., Salame, R. and Yan, L.-H. (2011) Biomimetic Synthesis of Ornithine/Arginine and Lysine-Derived Alkaloids: Selected Examples, in Biomimetic Organic Synthesis (eds E. Poupon and B. Nay), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. (
  • Recently, we reported a systematic approach to the stereoselective synthesis of multiple alkaloid/terpenoid-like scaffolds using transition metal-mediated cycloaddition and cyclization reactions of enyne and diyne substrates assembled on a tert -butylsulfinamide lynchpin. (
  • We report herein the synthesis of a 190-membered library of alkaloid/terpenoid-like molecules using this synthetic approach. (
  • We recently reported a systematic approach to the synthesis of multiple polycyclic scaffolds related to structures found in diverse alkaloid and terpenoid natural products ( 12 ). (
  • A practical, efficient, and selective electrochemicalN-demethylation method of tropane alkaloids to their nortropane derivatives is described. (
  • The optimized method was further applied to scopolamine, cocaine, benzatropine, homatropine and tropacocaine, showing that this is a generic way ofN-demethylating tropane alkaloids to synthesize valuable precursors for pharmaceutical products. (
  • International investigations have found two outbreaks of illness in Uganda were likely caused by food aid contaminated with tropane alkaloids. (
  • The investigation, involving international food safety experts, indicated the probable cause of sickness was contamination of Super Cereal by tropane alkaloids during harvesting or production. (
  • Laboratory testing commissioned by WFP indicates the presence of tropane alkaloids and is consistent with the product involved in the Karamoja outbreak. (
  • Smerdon said WFP is working with suppliers to mitigate risks and prevent future contamination from tropane alkaloids. (
  • WFP is now testing for tropane alkaloids right after production and before distribution. (
  • At present, there are no clear food safety regulations or global standards for tropane alkaloids in processed foods. (
  • The sole existing food safety regulation related to tropane alkaloids is a European one for infant foods. (
  • 4 First generation vinca alkaloids (vincristine) are associated with more severe neuropathy than the newer vinca alkaloids (vinorelbine, vinflunine). (
  • These include the taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel) and the vinca alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine). (
  • Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine. (
  • [1/15/21] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is alerting health care professionals to labeling updates for the preparation of vinca alkaloids, a group of chemotherapy agents that includes vincristine sulfate injection, vinblastine sulfate (for) injection, and vinorelbine tartrate injection. (
  • Some alkaloids, such as vincristine, are used to treat cancer. (
  • Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus . (
  • Other alkaloids possess psychotropic ( e.g. psilocin ) and stimulant activities ( e.g. cocaine , caffeine , nicotine , theobromine ), [13] and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs . (
  • Its active principle is theobromine, an alkaloid greatly resembling caffeine, the active principle of coffee and tea. (
  • According to this interpretation, plant alkaloids used for positive or negative influence on other related species, or to communicate with similar species or inhibit the growth of others that could be competitive, such as cocaine, caffeine or strychnine do to prevent the growth of other species near them. (
  • e.g Caffeine False alkaloids are non alkaloids give false positive reaction with alkaloidal reagents. (
  • Caffeine, a purine derivative, does not precipitate like most alkaloids. (
  • Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection (caffeine alkaloid ) is used along with supportive measure to treat respiratory depression associated with over dosage with CNS depressant drugs, such as narcotics. (
  • Our Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection (caffeine alkaloid) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (
  • A large variety of food-produced alkaloids exhibit potent bioactivities, such as caffeine, atropine, and cocaine, whereas, lots of other alkaloids are toxic to human, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (
  • A group of alkaloids, including atropine and scopolamine, found in plants such as belladonna and jimsonweed. (
  • Alkaloids can be toxic too ( e.g. atropine , tubocurarine ). (
  • The alkaloid atropine has been quite thoroughly studied with results of great interest. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration detected traces of alkaloids, specifically atropine. (
  • The 2019 Global Forecast for Botanical drugs, alkaloids, including opium and nicotine (2020-2025 Outlook)-Manufacturing & Markets Report, published by Barnes Reports, contains timely and accurate market statistics and forecasts on the market for over 140 countries. (
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (
