Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Aporphines: Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Benzylisoquinolines: ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Solanaceous Alkaloids: Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.Berberine: An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Coptis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ergotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Lycopodium: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.Ergotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Lysergic AcidPapaver: A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Belladonna Alkaloids: Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Aspidosperma: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It contains ellipticine.Papaveraceae: The poppy plant family of the order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. These have bisexual, regular, cup-shaped flowers with one superior pistil and many stamens; 2 or 3 conspicuous, separate sepals and a number of separate petals. The fruit is a capsule. Leaves are usually deeply cut or divided into leaflets.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Uncaria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Veratrum Alkaloids: Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Epichloe: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Mitragyna: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Ibogaine: One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Corydalis: A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE (classified by some in PAPAVERACEAE) that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ephedra sinica: A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Indolizidines: Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.IndolizinesQuinolizinesAtropa belladonna: A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Thalictrum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.Noscapine: A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.Alstonia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoidsLupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Veratrum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Evodia: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromaticLauraceae: A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Peganum: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Harmala and other ALKALOIDS, phenylpropanoids, and TRITERPENES have been found in plants of this genus.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.PhenanthridinesPlant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Erythroxylaceae: A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Tylophora: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain phenanthro-indolizidine alkaloids.Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Stemonaceae: A small plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Huperzia: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain huperzine, one of the CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS.Cissampelos: A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Chelidonium: A plant genus in the family PAPAVERACEAE, order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Acridones: Compounds based on acridone, which have three linear rings, with the center ring containing a ring nitrogen and a keto oxygen opposite to each other. Many of them are naturally occurring alkaloids.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Harringtonines: Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.Tomatine: An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Lycoris: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain radiatine, vittatine, haemanthamine, lycorenine, dihydrolycorine, lycorine, lycoricidinol and lycoricidine.Cryptocarya: A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.Hydrastis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cephaelis: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE, order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae. Cephaelis ipecacuanha is the source of IPECAC.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Agelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Crinum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains ALKALOIDS.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).PhenanthrenesNelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Fritillaria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.Murraya: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.Menispermaceae: A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Strychnos nux-vomica: A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Eschscholzia: A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)QuinolinesCinchona: A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Pilocarpus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE that is the natural source of PILOCARPINE.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Paullinia: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (1/3151)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor. (2/3151)

The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (3/3151)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes. (4/3151)

Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation  (+info)

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes. (5/3151)

OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (6/3151)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Altered pharmacokinetics of a novel anticancer drug, UCN-01, caused by specific high affinity binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein in humans. (7/3151)

The large species difference in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can be partially explained by the high affinity binding of UCN-01 to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) (Fuse et al, Cancer Res., 58: 3248-3253, 1998). To confirm whether its binding to human AGP actually changes the in vivo pharmacokinetics, we have studied the alteration in its pharmacokinetics after simultaneous administration of human AGP to rats: (a) the protein binding of UCN-01 was evaluated by chasing its dissociation from proteins using dextran-coated charcoal. The UCN-01 remaining 0.1 h after adding dextran-coated charcoal to human plasma or AGP was approximately 80%, although the values for other specimens, except monkey plasma (approximately 20%), were <1%, indicating that the dissociation from human AGP was specifically slower than from other proteins; and (b) the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 simultaneously administered with human AGP has been determined. The plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of UCN-O1 with equimolar human AGP were much higher than those after administration of UCN-01 alone. The steady-state distribution volume and the systemic clearance were reduced to about 1/100 and 1/200, respectively. Human AGP thus reduced the distribution and elimination of UCN-01 substantially. On the other hand, dog AGP, which has a low binding affinity for UCN-01, did not change the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 so much. Furthermore, human AGP markedly reduced the hepatic extraction ratio of UCN-01 from 0.510 to 0.0326. Also, human AGP (10 microM) completely inhibited the initial uptake of UCN-01 (1 microM) into isolated rat hepatocytes, whereas the uptake of UCN-01 was unchanged in the presence of human serum albumin (10 microM). In conclusion, the high degree of binding of UCN-01 to human AGP causes a reduction in the distribution and clearance, resulting in high plasma concentrations in humans.  (+info)

Comparison between huperzine A, tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. (8/3151)

AIM: To compare the effects of huperzine A (Hup A), tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. METHODS: The isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used with the conventional intracellular recording technique. The miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP), the mean quantal content of end-plate potentials (EPP), and the resting membrane potentials of muscle fiber were recorded. RESULTS: Hup A, tacrine, and E2020 at the concentration of 1.0 mumol.L-1 increased the amplitude, time-to-peak, and half-decay time of MEPP in the potencies of E2020 > Hup A > tacrine. Hup A did not significantly change the frequency of MEPP, the appearance of giant MEPP or slow MEPP, the resting membrane potentials, and the mean quantal content of EPP. CONCLUSION: Hup A is a selective and potent cholinesterase inhibitor, by which activity it facilitates the cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction, and devoid of pre- and post-synaptic actions.  (+info)

*16-Methoxytabersonine

... is a terpene indole alkaloid produced by the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. 16-methoxytabersonine ...

*Tetrandrine

2009 Oct;32(20):3550-4 Kwan CY, Achike FI.,"Tetrandrine and related bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from medicinal herbs: ... 2008 Jul;33(7):559-65 Kwan CY, Achike FI.,"Tetrandrine and related bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from medicinal herbs: ... Tetrandrine a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is a calcium channel blocker. It has anti-inflammatory, immunologic and ... "Biosynthesis of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, tetrandrine" Phytochemistry (1980); 19(11):2347-2350 Tetrandrine(Fanchinine ...

*Pyrrolizidine alkaloid

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), sometimes referred to as necine bases, are a group of naturally occurring alkaloids based on the ... "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Food" (PDF). Coulombe, Roger A. Jr (2003). "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in foods". Advances in Food and ... I.; Aasen, A. J. (1980). "Alkaloids of Anchusa officinalis L. Identification of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Lycopsamine". Acta ... Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are produced by plants as a defense mechanism against insect herbivores. More than 660 PAs and PA N- ...

*Vinpocetine

... is a synthetic derivative of the vinca alkaloid vincamine (sometimes described as "a synthetic ethyl ester of apovincamine"), ...

*Pyridine alkaloids

... are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a ... "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Media related to Pyridine alkaloids at Wikimedia Commons ...

*Tasmanian Alkaloids

... is a subsidiary of the United States pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson, but was formerly-as of 1980- ... Tasmanian Alkaloids is the largest opium poppy processing company in the Australian state of Tasmania. Approximately forty ... The company patented a poppy variety called "Norman" which was stated, in the 1999 Tasmanian Alkaloids Poppy Grower's Bulletin ...

*10-Hydroxy Lycopodium alkaloids

"Lycopodine and the Lycopodium Alkaloids" (PDF). dead link needs update Lycopodium Alkaloids: An Intramolecular Michael Reaction ... The Lycopodium alkaloids are of interest due to their biological activity and unique skeletal characteristics, however, many ... The 10-hydroxy Lycopodium alkaloids, 10-hydroxylycopodine, deacetylpaniculine and paniculine, are a series of natural products ... "Unified Synthesis of 10-Oxygenated Lycopodium Alkaloids: Impact of C10-Stereochemistry on Reactivity". J Org Chem. 81 (14): ...

*Alkaloid

... of those contain alkaloids. Therefore, in the past the term "alkaloid" was associated with plants. The alkaloids content in ... attributed to isoquinoline alkaloids. Main classes of monomeric alkaloids are listed in the table below: Most alkaloids contain ... Most alkaloids are present in the raw plants in the form of salts of organic acids. The extracted alkaloids may remain salts or ... The role of alkaloids for living organisms that produce them is still unclear. It was initially assumed that the alkaloids are ...

*Vinca alkaloid

Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... The vinca alkaloids thus prevent microtubule polymerization, as opposed to the mechanism of action of taxanes. Vinca alkaloids ... Vinca alkaloids are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... Additional researched vinca alkaloids include vincaminol, vineridine, and vinburnine. Vinpocetine is a semi-synthetic ...

