Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.TetramisoleProtein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Phosphorylase Phosphatase: An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.HomoarginineHistocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.NitrophenolsBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.TartratesBone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.4-Nitrophenylphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.SucrasePTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.PhosphoproteinsElectrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Leucyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DisaccharidasesBone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (1/6669)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/6669)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Polymorphism in a cyclic parthenogenetic species: Simocephalus serrulatus. (3/6669)

A survey of sixteen isozyme loci using electrophoretic techniques was conducted for three isolated natural populations and one laboratory population of the cyclic parthenogenetic species, Simocephalus serrulatus. The proportion of polymorphic loci (33%-60%) and the average number of heterozygous loci per individual (6%-23%) in the three natural populations were found to be comparable to those found in most sexually reproducing organisms. Detailed analyses were made for one of these populations using five polymorphic loci. The results indicated that (1) seasonal changes in genotypic frequencies took place, (2) apomicitic parthenogenesis does not lead to genetic homogeneity, and (3) marked gametic disequilibrium at these five loci was present in the population, indicating that selection acted on coadapted groups of genes.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (4/6669)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (5/6669)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (6/6669)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (7/6669)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Antitumor agents. I. Effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide on liver microsomes and thymus of rat. (8/6669)

Effects of antitumor agents on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and thymus lymphocytes were studied in male Wistar rats. High doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) given parenterally for 6 days caused a partial decrease in whole body weight and the microsomal enzyme content such as cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5. Aniline p-hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities also decreased in rats dosed for 5 days decreased compared with the control. Both compounds in the high concentrations produced spectral change of "modified type II". However, the magnitude of the spectral changes observed was independent of the the concentration of substrate added. The addition of NADPH to the microsomes-substrate mixture modified the spectral change. Both drugs caused a considerable decrease in thymus weight and the number of thymus lymphocytes, while the alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced in 5-FU groups, indicating that the agents cause a significant involution of the thymus. Decrease in the total number of the lymphocytes was greater than that in the blood leucocytes.  (+info)

Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was measured using levamisole inhibition, and results were compared with a previously reported method using L-phenylalanine. Sixty two per cent intestinal, 39% placental, and 1.3% of either bone or liver alkaline phosphatase activity remained when alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited in a 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) buffer reagent system with 10 mmol/l levamisole (final assay concentration 8.1 mmol/l). The assay imprecision (SD) was 0.6 U/l compared with 3.9 U/l using L-phenylalanine for specimens with total alkaline phosphatase activity less than 250 U/l (reference range 30-120 U/l). In serum pools with raised total alkaline phosphatase activity errors in recovered intestinal activity were small (usually less than 3 U/l) when intestinal alkaline phosphatase was added. Much larger errors and many underestimated results were found using L-phenylalanine. For non-haemolysed specimens it is concluded that an assay based on levamisole inhibition ...
During the one-year period, a total of 181 hospitalized patients with serum ALP level over 1000 IU/L were identified. They were 102 male and 96 female patients with ages ranging from 21 to 90 years old (mean age 49.4 ± 16.1 years). The ALP levels ranged from 1,001 to 3,067 IU/L.. The most common diagnosis in patients with high ALP in our series was malignant biliary obstruction. This was found in 58 patients, 48 of whom were cases with cholangicocarcinoma (CCA). Of the remaining 10, three were with pancreatic cancer, one with ampullary cancer, one with metastatic cancer, and five with periampullary cancer. The ALP levels ranged from 1,005 to 3,067 IU/L (average 1,869.8 ± 325.3 IU/L). In addition, benign duct obstruction from choledocholithiasis was found in another 14 patients, six of which cases were complicated by ascending cholangitis. The ALP level in this group ranged from 1,001 to 2,864 IU/L (average 1,498.3 ± 541.2 IU/L). Comparing these two groups, the mean ALP levels in the malignant ...
Recombinant Human intestinal alkaline phosphatase protein is a Wheat germ Protein fragment 74 to 162 aa range and validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE.
Alkaline phosphatase levels in children - Medicine for high alkaline phosphatase levels? Wrong approach. Alkaline phosphatase is a lab value to tell a physician what is happening, not a medical problem to treat. It can be high just because you
Treatment of Pagets disease of bone traditionally has been limited to patients with severe disease, defined as serum alkaline phosphatase levels of more than two times the upper limit of normal, bone pain not responsive to analgesics and higher risk for complications such as fracture. Newer antiresorptive treatments, including pamidronate, alendronate, tiludronate and etidronate, offer more widespread therapeutic intervention and shorter treatment courses. Risedronate is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that is about 1,000 times more potent than etidronate and three to five times more potent than alendronate. These attributes allow for a shorter duration of treatment at a lower dosage. Miller and associates compared the effectiveness of risedronate with that of etidronate in the treatment of Pagets disease of bone.. Patients with documented Pagets disease were included if their serum alkaline phosphatase levels were at least two times the upper limit of normal. Women were required to be ...
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
Question - Liver test done, shows albumin serum, alkaline phosphate, SGPT, SGOT levels. Normal report?. Ask a Doctor about Alkaline phosphates, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Decreased Possible Causes (Differential Diagnoses) include ❗ Infectious Mononucleosis ❗ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ❗ Chronic Myeloid Leukemia ❗ Check more at Symptoma.com
I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated that...
