An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases of BONES.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (1/6669)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/6669)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Polymorphism in a cyclic parthenogenetic species: Simocephalus serrulatus. (3/6669)

A survey of sixteen isozyme loci using electrophoretic techniques was conducted for three isolated natural populations and one laboratory population of the cyclic parthenogenetic species, Simocephalus serrulatus. The proportion of polymorphic loci (33%-60%) and the average number of heterozygous loci per individual (6%-23%) in the three natural populations were found to be comparable to those found in most sexually reproducing organisms. Detailed analyses were made for one of these populations using five polymorphic loci. The results indicated that (1) seasonal changes in genotypic frequencies took place, (2) apomicitic parthenogenesis does not lead to genetic homogeneity, and (3) marked gametic disequilibrium at these five loci was present in the population, indicating that selection acted on coadapted groups of genes.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (4/6669)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (5/6669)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (6/6669)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (7/6669)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Antitumor agents. I. Effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide on liver microsomes and thymus of rat. (8/6669)

Effects of antitumor agents on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and thymus lymphocytes were studied in male Wistar rats. High doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) given parenterally for 6 days caused a partial decrease in whole body weight and the microsomal enzyme content such as cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5. Aniline p-hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities also decreased in rats dosed for 5 days decreased compared with the control. Both compounds in the high concentrations produced spectral change of "modified type II". However, the magnitude of the spectral changes observed was independent of the the concentration of substrate added. The addition of NADPH to the microsomes-substrate mixture modified the spectral change. Both drugs caused a considerable decrease in thymus weight and the number of thymus lymphocytes, while the alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced in 5-FU groups, indicating that the agents cause a significant involution of the thymus. Decrease in the total number of the lymphocytes was greater than that in the blood leucocytes.  (+info)

Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was measured using levamisole inhibition, and results were compared with a previously reported method using L-phenylalanine. Sixty two per cent intestinal, 39% placental, and 1.3% of either bone or liver alkaline phosphatase activity remained when alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited in a 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) buffer reagent system with 10 mmol/l levamisole (final assay concentration 8.1 mmol/l). The assay imprecision (SD) was 0.6 U/l compared with 3.9 U/l using L-phenylalanine for specimens with total alkaline phosphatase activity less than 250 U/l (reference range 30-120 U/l). In serum pools with raised total alkaline phosphatase activity errors in recovered intestinal activity were small (usually less than 3 U/l) when intestinal alkaline phosphatase was added. Much larger errors and many underestimated results were found using L-phenylalanine. For non-haemolysed specimens it is concluded that an assay based on levamisole inhibition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign Transient Hyperphosphatasemia Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus Enteritis in a Pediatric Liver Transplant Patient. T2 - A Case Report. AU - Hranjec, T.. AU - Bonatti, H.. AU - Roman, A. L.. AU - Sifri, C.. AU - Borowitz, S. M.. AU - Barnes, B. H.. AU - Flohr, T. R.. AU - Pruett, T. L.. AU - Sawyer, R. G.. AU - Schmitt, T. M.. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - Transient hyperphosphatasemia was found in a 3-year-old male liver transplant recipient. The condition was associated with diarrheal disease due to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Immunosuppression was tapered and valganciclovir prescribed for 3 months, after which the diarrhea resolved and the EBV polymerase chain reaction assays became negative. After 6 months, alkaline phosphatase levels normalized. Isolated elevation of alkaline phosphatase in conjunction with enteric infection is a rare condition. No further diagnostic or therapeutic interventions except treatment of the underlying infection are needed, as this has ...
During the one-year period, a total of 181 hospitalized patients with serum ALP level over 1000 IU/L were identified. They were 102 male and 96 female patients with ages ranging from 21 to 90 years old (mean age 49.4 ± 16.1 years). The ALP levels ranged from 1,001 to 3,067 IU/L.. The most common diagnosis in patients with high ALP in our series was malignant biliary obstruction. This was found in 58 patients, 48 of whom were cases with cholangicocarcinoma (CCA). Of the remaining 10, three were with pancreatic cancer, one with ampullary cancer, one with metastatic cancer, and five with periampullary cancer. The ALP levels ranged from 1,005 to 3,067 IU/L (average 1,869.8 ± 325.3 IU/L). In addition, benign duct obstruction from choledocholithiasis was found in another 14 patients, six of which cases were complicated by ascending cholangitis. The ALP level in this group ranged from 1,001 to 2,864 IU/L (average 1,498.3 ± 541.2 IU/L). Comparing these two groups, the mean ALP levels in the malignant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on magnetic particles by site-specific and covalent cross-linking catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase. AU - Moriyama, Kousuke. AU - Sung, Kyunga. AU - Goto, Masahiro. AU - Kamiya, Noriho. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to Ajinomoto Co., Inc. (Japan) for providing MTG samples. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE program Science for Future Molecular Systems, from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan .. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was site-specifically and covalently immobilized on magnetic particles (MPs) using the enzymatic reaction of microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Immobilization efficiency was affected by the chemical surface treatment of MPs and immobilized BAP exhibited more than 90% of the initial activity after 10 rounds of recycling.. AB - Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was site-specifically and covalently ...
Recombinant Human intestinal alkaline phosphatase protein is a Wheat germ Protein fragment 74 to 162 aa range and validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE.