*Furoquinoline alkaloid

Furoquinoline alkaloids are a group of alkaloids with simple structure. Distribution of this group of alkaloids is essentially ... A furoquinoline alkaloid, dictamnine, is very common within the family Rutaceae. It is the main alkaloid in the roots of ... Some furoquinoline alkaloids have been found to have in vitro pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, ... NMR spectroscopy is the best way to observe the structure of furoquinoline alkaloids. C-2 proton gives response in 7.50-7.60 ...

*Serpentine (alkaloid)

Leete, Edward (1961). "Biogenesis of the Rauwolfia alkaloids alkaloids-II". Tetrahedron. 14: 35. doi:10.1016/0040-4020(61)80084 ... Serpentine is a terpene indole alkaloid produced by several members of the Apocynaceae family, including Catharanthus roseus ...

*Flavonoid alkaloid

One flavonoid alkaloid, lilaline, was isolated from Lilium candidum in 1987. The synthesis of flavonoid alkaloids has been ... A flavonoid alkaloid also known as a flavoalkaloid is a type of natural product produced by plants that contains both a ... The most common flavonoid alkaloids contain a nitrogen heterocycle such as a pyridine or piperidine which is covalently bonded ... Mašterová I, Uhrin D, Tomko J (1987). "Lilaline-a flavonoid alkaloid from Lilium candid". Phytochemistry. 26 (6): 1844-1845. ...

*Alkaloid (company)

Alkaloid official website, in Macedonian and English "About Alkaloid". www.alkaloid.com.mk. Retrieved 2017-07-05. ... Alkaloid AD Skopje (Macedonian: Алкалоид АД Скопје) is a company which eight decades, has been operating in the field of ... Alkaloid AD is a joint stock company that consists of two profit centers: Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals, Cosmetics and ...

*Indole alkaloid

Indole alkaloids are a class of alkaloids containing a structural moiety of indole; many indole alkaloids also include isoprene ... Ergot alkaloids are a class of hemiterpenoid indole alkaloids related to lysergic acid, which, in turn, is formed in a ... Pirroloindole alkaloids are synthesized in living organisms in a similar way. Biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids begins with the ... Corynanthe alkaloids include the unaltered skeleton of secologanin, which is modified in Iboga and Aspidosperma alkaloids. Some ...

*Iboga alkaloid

Iboga alkaloids are alkaloid constituents of Tabernanthe iboga. Iboga alkaloids include ibogaine, tabernanthine, coronaridine, ... Glick SD, Kuehne ME, Raucci J, Wilson TE, Larson D, Keller RW, Carlson JN (1994). "Effects of iboga alkaloids on morphine and ... "Effect of Iboga Alkaloids on µ-Opioid Receptor-Coupled G Protein Activation". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e77262. doi:10.1371/journal. ...

*Tropane alkaloid

Tropane alkaloids are a class of bicyclic [3.2.1] alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their ... Tropane alkaloids occur naturally in many members of the plant family Solanaceae. Some tropane alkaloids have pharmacological ... Alkaloid Tropane O'Hagan, David (2000). "Pyrrole, pyrrolidine, pyridine, piperidine and tropane alkaloids (1998 to 1999)". ... However, the concentration of alkaloids can vary so greatly, even from leaf to leaf and seed to seed.[citation needed] ...

*Harmala alkaloid

The harmala alkaloid harmine, once known as telepathine and banisterine, is a naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid that ... Harmala alkaloids are also found in many other plants, such as passion flower. The leaves of P. incarnata have been reported ... Several alkaloids that function as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are found in the seeds of Peganum harmala (also known ... Both MAO-A and MAO-B break down tyramine, but large doses of harmala alkaloids begin to affect MAO-B as well. Isolated harmine ...

*Loline alkaloid

Another group of alkaloids, the senecio-type alkaloids, are produced by various plants and like the lolines, the senecio ... Festuca arundinacea, tall fescue)-also produce ergot alkaloids that are toxic to mammalian herbivores. The ergot alkaloids ... A loline alkaloid is a member of the 1-aminopyrrolizidines (often referred to as lolines), which are bioactive natural products ... They are alkaloids, organic compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms. The basic chemical structure of the lolines comprises a ...

*Coca alkaloid

Coca alkaloids are the alkaloids found in the coca plant, Erythroxylum coca. They are predominantly of either the pyrrolidine ... an alcoholic beverage combining wine with extracted coca alkaloids Variation of Alkaloid Content in Erythroxylum coca Leaves ...

*Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration

... by insects is done for defense and mating purposes. Various species of insects have been ... Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of chemicals produced by plants as secondary metabolites, all of which contain a ... Three clusters of eggs that were laid after copulation with a PA-positive male all tested positive for alkaloids and the one ... "Alkaloid-derived pheromones and sexual selection in Lepidoptera", in G.J. Blomquist, Pheromone Biochemistry, New York, pp. 251- ...

*Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids

Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids ... Chida N (2011). "Recent advances in the synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids". Top Curr Chem. 299: 1-28. doi:10.1007/128 ... Rinner U, Hudlicky T (2012). "Synthesis of morphine alkaloids and derivatives". Top Curr Chem. 309: 33-66. doi:10.1007/128_2011 ... Hong CY, Kado N, Overman LE (November 1993). "Asymmetric synthesis of either enantiomer of opium alkaloids and morphinans. ...

*Opium and Alkaloid Works

In 1976, it began extracting alkaloids in addition to processing opium. The Nimach factory, also known as Neemuch factory, is ... There are two factories under this organisation - Government Opium and Alkaloid Works, Ghazipur (U.P.) and Government Opium and ... The Government Opium and Alkaloid Factories (GOAF) is an Indian government-owned organisation. Its headquarter is located in ... The enterprise's two factories specialize in the production of opium and the extraction of related alkaloids (such as Codeine ...

*List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids

... or are suspected of containing such alkaloids due to being psychoactive. The presence and constitution of alkaloids in nature ... "Alkaloids of Acacia baileyana." Lloydia 36(2):211-213. www.bushfood.net Archived 2014-08-04 at the Wayback Machine. Adams, H.R ... "Alkaloids of Acacia I. NbNb-Dimethyltryptamine in Acacia phlebophylla F. Muell." Aust. J. Chem. 20:1299-1300. Balandrin, M.F. ... "Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae. V. The occurrence of methylated tryptamines in Acacia maidenii F. Muell." Aust. J. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: B: Belladonna Alkaloids

"Health ... Belladonna Alkaloids" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ... MedlinePlus: Belladonna Alkaloids and Barbiturates (Systemic) Provides information about dosage, usage, warnings, and side ...

