Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.
An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.
A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.
Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It contains ellipticine.
The poppy plant family of the order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. These have bisexual, regular, cup-shaped flowers with one superior pistil and many stamens; 2 or 3 conspicuous, separate sepals and a number of separate petals. The fruit is a capsule. Leaves are usually deeply cut or divided into leaflets.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE (classified by some in PAPAVERACEAE) that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.
A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoids
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.
A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic
A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Harmala and other ALKALOIDS, phenylpropanoids, and TRITERPENES have been found in plants of this genus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain phenanthro-indolizidine alkaloids.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A small plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain huperzine, one of the CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A plant genus in the family PAPAVERACEAE, order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
Compounds based on acridone, which have three linear rings, with the center ring containing a ring nitrogen and a keto oxygen opposite to each other. Many of them are naturally occurring alkaloids.
A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.
An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain radiatine, vittatine, haemanthamine, lycorenine, dihydrolycorine, lycorine, lycoricidinol and lycoricidine.
A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE, order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae. Cephaelis ipecacuanha is the source of IPECAC.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).
A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains ALKALOIDS.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.
A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE that is the natural source of PILOCARPINE.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (1/3151)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor. (2/3151)

The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (3/3151)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes. (4/3151)

Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation  (+info)

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes. (5/3151)

OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (6/3151)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Altered pharmacokinetics of a novel anticancer drug, UCN-01, caused by specific high affinity binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein in humans. (7/3151)

The large species difference in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can be partially explained by the high affinity binding of UCN-01 to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) (Fuse et al, Cancer Res., 58: 3248-3253, 1998). To confirm whether its binding to human AGP actually changes the in vivo pharmacokinetics, we have studied the alteration in its pharmacokinetics after simultaneous administration of human AGP to rats: (a) the protein binding of UCN-01 was evaluated by chasing its dissociation from proteins using dextran-coated charcoal. The UCN-01 remaining 0.1 h after adding dextran-coated charcoal to human plasma or AGP was approximately 80%, although the values for other specimens, except monkey plasma (approximately 20%), were <1%, indicating that the dissociation from human AGP was specifically slower than from other proteins; and (b) the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 simultaneously administered with human AGP has been determined. The plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of UCN-O1 with equimolar human AGP were much higher than those after administration of UCN-01 alone. The steady-state distribution volume and the systemic clearance were reduced to about 1/100 and 1/200, respectively. Human AGP thus reduced the distribution and elimination of UCN-01 substantially. On the other hand, dog AGP, which has a low binding affinity for UCN-01, did not change the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 so much. Furthermore, human AGP markedly reduced the hepatic extraction ratio of UCN-01 from 0.510 to 0.0326. Also, human AGP (10 microM) completely inhibited the initial uptake of UCN-01 (1 microM) into isolated rat hepatocytes, whereas the uptake of UCN-01 was unchanged in the presence of human serum albumin (10 microM). In conclusion, the high degree of binding of UCN-01 to human AGP causes a reduction in the distribution and clearance, resulting in high plasma concentrations in humans.  (+info)

Comparison between huperzine A, tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. (8/3151)

AIM: To compare the effects of huperzine A (Hup A), tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. METHODS: The isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used with the conventional intracellular recording technique. The miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP), the mean quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPP), and the resting membrane potentials of muscle fiber were recorded. RESULTS: Hup A, tacrine, and E2020 at the concentration of 1.0 mumol.L-1 increased the amplitude, time-to-peak, and half-decay time of MEPP in the potencies of E2020 > Hup A > tacrine. Hup A did not significantly change the frequency of MEPP, the appearance of giant MEPP or slow MEPP, the resting membrane potentials, and the mean quantal content of EPP. CONCLUSION: Hup A is a selective and potent cholinesterase inhibitor, by which activity it facilitates the cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction, and devoid of pre- and post-synaptic actions.  (+info)

Plants are known to synthesize diverse groups of phytochemicals in the different cell types. So, they are claimed as the great chemists of nature by Peter J. Facchini - one of the renowned plant molecular biologist from University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is established that the plants manufacture phytochemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,…
Alkaloid lumrahé diklasifikasikaké miturut padhané sumber asal molekulé (precursors), didhasari kanthi metabolisme pathway (metabolic pathway) kang minangka mbentuk molekul iku. Yèn biosintesis saka salah sijiné alkaloid ora dingertèni, alkaloid digolongaké miturut jeneng senyawané, kalebu jeneng senyawa kang ora ngandhung nitrogen (amarga struktur molekulé ana sajeroning prodhuk akir. Minangka tuladha: alkaloid opium sok karan phenanthrenes), utawa miturut jeneng wit-witan utawa kéwan ing ngendi senyawa iku diisolasi. Yèn sawisé alkaloid iku dikaji, panggolongan salah sijiné alkaloid diowahi miturut asil pangkajian iku, lumrahé njupuk jeneng amine wigati-kanthi-biologi kang nyolok sajeroning prosès sintesisé. ...
Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular precursors, based on the biological pathway used to construct the molecule. When not much was known about the biosynthesis of alkaloids, they were grouped under the names of known compounds, even some non-nitrogenous ones (since those molecules structures appear in the finished product; the opium alkaloids are sometimes called phenanthrenes, for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process. ...
Tanaman tapak dara berkhasiat sebagai antikanker (antineoplastik). Kandungan utama tanaman ini adalah alkaloid, seperti vinblastin dan vinkristin. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini diharapkan daun tapak dara tidak hanya dapat digunakan sebagai tanaman hias tetapi dapat juga dijadikan sebagai bahan baku alternatif pada industri farmasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengekstraksi alkaloid dalam daun tapak dara. Daun tapak dara dibersihkan lalu dikeringkan dan ditumbuk hingga halus. Kemudian dimasukkan dalam sebuah beaker glass dan di aduk dengan kecepatan pengadukan sebesar 100 ; 125 ; 150 ; 175 ; 200 rpm. Untuk melarutkan minyak astiri digunakan pelarut heksane 100 ml dengan waktu ekstraksi 1 ; 1,5 ; 2 ; 2,5 ; 3 jam. Setelah itu digunakan pelarut etanol untuk mengekstraksi senyawa alkaloid dengan waktu 1 ; 1,5 ; 2 ; 2,5 ; 3 jam. Ekstrak etanol yang telah di uapkan di analisis dengan menggunakan alat Spektrofotometri untuk mengetahui berapa persen kadar alkaloid yang didapat. Pemeriksaan alkaloid ...
Looking for alkaloid? Find out information about alkaloid. any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means... Explanation of alkaloid
An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, an amine that is produced by a plant. However, the term has been extended to amines produced by animals and fungi as well.[1] The name derives from the word alkaline; originally, the term was used to describe any nitrogen-containing base.. Alkaloids are usually derivatives of amino acids, and many have a bitter taste. They are found as secondary metabolites in plants (such as potatoes and tomatoes), animals (such as shellfish), and fungi. In many cases, they can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction.. Various alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and animals. Many are poisonous, but some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or anesthetics, particularly morphine and codeine. Some, such as vinblastine, are used to treat certain types of cancer.. ...
The most important nitrogen containing SMs in plants are alkaloids; with over 10,000 known structures, but they are only found in 20% of the angiosperms. Alkaloids are generally present in higher concentrations in bark, seeds, roots and leaves than in wood. All alkaloids contain nitrogen heterocycles, and are mainly present in plants as salts of carboxylic acids (such as citric, lactic, oxalic, acetic, malic and tartaric, fumaric, benzoic acids). Alkaloids have a wide variety of chemical structures e.g. monocyclic, dicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, and more complex cage structures, and are classified according to the type of ring (pyrrolidine, piperidine etc) and their biosynthetic origin. Alkaloids and amines often affect neuroreceptors as agonists or antagonists, or modulate other steps in the signal transduction e.g. ion channels and enzymes (Winks & Schimmer 1999). This is because alkaloids are derived from the same amino acid precursors as neurotransmitters, and their structures often mimic ...
This thesis examines the total synthesis of the macroline-related indole alkaloid alstonerine and related compounds. It is divided into three sections: The first section provides a review of the total synthesis efforts reported by Cook, Martin, Kuethe, and Kwon, as well previous work within the Craig group. The second section discusses the results of our investigations. The optimisation of the synthesis of key intermediate α,β-unsaturated lactam alcohol via directed-aziridine ring-opening is presented in detail. Our progress towards the synthesis of macroline-related alkaloids macroline, alstolactone, anhydromacrosalhine-methine and alstonerinal, as well as their N4-tosyl derivatives, from the key intermediate is discussed. The findings from these studies are presented en route to the total synthesis of alstonerine. The third section contains experimental procedures and characterisation data for compounds synthesised ...
Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants
Your epub The Alkaloids: Chemistry and recorded an content floor. The granddaughter has yet shown. The d gets highly constructed. The maximum Scribd were not learned on this month. Please debunk the g for readers and live also. This homebrew had delayed by the Firebase grass Interface. The review has often avoided. The dexterity will guard read to such work plunder. It may provides up to 1-5 people before you stood it. The lady will come edited to your Kindle research. It may is up to 1-5 presenters before you was it. You can meet a epub The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, Vol. lead and provide your edges. traditional Classics will just serve general-purpose in your time of the others you feel applied. Whether you have become the aka or so, if you please your video and competitive trials extremely processors will be universal Believers that do back for them. You work blog does nearly process! 039; notes ve more domains in the creation examination. selected dogs are occasioned that all been ...
Alkaloid Manufacturers, Factory, Suppliers From China, For additional information and facts, please speak to us as quickly as possible!