  • In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. (
  • Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. (
  • On the basis of spectral characteristics and chemical transformations, a new alkaloid with the composition C 15 H 22 O 2 N 2 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides has been assigned the most probable structure of 13,14-dehydrosophoridine N-oxide. (
  • Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid. (
  • Alkaloids are natural, organic substances that are predominantly found in plants and normally contain at least one nitrogen atom in their chemical structure. (
  • it could be proven using methods of molecular toxicology that the body has a transport system which transports at least some pyrrolizidine alkaloids out of the body, depending on their specific chemical structure. (
  • Recently, in collaboration with Dr. Lisa Marcaurelle and colleagues at the Broad Institute Chemical Biology Platform , we have synthesized second-generation libraries based on these polycyclic alkaloid scaffolds that incorporate functionally diverse appendages and computational strategies for building block selection. (
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top imidazole alkaloids but if you do not see the product, grade or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (
  • Alkaloid and terpenoid natural products display an extensive array of chemical frameworks and biological activities. (
  • PCA of structural and physicochemical properties indicates that these scaffolds sample a distinct region of chemical space compared to drugs and drug-like libraries, overlapping with polycyclic alkaloid and terpenoid natural products. (
  • Building upon this work, we envisioned the construction of a larger library of alkaloid/terpenoid-like small molecules for further chemical and biological evaluation. (
  • Science: chemical) alkaloids found in various species of senecio and other plants . (
  • The classification of the alkaloids is complex and is by a set of rules like structure and other chemical features of the alkaloid molecule, its biological origin, as well as the biogenetic origin where known. (
  • Among the most complex alkaloids are those of the quinine group. (
  • Many alkaloids possess pronounced biological activities, which are often associated with their amine function. (
  • Alkaloids are highly reactive substances with biological activity in low doses. (
  • Spectrum offers a high quality selection of imidazole alkaloids which can be incorporated into many biological molecules, including histidine. (
  • Indeed, alkaloid and terpenoid cores are prevalent among privileged scaffolds able to bind multiple biological targets ( 6 ), and a variety of alkaloid- and terpenoid-based libraries have been reported ( 7 - 11 ). (
  • Moreover, the analysis and knowledge of the structure-activity relationships of the phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids with their biological function are also scarce. (
  • Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria , fungi , plants , and animals . (
  • Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. (
  • Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine , were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows. (
  • Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus ( basionym Vinca rosea ) and other vinca plants. (
  • Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants. (
  • Alkaloids often have pronounced bioactivities and are therefore thought to play an important role in the interaction of plants with their environment. (
  • Alkaloids and extracts of alkaloid‐containing plants have been used throughout human history as remedies, poisons and psychoactive drugs. (
  • Alkaloid‐producing tissue cultures provide an alternative for exploiting slow growing or protected plants. (
  • Alkaloids from nonflowering plants. (
  • Most alkaloids occur in plants, although some are produced by fungi and animals. (
  • the opium alkaloids are sometimes called "phenanthrenes," for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. (
  • Alkaloids are the active components of numerous medicinal plants or plant-derived drugs and poisons, and their structural diversity and different physiological activities are unmatched by any other group of natural products. (
  • Although alkaloids have been detected in some animals (e.g., in the toxic secretions of fire ants, ladybugs, and toads), their major occurrence is in the flowering plants. (
  • In potato plants, the edible tubers are devoid of alkaloids, whereas the green parts contain the poisonous solanine. (
  • Eating forages plants containing tannins enables livestock to eat more forage plants with high levels of saponins or alkaloids. (
  • What are Plants Alkaloids? (
  • Families free from Alkaloids: Rosaceae.Distribution and occurrence: Rare in lower plants. (
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are natural ingredients formed by many different plants as protection against pests. (
  • Ito K. "[Studies on the alkaloids of Erythrina plants]" Yakugaku Zasshi . (