*Biomimetic synthesis

Alkaloids. 1. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. doi:10.1002/9783527634606. ISBN 978-3-527-32580-1. Ashely E (January 5, 2004 ... Proto-daphniphylline is a precursor in the biosynthesis of a family of alkaloids found in Daphniphyllum macropodum. It is of ... The earliest generally cited example of a biomimetic synthesis is Robinson's organic synthesis of the alkaloid tropinone. A ... Clayton H. Heathcock, Serge Piettre, Roger B. Ruggeri, John A. Ragan & John C. Kath, 1992, "Daphniphyllum alkaloids. 12. A ...
Plants are known to synthesize diverse groups of phytochemicals in the different cell types. So, they are claimed as the great chemists of nature by Peter J. Facchini - one of the renowned plant molecular biologist from University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is established that the plants manufacture phytochemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,…
Alkaloid lumrahé diklasifikasikaké miturut padhané sumber asal molekulé (precursors), didhasari kanthi metabolisme pathway (metabolic pathway) kang minangka mbentuk molekul iku. Yèn biosintesis saka salah sijiné alkaloid ora dingertèni, alkaloid digolongaké miturut jeneng senyawané, kalebu jeneng senyawa kang ora ngandhung nitrogen (amarga struktur molekulé ana sajeroning prodhuk akir. Minangka tuladha: alkaloid opium sok karan "phenanthrenes"), utawa miturut jeneng wit-witan utawa kéwan ing ngendi senyawa iku diisolasi. Yèn sawisé alkaloid iku dikaji, panggolongan salah sijiné alkaloid diowahi miturut asil pangkajian iku, lumrahé njupuk jeneng amine wigati-kanthi-biologi kang nyolok sajeroning prosès sintesisé. ...
Looking for alkaloid? Find out information about alkaloid. any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means... Explanation of alkaloid
An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, an amine that is produced by a plant. However, the term has been extended to amines produced by animals and fungi as well.[1] The name derives from the word alkaline; originally, the term was used to describe any nitrogen-containing base.. Alkaloids are usually derivatives of amino acids, and many have a bitter taste. They are found as secondary metabolites in plants (such as potatoes and tomatoes), animals (such as shellfish), and fungi. In many cases, they can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction.. Various alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and animals. Many are poisonous, but some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or anesthetics, particularly morphine and codeine. Some, such as vinblastine, are used to treat certain types of cancer.. ...
The most important nitrogen containing SMs in plants are alkaloids; with over 10,000 known structures, but they are only found in 20% of the angiosperms. Alkaloids are generally present in higher concentrations in bark, seeds, roots and leaves than in wood. All alkaloids contain nitrogen heterocycles, and are mainly present in plants as salts of carboxylic acids (such as citric, lactic, oxalic, acetic, malic and tartaric, fumaric, benzoic acids). Alkaloids have a wide variety of chemical structures e.g. monocyclic, dicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, and more complex cage structures, and are classified according to the type of ring (pyrrolidine, piperidine etc) and their biosynthetic origin. Alkaloids and amines often affect neuroreceptors as agonists or antagonists, or modulate other steps in the signal transduction e.g. ion channels and enzymes (Winks & Schimmer 1999). This is because alkaloids are derived from the same amino acid precursors as neurotransmitters, and their structures often mimic ...
This thesis examines the total synthesis of the macroline-related indole alkaloid alstonerine and related compounds. It is divided into three sections: The first section provides a review of the total synthesis efforts reported by Cook, Martin, Kuethe, and Kwon, as well previous work within the Craig group. The second section discusses the results of our investigations. The optimisation of the synthesis of key intermediate α,β-unsaturated lactam alcohol via directed-aziridine ring-opening is presented in detail. Our progress towards the synthesis of macroline-related alkaloids macroline, alstolactone, anhydromacrosalhine-methine and alstonerinal, as well as their N4-tosyl derivatives, from the key intermediate is discussed. The findings from these studies are presented en route to the total synthesis of alstonerine. The third section contains experimental procedures and characterisation data for compounds synthesised ...
An interaction diperoxy acids with alkaloids is a process of nucleophilic substitution β-peroxide oxygen of peroxyacid with forming of corresponding the N-oxides of alkaloids and is subject to the general laws specific acid-base catalysis.Keywords: diperoxycarboxylic acids, alkaloids, diperoxysebasic acid
Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants
...   An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant, but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called
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WebMD provides common contraindications for Aconite-Belladonna Alkaloids Oral. Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Aconite-Belladonna Alkaloids Oral
Purchase The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume 20 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124695207, 9780080865447
Learn Vinka alkaloids facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
If you have been following Obscura, Dark Fortress, Aborted, Noneuclid, Spawn of Possession, or Blotted Science, then you have been made very aware of this prog-death supergroup known as Alkaloid - a phantastical brainchild of Hannes Grossmann, inspired by work of the Maestro Florian Morean Maier. Their highly anticipated debut, The Malkuth Grimoire, which has…
pordamacrine A: alkaloid from Daphniphyllum macropodum, with moderate vasorelaxant effect on the rat aorta; structure in first source
There is a certain abstract style, a certain kind of stylish, morbid quality to his clips, which I think makes them very interesting and different to other clips, because theyre a bit more artistic…a bit creepy, but not cheesy. So, Im super excited to see what he does with the subject. -- HANNES GROSSMANN &…
Patients, Treatment, Water, Cells, Proteins, Time, Cell, mRNA, Fluorescence, Hydrogen, Role, Western Blot, Alkaloids, Regulation, Disease, Diseases, Cancer, Gene, Human, Therapeutic
Köck, M. (2007): Structural assignment of novel pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids - does the relative configuration of palauamine does need revision? , Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA, February 13 ...
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Pilocarpine, an important imidazole alkaloid, is extracted from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), known in Brazil as jaborandi and used mainly for the treatment of glaucoma. Jaborandi leaves also contain other imidazole alkaloids, whose pharmacological and physiological properties are unknown, and whose biosynthetic pathways are under investigation. In the present study, a HPLC method coupled with ESI-MSn was developed for their qualitative and quantitative analysis. This method permits the chromatographic separation of the imidazole alkaloids found in extracts of jaborandi, as well as the MS/MS analysis of the individual compounds. Thus two samples: leaves of P. microphyllus and a paste that is left over after the industrial extraction of pilocarpine; were compared. The paste was found to contain significant amounts of pilocarpine and other imidazole alkaloids, but had a slightly different alkaloid profile than the leaf extract. The method is suitable for the routine analysis of samples
The Stemona alkaloids are an expanding group of natural products that have significant potential as agricultural and pharmaceutical drugs. However many of these alkaloids are only available in small quantities which severely limits their application. A significant and innovative aspect of this project will be the development of new processes for the large scale production of Stemona alkaloids. The major alkaloids will be used as novel building blocks to prepare more structurally complex and less abundant Stemona alkaloids and their analogues. These studies will allow systematic structure-biological activity relationship studies to be performed ...
The isolated rat uterus contraction induced by oxytocin and Ca+ + after high-K depolarization were markedly inhibited by tetrandrine (Tet). The depression was immediately reversed by addition of Ca++ to the bath fluid. Tet and verapamil (Ver), which shifted the cumulative dose-response curves to the right and depressed the maximal responses to CaCl2 acted as non-competitive antagonists. The oxytocin-induced Ca++-dependent contractions were depressed by 4.8 and 30 μM Tet. Tet 30 μM also inhibited the Ca++ o-dependent component of the contraction. The effect of Ver on isolated rat uterus was stronger than that of Tet. But up to 0.05 μM, it showed no effect on Ca+ +-dependent oxytocin contraction. These results indicate that Tet is an effective Ca+ +-antagonist very similar to Ver on isolated rat uteri.
What is huperzine A? Huperzine A is a natural alkaloid extracted from Huperzia serrata, a variety of club moss cultivated in China and other Asian locales. The plant has long been used to create qian ceng ta, a health-enhancing extract that is considered a cornerstone of traditional Chinese wellness practices. The folk use of Huperzia serrata led to scientific investigations of its key compound, which was discovered during the 1980s and has been increasingly researched in recent decades.. Studies have shown that that huperzine A promotes multiple aspects of cognitive function, including sharp memory, clear focus, mental alertness and enhanced learning capacity. Additional evidence suggests it may help with age-related cognitive impairment, memory decline and other mental processing problems related to degenerative brain issues. It is considered a neuroprotective compound that helps to defend brain cells from oxidative stress and toxicity.. Research has indicated that huperzine A, unlike many ...
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So, do we have any chemists on this forum? It would be interesting to see gas chromatography findings on Pu-erh tea but I cant find an article. Im still curious what other alkaloids are hiding in this tea and why some tea seems to have a strong psychoactive effect and others do not. My Lincang purple bud seems to have a downright sedating effect for example. I want to know what exactly is causing said sedation. Is it the catechin content or are there other alkaloids responsible for this zen-like calming effect? What alkaloids are you familiar with in regards to pu-erh tea? What sort of psychoactive effects have you personally experienced while drinking Pu-erh ...