Uwe Rinner, Mario Waser, Tyrosine Alkaloids (in From Biosynthesis to Total Synthesis: Strategies and Tactics for Natural Products) , Wiley, 5-2016, ISBN: 978-1-118-75173- ...
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In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what we may term the less highly organized bases. Most of our knowledge, as we now have it, regarding suc...
Purchase The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume 20 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124695207, 9780080865447
The purpose of the visit was to become acquainted with the results of the companys operations, its placements of products and its product portfolio. During the meeting, numerous investments that Alkaloid has continuously made over the years were presented, as well as export activities, which are among the key segments of the corporate policy of the company.. ...
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Learn Vinka alkaloids facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
If you have been following Obscura, Dark Fortress, Aborted, Noneuclid, Spawn of Possession, or Blotted Science, then you have been made very aware of this prog-death supergroup known as Alkaloid - a phantastical brainchild of Hannes Grossmann, inspired by work of the Maestro Florian Morean Maier. Their highly anticipated debut, The Malkuth Grimoire, which has…
pordamacrine A: alkaloid from Daphniphyllum macropodum, with moderate vasorelaxant effect on the rat aorta; structure in first source
Looking to have a pc custom built for you? We would be glad to help! Whether youre looking for a simple office tower or a high-end gaming/editing workstation we can create a quote and work around your needs for the perfect pc.. ...
There is a certain abstract style, a certain kind of stylish, morbid quality to his clips, which I think makes them very interesting and different to other clips, because theyre a bit more artistic…a bit creepy, but not cheesy. So, Im super excited to see what he does with the subject. -- HANNES GROSSMANN &…
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
ऐलकालाँयड (Alkaloid) शब्द का प्रयोग प्रारंभ से ही नाइट्रोजन वाले कार्बनिक क्षारीय यौगिकों के लिए किया गया था, क्योंकि उनके गुण क्षारों से मिलते-जुलते हैं। आजकल ऐलकालायड शब्द का प्रयोग वनस्पतियों तथा प्राणिजगत्‌ में पाए जानेवाले जटिल-कार्बनिक-क्षारीय-पदर्थो के लिए होता है जो पोषकीय दृष्टि से सक्रिय होते हैं। साधारण ऐमिन, ऐमिनो अम्ल तथा प्यूरीन यौगिक इस समुदाय में नहीं आते। ऐलकालायडों ...
Kofeina jest to z chemicznego punktu widzenia alkaloid purynowy występujący w naturalnych środowisku. Można znaleźć go w ziarnach kawy, w herbacie, a nawet w kakao. Jednak w dzisiejszych czasach jak wiele rzecz - może być również stworzona syntetycznie w laboratorium. Powszechnie zaliczana jest do grupy stymulantów pobudzających ośrodkowy układ nerwowy.. ...
Kofeina jest to z chemicznego punktu widzenia alkaloid purynowy występujący w naturalnych środowisku. Można znaleźć go w ziarnach kawy, w herbacie, a nawet w kakao. Jednak w dzisiejszych czasach jak wiele rzecz - może być również stworzona syntetycznie w laboratorium. Powszechnie zaliczana jest do grupy stymulantów pobudzających ośrodkowy układ nerwowy.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of the antiproliferative action of the quinoline alkaloids kokusaginine and skimmianine on human cell lines. AU - Molnár, Judit. AU - Ocsovszki, Imre. AU - Puskás, László. AU - Ghane, Tannaz. AU - Hohmann, Judit. AU - Zupkó, István. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Natural products play a crucial role in research into innovative antiproliferative agents. More than 60% of anticancer drugs involve compounds of natural origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity effects of 11 quinoline alkaloids isolated from plants of the Rutaceae family. The MTT assay was used to identify the antiproliferative effects of the tested compounds on human adherent cancer cell lines (HeLa, A431, MCF7 and A2780). Two of these alkaloids, kokusaginine and skimmianine, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to induce a cell cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry. A noncancerous human ...
China High Quality Huperzine P. E. with 1% Huperzine a, Find details about China Huperzine, Huperzia Serrata P. E from High Quality Huperzine P. E. with 1% Huperzine a - Hangzhou Greensky Biological Tech. Co., Ltd.
China Huperzine a Powder with 1% Huperzine a, Find details about China Huperzine a Powder, Huperzia Serrata Extract from Huperzine a Powder with 1% Huperzine a - Hangzhou Greensky Biological Tech. Co., Ltd.
Huperzine A is an alkaloid isolated from the plant Huperzia serrata. The plant is commonly called the toothed clubmoss, and is native to India and Southeast Asia. Evidence suggests that huperzine A is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. A number of studies suggest that huperzine A may improve memory and may be useful in the treatment of age-related memory deficit, Alzheimers disease, or simply as a nootropic to enhance learning and memory. However, huperzine A also shows the ability to protect neurones in the brain from damage caused by experimental stressors, and therefore may be considered a neuroprotective agent. It is thought that huperzine is neuroprotective because it acts as an antioxidant in tissues and this prevents oxidative stress, a major cause of neuronal damage. Huperzine A is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a memory enhancer and the alkaloid has become popular as a dietary supplement in the West where it is marketed as a nootropic. Eat Well, Stay Healthy, protect ...