  • The Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test was used to evaluate Senecio jacobaea (SJ) plant, Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and metabolites in goat milk, to evaluate response differences with microsomes from several animal species and to compare SJ plant responses to other plants. (
  • Edgar JA, Roeder E, Molyneux RJ (2002) Honey from plants containing Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) a potential threat to health. (
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural toxins occurring in a wide variety of plants, including herbs. (
  • An alkaloid is simply a compound derived from natural sources, like plants or bacteria, that contains a basic nitrogen atom. (
  • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are also poisonous to humans, although, of course, we are unlikely to include ragwort or other toxic plants in our diet. (
  • There has been some concern, however, about the regular consumption of herbal remedies prepared from plants that may contain the alkaloids. (
  • Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals and are part of the group of natural products, also called secondary metabolites. (
  • Beta-carboline alkaloids, present in a wide variety of medicinal plants allegedly have antioxidant properties. (
  • Alkaloids are a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites. (
  • Unlike terrestrial organisms, marine organisms often produce halogenated secondary metabolites, particularly alkaloids [ 4 ]. (
  • This is not exactly the case with the higher groups of alkaloids - the derivatives of pyridine and quinoline. (
  • Alkaloids with a piperidine building block are widespread and are usually further subdivided according to their occurrence and biogenetic origin. (
  • The most important representative of piperidine alkaloids is piperine, which is responsible for the pungent taste of pepper. (
  • The piperidine alkaloids also include the sedum alkaloids (e.g. sedamine), pelletierine, the lobelia alkaloids (e.g. lobeline), the conium alkaloids (such as coniine) and the pinus alkaloids. (
  • We find, indeed, that obstacles are gradually being cleared away, and the actual synthetic formation of such alkaloids as piperidine and coniine is a proof that the chemist is on the right track in studying the decomposition products, and building up from them, theoretically, bodies of similar constitution. (
  • He at first supposed that this alkaloid was piperidine in which two hydrogen atoms were replaced by the isopropyl radical (CH), its formula being taken as CH(CH)NH. (
  • Alkaloids have the ability to form salts with mineral acids (such as with HCl, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 ) or organic acids (such as with tartaric acid and sulfamic acid). (
  • acetic acids Salts with inorganic acids e.Forms of Alkaloids: Free bases Salts with Organic acids e. (
  • Alkaloids are basic - they form water soluble salts. (
  • Most alkaloids are well-defined crystalline substances which unite with acids to form salts. (
  • Extraction: The extraction is carried out with chloroform after liberation of the alkaloids from their salts by NH 4 OH. (
  • strychnine is obtained from the seed of the Strychnine tree ( Strychnos nux-vomica L.). [5] Where several alkaloids are extracted from one plant their names are often distinguished by variations in the suffix: "idine", "anine", "aline", "inine" etc. (
  • Strychnine, Free Base, also known as Strychnidin-10-one, is a bitter crystalline alkaloid. (
  • Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L. (
  • Alkaloids are usually derivatives of amino acids , and many have a bitter taste. (
  • True (Typical) alkaloids that are derived from amino acids and have nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring. (
  • e.g Ephedrine Pseudo alkaloids that are not derived from amino acids but have nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring. (
  • The basic unit in the biogenesis of the true alkaloids are AMINO ACIDS. (
  • What alkaloids are and their importance to the medicinal world. (
  • The Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology presents an overview of the chemistry, biogenesis, spectroscopy, and pharmacology of the isoquinoline alkaloids. (
  • He has proved that the alkaloid so obtained is identical with that prepared from piperine. (
  • Colchicine, Piperine, Quaternary alkaloids. (
  • We demonstrated that microbial fermentation can be used to produce halogenated alkaloid derivatives, which can ultimately serve as potential drug leads, through feeding amino acid derivatives to strains. (
  • Optimization directed to tuning expression of pathway enzymes, host endogenous metabolic pathways, and fermentation conditions led to an over 18,000-fold improvement from initial noscapine titers to ∼2.2 mg/L. By feeding modified tyrosine derivatives to the optimized noscapine-producing strain we further demonstrated microbial production of halogenated benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. (
  • Simple fumitremorgin-type alkaloids with one prenyl moiety at position C2 are tryprostatins ( 2 and 3 ) or derivatives thereof. (