International scientific meeting on the Web, with Keynote Addresses, Invited Symposia, Poster Sessions, and an Exhibitors Foyer. Sessions in basic and clinical sciences, education, and public health. Hosted by McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Dec 7-16th, 1998. symposium Presentation
Maksimović, M., Šober, M. and Nikolin, B. (1990), Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the elucidation of the structure of piperidine alkaloids. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 4: 503-504. doi: 10.1002/rcm.1290041206 ...
The aim of this work was to find the most useful inorganic nitrogen source to enable Leucopaxillus giganteus to become a more nutritious mushroom, regarding organic acid and phenolic composition and total alkaloids content. For these, the influence o
K252b is a staurosporine analog and PKC inhibitor that suppresses DNA synthesis. It also inhibits microbial ectoprotein kinases and inhibits IgE cross-linking-dependent degranulation in basophils.
Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms.. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture.. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells.. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine) was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion) in yeast diploid strain XS2316 ...
Incubation with 2N-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium (NMHE) increases the killing of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. The main effect is observed in the case of exponentially growing cells which are also more sensitive to the drug alone than plateau phase cel
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yun-Li Zhao, Jian-Hua Shang, Shi-Biao Pu, Heng-Shan Wang, Bei Wang, Lu Liu, Ya-Ping Liu, Hong-Mei Shen, Xiao-Dong Luo].
Huperzia serratum Huperziceae celá bylina z Číny Brown na bielu Huperzine A Huperzine A 1% - 5%, HPLC rozpustný v chloroforme, metanole,
alkaloid, any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means alkalilike, some alkaloids do not exhibit alkaline properties.
Definition of alkaloid - any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds of plant origin which have pronounced physiological actions on humans. They includ
Huperzine effect on memory and brain function. Huperzine A can be used with a number of other nootropics to make some great stacks.
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This topic has 24 study abstracts on Huperzine indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease, Brain Damage, and Head Injuries
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Learn more about Huperzine A at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Uses Principal Proposed Uses Alzheimers Disease and Other Forms of Dementia ...
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Mohammad Movassaghi and co-workers reported in JACS on the syntheses of (+)-asperazine (1), (+)-iso-pestalazine A (2), and (+)-pesta-lazine A (3). JACS paper
After you stop using this medicine, it may still produce some side effects that need attention. During this period of time check with your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following side effects:. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
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Companies that manufacture products containing nicotine USP/EP work with nicotine alkaloid exporter firms to secure their supply of raw materials. They rely on these suppliers to continue that provide them with quality ingredients. Receiving regular ...
When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 
The Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution program at the Harvard School of Public Health, led by Leonard Marcus, trains health care professionals ...
Derivatization of alkaloids for fuel chromatography half II: precise half bankruptcy four. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids bankruptcy five. Pyridine alkaloids bankruptcy 6. Piperidine alkaloids bankruptcy 7. Quinolizidine alkaloids bankruptcy eight. Tropine alkaloids bankruptcy nine. Pseudotropine alkaloids bankruptcy 10. Cinchona alkaloids bankruptcy eleven. Acronychia alkaloids bankruptcy 12. Cactus alkaloids bankruptcy thirteen. Ephedra alkaloids bankruptcy 14. Opium alkaloids bankruptcy 15. Aporphine alkaloids bankruptcy sixteen. Isoquinoline comparable alkaloids bankruptcy 17. Terpenoid indole alkaloids and straightforward indole alkaloids bankruptcy 18. Ergot alkaloids bankruptcy 19. solanun alkaloids bankruptcy 20. Xanthine alkaloids bankruptcy 21. Cephalotaxus alkaloids bankruptcy 22. Imidazole alkaloids part II: HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY half I: normal half bankruptcy 1. common features of HPLC of alkaloid bankruptcy 2. HPLC research of assorted alkaloid half II: specified half ...
Veratrum californicum is a plant found in the western United States that contains steroidal alkaloids, most notably cyclopamine, which inhibit the hedgehog pathway (Hh). Hh is active in healthy embryonic development and overexpressed in some types of cancer such as basal cell carcinoma. Already the molecular scaffold of cyclopamine has been used for the development of skin cancer chemotherapeutics including vismodegib and IPI-926. Research on aerial alkaloid content and corresponding bioactivity has not been performed by modern methods. We hypothesize that cyclopamine works synergistically with other alkaloids in aerial plant to inhibit the Hh signaling. The goal of this project is to determine the variation in the relative alkaloid content in aerial V. californicum over the course of its growth cycle. The alkaloids will be extracted by soaking ground biomass in ethanol, and they will be purified by column chromatography. The isolated alkaloids will be identified by HPLC and evaluated for bioactivity.
The plant family Elaeocarpaceae has been the source of a plethora of structurally related alkaloids isolated over the last 50 years. This Thesis describes our synthetic approaches to (−)-grandisine B I, a bioactive indolizidine alkaloid isolated from Elaocarpus grandis in 2005. An overview of alkaloids isolated from the family Elaeocarpaceae is provided and preliminary studies into the synthesis of grandisine B I are described (Chapters 1 and 2). Novel routes to bicyclic lactams II and isoquinuclidinone frameworks III have been developed using aqueous ammonia in a one-pot amination/cyclisation sequence (Chapters 3 and 4). The scope of the developed methodology was initially demonstrated with a concise synthesis of the alkaloid (−)-mearsine V. A biomimetic synthesis of (±)-grandisine B I, using the alkaloid grandisine D IV as a synthetic precursor, is then described in Chapter 5. The development of a formic acid mediated alkyne/acetal cyclisation for the synthesis of heterocyclic scaffolds ...
Weinsberg, F. , Bickmeyer, U. and Wiegand, H. (1994): Effects of Tetrandrine on calcium channel currents of bovine chromaffin cells , Neuropharmacology ...
evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract for sale - 34 - evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract wholesalers & evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Isoliensinine, a natural phenolic bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, has received considerable attention for its potential biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-HIV activities. From the dog hepatic microsomes of isoliensinine, three new N-demethylated and O-demethylated metabolites, 2-N-desmethyl-isoliensinine (M1), 2-N-desmethylisoliensinine (M2), and 2-N-6-O-didesmethylisoliensinine (M3), were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and data-dependent electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways for isoliensinine have been proposed. The result should prove very helpful for evaluation of the drug-like properties of isoliensinine and other bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids.
Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. For example, medicinal plants have been known in the Mesopotamia at least around 2000 BC.[27] The Odyssey of Homer referred to a gift given to Helen by the Egyptian queen, a drug bringing oblivion. It is believed that the gift was an opium-containing drug.[28] A Chinese book on houseplants written in 1st-3rd centuries BC mentioned a medical use of Ephedra and opium poppies.[29] Also, coca leaves have been used by South American Indians since ancient times.[30] Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows.[27] Studies of alkaloids began in the 19th century. In 1804, the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner isolated from opium a "soporific principle" (Latin: principium somniferum), which he called "morphium" in honor of Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams; in German and some other Central-European ...
Oxymatrine, a potent monosomic alkaloid extracted from Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.). possesses anti-inflammatory activittyes. This study was designed to investigate the effects of oxymatrine on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. In this paper, BV2 microglia were pretreated with different concentrations of oxymatrine (1, 10 and 20 μg/mL) for 30 min as followed by stimulation with LPS (1 µg/mL) for different times (30 min, 1 h, 3 h, and 6 h). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant, mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (I-κBα) and phospho-I-κBα and nuclear p65 protein levels, and the phosphorylations of MAPK molecules such as extracellular
Six alkaloids (1-6) have been isolated from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss) Benth var. bodinaieri (Dode) Huang, two of which are new compounds, identified as 2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone (4) and 1-methyl-2-undecanone-10′-4(1H)-quinolone (5); the known compounds were identified as rutaecarpine (1), evodiamine (2), 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinoline (3) and 2-undecanone-10′-4(1H)-quinolone (6). Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their acute toxicity. ...