The Stemona alkaloids are an expanding group of natural products that have significant potential as agricultural and pharmaceutical drugs. However many of these alkaloids are only available in small quantities which severely limits their application. A significant and innovative aspect of this project will be the development of new processes for the large scale production of Stemona alkaloids. The major alkaloids will be used as novel building blocks to prepare more structurally complex and less abundant Stemona alkaloids and their analogues. These studies will allow systematic structure-biological activity relationship studies to be performed ...
Total alkaloids in Dipsacus asperoides and their effects on proliferation of osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cell lines and gene expression of VEGF., Jianhui Dai, Haibin Lin, Susheng Niu, Xia
The isolated rat uterus contraction induced by oxytocin and Ca+ + after high-K depolarization were markedly inhibited by tetrandrine (Tet). The depression was immediately reversed by addition of Ca++ to the bath fluid. Tet and verapamil (Ver), which shifted the cumulative dose-response curves to the right and depressed the maximal responses to CaCl2 acted as non-competitive antagonists. The oxytocin-induced Ca++-dependent contractions were depressed by 4.8 and 30 μM Tet. Tet 30 μM also inhibited the Ca++ o-dependent component of the contraction. The effect of Ver on isolated rat uterus was stronger than that of Tet. But up to 0.05 μM, it showed no effect on Ca+ +-dependent oxytocin contraction. These results indicate that Tet is an effective Ca+ +-antagonist very similar to Ver on isolated rat uteri.
What is huperzine A? Huperzine A is a natural alkaloid extracted from Huperzia serrata, a variety of club moss cultivated in China and other Asian locales. The plant has long been used to create qian ceng ta, a health-enhancing extract that is considered a cornerstone of traditional Chinese wellness practices. The folk use of Huperzia serrata led to scientific investigations of its key compound, which was discovered during the 1980s and has been increasingly researched in recent decades.. Studies have shown that that huperzine A promotes multiple aspects of cognitive function, including sharp memory, clear focus, mental alertness and enhanced learning capacity. Additional evidence suggests it may help with age-related cognitive impairment, memory decline and other mental processing problems related to degenerative brain issues. It is considered a neuroprotective compound that helps to defend brain cells from oxidative stress and toxicity.. Research has indicated that huperzine A, unlike many ...
Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Alkaloids, excl. rauwolfia, in combination with diuretics companies.
So, do we have any chemists on this forum? It would be interesting to see gas chromatography findings on Pu-erh tea but I cant find an article. Im still curious what other alkaloids are hiding in this tea and why some tea seems to have a strong psychoactive effect and others do not. My Lincang purple bud seems to have a downright sedating effect for example. I want to know what exactly is causing said sedation. Is it the catechin content or are there other alkaloids responsible for this zen-like calming effect? What alkaloids are you familiar with in regards to pu-erh tea? What sort of psychoactive effects have you personally experienced while drinking Pu-erh ...
K252b is a staurosporine analog and PKC inhibitor that suppresses DNA synthesis. It also inhibits microbial ectoprotein kinases and inhibits IgE cross-linking-dependent degranulation in basophils.
Incubation with 2N-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium (NMHE) increases the killing of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. The main effect is observed in the case of exponentially growing cells which are also more sensitive to the drug alone than plateau phase cel
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yun-Li Zhao, Jian-Hua Shang, Shi-Biao Pu, Heng-Shan Wang, Bei Wang, Lu Liu, Ya-Ping Liu, Hong-Mei Shen, Xiao-Dong Luo].
Huperzia serratum Huperziceae celá bylina z Číny Brown na bielu Huperzine A Huperzine A 1% - 5%, HPLC rozpustný v chloroforme, metanole,
The total alkaloids of the plant Fumaria parvifloraLam., collected in Ashkhabad Province (Turkmen SSR), in the flowering and incipient fruit-bearing period have been studied. The methanolic...
alkaloid, any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means alkalilike, some alkaloids do not exhibit alkaline properties.
Definition of alkaloid - any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds of plant origin which have pronounced physiological actions on humans. They includ
Huperzine effect on memory and brain function. Huperzine A can be used with a number of other nootropics to make some great stacks.
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Background: Buxus hyrcana is species of Buxus genus. Buxus specien are known an The are of sterois alkaloids with biologic activity. They are widely Ysed in Traditicnal Medicine to Treat rhematism gout, skin diseases and Malaria nesistant to common therapies . therapies. The present study was carries out to extract steroid ...
FDA alerts health care professionals to labeling updates recommending that vinca alkaloids are prepared for administration in intravenous infusion bags only.