Adequate liver function as evidenced by bilirubin ,= 1.5 times the upper limits of normal (ULN) and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,= 3 x ULN (in the case of liver metastases ,= 5 x ULN), unless there are bone metastases, in which case liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase. In case alkaline phosphatase is ,3 x ULN (in absence of liver metastases) or , 5 x ULN (in presence of liver metastases) AND patient is known to have bone metastases, the liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase ...
Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are of interest in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders and bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity. Moderate elevations of alkaline phosphatase may be seen in several conditions that do not involve the liver or bone. Among these are Hodgkins disease, congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. Elevations are also observed during the third trimester of pregnancy.. ...
Assay Alkaline phosphatase in 1 hr in cell culture media, cell/tissue extracts, and biofluids with Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit (Fluorometric) ab83371. For microplate readers.
The doctors found that the median survival time from the diagnosis of AIDS and AIDS cholangiopathy was 23 and 9 months, respectively. In addition, they determined that HAART significantly improved the mortality of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy.. The team determined that any opportunistic infection of the digestive tract, lung, eye, nervous system, skin, or systemic involvement at diagnosis was an indicator of poor prognosis.. They also found that patients with high serum ALP levels tended to have a shorter life expectancy than those with normal or slightly elevated serum ALP levels. However, CD4 lymphocyte counts, type of cholangiopathy, and the performance of sphincterotomy were not correlated with patient survival.. Dr Wei-Fang Kos team concluded, "HAART administration most likely accounts for the recent dramatic improvement in survival of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy". "Underlying immunosuppressive status, reflected by the presence or history of any opportunistic infections, is ...
The efficacy of modified neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score, serum IL-6, IL-18 and CC16 levels on the prognosis of moderate and severe COPD patients, Jinbiao Zhang, Rongqin Dai,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alkaline phosphatase. I. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of enzyme preparations from mammalian cell cultures, various animal tissues, and Escherichia coli. AU - Cox, Rody P.. AU - Griffin, Martin J.. PY - 1967/12. Y1 - 1967/12. N2 - Some of the chemical and physical properties of alkaline phosphatase preparations derived from mammalian tissues, cell cultures, and E. coli have been compared. A number of chemical and physical properties of the various enzyme preparations are similar, such as the concentration of cysteine and histidine that inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity, and the phosphotransferase activity of different enzyme preparations. Other properties of the various alkaline phosphatases are markedly different, such as heat stability at 56 °, electrophoretic mobility, and the concentrations of Zn ions, L-phenylalanine, and L-tryptophan required to inhibit enzyme activity by 50%. These differences provide a means of distinguishing between alkaline ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The study of biogenesis and secretion of alkaline phosphatase and its mutant forms in Escherichia coli. I. Introduction of mutations into alkaline phosphatase gene. AU - Karamyshev, A. L.. AU - Shlyapnikov, M. G.. AU - Khmelnitsky, M. I.. AU - Nesmeyanova, M. A.. AU - Ksenzenko, V. N.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Various mutations in E. coli alkaline phosphatase gene were obtained by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. They result in amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage site [Val for Ala(-1)] and in the N terminus of mature polypeptide chain: Ala for Arg(+1) and Gln for Glu(+4); Gln for Glu(+4). Enzyme activity was observed in all E. coli strains transformed by plasmids with cloned mutant genes. In addition, an amber mutation was introduced into the Arg(+1) position, and the synthesis of mutant alkaline phosphatase was shown in E. coli strains containing suppressor tRNAs specific for Ser, Gln, Tyr, Leu, Ala, Glu, Phe, Gly, His, Pro, and Cys.. AB - Various ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Changhyun Lee, Jaeyoung Chun, Sung Wook Hwang, Seung Joo Kang, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim].
The identification of the source of a raised total alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma, by the measurement of individual ALP forms, is of clinical value although many of the methods available for this purpose are complex, imprecise and non-specific. This thesis has validated, and in some cases modified, available methods for the measurement of the main forms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC 3.1.3.1) in plasma: liver, bone, intestinal and high-molecular-mass ALP. The following methods were selected on the basis of their reliability and specificity: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with densitometric scanning, for liver and bone ALP, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for intestinal ALP and ion-exchange chromatography for high-molccular-mass ALP. These methods were then used to quantify individual ALP forms in specific disease groups and compare activities to those found in healthy adults. The diseases studied (diabetes mellitus and hyperthryoidism) were those where the source of ...
The intracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase has been determined in human neutrophils with analytical subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation and EM cytochemistry. Centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 1 mM DETA and 5 units/ml of heparin showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with a membranous component distinct from plasma membrane, mitochondria, specific granules and azurophil granules. There was no resolution from the endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation on a sucrose-imidazole-heparin gradient showed a clear resolution of the alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation of neutrophils that had been disrupted in the presenceof 0.12 mmol/l. digitonin clearly separated alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Part of the gamma-glutamyl transferase has a similar localization to that of alkaline phosphatase. EM cytochemistry of ...
Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB, RNAi, RNAi SP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Background: Hodgkins disease (HD) is a neoplastic disease originating in lymphoid tissue, which spreads to lymphoid structures and ultimately nonlymphoid tissues. Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase are increased in blood following membrane cell damage. The aim of this study was to compare Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase levels in children in ...
Question - Am hepatitis B carrier. Taking treatment. Reason for high alkaline phosphate, creatinine?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hepatitis b carrier, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Download Free Full-Text of an article EVALUATING SALIVARY ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE LEVELS AS A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PERIODONTAL PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA
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Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
Erik Steel is a graduate of the University of Michigan, earning his bachelors degree in Russian. Steel has worked as writer for more than four years and has contributed content to eHow and Pluck on Demand. His work recently appeared in the literary journal Arsenic Lobster.. ...