Alkaline phosphatase levels in children - Medicine for high alkaline phosphatase levels? Wrong approach. Alkaline phosphatase is a lab value to tell a physician what is happening, not a medical problem to treat. It can be high just because you
Treatment of Pagets disease of bone traditionally has been limited to patients with severe disease, defined as serum alkaline phosphatase levels of more than two times the upper limit of normal, bone pain not responsive to analgesics and higher risk for complications such as fracture. Newer antiresorptive treatments, including pamidronate, alendronate, tiludronate and etidronate, offer more widespread therapeutic intervention and shorter treatment courses. Risedronate is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that is about 1,000 times more potent than etidronate and three to five times more potent than alendronate. These attributes allow for a shorter duration of treatment at a lower dosage. Miller and associates compared the effectiveness of risedronate with that of etidronate in the treatment of Pagets disease of bone.. Patients with documented Pagets disease were included if their serum alkaline phosphatase levels were at least two times the upper limit of normal. Women were required to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a second promoter for the mouse liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene. T2 - Cell and tissue specific expression. AU - Studer, Michela. AU - Terao, Mineko. AU - Giannì, Maurizio. AU - Garattini, Enrico. PY - 1991/9/30. Y1 - 1991/9/30. N2 - The second leader exon and the relative promoter of the mouse liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene were identified and characterized. The transcription initiation site was determined by S1 mapping analysis. The differential expression of the two alternatively spliced transcripts was assessed in cell lines of different origin and in various tissues by polymerase chain reaction and RNase mapping analysis. The first promoter is active in embryo derived cells, whereas the second promoter is silent in basal conditions but it is activated by dibutyryl cAMP in fibroblastic cells. In the whole animal, the transcript driven by the first promoter is found in most tissues albeit at different levels, while the one ...
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
Question - Liver test done, shows albumin serum, alkaline phosphate, SGPT, SGOT levels. Normal report?. Ask a Doctor about Alkaline phosphates, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Decreased Possible Causes (Differential Diagnoses) include ❗ Infectious Mononucleosis ❗ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ❗ Chronic Myeloid Leukemia ❗ Check more at
I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated that...
Adequate liver function as evidenced by bilirubin ,= 1.5 times the upper limits of normal (ULN) and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,= 3 x ULN (in the case of liver metastases ,= 5 x ULN), unless there are bone metastases, in which case liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase. In case alkaline phosphatase is ,3 x ULN (in absence of liver metastases) or , 5 x ULN (in presence of liver metastases) AND patient is known to have bone metastases, the liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase ...
Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are of interest in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders and bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity. Moderate elevations of alkaline phosphatase may be seen in several conditions that do not involve the liver or bone. Among these are Hodgkins disease, congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. Elevations are also observed during the third trimester of pregnancy.. ...
Assay Alkaline phosphatase in 1 hr in cell culture media, cell/tissue extracts, and biofluids with Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit (Fluorometric) ab83371. For microplate readers.
The doctors found that the median survival time from the diagnosis of AIDS and AIDS cholangiopathy was 23 and 9 months, respectively. In addition, they determined that HAART significantly improved the mortality of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy.. The team determined that any opportunistic infection of the digestive tract, lung, eye, nervous system, skin, or systemic involvement at diagnosis was an indicator of poor prognosis.. They also found that patients with high serum ALP levels tended to have a shorter life expectancy than those with normal or slightly elevated serum ALP levels. However, CD4 lymphocyte counts, type of cholangiopathy, and the performance of sphincterotomy were not correlated with patient survival.. Dr Wei-Fang Kos team concluded, HAART administration most likely accounts for the recent dramatic improvement in survival of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy. Underlying immunosuppressive status, reflected by the presence or history of any opportunistic infections, is ...
The efficacy of modified neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score, serum IL-6, IL-18 and CC16 levels on the prognosis of moderate and severe COPD patients, Jinbiao Zhang, Rongqin Dai,
Royal Jelly and Human Interferon-Alpha (HuIFN-αN3) Affect Proliferation, Glutathione Level, and Lipid Peroxidation in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Vitro. By Bratko Filipič, Lidija Gradišnik, Klemen Rihar, Adriana Pereyra, Damir Đermić and Hrvoje Mazija. The purpose was to investigate the influence of RJ-F(M), 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid and HuIFN-αN3 on the proliferation of CaCo-2 cells and ascertain their effects on intracellular glutathione level and lipid peroxidation. The antiproliferative (AP) activity of RJ-F (M) (0.1 g/10 mL PBS), HuIFN-αN3 (1000 IU mL−1), 10-HDA (100.0 μmol L−1) and their combinations, in the ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 on CaCo-2 cells were measured. Single RJ-F (M) had a low AP activity: 2.0 (0.5 mg mL−1). HuIFN-αN3 had an AP activity of 2.5 (208.33 IU mL−1), while 10-HDA had an AP activity of 1.5 (37.5 μmol mL−1). AP activity of 3.8 was obtained when RJ-F(M) and HuIFN-αN3 were in the ratio 2:1. In it, the level of GSH was 24.9 ± 2.4 nmol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alkaline phosphatase. I. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of enzyme preparations from mammalian cell cultures, various animal tissues, and Escherichia coli. AU - Cox, Rody P.. AU - Griffin, Martin J.. PY - 1967/12. Y1 - 1967/12. N2 - Some of the chemical and physical properties of alkaline phosphatase preparations derived from mammalian tissues, cell cultures, and E. coli have been compared. A number of chemical and physical properties of the various enzyme preparations are similar, such as the concentration of cysteine and histidine that inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity, and the phosphotransferase activity of different enzyme preparations. Other properties of the various alkaline phosphatases are markedly different, such as heat stability at 56 °, electrophoretic mobility, and the concentrations of Zn ions, L-phenylalanine, and L-tryptophan required to inhibit enzyme activity by 50%. These differences provide a means of distinguishing between alkaline ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The study of biogenesis and secretion of alkaline phosphatase and its mutant forms in Escherichia coli. I. Introduction of mutations into alkaline phosphatase gene. AU - Karamyshev, A. L.. AU - Shlyapnikov, M. G.. AU - Khmelnitsky, M. I.. AU - Nesmeyanova, M. A.. AU - Ksenzenko, V. N.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Various mutations in E. coli alkaline phosphatase gene were obtained by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. They result in amino acid substitutions in the signal peptide cleavage site [Val for Ala(-1)] and in the N terminus of mature polypeptide chain: Ala for Arg(+1) and Gln for Glu(+4); Gln for Glu(+4). Enzyme activity was observed in all E. coli strains transformed by plasmids with cloned mutant genes. In addition, an amber mutation was introduced into the Arg(+1) position, and the synthesis of mutant alkaline phosphatase was shown in E. coli strains containing suppressor tRNAs specific for Ser, Gln, Tyr, Leu, Ala, Glu, Phe, Gly, His, Pro, and Cys.. AB - Various ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Changhyun Lee, Jaeyoung Chun, Sung Wook Hwang, Seung Joo Kang, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim].