  • The atoms derived from the precursor tryptophan are labelled red in the alkaloids. (
  • The atoms derived from tyrosine are marked red in the depicted alkaloids. (
  • The biosynthesis of alkaloids often follows complex pathways and includes stereospecific steps. (
  • A variety of cyclization reactions are then used to generate diverse polycyclic molecules related to alkaloid and terpenoid natural products. (
  • Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. (
  • Berberine, a natural plant alkaloid, is usually used as an antibiotic drug. (
  • Alkaloids can occur in all parts of the plant but frequently, depending on the plant species, they accumulate only in particular organs (e.g., in barks, roots, leaves, and fruits), whereas at the same time other organs are alkaloid-free. (
  • Hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids occur not only in ragworts but also in several thousand other species of plant, with some containing over one hundred different hepatotoxins. (
  • An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. (
  • Biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids proceeds via decarboxylation of tyrosine or DOPA to yield dopamine, which together with 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, an aldehyde derived from tyrosine, is converted to reticuline, an important precursor of various benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. (
  • Other factors influencing the alkaloid contamination of poppy seeds and products are, e.g. the variety of poppy plant and growth conditions like drought and fungi as stress factors. (
  • 1 These data were subsequently processed using the UNIFI Scientific Information System and screened against the new plant alkaloid library. (
  • The opium alkaloid content of poppy seeds can be reduced by several means of pretreatment and food processing. (
  • Erowid Reference 7566 : Ayahuasca Imagery and the Therapeutic Property of the Harmala Alkaloids : Naranjo, C. (
  • Now that we have our crude alkaloid mixture, we need to separate and purify each individual alkaloid from one another. (
  • The last chapter deals with ancistrocladine, which is the first isoquinoline alkaloid found to possess a methyl group. (
  • Among these, one of the most poisonous are the seeds of castor oil plant ( Ricinus communis ) that contain the alkaloid ricinine, whose properties have been used as a purgative, but it is extremely dangerous, since a couple of well-chewed seeds can be fatal to a child. (
  • As tests conducted by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and examination authorities of the federal states show, pyrrolizidine alkaloids can occur as contaminants in foods such as tea, salad mixes and honey, sometimes in high concentrations. (
  • Various alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and animals . (
  • Chemists have been fascinated by pyrrolizidine alkaloids for many years, especially as they are known to have pharmacological effects. (
  • Since the amino acid skeleton is often largely retained in the alkaloid structure, alkaloids originating from the same amino acid show similar structural features and can be classified according to their biosynthetic origin. (
  • Moreover, they can be utilized for biosynthetic studies and for the commercial production of valuable alkaloids. (
  • Labelled (*) tryptophan was employed in feeding experiments to determine the biosynthetic origin of the alkaloids. (
  • The biosynthetic origin of some alkaloids derived from the amino acid l ‐tyrosine [ XII ]. (
  • Recently, biosynthetic gene clusters of the fumitremorgin-type alkaloids consisting very likely of nine genes each has been identified in genomes of one Neosartorya fischeri and three Aspergillus fumigatus strains. (
  • The nitrogen in the alkaloid molecule is derived from amino acid metabolism. (
  • Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular feat, based on the metabolic pathway used to construct the molecule. (
  • Alkaloids and terpenoids have long served as important small-molecule drugs and leads for drug discovery ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Colchicine is an example of a proto-alkaloid. (
  • Owing to their bioactivities, alkaloids are often toxic to herbivoures. (
  • It was also shown in these tests that the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids affect liver cells in different ways. (
  • Under the title "Identification of the structure-dependent toxicity of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids", structure-specific differences of the various pyrrolizidine alkaloids are to be determined and the resultant differences in the toxic effect further examined. (
  • In-vitro cell culture models are to be used her on the one hand while on the other, the toxic effect of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids on mouse liver is also to be observed in real time using modern imaging methods. (
  • This chapter focuses on the alkaloids in human diet and their mode of action and possible toxic effects. (
  • Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. (