Journal: American Journal of Health Research Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-14 Published: January 10, 2018PDF Source: Trivedi EffectAuthors: Bonnie Patrice Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu C
Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS) were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA), 13C NMR, 31P NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, solubility studies, biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP). The results reveal that phosphorylation occurred at the C3 and C6 position of OH groups and the C2 position of NH2 group. FT-IR confirmed no decomposition in pyranose ring in P-COS even with heating and treatment in acidic conditions. The amorphous nature of P-COS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Further, the biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of P-COS were checked against the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line at different concentrations and no cytotoxicity was observed. After 12 h and 24 h of incubation, the ALP activity of P-COS was higher compared with the control group. These results suggest that P-COS is
Anti-Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Antibody (Serum), Goat Anti-Bovine Polyclonal Antibody validated in IHC-P, IHC-F, E (ABD10274), Abgent
Sortilin is encoded by the well-known cardiovascular risk gene SORT1, however Sortilin seems to modulate cardiovascular disease not only with lipids, and its function has not been well elucidated. Recent basic reports showed new aspects of Sortilin that it can bind to PCSK9, and also can enhance vascular calcification with non-lipid tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. We investigated the clinical roles of Sortilin in statin-treated primary dyslipidemia.. Methods: A total of 62 patients (Male 33, Age 65±11 yrs) with primary dyslipidemia including 18 genetically confirmed heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Non-FH group was treated with 10mg Atorvastatin, and FH group was treated with 20mg Rosuvastatin for 8 weeks. ELISA determined plasma levels of Sortilin and PCSK9 (free-fragment and hetero-dimer).. Results: Strong statins lowered LDL-C (-44% in non-FH, -54% in FH), and increased hetero-dimer PCSK9 (+21% in non-FH, +102% in FH) but not in free-fragment PCSK9. Statins ...
Vascular calcification is implicated in many diseases including atherosclerosis and diabetes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to promote vascular calcification both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-mediated vascular calcification has not yet been fully defined. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether MSX2 acts as a crucial regulator in TNF-α-induced vascular calcification and to define the regulatory mechanism of MSX2 induction in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs ...
Alkaline Phosphatase, serum Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP.) When alkaline phosphatase is measured, it is actually the sum of the bone-specific and liver-specific components (isoenzymes.) BAP can indicate excess osteoblastic cell activity which may indicate bone metastases. Metra Systems, Inc., says that Bone Alkaline Phosphatase is an osteoblast membrane-bound molecule which is involved in bone formation. Levels of this enzyme are thought to be indicative of the activity of osteoblasts. Another description of AlkPhos is that it is an enzyme that is found on the surface of osteoblasts(the cells that build bone) and as such is used as a serum marker of increased osteoblast activity. Since bone is being added at prostate cancer bone metastases, an increased alkaline phosphatase can mean increased bone met formation. A recent paper by MR Smith et al in Urology discussed BAP and NTx in their role as predictors of skeletal complications in HRPC patients (MR Smith, et al, Urology 70: 315-319, ...
Duodenal alkaline phosphatase of juvenile (11-day-old) mice, like other non-specific alkaline phosphatases, has the ability to hydrolyse PPi. When a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio is maintained, plots of velocity as a function of PPi concentration are consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Mg2+ activates pyrophosphate hydrolysis and maximal activity is obtained at a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio of 0·66. At higher ratios there is strong inhibition. At constant concentrations of Mg2+ and increasing concentrations of PPi, the velocity-substrate (PPi) concentration plots show sigmoidal dependence. By assuming that the true substrate is MgP2O72− complex, and using complexity constants, the concentrations of free Mg2+, Mg2P2O7 and MgP2O72− were calculated in assay mixtures ranging in PPi concentration from 0·1 to 2·5mm and in total Mg2+ concentration from 0·6 to 2·6mm. From these data, the concentrations of added Mg2+ and PPi in the assay mixtures were selected so that the ...
The effect of a 2 hour exposure to adriamycin (1 mg/litre) on alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity of the golden hamster 4-5 day old second maxillary molars (M2) was investigated in vitro. The molars were grown in BGJb medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum, glutamine (200 micrograms/ml), vitamin C (250 micrograms/ml), penicillin G (50 micrograms/ml), and streptomycin sulphate (30 micrograms/ml). The gas phase contained 50% O2 + 5% CO2 + 45% N2. The molars were supported on cellulosic membrane filters and grown for 3, 5, and 7 days at the medium-gas interface in a closed humidified chamber. Biochemical analysis indicated a steady increase in ALPase activity throughout this study in the control samples. However, after adriamycin treatment no increase in ALPase activity could be observed. The histochemical data showed that the increased activity in the control was confined to the peripheral pulp, sub-odontoblastic layer, stratum intermedium, ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Although these layers ...
Possible functions of alkaline phosphatase in dental mineralization: cadmium effects.: In mineralizing dental tissues the non-specific alkaline phosphatase, usi
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive measures of bone activity include intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Whether BSAP measurement alone or in combination with other biochemical data provides more reliable information about bone turnover than iPTH alone in African Americans on hemodialysis is unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the optimal predictor and cutoff points for BSAP, iPTH, calcium and phosphorus in classifying bone biopsy findings. Forty-three African American hemodialysis patients were available for analysis. Biochemical data on the day of biopsy across a spectrum of qualitative histologic bone features were compared. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine both the optimal predictor and cutoff points for BSAP, iPTH, calcium and phosphorus in identifying bone turnover status. FINDINGS: Seven subjects had adynamic disease, 31 had mild/moderate hyperparathyroid bone features, and five had severe
Rabbit Polyclonal Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase antibody for IHC (p), ELISA, WB. Order anti-Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase antibody ABIN1731689.