M. J. Griffin, R. P. Cox, N. Grujic; A CHEMICAL METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF HELA CELL NUCLEI AND THE NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION OF HELA CELL ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE . J Cell Biol 1 April 1967; 33 (1): 200-203. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were admin istered 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg oleic acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol dermally for 13 weeks. All male and female rats survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of 200 and 400 mg/kg males and the mean body weight gain of 400 mg/kg females were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. The only chemical-related clinical finding was irritation of the skin at the site of application in most males administered 100 mg/kg or greater and in all females administered 50 mg/kg or greater. Segmented neutrophil counts were increased relative to the vehicle controls in the 400 mg/kg male group on days 5 and 19, in the 200 mg/kg female group on day 19 and at week 13, and in the 400 mg/kg female group on days 5 and 19 and at week 13. Alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly increased in the 200 mg/kg male group on day 19, the 200 mg/kg female group at week 13, ...
The identification of the source of a raised total alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma, by the measurement of individual ALP forms, is of clinical value although many of the methods available for this purpose are complex, imprecise and non-specific. This thesis has validated, and in some cases modified, available methods for the measurement of the main forms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC in plasma: liver, bone, intestinal and high-molecular-mass ALP. The following methods were selected on the basis of their reliability and specificity: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with densitometric scanning, for liver and bone ALP, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for intestinal ALP and ion-exchange chromatography for high-molccular-mass ALP. These methods were then used to quantify individual ALP forms in specific disease groups and compare activities to those found in healthy adults. The diseases studied (diabetes mellitus and hyperthryoidism) were those where the source of ...
The intracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase has been determined in human neutrophils with analytical subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation and EM cytochemistry. Centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 1 mM DETA and 5 units/ml of heparin showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with a membranous component distinct from plasma membrane, mitochondria, specific granules and azurophil granules. There was no resolution from the endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation on a sucrose-imidazole-heparin gradient showed a clear resolution of the alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation of neutrophils that had been disrupted in the presenceof 0.12 mmol/l. digitonin clearly separated alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Part of the gamma-glutamyl transferase has a similar localization to that of alkaline phosphatase. EM cytochemistry of ...
Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB, RNAi, RNAi SP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Background: Hodgkins disease (HD) is a neoplastic disease originating in lymphoid tissue, which spreads to lymphoid structures and ultimately nonlymphoid tissues. Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase are increased in blood following membrane cell damage. The aim of this study was to compare Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase levels in children in ...
Question - Am hepatitis B carrier. Taking treatment. Reason for high alkaline phosphate, creatinine?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hepatitis b carrier, Ask a Gastroenterologist
• The immediate evolution of changes in serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels during and after brief temporary occlusion (12 hours or less) of the mai
Most Recent Publications. Bailey, L. B., Stover, P., McNulty, H., Fenech, M., Gregory, J., James Mills, J., Pfeiffer, C. M., Fazili, Z., Zhang, M., Ueland, P., Molloy, A., Caudill, M. A., Shane, B., Berry, R. J., Bailey, R., Raghavan, R. and Raiten, D. (2015) Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) - Folate Review. J. Nutr. 145:1636S-80S. Carter, T. C., Pangilinan, F., Molloy, A. M., Fan, R., Wang, Y., Shane, B., Gibney, E. R., Midttun, O., Ueland, P. M, Cropp, C. D., Kim, Y., Wilson, A. F., Bailey-Wilson, J. E., Brody, L. C. and Mills, J. L. (2015) Common variants at putative regulatory sites of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene influence circulating pyridoxal 5-phosphate concentration in healthy adults. J. Nutr. 145:1386-93.. Deac, O. M., Mills, J. L., Shane, B., Midttun, O., Ueland, P. M., Brosnan, J. T., Brosnan, M. E., Laird, E., Gibney, E. R., Fan, R., Wang, Y., Brody, L. C. and Molloy, A. M. (2015) Tryptophan catabolism and vitamin B-6 status are affected by gender ...
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Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
Erik Steel is a graduate of the University of Michigan, earning his bachelors degree in Russian. Steel has worked as writer for more than four years and has contributed content to eHow and Pluck on Demand. His work recently appeared in the literary journal Arsenic Lobster.. ...
Background: Problem of the variability between the different methods using for bone alkaline phosphatase(bALP) determination greately influences the clinical significance of bALP as direct marker of bone metabolism.The aim of this study was to compare immunoassay with electrophoresis technique for bALP determination. Methods: We measured bALP in 71 patients on hemodialysis with agar gel electrophoresis (ISO-PAL, SEBIA) and immunoassay (OSTASE, Beckman Coulter).Results: The analyzed methods showed significant correlation (Spearmans rho: 0.776, P , 0.01), but we found statistically significant (P , 0.01) positive bias (27%)for the results measured by immunoassay. In support of this, using electrophoresis technique we have detected presence of the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in 55% of patients with median value of 30% of the total alkaline phoshatase and presence of liver-2 alkaline phosphatase... isoform in 42% of patients with median value of 16.6%. The Kendalls W of 0.787 ...