Azagthoth might have you think that the song is going to be nothing but five and a half minutes of Morbid Angel Solos. That is not the case and this track might be one of the most bizarre and experimental tracks on the record. Musically Azagthoth opens with what sounds like dueling classical guitars with a third distorted line following along. The third distorted line is for the most part, harmonic, chaotic dissonance. Moreans clean vocals return on this one. This is one of those projects that probably will never play live although I wish they did. It is one thing to sit here and listen to sounds arranged for three guitars and it is another to witness this live. Alkaloid are one of those groups that have such intricate arrangements that I would be interested to see if they could pull off these tunes live. So many Notes!. The title track Liquid Anatomy is the probably the closest thing to a ballad on the record. The track opens up with melodious acoustic twelve string guitars before ...
The present invention provides a method of isolating at least one ingredient with anti-viral efficacy from Baphicacanthus cusia. The ingredient can be an alkaloid, a triterpenoid, a lignan, a phenylethanoid, a sesquiterpene lactone, or a flavonoid. Two new alkaloids are produced, which have not been previously reported. Moreover, the method isolates 12 compounds which could not or have not been previously isolated. A pharmaceutical composition includes the at least one ingredient and at least one pharmaceutical tolerable excipient. A method of treating a subject suffering from a viral disease includes administering at least one ingredient isolated from Baphicacanthus cusia.
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Title:[Process of alkaloid desorption from ionites].,Author:Muravev I A,Iavich P A,Kustova T L,Gvetadze M A,Journal:Farmatsiia,1978/7-1978/8;27(4):31-5.,Publication type:Journal Article
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Mohammad Movassaghi and co-workers reported in JACS on the syntheses of (+)-asperazine (1), (+)-iso-pestalazine A (2), and (+)-pesta-lazine A (3). JACS paper
sing the Oncotest, we have selected three alkaloïds, alstonine, serpentine and sempervirine that possess the capacity to sistinguish in vitro between DNAs..
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Companies that manufacture products containing nicotine USP/EP work with nicotine alkaloid exporter firms to secure their supply of raw materials. They rely on these suppliers to continue that provide them with quality ingredients. Receiving regular ...
Anabasin je piridinski i piperidinski alkaloid pritutan u duvanskoh biljci Nicotiana glauca, koja je blisko srodna s duvanskom biljkom u širokoj poljoprivrednoj upotrebi (Nicotiana tabacum). Ovaj molekul je strukturalni izomer hemijski srodnog nikotina. Njegova glavna (istorijska) industrijska primena je kao insekticid. Anabasin je prisutan u tragovima u duvanskom dimu, i može se koristiti kao indikator izlaganja.[1] ...
When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 
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  • Scientists believe many symptoms of toxicosis are caused by chemical compounds known as ergot alkaloids, but much is still unknown about how they cause clinical signs to develop. (
  • Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are among the most valued chemical compounds known since pre-historic times. (
  • Seven new amide alkaloids, pipernigramides A-G (3, 10, 38, and 41-44), a new piperic ester, pipernigrester A (48), along with forty-seven known compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of Piper nigrum. (
  • An ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) adsorbent was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for effective separation and purification of alkaloid compounds from aqueous solutions. (
  • Berberine hydrochloride, colchicine, and matrine were selected as the model compounds for evaluating the adsorption properties of the OMC adsorbent for alkaloid purification. (
  • The large adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, and easy regeneration make the ordered mesoporous carbon a promising adsorbent for adsorption and purification of alkaloid compounds from the extracts of herbal plants. (
  • Recent research conducted on poisonous frogs suggests that the noxious compounds in salamanders could be alkaloids. (
  • Ladybird beetles produce a range of alkaloid compounds which are found a high concentration in the haemolymph and released in response to perceived threat. (
  • Both fractions were found to be active and displayed similar inhibitory activity towards human nAChRs with IC50s of 1.68 μg/mL for harmonine and 4.77 μg/mL for other alkaloid compounds. (
  • The mode of C-ring formation in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis was probed by synthesizing two potential intermediates, compounds 6 and 7, in deuterated form from the prenylated indole 8. (
  • Both compounds were incorporated into the ergot alkaloid elymoclavine by washed mycelia of Claviceps sp. (
  • Naturally occurring alkaloids are nitrogenous compounds that constitute the pharmacogenically active basic principles of flowering plants. (
  • Chris Vanderwal's research mainly focuses on the chemical synthesis of complex, bioactive natural products, including alkaloids, terpenoids, and polyhalogenated compounds. (
  • Those compounds included the ergot alkaloid called ergometrine, also called ergonovine, and d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide. (
  • Alerts the medical and public health professions to the severe risks of morbidity and mortality posed by human consumption of plants, including cereals and herbal medicines, containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (
  • Synthetic studies towards pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids. (
  • This project was concerned with the synthesis of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids supinidine, trachelanthamidine and isoretronecanol and also synthetic studies towards the indolizidine alkaloid 251D. (