Polyclonal antibody for Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPL detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPL information: Molecular Weight: 57305 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane ; L
Has anyone had an elevated ALP (Alkaline Phosphate -- liver protein test) along with the bladder cancer? My doc has been monitoring my levels for about 1.5...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Studies of rat alkaline phosphatase. II. Some applications of the methods for detecting the isoenzymes of plasma alkaline phosphatase in rats. by Rexann G Pickering et al.
Importance: Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) adversely affects long-term kidney outcomes and survival. Administration of the detoxifying enzyme alkaline phosphatase may improve kidney function and survival. Objective: To determine the optimal therapeutic dose, effect on kidney function, and adverse effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase in patients who are critically ill with sepsis-associated AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The STOP-AKI trial was an international (53 recruiting sites), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, adaptive phase 2a/2b study in 301 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of sepsis and AKI. Patients were enrolled between December 2014 and May 2017, and follow-up was conducted for 90 days. The final date of follow-up was August 14, 2017. Interventions: In the intention-to-treat analysis, in part 1 of the trial, patients were randomized to receive recombinant alkaline phosphatase in a dosage ...
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: 1.The efficacy of the available aluminium salts, calcium salts, sevelamer hydrochloride, lanthanum carbonate, iron salts and magnesium-based phosphate binders in treatment of hyperphosphataemia. 2.To assess their impact on the development of SHPT or low bone turnover based on surrogate markers (PTH, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin or other bone turnover markers) and the serum calcium, phosphate, the calcium by phosphate product, PTH levels. In addition, the influence of these drugs would be assessed in relation to lipid profile, tissue calcification and common symptoms such as pruritis and bone or muscle pain. 3.To study the impact of these agents on BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or quantitative computerised tomography (QCT) and on bone turnover and mineralization based on histomorphometry and fracture rates. 4.To assess other patient-based hard endpoints such as
Anti-Mouse IgG (H&L) (Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugated) Secondary Antibody, Chicken Polyclonal, Alkaline Phosphatase (Calf Intestine) validated in WB, E, IC (ASR2762), Abgent
Although produced in abundance by even the simplest of bacteria, the sheer catalytic efficiency of enzymes cannot be matched by any chemical catalyst - human effort cannot yet replicate what has been optimized through aeons of natural selection. The imitation of enzyme structure and function is therefore an important concern for the development of new catalysts, and peptide amphiphiles, with their amino acid-based compositions, are ideal materials for this purpose. Owing to the structural complexity of enzymes, the peptide-mediated mimicry of enzymatic function has been uncommon in the literature, but the groups of Drs. Ayşe Begüm Tekinay and Mustafa Özgür Güler have now announced the successful imitation of a particularly complex enzyme - alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a multi-functional catalyst that both regulates and directly facilitates the formation of bone.. The primary function of alkaline phosphatase is to detach phosphate groups from various organic molecules, which occurs through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of osteoblastic gene expression by lead. AU - Klein, Robert. AU - Wiren, Kristine. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - Although it is well recognized that lead accumulates in bone, skeletal tissue is considered primarily a sequestering compartment and not a site of toxic action for lead. However, exposure to lead is associated with impaired skeletal growth in children and reductions in indices of bone formation in laboratory animals. Osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells were used in an effort to better understand the consequences of lead exposure on skeletal homeostasis. Studies on confluent cultures of ROS 17/2.8 cells revealed that lead (2-200 μM) had no effect on cell number or DNA and protein synthesis. However, alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced by lead in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Reductions in steady state alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels paralleled the lead-induced inhibition of enzyme activity. Moreover, lead exposure resulted in similar dose-dependent ...
... ,Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C). For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. For Hitachi 717. Controls: Trulab N and Trulab P.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
SKU: AP 313 Categories: Clinical Chemistry, Diagnostic Reagents, RX misano, Veterinary Reagents Method: AMP Format: Lyophilised Size: R1a 5x100ml, R1b 5x100ml, R1c 1x5.5ml Assay Range: Measuring range 44.0 to 1273 U/l Working Stability: Reconstituted stablity of 1 week at +2 to +8℃ or 1 day at +15 to +25℃ Available Applications: Applications are available for a wide range of instruments Tags: Assay, Clinical Chemistry Reagents, RX misano, RX monza, Veterinary Reagents ...
• High sensitivity and wide linear range. Use 5 μL serum or plasma sample. The detection limit is 2 U/L, linear up to 800 U/L. • Homogeneous and simple procedure. Simple
Alkaline phosphatase[edit]. Alkaline phosphatase from E. coli can be purified using a DEAE-Cellulose matrix. A. phosphatase has ...
... alkaline phosphatase activity in biomedical assays involving detection signal amplification by intestinal alkaline phosphatase ... Van Belle, H. (1976). "Alkaline phosphatase. I. Kinetics and inhibition by levamisole of purified isoenzymes from humans". Clin ... Levamisole reversibly and noncompetitively inhibits most isoforms of alkaline phosphatase (e.g., human liver, bone, kidney, and ...
the first trial of colchicine in PBC); Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes; Hepatitis B & C; Tumour markers of primary liver cancer ... The development of new techniques to separate and identify Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymes in blood and duodenal juice; 2 ...
Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, ... An up-to-date list of mutations is available online at The Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Mutations Database. ... Alkaline phosphatase Choline "hypophosphatasia". Genetics Home Reference. Whyte MP (2001). "Hypophosphatasia". In Scriver CR, ... Hypophosphatasia is associated with a molecular defect in the gene encoding tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). ...
doi:10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700020004x McComb, R. B., Bowers, G. N., & Posen, S. (1979). Alkaline phosphatase (p. 986). New ...
Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase. Subtle vascular changes in the retina resembling telangiectasia (spider veins) in the ... Hypertension Normocytic anemia Normochromic anemia Gastrointestinal bleeding or telangiectasias Elevated alkaline phosphatase ...
1979) found that there are at least three varieties of akaline phosphatases, kidney, liver, and bone alkaline phosphatases, ... The alkaline phosphatase varieties, therefore, express a unique complement of in the enzymatic processes in post-translational ... Alkaline phosphatase activity correlates with the morphology changes. Initial deacetylation of histone is required for ... In normal stem cells, the activity of alkaline phosphatase activity is lowered upon differentiation. Trichostatin A causes the ...
Transient increase in blood alkaline phosphatase. *INR abnormal. *Prothrombin level abnormal. *bulbous skin reaction[20] ...
Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALPPL2 gene. There are at least four ... Shen LP, Liu H, Kan YW, Kam W (June 1988). "5' nucleotide sequence of a putative human placental alkaline phosphatase-like gene ... Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z, Ben-Hur H, Open M, Dgani R (September 1999). "Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase may enable early ... Le Du MH, Stigbrand T, Taussig MJ, Menez A, Stura EA (March 2001). "Crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase from human ...
Hypophosphatasia is caused by a genetic defect of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), an enzyme that plays a role ... Asfotase alfa interferes with alkaline phosphatase measurements. As asfotase alfa is a glycoprotein (as opposed to a small ...
Such transporter molecules include schistosome alkaline phosphatase (SmAP) and cathepsin B, which may be important in nutrient ... Bhardwaj and Skelly (2011). "Characterization of Schistosome Tegumental Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP)". PLoS Neglected Tropical ...
Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALPL gene. There are at least ... "Entrez Gene: ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney". Mornet E (2000). "Hypophosphatasia: the mutations in the tissue- ... The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is ... Kishi F, Matsuura S, Kajii T (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the human liver-type alkaline phosphatase cDNA". Nucleic Acids Res ...
Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme located in the proximal tubules, plays an important role in the polarization of membrane ... From the experiment performed by Dore et al., it was observed that the alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced in the ... Renal alkaline phosphatase and osmoregulatory adaptations in amphibians. II Seasonal variations and action of arginine- ... Renal alkaline-phosphatase and osmoregulatory adaptations in amphibians. II. Seasonal-variations and action of arginine- ...
... is an artificial chromogenic substrate used for the sensitive colorimetric detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. It is, ... www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search/ProductDetail/SIGMA/B1026 Alkaline phosphatase hydrolyses BCIP to 5-bromo-4-chloro-3- ... Alkaline phosphatase is commonly conjugated to secondary antibodies. http:// ...
Research has shown increased production of enzymes such as; maltase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase with MOS ...
Alkaline phosphatase levels are usually elevated in hyperparathyroidism. In primary hyperparathyroidism, levels may remain ...
Woolkalis MJ, Baumann P (July 1981). "Evolution of alkaline phosphatase in marine species of Vibrio". J. Bacteriol. 147: 36-45 ...
Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in osteoblasts. Oxidation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the skin ...
Alkaline phosphatase, intestinal also known as ALPI is a type of alkaline phosphatase that in humans is encoded by the ALPI ... "Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2008). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2003). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase release is not associated with chylomicron formation". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...
strain BSAR-1 expressing a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) has also been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium from ... "Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium ... This is the first report of bioprecipitation of uranium under alkaline conditions. LPSN bacterio.net Sphingomonas, Microbewiki ... from Alkaline Solutions". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (17): 5516-5523. doi:10.1128/AEM.00107-08. ISSN 1098-5336 ...
NPP's promiscuity enables the enzyme to share substrates with alkaline phosphatase (AP), another member of the alkaline ... NPP belongs to the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily of enzymes. Humans express seven known NPP isoforms, some of which ... Alkaline phosphatase primarily hydrolyzes phosphate monoester bonds, but interestingly it shows some promiscuity towards ... NPP belongs to the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, which is a group of evolutionarily related enzymes that catalyze ...
Another example is alkaline phosphatase, which contains two essential disulfides. It was used as an indicator protein to screen ...
Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel (2006). "Alkaline Phosphatase Mono- and Diesterase Reactions: Comparative Transition State ...
It also markedly raises the serum level of alkaline phosphatase.[citation needed] Chlorpropamide is a white crystalline powder ...
The stratum intermedium has a notably high alkaline phosphatase activity. This layer, along with the inner enamel epithelium, ...
... and with 250 mg/kg mildly elevated Alkaline phosphatase and Gamma-GT. Studies in dogs revealed no toxicity relevant for humans ...
There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... This is especially true in a field such as alkaline phosphatase research, in which very real dangers exist that the seeds of ... There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... The history of the study of alkaline phosphatase provides several instances when valuable generalizations have emerged. ...