Journal: American Journal of Health Research Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-14 Published: January 10, 2018PDF Source: Trivedi EffectAuthors: Bonnie Patrice Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu C
Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS) were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA), 13C NMR, 31P NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, solubility studies, biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP). The results reveal that phosphorylation occurred at the C3 and C6 position of OH groups and the C2 position of NH2 group. FT-IR confirmed no decomposition in pyranose ring in P-COS even with heating and treatment in acidic conditions. The amorphous nature of P-COS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Further, the biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of P-COS were checked against the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line at different concentrations and no cytotoxicity was observed. After 12 h and 24 h of incubation, the ALP activity of P-COS was higher compared with the control group. These results suggest that P-COS is
Anti-Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Antibody (Serum), Goat Anti-Bovine Polyclonal Antibody validated in IHC-P, IHC-F, E (ABD10274), Abgent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitation of phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C activity using alkaline phosphatase impregnated liposomes. AU - Buxton, Thomas B.. AU - Catto, Brian. AU - Horner, Jack. AU - Yannis, Rex. AU - Rissing, J. Peter. PY - 1986/12. Y1 - 1986/12. N2 - Phospholipase A2 and C activity was quantitated using liposomes impregnated with alkaline phosphatase. Release of alkaline phosphatase was dependent on phospholipase related hydrolysis of intact vesicles. Released alkaline phosphatase was quantitated after addition of its chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The lower limit of detectability for phospholipase A2 and C activity was 0.5 unit/ml. These limits were 10-fold lower than a titrimetric method. Liposome destruction as measured by alkaline phosphatase release was calcium dependent and inhibited by 1 mM EDTA and 1 mM ZnSO4. The assay was technically simple, generated same day results, and used automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay instrumentation.. AB - ...
Sortilin is encoded by the well-known cardiovascular risk gene SORT1, however Sortilin seems to modulate cardiovascular disease not only with lipids, and its function has not been well elucidated. Recent basic reports showed new aspects of Sortilin that it can bind to PCSK9, and also can enhance vascular calcification with non-lipid tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. We investigated the clinical roles of Sortilin in statin-treated primary dyslipidemia.. Methods: A total of 62 patients (Male 33, Age 65±11 yrs) with primary dyslipidemia including 18 genetically confirmed heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Non-FH group was treated with 10mg Atorvastatin, and FH group was treated with 20mg Rosuvastatin for 8 weeks. ELISA determined plasma levels of Sortilin and PCSK9 (free-fragment and hetero-dimer).. Results: Strong statins lowered LDL-C (-44% in non-FH, -54% in FH), and increased hetero-dimer PCSK9 (+21% in non-FH, +102% in FH) but not in free-fragment PCSK9. Statins ...
Vascular calcification is implicated in many diseases including atherosclerosis and diabetes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to promote vascular calcification both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-mediated vascular calcification has not yet been fully defined. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether MSX2 acts as a crucial regulator in TNF-α-induced vascular calcification and to define the regulatory mechanism of MSX2 induction in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs ...
Alkaline Phosphatase, serum Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP.) When alkaline phosphatase is measured, it is actually the sum of the bone-specific and liver-specific components (isoenzymes.) BAP can indicate excess osteoblastic cell activity which may indicate bone metastases. Metra Systems, Inc., says that Bone Alkaline Phosphatase is an osteoblast membrane-bound molecule which is involved in bone formation. Levels of this enzyme are thought to be indicative of the activity of osteoblasts. Another description of AlkPhos is that it is an enzyme that is found on the surface of osteoblasts(the cells that build bone) and as such is used as a serum marker of increased osteoblast activity. Since bone is being added at prostate cancer bone metastases, an increased alkaline phosphatase can mean increased bone met formation. A recent paper by MR Smith et al in Urology discussed BAP and NTx in their role as predictors of skeletal complications in HRPC patients (MR Smith, et al, Urology 70: 315-319, ...
Duodenal alkaline phosphatase of juvenile (11-day-old) mice, like other non-specific alkaline phosphatases, has the ability to hydrolyse PPi. When a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio is maintained, plots of velocity as a function of PPi concentration are consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Mg2+ activates pyrophosphate hydrolysis and maximal activity is obtained at a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio of 0·66. At higher ratios there is strong inhibition. At constant concentrations of Mg2+ and increasing concentrations of PPi, the velocity-substrate (PPi) concentration plots show sigmoidal dependence. By assuming that the true substrate is MgP2O72− complex, and using complexity constants, the concentrations of free Mg2+, Mg2P2O7 and MgP2O72− were calculated in assay mixtures ranging in PPi concentration from 0·1 to 2·5mm and in total Mg2+ concentration from 0·6 to 2·6mm. From these data, the concentrations of added Mg2+ and PPi in the assay mixtures were selected so that the ...
The effect of a 2 hour exposure to adriamycin (1 mg/litre) on alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity of the golden hamster 4-5 day old second maxillary molars (M2) was investigated in vitro. The molars were grown in BGJb medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum, glutamine (200 micrograms/ml), vitamin C (250 micrograms/ml), penicillin G (50 micrograms/ml), and streptomycin sulphate (30 micrograms/ml). The gas phase contained 50% O2 + 5% CO2 + 45% N2. The molars were supported on cellulosic membrane filters and grown for 3, 5, and 7 days at the medium-gas interface in a closed humidified chamber. Biochemical analysis indicated a steady increase in ALPase activity throughout this study in the control samples. However, after adriamycin treatment no increase in ALPase activity could be observed. The histochemical data showed that the increased activity in the control was confined to the peripheral pulp, sub-odontoblastic layer, stratum intermedium, ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Although these layers ...