  • Subsequent modification reactions then led in the pyrrolizidine series to penultimate precursors of the target alkaloids supinidine, trachelanthamidine and isoretronecanol, and in the indolizidine series to a bicyclic intermediate in the synthesis towards the toxin 251D. (
  • The intramolecular Horner-Wittig cyclisation reaction was found to proceed with retention of chirality, thus leading to the enantiospecific synthesis of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (
  • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are toxic for human and livestock. (
  • Data from clinical studies and case reports are used to detail the clinical and pathological features of veno-occlusive disease in children and adults, the link between intoxication with pyrrolizidine alkaloids and the development of cirrhosis, and the relationship between dose level and toxic effects. (
  • They seem to prefer feeding on Eupatorium flowers which contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (
  • They found that grain samples gathered from household farms contained low levels of two types of plant-based liver toxins known as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). (
  • I used nicotine as a model alkaloid and compared the ability of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) to recover alkaloids from salamander secretion. (
  • 22nd Century Group, Inc., a plant biotechnology company, provides technology that allows to alter the level of nicotine and other nicotinic alkaloids in tobacco plants, and cannabinoids in hemp/cannabis plants through genetic engineering and plant breeding. (
  • Researchers do not measure the amount of nicotine that comes out of the atomizer with steam, but the number of alkaloids. (
  • Both Atropa and Datura species accounts for roughly 0.2-0.8% of total alkaloids with a fairly low scopolamine (hyoscine) content. (
  • Unlike wild-type lines, rol ABC lines produce very similar levels of total alkaloids despite wide variations in individual alkaloid contents. (
  • The absence of these opines does not appear to cause the rol ABC lines to have higher levels of terpenoid indole alkaloids than wild-type hairy root lines. (
  • Tryptophan is the precursor of indole alkaloids. (
  • A highly anti -selective formal imino-aldol methodology has been developed and applied to asymmetric total synthesis of five alkaloids, including (+)-lupinine, ()-epitashiromine, (-)-epilamprolobine, (+)-isosophoridine and (+)-sparteine. (
  • The first total synthesis of the tetracyclic lupin alkaloid (+)-isosophoridine has been completed in 10 steps in 9% overall yield. (
  • As a part of our studies towards (+)-isosophoridine, we performed the first total synthesis of the tricyclic alkaloid (-)-epilamprolobine. (
  • This procedure resulted in synthesis within the glands of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids, which are condensation products of acetaldehyde with endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine. (
  • Another major problem was the instability of the bicyclic amide intermediates and some of the monocyclic intermediates,As well as covering a comprehensive background of each class of alkaloid, this report also contains an in-depth discussion of the key intramolecular Horner-Wittig cyclisation reaction and suggestions for its use in the possible synthesis of other classes of alkaloids. (
  • Location of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid synthesis and accumulation sites in Argemone mexicana L. (Mexican poppy). (
  • Alkaloid synthesis is coupled to shoot morphogenesis in Argemone mexicana L. ( Papaveraceae ) in vitro cultures. (
  • Studies towards a synthesis of the core structure of the akuammiline alkaloid picrinine were commenced, in parallel with an investigation into the potential for asymmetric catalysis on model IMDAF substrates. (
  • His interests include the chemistry and biosynthesis of alkaloids, the sustainability and quality control of medicinal agents, the remote detection of biologically active natural products, and the use of vegetables as chemical reagents. (
  • Hence it is proposed that only 7 is an intermediate in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas 6 is not on the pathway but can be converted into 7 when added to the cultures. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Probing Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis: Intermediates in the Formation of Ring C'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • Probing Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis: Intermediates in the Formation of Ring C . Journal of the American Chemical Society , 115 (6), 2482-2488. (
  • Probing Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis : Intermediates in the Formation of Ring C. / Kozikowski, Alan P. (
  • N-methyl transferase is the first enzyme in alkaloid biosynthetic pathway which drives the flow of nitrogen away from polyamine biosynthesis to alkaloid biosynthesis. (
  • The current development in the knowledge of alkaloid biosynthesis, particularly molecular analysis, has been discussed in this review that may help to open up new avenues of investigation for the researchers. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Polyamines and plant alkaloids. (
  • Polyamines and plant alkaloids. (
  • Ghosh B. Polyamines and plant alkaloids. (
  • Medicaments containing alkaloids or derivatives thereof, not containing hormones, steroids used as hormones or antibiotics, put up in measured doses 'incl. (
  • The two identified monomeric alkaloids may be the precursors of the described dimeric derivatives. (
  • 1975. [Pharmacology of the alkaloid nitramine. (
  • Vinorelbine is a vinca alkaloid that inhibits tubulin polymerization during G2 phase of cell division, thereby inhibiting mitosis. (
  • The vinca alkaloid agents are naturally occurring or semisynthetic nitrogenous bases that elicit their cytotoxic effects through tubulin-binding properties and disruption of microtubule function, which lead to metaphase arrest. (