In the present study the methanolic extract of Albizia gummifera was fractionated into various fractions. These fractions were tested against choroquine sensitive (NF54) and resistant (ENT30) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. All other fractions apart from the alkaloidal fraction showed low activity with IC 50 above 3 microg/ml. The alkaloidal fraction exhibited strong activity against NF54 and ENT30 with IC 50 of 0.16+/-0.05 and 0.99+/-0.06 microg/ml, respectively. Five known spermine alkaloids were isolated from the alkaloidal fraction. These alkaloids exhibited activities against NF54 and ENT30 with IC 50 ranging from 0.09+/-0.02 to 0.91+/-0.10 microg/ml. Four of the alkaloids were further evaluated for in vivo activity against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. The alkaloids showed percentage chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice ranging from 43 to 72%. The use of the extracts A. gummifera for treatment of malaria in traditional medicine seems to have a scientific basis ...
Ukranian Anti-cancer Institute, Matgaretenstrasse 7, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.. The discovery and development of drugs or agents that could induce either lethal damage to malignant cells directly or via the activation of immune effector cells are two of the major strategies in cancer therapy. Programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis is an active cell death process characterised by cell surface blebbing, changes in membrane permeability, nuclear DNA condensation and fragmentation. We have investigated whether Ukrain, an alkaloid thiophosphoric semisynthetic compound, would induce PCD selectively in malignant cells. For this purpose we utilized leukemia K562, HL-60 and THΡ-1 cells m our test panel. As controls, we used normal human PBLs, umbilical vein endothelial cells and human fibroblasts. Cells were plated in 24-well plates at 1-2 x 106 cells per well and exposed to serial dilutions of Ukrain, ranging from 2.0 to 64 μΜ and cultured at 37°C + 5.0% CO2 in RPMI + 10% FBS. The appearance of ...
Larvae of the arctiid moth species Creatonotos transiens (Walker 1855) take up dietary pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and store them predominantly in their integument. A substantial part of the ingested alkaloids is not stored but degraded into non-alkaloidal compounds which are excreted with the faeces. If larvae had previous feeding experience with dietary alkaloids, their capacity to store PA in the last larval stage (L7) is markedly reduced. After eclosion, part of the stored alkaloids is redistributed: In MM, PA are either transferred to the spermatophore (PA serve as a "nuptial gift") or are metabolized into the pheromone 7R-hydroxydanaidal. In FF, PA are translocated into the ovaries and subsequently to the eggs, where they could function as chemical defence compounds. Transfer rates and translocation were optimal at ambient T of 21°C, but were reduced at 4°C or 30°C. Thus, nutritional conditioning and ambient T in addition to varying PA supplies by food plants influence PA storage and ...
4. Biochemistry and molecular biology of alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. The enzymes involved in quinolizidine alkaloid formation in the Leguminosae plants were purified, and their enzymatic properties and distribution were investigated. We are currently studying to isolate cDNAs responsible for quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis from bitter and sweet varieties of Lupinus plants by differential screening between two varieties. The project for the production of anti-neoplastic camptothecin alkaloid in cell culture has been also conducted. We have established the hairy root culture that produced and excreted camptothecin, and isolated several genes involved in biosynthesis of camptothecin. We have isolated a set of genes which are specifically expressed only in the cells producing camptothecin and thus presumed to be involved in camptothecin formation by PCR-select subtraction. We are also investigating self-resistance mechanism of camptothecin-producing plants against toxicity of ...
50x Extract is an ultra-pure 7OHM and Mitragyne alkaloid extract. For every 50kg of fresh Kratom powder 1kg of ultra-pure 7OHM and Mitragyne alkaloids is extracted. This is a really phenomenal extract, one of the best Ive ever had by far! The price is a drawback but you wont regret buying the product!. Buy 5X Kratom Alkaloid Extract - Mitragyna speciosa at LegalHerbalShop.com. Kratom Forest is the website of a kratom seller, but it doesnt have many frills, which are actually part of our requirements, which include complete.. OPMS Liquid Maeng Da Kratom Extract was rated top kratom product of 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. OPMS is gonna do it. I wish it wasnt expensive so Im looking into buying in bulk somewhere!. Top Secret extraction process was developed and designed to protect the integrity of kratom s natural alkaloids. All you.. When combining these with monoamine medicines since severe and possibly fatal reactions may appear, its also wise to not mix Kratom extract with any kind of ...
By S. William Pelletier. Quantity 10 of this sequence offers 4 well timed experiences. bankruptcy 1 offers a desirable account of the historical past of alkaloid discovery in Australia starting with the isolation of the 1st alkaloid from an Australian plant, the Tasmanian sassafras (Atherosperma moschatum), by means of Zeyer in 1861. additionally integrated is a finished survey of alkaloid-bearing vegetation, and a bit facing detection, estimation, extraction, and work-up techniques for alkaloids.Chapter 2 offers a complete replace to the bankruptcy on Pyridine and Piperidine Alkaloids which seemed in quantity three of this sequence. the point of interest of this bankruptcy is on new alkaloids remoted, biosynthesis, and organic properties.Chapter three appears at 3-Alkylpiperidine Alkaloids remoted from Marine Sponges within the Order Haplosclerida. experiences during the last thirty years have proven that sponges are a wealthy resource of alkaloids. lots of those sponge alkaloids are on ...
Abstract Matrine, a alkaloid of the root of Sophora flavescens, has multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac arrhythmias. However, the molecular a..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lophocladines, bioactive alkaloids from the red alga lophocladia sp.. AU - Gross, Harald. AU - Goeger, Douglas E.. AU - Hills, Patrice. AU - Mooberry, Susan L.. AU - Ballantine, David L.. AU - Murray, Thomas F.. AU - Valeriote, Frederick A.. AU - Gerwick, William H.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Lophocladines A (1) and B (2), two 2,7-naphthyridine alkaloids, were isolated from the marine red alga Lophocladia sp. collected in the Fijian Islands. Their structures were deduced on the basis of high-resolution mass spectra and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Lophocladine A (1) displayed affinity for NMDA receptors and was found to be a δ-opioid receptor antagonist, whereas lophocladine B (2) exhibited cytotoxicity to NCI-H460 human lung tumor and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the cytotoxicity of lophocladine B (2) was correlated with microtubule inhibition. This is the first reported occurrence of alkaloids based on a 2,7- ...
3-Pyridylacetic acid is a breakdown product of nicotine (and other tobacco alkaloids) and is part of the nicotine degradation pathway. It is formed from 4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoate. One alkaloid in particular, myosmine, appears to be a major source for 3-pyridylacetic acid. The alkaloid myosmine is present not only in tobacco products but also in various foods. Myosmine is easily nitrosated, yielding 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and the esophageal tobacco carcinogen N-nitrosonornicotine. The two major metabolites of myosmine metabolism have been identified as 3-pyridylacetic acid (20-26%) and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid (50-60%) (PMID: 16079272). 3-pyridylacetatic acid is an analog of nicotinic acid. (PMID 13898750 ...
Vinca alkaloids are a family of anticancer alkaloids that include vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine. The first two chemicals occur na...
The total 80% EtOH extract of stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii (Rubiaceae), which is active against uncomplicated falciparum malaria as shown in previous clinical studies, was analysed by means of UPLC-MS and HPLC-SPE-NMR. Apart from the main constituent, strictosamide, a series of minor constituents was identified, including two new iridoid-indole alkaloids, i.e. naucleidinic acid and 19-O-methyl-3,14-dihydroangustoline, together with 8 known iridoid-indole alkaloids, i.e. naucleidinal, magniflorine, naucleofficine D, two diastereoisomers of 3,14-dihydroangustoline, strictosidine, desoxycordifoline, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam, and a phenol glycoside 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (kelampayoside A). (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved. ...
Apoptosis is vital in maintaining homeostasis, and its deregulation can have dire pathological consequences. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in interest in the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon.;During the later stages of apoptosis there is extensive internucleosomal cleavage of DNA. In the first part of the work, eighteen dinucleosomal fragments from apoptotic mouse thymocytes were sequenced to ascertain whether there were any trends in the sequence of the DNA which could influence its likelihood to be cleaved. No such patterns could be identified.;The second part of this thesis deals with the participation of Ca2+ in the signalling mechanisms that induce apoptosis in rat thymocytes. A comparison of apoptosis induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid and 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, three inhibitors of the microsomal Ca2+-ATPase, with that caused by the steroid dexamethasone, the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine ...
Vegetable Alkaloids, Natural Or Reproduced By Synthesis, And Their Salts, Ethers, Esters And Other Derivatives - Alkaloids Of Rye Ergot And Their Derivatives; Salts Thereof :-Ergometrine (Inn) And Its Salts : Ergometrine (Inn). 29396190 ...
Alkaloid definition, any of a large class of organic, nitrogen-containing ring compounds of vegetable origin and sometimes synthesized, some of which are liquid but most of which are solid, that have a bitter taste, that are usually water-insoluble and alcohol-soluble, that combine with acids without the loss of a water molecule to form water-soluble hydrochlorides, hydrobromides, or the like, and that usually exhibit pharmacological action, as nicotine, morphine, or quinine. See more.
The dictionary of alkaloids contains a set of kewords with translations related to alkaloids. Translations in more than 50 languages are available.