Possible functions of alkaline phosphatase in dental mineralization: cadmium effects.: In mineralizing dental tissues the non-specific alkaline phosphatase, usi
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive measures of bone activity include intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Whether BSAP measurement alone or in combination with other biochemical data provides more reliable information about bone turnover than iPTH alone in African Americans on hemodialysis is unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the optimal predictor and cutoff points for BSAP, iPTH, calcium and phosphorus in classifying bone biopsy findings. Forty-three African American hemodialysis patients were available for analysis. Biochemical data on the day of biopsy across a spectrum of qualitative histologic bone features were compared. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine both the optimal predictor and cutoff points for BSAP, iPTH, calcium and phosphorus in identifying bone turnover status. FINDINGS: Seven subjects had adynamic disease, 31 had mild/moderate hyperparathyroid bone features, and five had severe
Rabbit Polyclonal Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase antibody for IHC (p), ELISA, WB. Order anti-Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase antibody ABIN1731689.
Indenopyridine hydrochloride (IH), an antispermatogenic agent, was tested to determine the testicular pathological changes, seminal spermatozoa concentrations and seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase levels in male dogs. A single oral dosage of 30 mg IH/kg BW induced the dissociation and premature release of germ cells into the lumens of seminiferous tubules. Ring-shaped spermatid nuclei, nuclear pykonosis of spermatocytes and multinucleated cell associations were also observed. Thereafter, the spermatogenic index (SI) significantly decreased one day after IH administration. Moreover, seminal spermatozoa concentrations decreased two weeks after drug treatment; and there was a statistically significant difference in spermatozoa production inhibited by IH compared to the control. Reversible spermatogenesis was noted 7 weeks after IH treatment in male dogs. Meanwhile, seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase levels also significantly increased two weeks after IH treatment. These data confirm that IH ...
Phenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated Show morePhenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Alkaline Phosphatase, Liver/Bone/Kidney Antibody (BGN/03/662). Validated: WB, ELISA. Tested Reactivity: Human, Bacteria. 100% Guaranteed.
3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10737975. Khandwala HM, Mumm S, Whyte MP (2007). Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity and pathologic fracture: case report and brief review of hypophosphatasia diagnosed in adulthood. Endocrine Practice. 12 (6): 676-81. doi:10.4158/ep.12.6.676. PMID 17229666. Nye KE, Riley GA, Pinching AJ (1992). The defect seen in the phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis pathway in HIV-infected lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells is due to inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 89 (1): 89-93. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1992.tb06883.x. PMC 1554388 . PMID 1321014. Henthorn PS, Raducha M, Fedde KN, et al. (1992). Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (20): 9924-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.20.9924. PMC 50246 . PMID 1409720. Nishihara Y, Hayashi Y, Adachi T, et al. ...
Hypophosphatasia (also called deficiency of alkaline phosphatase or phosphoethanolaminuria) is a rare, and sometimes fatal, metabolic bone disease. Clinical symptoms are heterogeneous, ranging from the rapidly fatal, perinatal variant, with profound skeletal hypomineralization and respiratory compromise, to a milder, progressive osteomalacia later in life. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, leading to rickets or osteomalacia. The pathognomonic finding is subnormal serum activity of the TNSALP enzyme, which is caused by one of 200 genetic mutations identified to date, in the gene encoding TNSALP. Genetic inheritance is autosomal recessive for the perinatal and infantile forms but either autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant in the milder forms. The prevalence of hypophosphatasia is not known; one study estimated the live birth incidence of severe forms to be 1:100,000. There is a remarkable variety of ...
Hypophosphatasia is a rare inherited metabolic disease of decreased tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and defective bone mineralization. Both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant variants of the disease exist. The disease comes in one of five forms, perinatal, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. Perinatal hypophosphatasia is invariably lethal while infantile hypophosphatasia has a roughly 50% mortality rate with symptoms appearing within the first 6th months after birth. The other forms are generally non-lethal. Common symptoms include bone malformations and higher chance of bone fracture. Both the adult form and odontohypophosphatasial form are marked by premature teeth loss. There is no known cure for hypophosphatasia. However, there have been some claims that choline may have positive health benefits for those with the disease that take it as a dietary supplement. ...
The phosphate regulation and subcellular location of the hydrolytic enzyme alkaline phosphatase were investigated in the Gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. The biosynthesis of alkaline phosphatase was not derepressed at a low phosphate concentration as is generally observed in other micro-organisms, nor was it repressed by high phosphate concentrations in the medium. The enzyme level was rather constant during the growth phases in batch culture, at a value at least 8.4-fold lower than that observed in Escherichia coli. The alkaline phosphatase of Z. mobilis was found associated with the membrane fraction after cell disruption, osmotic shock treatment or spheroplast formation. This is a rather unusual location, since most of the alkaline phosphatases from Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to be periplasmic enzymes. Activity staining on polyacrylamide gels after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed two isoforms of alkaline phosphatase, each of approximate molecular mass 56 kDa. These two
TY - JOUR. T1 - A homozygous missense variant in the alkaline phosphatase gene ALPL is associated with a severe form of canine hypophosphatasia. AU - Kyöstilä, Kaisa. AU - Syrjä, Pernilla. AU - Lappalainen, Anu K.. AU - Arumilli, Meharji. AU - Hundi, Sruthi. AU - Karkamo, Veera. AU - Viitmaa, Ranno. AU - Hytönen, Marjo K.. AU - Lohi, Hannes. PY - 2019/1/30. Y1 - 2019/1/30. KW - PYRIDOXINE-RESPONSIVE SEIZURES. KW - INFANTILE HYPOPHOSPHATASIA. KW - MATRIX VESICLES. KW - PERINATAL HYPOPHOSPHATASIA. KW - MUTATION. KW - BONE. KW - VITAMIN-B6. KW - NOSOLOGY. KW - GENOTYPE. KW - PYRIDOXAL-5-PHOSPHATE. KW - 413 Veterinary science. KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology. KW - 3111 Biomedicine. U2 - 10.1038/s41598-018-37801-2. DO - 10.1038/s41598-018-37801-2. M3 - Article. VL - 9. JO - Scientific Reports. JF - Scientific Reports. SN - 2045-2322. M1 - 973. ER - ...