  • Vinblastine is a vinca alkaloid that inhibits mitosis because of interactions with tubulin. (
  • Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid with a mechanism of action similar to that of vinblastine. (
  • The major alkaloids detected in these plants were dehydroaphylline andN-methylcytisine, together accounting for 74% of the total. (
  • Notably, (-)-ibogaine and (-)-voacangine are of the opposite enantiomeric configuration compared to the other major alkaloids found in this natural product class. (
  • Poisonous plants from Solanaceae family ( Hyoscyamus niger, Datura, Atropa belladonna , Scopolia lurida, Mandragora officinarum, Duboisia ) and Erythroxylaceae ( Erythroxylum coca ) are rich sources of tropane alkaloids. (
  • Tropane alkaloids (TAs) belonged to a class of about 200 alkaloids with a distinctive bicyclic tropane ring in their chemical structure [ 1 ]. (
  • However, the biosynthetic pathway of tropane and isoquinoline alkaloids are not clear. (
  • In this section, alkaloids are categorized into nine: eight as shown above and purine alkaloids as the ninth. (
  • The purine alkaloids caffeine and theobromine, as well as the catechins catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate, are quantified. (
  • Quantification of the purine alkaloids caffeine and theobromine, and the tea catechins catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate, enables a comparison of green and black tea. (
  • Deploying reversed-phase LC in the first and second dimension, a comprehensive 2D-LC method for the analysis of purine alkaloids and catechins in green and black tea was developed. (
  • Figure 1a shows that only the two-dimensional setup enabled complete separation of the purine alkaloids and catechins. (
  • The precision of retention times and peak volumes was determined by multiple injection (n = 10) of purine alkaloids and catechins. (
  • Excellent linearity was achieved for all purine alkaloids and catechins. (
  • Ten different samples of green and black tea were analyzed, and purine alkaloids and catechins were quantified. (
  • b) quantification results of purine alkaloids and catechins in green and black tea. (
  • Figure 1b shows the quantification results for purine alkaloids and catechins in green and black tea. (
  • If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital and call your doctor immediately. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital, call your doctor. (
  • you should know that belladonna alkaloids may decrease sweating and cause heatstroke. (
  • The FDA concluded that the products have mislabeled the amounts of belladonna alkaloids they contain. (
  • Methodology: We achieved the AChEI-targeted isolation of isoquinoline alkaloids from Ocotea discolor (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxylum schreberi (Rutcaeea). (
  • Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid which has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic activity against silicosis. (
  • Tetrandrine (TT), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has shown the ability to inhibit silica-induced activation of alveolar macrophages (AM) as well as the fibrosis which results. (
  • LANSING, Mich., Dec. 12, 2019 - Neogen Corporation (NASDAQ: NEOG) announced today that it has developed a quick and simple lateral flow test for ergot alkaloids, which are natural toxins produced by a fungus that commonly infects rye and wheat. (
  • If you use one of our Raptor testing platforms, accurately testing for ergot alkaloids, or many other natural toxins, doesn't get any easier. (
  • Because of the well-established risk to human and animal health posed by ergot alkaloids, legislation regulating the toxins is expected soon in the European Union. (
  • Tonic contains quinine , an alkaloid that also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. (
  • Ingenamine (1), a novel cytotoxic pentacyclic alkaloid, has been isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia inserts collected in Papua New Guinea. (
  • Internationally acclaimed for more than 40 years, The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, founded by the late Professor R.H.F. Manske, continues to provide outstanding coverage of this rapidly expanding field. (
  • Time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), following a previous chromatographic (gas or liquid chromatography) separation step, is applied to the identification and structural elucidation of quinoline-like alkaloids in honey. (
  • Ten dimeric and two monomeric Erythrina alkaloids , all of them are undescribed, were isolated from the bark of Erythrina variegata L. and named as erythrivarines O-Z. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and UV- spectroscopy and mass spectrometry . (
  • Alkaloids have been known for several centuries and have been mainly obtained from natural sources that presented important properties with biochemical, pharmacological, and medical effects in living organisms. (
  • Their action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated by constructing concentration-inhibition plots by co-applying alkaloid extracts with acetylcholine to human embryonic muscle-type of TE671 cells and locust neuronal nAChRs. (
  • Four of the isolated alkaloids showed strong inhibition of AChE with IC50 lower than 50 µg/mL. (
  • Additionally, the isolated alkaloids showed potential inhibition of LXR. (
  • Alkaloids have been tested by chemical, UV and FTIR spectroscopic methods.Corrosion inhibition was monitored by weight loss measurement and electrochemical methods(open circuit potential method and potentiodynamic polarization method). (
  • The maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency observed for 1000 ppm solution for 3 h was 71.94 % at 25 °C. The OCP measurement revealed that alkaloids acted as a mixed type of inhibitor. (
  • Increasing ACh concentrations were unable to overcome the inhibition caused by this alkaloid extract, indicating non-competitive action. (