(S)-anabasine chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of (S)-anabasine 494-52-0, What are the physical properties of (S)-anabasine ect.
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Cohort 1 Cycle 1: 45 mg/m^2/day continuous intravenous infusion 1 to 3 days (72 hours) for total dose of 135 mg/m^2. Cycle 2: 45 mg/m^2/day continuous intravenous infusion 1 to 2 days (36 hours) for total dose of 68 mg/m^2; Repeat cycles every 28 days.. Cohort 2 Cycle 1: 45 mg/m^2/day continuous intravenous infusion 1 to 3 days (72 hours) for total dose of 135 mg/m^2. Cycle 2: 45 mg/m^2/day continuous intravenous infusion 1 to 2 days (36 hours) for total dose of 68 mg/m^2; Repeat cycles every 21 days.. ...
The hallmark of chromatin lies in its dynamic alteration of epigenetic marks, which regulates the gene expression and thereby, cellular homeostasis. Any small molecule compound that perturbs the chromatin structure could potentially alter the epigenetic s
Detail záznamu - Glycosides of benzodioxole-indole alkaloids from Narcissus having axial chirality - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Esters, including unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic diesters, in the medicinally-used |i|Alafia cf. caudata|/i| and |i|Amphineurion marginatum|/i| (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apocyneae)
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alkaloids definition - The components of plants responsible in most cases for their bitter taste and therapeutic effects. Typical examples are quinine used in tonic water and caffeine ...
A convenient, renewable source of the anxiolytic proaporphine alkaloid glaziovine: Duguetia vallicola leaves. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Brain Protex w/Huperzine A supports the overall health of the brain. It facilitates circulation to and within the brain, which may offer subsequent benefits. It may also help slow the breakdown of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
He was one of the pioneers of the study of plant alkaloid chemistry. Alkaloids are organic compounds that induce various effects in medicine, including painkillers and respiratory stimulants. Pelletier and his colleagues first isolated the pigment chlorophyll in 1817 ...
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Many people would like to know about what Huperzine A science there is to back up the many claims. In this article, we explore research into this Nootropic.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Paulrayer Antonisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Muniappan Dhanasekaran, Ki Choon Choi, Adithan Aravinthan, Nam Soo Kim, Chang-Won Kang, Jong-Hoon Kim].
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verapamil, obložena tableta, ATC C08DA01, SmPC (Sažetak karakteristika o leku) Terapijske indikacije: Профилакса и/или терапија: Ангине пекторис, укључујући Prinzmetal-ову ангину (коронарни спазам, вазоспастична ангина); Суправентикуларне тахикардије, као пароксизмална суправентикуларна тахикардија, атријалне фибрилација/флатера са брзим вентрикуларним одговором (осим код Wolff-Parkinson-White синдрома); Есенцијална хипертензија (блага до умерена).
cefiximum, prašak za oralnu suspenziju, ATC J01DD08, SmPC (Sažetak opisa svojstava lijeka) Terapijske indikacije: Cefiksim je oralni cefalosporinski antibiotik koji in vitro pokazuje značajnu baktericidnu aktivnost protiv širokog spektra Gram-pozitivnih i Gram-negativnih mikroorganizama. Cefixim je indiciran za liječenje sljedećih akutnih infekcija uzrokovanih mikroorganizmima osjetljivim na cefiksim: otitis media i infekcije gornjih dišnih puteva uzrokovane mikroorganizmima rezistentnim na d...
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S. Tonsiengsom, "Studies toward the total synthesis of alkaloids: nagelamide A and D, agelastatin D, drangamcidin A-C, salacin and almazoles", Oregon State University, Corvallis, Submitted. ...
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18-O-2-(2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-quinazoline-3-yl)benzoyllycoctonine: alkaloid from the roots of Aconitum pseudo-laeve var. erectum; structure in first source
Since anatamine is sold as an ingredient in dietary supplements that are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, there has been little evidence as to its side effects, according to...
Acetylbenzoylaconin, aconite root, aconiti frus, Aconiti Herba, aconiti lateralis preparata, aconiti tuber, aconitine, aconitknollen, aconito, Aconitum angustius, Aconitum anthoroideum, Aconitumartemisiifolium, Aconitum austroyunnanense, Aconitum balfourii, Aconitum barbatum, Aconitumbrachypodum, Aconitum brunneum, Aconitum carmichaelii, Aconitum chasmanthum, Aconitumchilienshanicum, Aconitum columbianum, Aconitum coreanum, Aconitum episcopale, Aconitumferox, Aconitum flavum, Aconitum gymnandrum, Aconitum hemsleyanum, Aconitum japonicum, Aconitum karakolicum, Aconitum kongboense, Aconitum kusnezoffii, Aconitum longilobum, Aconitum moldavicum, Aconitum nagarum, Aconitum napellus, Aconitum naviculare, Aconitum ouvrardianum, Aconitum paniculigerum, Aconitum pendulum, Aconitum polyschistum, Aconitum pomeense, Aconitum pterocaule, Aconitum racemulosum, Aconitum richardsonianum, Aconitum rotundifolium, Aconitum scaposum, Aconitum sczukinii, Aconitum sessiliflorum, Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai, Aconitum ...
Looking for online definition of isoquinoline alkaloid in the Medical Dictionary? isoquinoline alkaloid explanation free. What is isoquinoline alkaloid? Meaning of isoquinoline alkaloid medical term. What does isoquinoline alkaloid mean?
AMBROZIN, Alessandra R. P. et al. New Pyrone and Quinoline Alkaloid from Almeidea rubra and their Trypanocidal Activity. J. Mex. Chem. Soc [online]. 2005, vol.49, n.2, pp.196-201. ISSN 1870-249X.. The investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract from leaves of Almeidea rubra A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) afforded two new compounds 4-methoxy-6-[2-(methylamino)phenyl]-2H-pyran-2-oneand rel-(7R,8R)-8-[(E)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-butenyl]-4,8-dimethoxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinoline-7-yl acetate, along with the known compounds arborinine, N-methyl-1-hydroxy-3-methoxyacridone, skimmianine, kokusagine, isodutaduprine, isoskimmianine, and isokokusagine. Their structures were established based on their spectral data, and for the new compounds these data are described herein. Additionally, these compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi showing moderate trypanocidal activity.. Keywords : Almeidea rubra; Rutaceae; alkaloids; trypanocidal activity. ...
2) Ukrainian Anti-Cancer Institute, 1040 Vienna, Austria.. * Address for correspondence: Janina Wyczółkowska, Department of Biogenic Amines, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tylna 3, 90-950 Łódź, P.O. Box 225, Poland.. Summary: The ability of the Chelidonium majus L alkaloid derivative Ukrain (UK) to inhibit ovalbumininduced sensitization was tested in BALB/c and F1(BALB/c x C57BL/6J) mice. UK introduced into the mice in the mixture with antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvant (alum) inhibited the sensitization of mice, reflected in lower anti-OA IgE antibody response and decreased antigen-induced histamine release from mast cells isolated from peritoneal cavities of sensitized mice. The effect of UK on the antigenicity of ovalbumin (OA) in anaphylaxis was tested in heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction on rats. The results show that the OA prepared in the mixture with UK had a decreased ability to react with anti-OA IgE antibodies raised against native OA in mice and fixed on the ...
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large group of nitrogen-containing specialized metabolites. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is an important pharmaceutical plant and has been cultivated for thousands of years for its analgesic constituents: the morphinan BIAs codeine and morphine. In addition, opium poppy produces other BIAs with biological activities, such as the vasodilator papaverine, the potential anti-cancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize oxidative enzymes involved in BIA biosynthesis, with a specific focus on cytochromes P450 (P450s). The biosynthesis of sanguinarine from (S)-reticuline requires four P450s. Our first objective was to identify these unidentified P450s in opium poppy. Our approach was based on the coordinated induction of all sanguinarine biosynthetic enzyme transcripts and proteins in elicited opium poppy cell suspension cultures. Using data from a previous microarray study, we ...
And that means that vinegar mops them up quite admirably - but so will water (as teas) and alcohol+water (as tinctures). And thus the very few "official" vinegars are all of plants with active alkaloids.. Mix alkaloids with tannins and watch the alkaloids action disappear.. Alkaloids either have a very strong action, or none at all. Although Im sure that there are a few in-betweens ... heres the short list, off the top of my head: nicotine, caffeine (and the other xanthines: theine, theophylline, theobromine etc.), codeine, morphine, papaverine, cocaine ... and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, some of which will do your liver in, in very small doses.. Pretty drastic compounds, no? A quick search gives more: scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine (deadly, in Scopola, Hyoscyamus, Atropa, Datura and others), ephedrine (in Ephedra), solanine (in potatoes and other nightshades), strychnine (deadly, from nux vomica (Strychnos nux-vomica)), coniine (deadly, from water hemlock (Conium maculatum)), and so on ...
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium. Opioid, a more modern term, is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain (including antagonists). Opiates are alkaloid compounds naturally found in the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum. The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine. All opioids, like opiates, are considered drugs of high abuse potential and are listed on various "Substance-Control Schedules" under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act of the United States. In 2013, between 13 and 20 million people used opiates recreationally (0.3% to 0.4% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65). Opiates belong to the large biosynthetic group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and are so named because they are naturally occurring alkaloids found in the opium poppy. The major psychoactive opiates are morphine, codeine, and thebaine. ...