An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in the blood. It is used to diagnose liver damage or bone ... What is an alkaline phosphatase test?. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in your blood. ALP is an ... Why do I need an alkaline phosphatase test?. Your health care provider may have ordered an alkaline phosphatase test as part of ... What happens during an alkaline phosphatase test?. An alkaline phosphatase test is a type of blood test. During the test, a ...
Our knowledge of the structure and function of alkaline phosphatases has increased greatly in recent years. The crystal ... Mammalian alkaline phosphatases are allosteric enzymes. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 22781-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Alkaline phosphatases (APs; EC 3.1.3.1) occur widely in nature, and are found in many organisms from bacteria to man [1]. With ... Structural evidence of functional divergence in human alkaline phosphatases. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 49808-14.CrossRefPubMed ...
Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : * ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ...
Alkaline phosphatase substrates. Unmasking of trimethyl lock substrate 1 with alkaline phosphatase requires two steps: an ... Michaelis-Menten plots for the serial dilution of substrate 1 (128→5.9 μM) with E. coli alkaline phosphatase (25 ng·mL−1) in ... Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a ... Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase.. Levine MN1, Raines RT.. Author information. 1. Department of ...
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Low levels of alkaline phosphatase have been linked to malnutrition, Wilsons disease and protein deficiency. The alkaline ... Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Alkaline phosphatase helps the teeth and bones grow properly. It is also active in kidney and liver function. The normal range ...
My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... Elevated alkaline phosphatase I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase ... My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... What other tests do I need to have other than having another alkaline phosphatase test done in 3 months? ...
I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor said that high normal is 136. All ... alkaline phosphatase MAWorried I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor ... that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase ... An alkaline phosphatase of 153 is mildly elevated. There are many reasons why this can be elevated. Here is a excerpt from ...
Gilbert syndrome: Increase in intestinal alkaline phosphatase is seen.7. Hepatitis: Moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase ... may elevate alkaline phosphatase. There is evidence that thyroid hormone (T3) acts to stimulate bone alkaline phosphatase ... Causes of low alkaline phosphatase are said to include: Hypothyroidism − but most hypothyroid patients have normal alkaline ... 3. Narayanan S. Alkaline phosphatase as tumor marker. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1983 Mar-Apr; 13(2):133-136. 6859804 ...
For the direct colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase in human serum.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies, ... Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC). 5. Alkaline phosphatase FS (IFCC). 6. Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C). 7. Alkaline ... Alkaline Phosphatase. 2. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase Liquid Reagent (Kinetic Procedure). 4. ... Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (DIMENSION). 9. Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes. 10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 11. ...
... ANSWER This test checks for an enzyme in your blood that might show if ... Be sure to let your doctor know if you are pregnant, because that will raise the level of alkaline phosphatase in your blood. ... How is an alkaline phosphatase test done?. NEXT QUESTION: What do your alkaline phosphatase test results mean? ...
Alkaline phosphatase has a Km of 8.4 x 10−4. Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated ... Alkaline phosphatase accounts for 6% of all proteins in depressed cells. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is the most ... Common alkaline phosphatases used in research include: Shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP), from a species of Arctic shrimp ( ... Human-intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The human body has multiple types of alkaline phosphatase present, which are determined ...
alkaline phosphatase synonyms, alkaline phosphatase pronunciation, alkaline phosphatase translation, English dictionary ... definition of alkaline phosphatase. adj. 1. Of, relating to, or containing an alkali. 2. a. Having a pH greater than 7. b. ... Alkaline phosphatase - definition of alkaline phosphatase by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/alkaline+ ... alkaline. (redirected from alkaline phosphatase). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. al·ka· ...
The relationship between alkaline phosphatase and obesity is still being tested. Elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase ... Elevated alkaline phosphatase describes the situation where the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range ... "Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase - Levels, Causes and Treatment". healthh.com. Retrieved 2016-05-19. Alkaline phosphatase at Lab ... The major function of alkaline phosphatase is transporting across cell membranes. Alkaline phosphatases are present in many ...
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme necessary for normal phosphate metabolism found in several different tissues in your body. ... Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase and Disease. Alkaline phosphatase blood levels rise when a disease involves any of those tissues ... Low Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Mildly decreased alkaline phosphatase levels can be seen with zinc deficiency or malnutrition ... Normal Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Important tissue sites containing alkaline phosphatase include the liver, bone, intestine, ...
... For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. For Hitachi 717. ... Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC). 6. Alkaline phosphatase FS (IFCC). 7. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). 8. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP ... Alkaline Phosphatase. 2. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent Set. 4. Alkaline Phosphatase Liquid ... Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes. 10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 11. Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum or Plasma. ...
Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... However, primary cancers in various organs can generate alkaline phosphatase elevations in the absence of metastasis. These ... Clinical Chemistry; A Variant Alkaline Phosphatase in Renal Cell Carcinoma; Whitaker K, et al.; 1982 ...
... a new thermosensitive alkaline phosphatase, which active in all Promega restriction enzyme buffers, including MULTI-CORE™ ... TSAP: A New Thermosensitive Alkaline Phosphatase. John Brandon and Michael R. Slater. Promega Corporation. Publication Date: ... Here we describe TSAP, a new thermosensitive alkaline phosphatase. TSAP is active in all Promega restriction enzyme buffers, ... The robust phosphatase activity effectively dephosphorylates all DNA termini (5´, 3´ and blunt) in 15 minutes at 37°C. As TSAP ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other ... View list of E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase Products. KM: 0.02 × 10-3 M (p-Nitrophenyl phosphate)4. Molecular weight:2 89 kDa ( ... E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase. E. coli ALKP is a dimeric, non-glycosylated protein assumed to reside mainly in the periplasmic ... Conjugation of Alkaline Phosphatase to Antibodies and Other Proteins. Dephosphorylation of DNA. Dephosphorylation of Protein ...
Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture. Br Med J 1978; 1 :620 ... Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6113.620 ( ...
ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal [Homo sapiens] ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:248 ... intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase. Names. Kasahara isozyme. alkaline phosphomonoesterase. glycerophosphatase. intestinal ... alkaline phosphatase, intestinalprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:437 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000163295 MIM:171740 ... Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: a summary of its role in clinical disease. Fawley J, et al. J Surg Res, 2016 May 1. PMID ...
... coli alkaline phosphatase provide insight towards the structure and function of mammalian and yeast alkaline phosphatases. ...
Measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase-in some cases, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)-can be useful in the ... Alkaline Phosphatase. Because of increased osteoblastic activity and bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) ... the total alkaline phosphatase level may be normal. Consequently, a normal alkaline phosphatase level does not exclude the ... Measuring total alkaline phosphatase levels may be useful in patients with normal liver function. However, BSAP is more ...
The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... What is an alkaline phosphate blood test?. A: An alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, blood test measures the bodys level of ALP, ... The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... The alkaline phosphatase test consists of a simple blood test, and it is often taken at the same time as other routine blood ...
Kinetic and X-ray structural studies of a mutant Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (His-412Gln) at one of the zinc ... Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Escherichia coli [TaxId: 562] ... Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Escherichia coli [TaxId: 562] ... Alkaline Phosphatase, subunit A Alkaline Phosphatase, subunit A B. 1hqaB00. Alpha Beta 3-Layer(aba) Sandwich Alkaline ...
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is a zinc-containing dimeric enzyme with the MW: 86,000 Da, each subunit containing 429 amino acids with four cysteine residues linking the two subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase contains four Zn ions and two Mg ions, with Zn occupying active sites A and B, and Mg occupying site C, so the fully active native alkaline phosphatase is referred to as (ZnAZnBMgC)2 enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a reporter in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and other biochemical methods. (nih.gov)
  • The tight binding of the enzyme to its inorganic phosphate product leads to strong inhibition of catalysis and confounds measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human body's tissues. (reference.com)
  • Elevated levels of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme are reported with those who have obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme necessary for normal phosphate metabolism found in several different tissues in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Important tissue sites containing alkaline phosphatase include the liver, bone, intestine, kidney and placenta, with bone and liver having the highest concentrations of the enzyme. (livestrong.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase blood levels measure the sum of enzyme from all these sites, which vary predictably with age. (livestrong.com)
  • The different tissue sources of alkaline phosphatase each produce a slightly different molecular form of the enzyme, called an isoenzyme, which can also be measured to help determine the cause of a change in blood levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase blood levels rise when a disease involves any of those tissues containing the enzyme. (livestrong.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as nucleotides, which are building blocks for DNA, and proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Serum total acid phosphatase is an osteoclastic enzyme that may be elevated in active Paget disease. (medscape.com)
  • The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme derived from bovine intestinal mucosa, is often used as a label for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Southern and Northern hybridization, and DNA sequencing. (abcam.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in high amounts in bone and liver. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) ( EC 3.1.3.1 ) is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides , proteins , and alkaloids . (wikidoc.org)
  • Although the actual purpose of the enzyme is still not fully understood, the simple hypothesis, that it is a means for the bacteria to generate free phosphate groups for uptake and use, is supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase is usually only produced by the bacteria during phosphate starvation and not when phosphate is plentiful. (wikidoc.org)
  • Another important use of alkaline phosphatase is as a label for enzyme immunoassays . (wikidoc.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found throughout your body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • alkaline phosphatase an enzyme localized on cell membranes that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 10.0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • al·ka·line phos·pha·tase/ (ALP) ( fos´fah-tās ) an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under alkaline conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As the name implies, this enzyme works best at an alkaline pH, and thus the enzyme is virtually inactive in the blood. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • It has long been realized that serum alkaline phosphatase arises from tissues rich in the enzyme, and the origin of this enzyme is intricately bound up with that of the mechanisms by which the serum activity is increased in health and in disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used in a retrospective study of serum levels of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in testicular cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An in vitro reaction was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) a hydrolase enzyme and the synthetic substrate 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (4-NPP). (ukessays.com)
  • The reaction which showed the least absorbance in the assay was used in further tests to determine how various other reactants reacted in alkaline phosphatase with and without enzyme present, at different concentrations, and pH values. (ukessays.com)
  • An Enzyme assay to discover the absorbance spectrum for 4-NPP and 4-NP in ALP was carried out using diluted 4-NPP and 4-NP respectively in steps of 5 or 10 nm in an alkaline buffer of 0.5 M Tris, pH 9.2 into cuvettes with the aim of attaining a wavelength of between 360 nm and 440 nm in the fewest steps possible. (ukessays.com)
  • This test measures blood levels of a form the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) which is produced by the skeletal system. (requestatest.com)
  • E levated bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) is a laboratory result that indicates an abnormal blood level of this bone enzyme. (glutenfreeworks.com)
  • Phosphatase is an enzyme released into the blood by either liver, bone, kidney, placenta (if you are pregnant). (healthtap.com)