This study will investigated Asfotase Alfa in patients with hypophosphatasia who completed the investigator-initiated clinical study (HPPJEAP-01) protocol for
Introduction: Mutations in the gene ALPL in hypophosphatasia (HPP) reduce the function of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, and the resulting increase in pyrophosphate (PPi) contributes to bone and tooth mineralization defects by inhibiting physiologic calcium-phosphate (P-i) precipitation. Although periodontal phenotypes are well documented, pulp/dentin abnormalities have been suggested in the clinical literature although reports are variable and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. in vitro analyses were used to identify mechanisms involved in HPP-associated pulp/dentin phenotypes. Methods: Primary pulp cells cultured from HPP subjects were established to assay alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and gene expression compared with cells from healthy controls. Exogenous P-i was provided to the correct P-i/PPi ratio in cell culture. Results: HPP cells exhibited significantly reduced ALP activity (by 50%) and mineral nodule formation (by 60%) compared with the controls. ...
To the editor: In 1960 Vogt (1) called attention to the possible presence of elevated alkaline phosphatase levels in thyroiditis. Since the report of Dalovisio (2) last year, a number of letters confirming their finding have appeared.. We wish to report one case of subacute thyroiditis with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase only minimally raised, but in which the thermoestable fraction was markedly elevated, indicating a hepatobiliary origin.. A 35-year-old woman began to feel nervousness, tremor, occipital headache and pain in the anterior aspect of the neck around 3 March 1979. By 1 month later, she had developed fever (temperature ...
Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of cranial bones. The goal of this study was to determine if delivery of recombinant tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) could prevent or diminish the severity of craniosynostosis in a C57BL/6 FGFR2C342Y/+ model of neonatal onset craniosynostosis or a BALB/c FGFR2C342Y/+ model of postnatal onset craniosynostosis. Mice were injected with a lentivirus encoding a mineral targeted form of TNAP immediately after birth. Cranial bone fusion as well as cranial bone volume, mineral content and density were assessed by micro computed tomography. Craniofacial shape was measured with calipers., Alkaline phosphatase, alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity levels were measured in serum. Neonatal delivery of TNAP diminished craniosynostosis severity from 94% suture obliteration in vehicle treated mice to 67% suture obliteration in treated mice, p,0.02) and the incidence of malocclusion from 82.4% to 34.7% (p,0.03), with ...
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panel. Contains 25 g each of anti-Alkaline Phosphatase, anti-Nanog, anti-Oct-3/4, anti-SSEA-1, and anti-SSEA-4. from R&D Systems,,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (AP), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) and intestinal AP (IAP). This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimers disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie Graser, Birgit Mentrup, Doris Schneider, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Franz Jakob, Christine Hofmann].
Alkaline phosphatase activity on osteoblast - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: HelloI have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells.I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblast.I never did ALP test before. Does everybody can help regarding the protocol for ALP assay?I will use ALP kit from RANDOX.Thank you for help.
A 57 year old woman with cerebrovascular disease had a 16 Fr Corflo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (Merck Gastroenterology, West Drayton, Middlesex, UK) exchanged for a 20 Fr replacement Corflo balloon gastrostomy (volume 5 ml) as a bridge to eventual insertion of a permanent 20 Fr Corflo-cuBBy button gastrostomy. Four weeks later she presented with a seven day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Initial investigations revealed a serum alanine transaminase level of 54 IU/l (normal range (NR) 0-35), serum alkaline phosphatase level of 491 IU/l (NR 70-300), serum bilirubin level of … ...
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Hypophosphatasia is a genetic condition in which the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase is deficient. This enzyme plays an essential role in mineralization - when minerals such as calcium and phosphorus are deposited in developing bones and teeth. Low activity of this enzyme which characterizes hypophosphatasia also leads to rickets, osteomalacia, or both. The severity of the symptoms of hypophosphatasia varies widely, from fetal loss during pregnancy to cases in which pathologic fractures first present only in adulthood. Hypophosphatasia is caused by a mutation in a gene - called the ALPL gene - that provides instructions for making the alkaline phosphatase enzyme. A cure or proven medical therapy for hypophosphatasia has not yet been found. Treatment is generally directed towards preventing or correcting the symptoms or complications ...
Aim: The role of alkaline phosphatase in cell metabolism and regulation is essential and cuts across cell proliferation, division, cell death, membrane transport and DNA cleavage. This study addresses the role and importance of alkaline phosphates (ALP) and Placenta Alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in the cells of germinal epithelium of male Rat testes following induced lead (Pb) toxicity and rejuvenation by Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn) treatment. Method: Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats (males) were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each and were treated as thus; Group 1: Normal saline and serves as the control, Group 2: 100 mg/Kg BW of Pb only, Group 3: 100 mg/Kg BW of Pb and 2.25 mg/Kg each of Se and Zn and group 4 received 2.25 mg.Kg each of Se and Zn only. The duration of treatment was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by the 57th day and testes fixed in Bouins fluid. Result: Pb induced toxicity could be apoptotic involving ROS activation of NO-dependent apoptotic pathway or ...