Cinchona Alkaloids | Sigma-AldrichCinchona Alkaloids | Sigma-Aldrich

In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be ... Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. Several generations of O- ... In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer ... With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), enantioselectivity for the above mentioned glycine imine alkylation was ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/chemfiles/cinchona-alkaloids0.html

Eschscholzia californica, California PoppyEschscholzia californica, California Poppy

Alkaloids similar in effect to papaver somniferum Opium Poppy, California Poppy or Eschscholzia Californica, the state flower ... Alkaloids similar in effect to papaver somniferum (Opium Poppy). Native Americans used California Poppy as a pain reliever. The ...
more infohttp://www.tacethno.com/all-ethnobotanicals/california-poppy-eschscholzia-californica.html

Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii (L) and Olea europaea (L) leaf extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats - PDFAnti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii (L) and Olea europaea (L) leaf extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats - PDF

Metabolism, 49: Chakrabarty M, Nath A and Khasnobis S (199). Carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii. Phytochemistry, 46: ... carbazole alkaloid) from Murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves. IJOP, 2: -30. Fki I, Sahnoun Z and Sayadi S (200). ... carbazole alkaloids, triterpenoids, mineral contents such as iron, calcium, zinc and vanadium, and phenolic compounds ( ... which could be due to the free radical scavenging effect of carbazole alkaloids present in the leaves (Tachibana et al., 2003 ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/24140891-Anti-diabetic-effect-of-murraya-koenigii-l-and-olea-europaea-l-leaf-extracts-on-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats.html

Crinum Latifolium Higher Potency 100% Vietnamese Crinum LatifoliumCrinum Latifolium Higher Potency 100% Vietnamese Crinum Latifolium

From the identified 15 alkaloids, 9 were found for the first time in this plant. Almost all alkaloids belonged to the crinane ... Since some Amaryllidaceae alkaloids like ambelline, 1,2--epoxyambelline, lycorine, lycorine-1-O--D-glucoside etc., have been ... 2) GC-MS OF CRINUM LATIFOLIUM L. ALKALOIDS. Z Naturforsch C. 2002 Mar-Apr;57(3-4):239-42. Tram NT, Mitova M, Bankova V, ... GC-MS of Crinium latifolium L. Alkaloids, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. (A Journal of Chemical Sciences). 57c, 239D242 ( ...
more infohttp://www.getwellnatural.com/crinum-prostate.aspx

Blue Mitragyna Speciosa Fessenden | What is kratom herb?Blue Mitragyna Speciosa Fessenden | What is kratom herb?

Root extracts against a lung cancer cell line (COR-L23) Activity of extracts and alkaloids of Thai Alstonia species against ... Alkaloid as Maeng Da Kratom. Now selling at amazing discounts when bought in higher quantities. ...
more infohttp://whatiskratomherb.com/blue-mitragyna-speciosa-fessenden/

Crinum macowanii | Plantz AfricaCrinum macowanii | Plantz Africa

The bulbs contain toxic alkaloids, and should be used with caution.. Growing Crinum macowanii. Grow This plant is fast growing ...
more infohttp://pza.sanbi.org/crinum-macowanii

Poison Nut (Strychnos nux-vomica) - 10 Seeds/packPoison Nut (Strychnos nux-vomica) - 10 Seeds/pack

The properties of Nux Vomica are those of the alkaloid strychnine. The powder made from the strychnine seeds was used to ... is a major source of the highly poisonous alkaloids strychnine and brucine, derived from the seeds inside the trees round, ...
more infohttp://www.offeritem.com/poison-nut-strychnos-nuxvomica-10-seedspack-description-96382.html

evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract list -   evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract for saleevodia rutaecarpa fruit extract list - evodia rutaecarpa fruit extract for sale

... for medicine Evodiamine is a bioactive alkaloid extract from a plant called Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.). This is a Chinese herb ...
more infohttp://www.tktoushi.com/wholesale-evodia-rutaecarpa-fruit-extract

Pyridine alkaloids - WikipediaPyridine alkaloids - Wikipedia

Pyridine alkaloids are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a ... "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Media related to Pyridine alkaloids at Wikimedia Commons ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridine_alkaloids

Tasmanian Alkaloids - WikipediaTasmanian Alkaloids - Wikipedia

Tasmanian Alkaloids is a subsidiary of the United States pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson, but was formerly-as of 1980- ... Tasmanian Alkaloids is the largest opium poppy processing company in the Australian state of Tasmania. Approximately forty ... The company patented a poppy variety called "Norman" which was stated, in the 1999 Tasmanian Alkaloids Poppy Growers Bulletin ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasmanian_Alkaloids

Alkaloids - Wikimedia CommonsAlkaloids - Wikimedia Commons

Norsk bokmål: Et alkaloid er et nitrogenholdig organisk molekyl som har en farmakologisk virkning på mennesker og andre dyr. ... English: An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alkaloids&oldid=269347510" ... 2.5 Quinolin alkaloids. *2.6 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids *2.6.1 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids monoesters. *2.6.2 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alkaloid

Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids | SpringerLinkBisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids | SpringerLink

Alkaloid Ether Bond Liquid Ammonia Tetrandrine Berbamine All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, and M. V ... Georgiev, Thalictrum Alkaloids, in: Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Natural Carbon Compounds, IV. Akad. Kiado, Budapest ... Ismailov and D. A. Asadov, in: The Pharmacology of the Alkaloids and Their Derivatives [in Russian], Tashkent (1972), p. 171. ... F. Sadritdinov, in: The Pharmacology of the Alkaloids and Their Derivatives [in Russian], Tashkent (1972), p. 154.Google ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00565820