  • Since dephosphorylation is the rate-limiting step of the complete turnover at pH5.5, this observation suggests that alkaline phosphatase can bind two different ligands simultaneously, one at each of the active sites on the dimeric enzyme, even though only one site is catalytically active at any given time. (biochemj.org)
  • A two-step coupling procedure was used, in which glutaraldehyde was allowed to react with the enzyme, excess glutaraldehyde was then removed by dialysis, and finally protein G added to the glutaraldehyde-activated and polymerized alkaline phosphatase. (lu.se)
  • Serum placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP): a novel combined enzyme linked immunoassay for monitoring ovarian cancer. (iospress.com)
  • Measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase-in some cases, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)-can be useful in the diagnosis of Paget disease. (medscape.com)
  • Because of increased osteoblastic activity and bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) levels are elevated. (medscape.com)
  • What do high elevations of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) suggest in the workup of osteoporosis? (medscape.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our BioUltra Grade Alkaline Phosphatase has a very high specific activity making it particularly useful for protein labeling when high sensitivity is required. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, blood test measures the body's level of ALP, which is a protein existing in all body tissues, explains MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
  • Hydrolysis of phosphoesters, phosphate transferase activity, protein phosphatase activity, phosphate transport, modulation of organic cation transport, and involvement in cell proliferation have been suggested as possible functions of ALP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The receptor affinity probe or receptor alkaline phosphatase (RAP) staining method uses soluble protein ectodomains fused to secreted placental alkaline phosphatase to locate ectodomain binding sites within cells or tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mutant alkaline phosphatase protein was found instead in the cytoplasm in precursor form. (asm.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an alkaline phosphatase, a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters. (genetex.com)
  • Protein G, an IgG-binding protein, purified from the surface of group G streptococci, was coupled to alkaline phosphatase. (lu.se)
  • Coupling of 25 micrograms protein G to 5 mg alkaline phosphatase gave a conjugate which could be used for more. (lu.se)
  • Under these conditions, there was no need for separation of the reactants before using the protein G-alkaline phosphatase complex. (lu.se)
  • To analyze the expression profile of placental type alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in serous ovarian cancer and to correlate their expression with the tumor aggressiveness and progression. (iospress.com)
  • Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase (ALP/ALKP) preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other proteins for ELISA, Western blotting, and histochemical detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bovine, Human. (novusbio.com)
  • The IAP is expressed throughout the intestine with the highest expression in the duodenum, whereas its phosphatase activity is highest in the terminal ileum [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Turkey IgG, anti-Turkey Serum and anti-Alkaline Phosphatase (calf intestine). (fishersci.com)
  • Detection of Bacterial Alkaline Phosphatase Activity by Enzymatic In Situ Self-Assembly of the AIEgen-Peptide Conjugate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Extrahepatic tumors, including osteosarcomas, lung, gastric, head and neck, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian, uterine cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase into serum by an unknown mechanism. (medhelp.org)
  • Basically, the Regan isozenzyme is an alkaline phosphatase that is located in the placenta and associated with the gonadal and urologic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In later passages with the growth of C-SPT cells, high activity of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase appeared as judged by l -phenylalanine inhibition, heat stability, and immunoelectrophoresis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparative enzymological and immunological studies with HeLa and WISH cells confirmed the presence of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase as a characteristic of HeLa and established its presence in WISH cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A HeLa clone was isolated showing very high activity of non-Regan type of alkaline phosphatase, presumably of "bone" type. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hepatitis: Moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase occur in viral hepatitis, but greater elevations of the transaminases (AST [SGOT], ALT [SGPT]) are usually found. (labcorp.com)
  • Contains 25 g each of anti-Alkaline Phosphatase, anti-Nanog, anti-Oct-3/4, anti-SSEA-1, and anti-SSEA-4. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Causes of low alkaline phosphatase are said to include: Hypothyroidism − but most hypothyroid patients have normal alkaline phosphatase. (labcorp.com)
  • Consequently, a normal alkaline phosphatase level does not exclude the disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Heat stable MAPs (5 mg/ml) were treated with calf intestinal phosphatase in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris HCI, pH 8.4, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM EDTA, 2 mM PMSF, 1 μg/ml pepstatin, 1 U/ml aprotinin, and 0.1 mM ZnCl2 for 12 h at 37 °C. From a range of commercial preparations tested, only that from Boehringer Mannheim (Roche Applied Science Cat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • i) Once tissue sections have been incubated with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase, wash them with buffer thoroughly. (abcam.com)
  • ii) Wipe the glass to remove excess of buffer and add enough drops of the alkaline phosphatase enhancer solution to cover the tissue sections. (abcam.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (prepared from bovine intestinal mucosa) was purchased from Sigma (Poole, Dorset, UK) as were all other chemicals. (ukessays.com)
  • Although the presence of alkaline phosphatases in testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults has been utilized for both detection and patient monitoring, it is not known in detail which isozymes are expressed. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the presence of alkaline phosphatase transcripts in normal testicular parenchyma, an RT-PCR-based analysis of alkaline phosphatase is not informative for the early detection of TGCTs in biopsy samples. (nih.gov)
  • A New Red-NIR Fluorescent Probe for Time-Resolved Alka-line Phosphatase Detection with the Assistance of a Photo-Responsive Nanocontainer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Testicular cancers of germ cell and non-germ cell origin along with testicular parenchyma with and without CIS have been analysed for the expression of the different alkaline phosphatase isozymes. (nih.gov)
  • Only three laboratory markers were consistently abnormal, in evaluating for metastatic carcinoma of breast, prior to clinical detectability of metastases: these were alkaline phosphatase, GT and CEA. (labcorp.com)