Aberrations in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway constitute a subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation, and mutations in seven genes involved in this pathway have been identified. Among them, mutations in PIGV and PIGO, which are involved in the late stages of GPI-anchor synthesis, and PGAP2, which is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, are all causative for hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous PIGO mutations (c.389C,A [p.Thr130Asn] and c.1288C,T [p.Gln430*]) in two siblings, one of them having epileptic encephalopathy. GPI-anchored proteins (CD16 and CD24) on blood granulocytes were slightly decreased compared with a control and his mother. Our patients lacked the characteristic features of HPMRS, such as facial dysmorphology (showing only a tented mouth) and hypoplasia of distal phalanges, and had only a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase ...
a bone-specific alkaline phosphatase test - a test that involves the alkaline phosphatase levels (an enzyme found throughout the body) in the bone being measured; any condition of bone growth or an increased activity of bone cells, including Pagets disease, will cause alkaline phosphatase levels to rise. ...
This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor family. The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown to induce expression of the intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene, and inhibit beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity.[2] CDX1 has also been shown to play an important role in embryonic epicardial development. It has been demonstrated that CDX proteins suppress cardiac differentiation in both zebrafish and mouse embryonic stem cells, but the overall mechanism for how this happens is poorly understood.[5] However, CDX1 has been shown to be transiently expressed in the embryonic heart 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). This transient expression is thought to induce epicardial epithelial-to-mesynchemal transition and thus proper cardiovascular formation. It has been shown that low-dose CDX1 induction caused enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into vascular ...
Elevated GGT is found in all forms of liver disease. Measurement of GGT is used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis, as well as primary and secondary liver tumors. It is more sensitive than alkaline phosphatase, the transaminases, and leucine aminopeptidase in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, and cholecystitis. Normal levels of GGT are seen in skeletal diseases; thus, GGT in serum can be used to ascertain whether a disease, suggested by elevated alkaline phosphatase, is skeletal or hepatobiliary. ...
As well as regression assessed directly by measuring the circumference of the limb at the point of maximum tumour swelling, radiographic changes in tumour appearance occurred in the St. Bernard and Great Dane. There was resorption of periosteal new bone and a much smoother outline of the affected areas was apparent (Fig. 6). Recurrence was heralded by the proliferation of periosteal new bone. An increase in serum alkaline phosphatase values was present the day after perfusion (Fig. 7). This was not solely a feature of osteosarcomas as an increased amount of the enzyme in the blood also occurred when the limb of a dog bearing a squamous cell carcinoma was perfused. A similar effect was seen when a normal dog and a nephrecto- mised dog were perfused. An increase in serum alkaline phosphatase occurred when an osteosarcoma was treated by radiotherapy. Where therapy resulted in regression of osteosarcoma and radiography showed resorption of new bone values fell below the pre-treatment figure, rising ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. Compare the effect of zoledronate vs observation on bone loss associated with surgery (at a minimum, any surgical procedure that results in removal of both ovaries) in patients undergoing excision of both ovaries.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE:. I. Compare the change in bone mineral density of the bilateral hip in patients treated with these regimens.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVE:. I. Compare the effect of zoledronate vs observation on biochemical markers of bone resorption and bone formation (N-telopeptide and bone specific alkaline phosphatase) during 1 year of treatment.. OUTLINE: This is a randomized, multicenter study. Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.. All patients undergo surgery, with removal of both ovaries, in month 1. All patients are requested to take calcium supplements twice daily and a multivitamin containing vitamin D once daily beginning in month 1 and continuing for up to 18 months.. ARM I: Beginning 60-90 days after surgery, patients receive zoledronate IV ...
The association between the brush border enzyme alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase was determined by sucrose density gradient analysis of crude kidney homogenates, isolated glomeruli, and isolated microvessels. As previously established there is an overlap of these enzyme activities …
Milk and milk products - Determination of alkaline phosphatase activity using a fluorometric method - Part 1: Milk and milk-based drinks
aData from a noninterventional, retrospective chart review study designed to understand the natural history of 48 patients ≤5 years of age with severe perinatal- and infantile-onset hypophosphatasia. Patients included in the study were those diagnosed with hypophosphatasia based on at least one of the following: serum biomarker levels (below-normal alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and above-normal PLP or PEA), below-normal ALP and radiographic abnormalities, or genetic analysis of the ALPL gene. Additionally, onset of hypophosphatasia must have occurred prior to 6 months of age based on signs that included at least one of the following: respiratory compromise, rachitic chest deformity, and/or vitamin B6-responsive seizures.12. bRadiographs are from different patients with hypophosphatasia.. ...
SKU: AP3877 Categories: Clinical Chemistry, Clinical Chemistry Analysers, Diagnostic Reagents, RX daytona, RX daytona and RX imola Reagents, RX imola, Veterinary Reagents Method: AMP Format: Lyophilised Size: R1 6x17.5ml, R2 6x3.5ml Assay Range: Measuring range 18.3 to 1117 U/l Working Stability: To expiry at +2 to +8℃ Available Applications: Applications are available for a wide range of instruments Tags: Assay, Clinical Chemistry Reagents, RX daytona, RX imola, Veterinary Reagents ...