Alkaloid - WikipediaAlkaloid - Wikipedia

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Chemical Encyclopedia: isoquinoline alkaloids. xumuk.ru ... Iboga-type alkaloids[125] Ibogamine, ibogaine, voacangine[125] Aspidosperma-type alkaloids[125] Vincamine, vinca alkaloids,[26] ... a b c d Chemical Encyclopedia: alkaloids. xumuk.ru *^ Roberts, M. F. (Margaret F.) (1998). Alkaloids : Biochemistry, Ecology, ... Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids Corynanthe type alkaloids[125] Tryptophan → tryptamine → strictosidine (with secologanin) [125] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaloid

Alkaloids, Vol 13 | WaterstonesAlkaloids, Vol 13 | Waterstones

Buy Alkaloids, Vol 13 from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders ...
more infohttps://www.waterstones.com/book/the-alkaloids/m-f-grundon/9780851863078

Vinca alkaloid - WikipediaVinca alkaloid - Wikipedia

Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... Vinca alkaloids are used in chemotherapy for cancer. They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. These ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinca_alkaloids

Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides | SpringerLinkAlkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides | SpringerLink

... a new alkaloid with the composition C15H22O2N2 isolated from Sophora alopecuroideshas been assigned the most probable structure ... Alkaloid Cytisine Matrine Quinazolinones Raney Nickel V. I. Lenin Tashkent State University. Translated from Khimiya Prirodnykh ... On the basis of spectral characteristics and chemical transformations, a new alkaloid with the composition C15H22O2N2 isolated ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00565835

Plant AlkaloidsPlant Alkaloids

Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in ... Some alkaloids are sequestered and metabolized by insects. The pyrrolizidine alkaloid heliotrine [XLV] can be converted by the ... Alkaloids and extracts of alkaloid‐containing plants have been used throughout human history as remedies, poisons and ... The biosynthesis of alkaloids often follows complex pathways and includes stereospecific steps. Alkaloids often have pronounced ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0001914.html

Veratrum alkaloids | HeartVeratrum alkaloids | Heart

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://heart.bmj.com/content/65/5/286

Articles, tagged with alkaloidsArticles, tagged with "alkaloids"

A scar is the pinkish or brown patch of skin that grows in the place where you once had a wound or sore. They are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin tissue after destruction of some of the dermis. A scar is thus the skins natural way of rep... Read , ...
more infohttp://www.articlealley.com/tags-65614.html

Alkaloids | Alcaloide | Productos naturalesAlkaloids | Alcaloide | Productos naturales

What alkaloids are and their importance to the medicinal world. ... Alkaloids - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File ... trimeric and tetrameric alkaloids formed upon condensation of two, three, and four. monomeric alkaloids. Dimeric alkaloids are ... Iboga-type alkaloids[120]. voacangine[120]. Vincamine, vinca. Aspidosperma-type. alkaloids, vincotine,. alkaloids[120]. ... alkaloids. One example is the alkaloid cyclopamine, produced in the leaves of corn lily.. During the 1950s, up to 25% of lambs ...
more infohttps://es.scribd.com/document/269198194/Alkaloids

Alkaloids plants - Botanical onlineAlkaloids plants - Botanical online

Alkaloids are bitter-taste nitrogen-containing compounds. There are approximately 5000. They are not unique to plants since ... Characteristics of alkaloids. What are alkaloids?. Alkaloids are bitter-taste nitrogen-containing compounds. There are ... How do alkaloids affect us?. Some alkaloids focus their range in a particular part of the body, though many of them can act on ... Role of alkaloids. It has been much debate about the role played by alkaloids in the plant world without having come to give ...
more infohttps://www.botanical-online.com/en/alkaloids/alkaloids
  • According to this interpretation, plant alkaloids used for positive or negative influence on other related species, or to communicate with similar species or inhibit the growth of others that could be competitive, such as cocaine, caffeine or strychnine do to prevent the growth of other species near them. (botanical-online.com)
  • Consequently, functional feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, or plant alkaloids are used to battle foodborne diseases. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Other alkaloids possess psychotropic ( e.g. psilocin ) and stimulant activities ( e.g. cocaine , caffeine , nicotine , theobromine ), and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of spectral characteristics and chemical transformations, a new alkaloid with the composition C 15 H 22 O 2 N 2 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides has been assigned the most probable structure of 13,14-dehydrosophoridine N-oxide. (springer.com)
  • In addition to carbon , hydrogen and nitrogen , alkaloids may also contain oxygen , sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine , bromine , and phosphorus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants. (els.net)
  • The nitrogen in the alkaloid molecule is derived from amino acid metabolism. (els.net)
  • Nitrogen: The nitrogen in some alkaloids is not in a heterocyclic ring e.g. (scribd.com)
  • Alkaloids have the ability to form salts with mineral acids (such as with HCl, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 ) or organic acids (such as with tartaric acid and sulfamic acid). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • acetic acids Salts with inorganic acids e.Forms of Alkaloids: Free bases Salts with Organic acids e. (scribd.com)
  • Extraction: The extraction is carried out with chloroform after liberation of the alkaloids from their salts by NH 4 OH. (themediaconsortium.com)
  • Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine , were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimization directed to tuning expression of pathway enzymes, host endogenous metabolic pathways, and fermentation conditions led to an over 18,000-fold improvement from initial noscapine titers to ∼2.2 mg/L. By feeding modified tyrosine derivatives to the optimized noscapine-producing strain we further demonstrated microbial production of halogenated benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. (pnas.org)
  • Colchicine, Piperine, Quaternary alkaloids. (scribd.com)
  • Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular feat, based on the metabolic pathway used to construct the molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • e.g Caffeine False alkaloids are non alkaloids give false positive reaction with alkaloidal reagents. (scribd.com)
  • Canadine is orange.Color: IIThe majority of alkaloids are colorless but some are colored e.g.Condition: Most alkaloids are crystalline solids. (scribd.com)
  • Alkaloids are bases and usually form colorless crystalline solids with a bitter taste. (dictionary.com)
  • Few alkaloids are amorphous solids e. emetine. (scribd.com)
  • Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria , fungi , plants , and animals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most alkaloids occur in plants, although some are produced by fungi and animals. (dictionary.com)
  • Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several alkaloids are used medicinally or provide lead structures for novel synthetic drugs. (els.net)
  • Born on September 23, 1917, Dr Asima Chatterjee has various contributions on the research of vinca alkaloids and the development of anti-epileptic and anti-malarial drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These drugs include vinca alkaloids , platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, and the taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alkaloid cocaine is the form of cocaine found in crack cocaine , and is also known as freebase cocaine . (everything2.com)
  • Alkaloid cocaine requires much less heat to ignite than acid salt cocaine ( cocaine hcl ), making it ideal for smoking. (everything2.com)
  • alkaloid cocaine is prepared from cocaine hcl by acid base extraction , with diethyl ether . (everything2.com)
  • The atoms derived from the precursor tryptophan are labelled red in the alkaloids. (els.net)
  • The atoms derived from tyrosine are marked red in the depicted alkaloids. (els.net)
  • We demonstrated that microbial fermentation can be used to produce halogenated alkaloid derivatives, which can ultimately serve as potential drug leads, through feeding amino acid derivatives to strains. (pnas.org)
  • Classification of alkaloids. (els.net)
  • Some alkaloids that cause poisoning of livestock. (els.net)
  • Since the amino acid skeleton is often largely retained in the alkaloid structure, alkaloids originating from the same amino acid show similar structural features and can be classified according to their biosynthetic origin. (els.net)
  • Moreover, they can be utilized for biosynthetic studies and for the commercial production of valuable alkaloids. (els.net)
  • Labelled (*) tryptophan was employed in feeding experiments to determine the biosynthetic origin of the alkaloids. (els.net)
  • The biosynthetic origin of some alkaloids derived from the amino acid l ‐tyrosine [ XII ]. (els.net)