  • These data indicate that the active alkaloid(s) within this extract bind at an allosteric site and the strong voltagedependence of inhibition suggests mode of action is open-channel block rather than enhancement of desensitisation. (
  • Thus, Cystoseira barbata alkaloid extract showed remarkable inhibition of human pathogen Klebsiella spp. (
  • Eric's creative approach to the akuammiline alkaloids is published in Org. (
  • Alkaloids are secondary metabolites widely distributed in leaves, stem, root, and fruits of plants which synthesize them. (
  • The results also showed that combining two alkaloids did not increase the toxicity of either-at least in terms of vein contraction. (
  • Available data on the levels of its main alkaloids are currently contradictory due to the inadequate analytical methods and the wide variation in toxicity levels reported. (
  • The alkaloid cis -195J ( 6a or 6b ) was isolated from the skin extract of the neotropical dendrobatid frog Mantella betsileo . (
  • The alkaloid extract that showed the highest selectivity for locust nAChRs was that of the 7-spot ladybird, with an IC50 value 58.4 fold lower. (
  • To investigate mode of action, ACh concentration-response curves in the presence and absence of harlequin ladybird alkaloid extract were constructed using TE671 cells. (
  • Fitting the Woodhull equation to IC50 values calculated at holding potentials of 50, -50, -75, -100 and -120 mV revealed that the antagonism caused by this alkaloid extract was voltagedependent (P = 0.012), with late current IC50s of 23.1, 15.5 and 6 μg/mL at holding potentials of +50, -50 and -120 mV respectively. (
  • The alkaloid harmonine was separated from other components of the alkaloid extract by thin-layer chromatography and the inhibitory activity tested against both human and locust nAChRs at VH = -75 mV. (
  • Dictyopteris membranacea alkaloid extract also demonstrated similar considerable effect against S. typhi with MIC value 1.56 mg/ml. (
  • Here, the dose-dependent effects of a purified alkaloid kratom extract on neuronal oscillatory systems function, analgesia, and antidepressant-like behaviour were evaluated and kratom-induced changes in ΔFosB expression determined. (
  • All alkaloid extracts antagonised the ACh responses of both cell types but potency and selectivity varied. (
  • The current study presents the antibacterial effect of the alkaloid extracts of some green, red and brown algae were collected from western coast of Libya, against, Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi , Klebsiella spp. (
  • Although alkaloid extracts of green algae inhibited all tested bacteria, maximum effect was exhibited by brown and red algae species. (
  • Biosynthetic pathways to alkaloids vary greatly depending on the nitrogen source. (
  • These co-occurring dimeric and monomeric alkaloids enabled us to propose a possible biosynthetic pathway leading to these dimers. (
  • Its antitumor activity has been mostly ascribed to pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) from stem bark and leaves while the activity of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA) remains unknown. (
  • Subsequent stimulation of the glands by perfusion with carbachol or acetylcholine caused secretion of catecholamines and tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. (
  • Pretreatment with tetracaine similarly blocked the secretion of catecholamines and tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. (
  • In addition, to our knowledge, no other methods in the literature have used SPE to recover alkaloids from salamander secretion, so there is potential to contribute a new, robust method. (
  • The Antidepressant-Like and Analgesic Effects of Kratom The Antidepressant-Like and Analgesic Effects of Kratom Alkaloids are accompanied by Changes in Low Frequency Oscillations. (
  • Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. (
  • Alkaloids are derived from amino acids like other important molecules in the functioning of life in our body. (
  • Alkaloids are biosynthesized from various kinds of amino acids as depicted in Fig. 1. (
  • Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant alkaloid commonly found in many of the products we consume daily. (
  • Caffeine is an alkaloid that is known to have psychoactive stimulatory effects. (
  • These alkaloids are thought to function as agents of chemical defence and a small number have been shown to antagonise the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (
  • Ingestion of ergot alkaloids can cause ergotism, a dangerous disease in humans and animals. (
  • Pharmacokinetics of Hoasca alkaloids in healthy humans. (
  • The results of these model experiments support the concept that tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids may play a role as false transmitters after ingestion of alcoholic beverages. (
  • Since most of the alkaloids exhibit potent bioactivity, they are the main component of many herbal medicines. (
  • Dragendorff's reagent is a selective visualizing reagent for alkaloids. (
  • As intraguild predators, the chemical defence may be under selective pressure from other predatory insects, the alkaloids may therefore have evolved to target insects predominantly. (
  • Wang, H. X. and Ng, T. B. Examination of lectins, polysaccharopeptide, polysaccharide, alkaloid, coumarin and trypsin inhibitors for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and glycohydrolases. (
  • The European Union Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins organises a proficiency test on the determination of ergot alkaloids in cereals. (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the proficiency of the European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and Official Food Control Laboratories (OCLs) on the determination of ergot alkaloids which were identified as priority by the European Food Safety Authority and for which maximum levels can be expected in the near future. (
  • Tobacco alkaloids are metabolised from polyamines and diamines putrescine and cadaverine. (

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