As blood carries chemicals through the body, it can go through bone marrow, which is the basis for production of blood cells. The liver also filters toxins.. DAndreas study with colleague G. Kesava Reddy documented a wide range of abnormal values for enzymes in the blood of 117 former cleanup workers, compared to a control group of 130 patients not involved in sopping up the spill.. The workers had decreased levels of blood-clotting platelets, as well as lower numbers for blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, which are indicators of kidney health.. The amount of three liver enzymes - alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase - in the cleanup workers blood also was higher than the non-exposed patients, a warning sign of liver dysfunction and damage.. DAndrea said various studies show that patients with damaged bone marrow have higher incidence of possible leukemias, lymphoma and myelomas, and that liver damage increases risk of liver, pancreas and gallbladder ...
Conjugated oligoelectrolytes (COEs) boost the electrical performance of a wide range of bioelectrochemical systems, yet their mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. One possible mode of action is that COEs permeabilize the cell envelope. We thus examined the effect of tetracationic COE, DSSN+, on the permeability of the inner and outer membrane of Escherichia coli by detecting extracellular activity of normally periplasmic and cytoplasmic enzymes. DSSN+ increases the release of the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) up to 20-fold, but does not significantly change the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme β-galactosidase. Additionally, DSSN+ caused a 2-fold increase in the turnover of a cytoplasmic substrate. These studies present a more complete understanding of the mechanism of action in bioelectrochemical systems and pivot future applications of COEs towards a method for improving whole-cell catalysis.. ...
high liver function levels in blood test Alpha fetoprotein blood AFP test. Normally the liver serves various important functions in our body including breaking down waste or toxic substance changing nutrient into energy for body function and hormone production. Your liver enzymes may be elevated even if there is no damage to the liver at all. The liver is very active in handling fat. Badly harmed liver can not produce albumin. 60. Liver function test abnormalities are common in patients with EM but were mild most often not associated with symptoms and improved or resolved by 3 weeks after the onset of antibiotic therapy in most patients. The liver is responsible for producing albumin a protein that prevents If one value of the liver profile is elevated alkaline phosphatase AST lactate dehydrogenase or bilirubin common bile duct stones will found in 20 of cases. The Hepatic Profile or Liver Function Tests LFT is a group of blood tests that provide information about the state of your liver. As ...
Tissues can contain endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity that will produce background staining if an alkaline phosphatase detection system and substrate are used.
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
The arthralgias had started six weeks prior to his new admission. The joint pain had started in his left wrist. It then spread to the knees, ankles, hips and shoulders. The pain did not worsen with activity and was not relieved by rest. The patient reported he had noticed progressive hand swelling. His pain had worsened to the point that walking was unbearable. He reported fever, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. He also reported having had one or two extremely watery, mucous-laden stools just prior to his emergency department visit.. On admission, the patient was noted to have numerous laboratory abnormalities: hyponatremia with a sodium level of 130 mEq/L (reference range [RR]: 136-145); hypokalemia with potassium at 3.0 mEq/L (RR: 3.5-5.1); a chloride level of 92 mEq/L (RR: 98-107); hypocalcemia with a level of 7.9 mg/dL (RR: 8.5-10.1); aspartate amino-transferase of 109 units/L (RR: 15-37); alanine aminotransferase of 84 units/L (RR: 12-78); elevated alkaline phosphatase of 158 units/L ...
Complement pathways function to identify and remove pathogens and infected cells. There are three complement pathways: the classical, lectin and alternative pathway (AP). While all pathways are activated following pathogen stimuli, the AP is constitutively active and tightly controlled by activators (e.g., Factor B, Factor D) and negative regulators (e.g., Factor H). Complement activity can be measured by well-established methods that are often used in a diagnostic setting to determine the CH50 (50% complement hemolytic activity) or AP50, specifically to measure AP activity. The protocol here has adapted the traditional AP50 method designed to measure AP activity in human sera, to measure the positive or negative AP regulatory activity within a given test sample. The assay relies on the ability of AP components in human serum to lyse rabbit erythrocytes under in vitro conditions specific for the AP with subsequent release of hemoglobin that is quantitated by measurement of optical density. Our method
Rentea RM, Lam V, Biesterveld B, Fredrich KM, Callison J, Fish BL, Baker JE, Komorowski R, Gourlay DM, Otterson MF. Radiation-induced changes in intestinal and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: implications for recovery after radiation therapy. Am J Surg. 2016 Oct; 212(4):602-608 ...
Leukocytosis. • Elevated alkaline phosphatase. • Elevated transaminases. • Hypoalbuminemia rare for amebic abscess. • Entamoeba histolytica serologic studies (positive in 95% of cases) in amebic abscess. • Hydatid serologic studies (positive in > 80% of cases). • Schistosomal ova in feces. • Eosinophilia in hydatid disease ...
86 year-old white female was in good heath. Two days before admission to ER, she had an increased abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant without bowel movement, and she had three times of vomiting with possible blood. On admission, she was found to have severe extensive abdominal pain (10/10) with movement, urinary tract infection, dehydration,hypercalcemia (13.9), elevated alkaline phosphatase (414), and white cell count (32K). One day later, she had decreased air entry bilaterally with minimal atelectasis, acute renal failure with metabolic and respiratory acidosis (Potassium 6.2, pH 7.11, BUN 84, Cr 2.7, AST 960, ALT 428, CK 2441, Myoglobin ,1000). CT scan showed distended small bowel and colon with distal colon obstruction and abdominal aortic atherosclerosis. The patients expired two days later ...
sp:PPBT_MOUSE] Alpl, ALP, APTNAP, Akp-2, Akp2, TNAP, TNSALP; alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney; K01077 alkaline phosphatase [EC:] ...
The topology of the integral membrane protein MalF, which is required for maltose transport in Escherichia coli, has been analyzed using fusions of alkaline phosphatase (EC The properties of such fusion strains support a MalF structure previously proposed on theoretical grounds. Several transmembrane segments within MalF can act as signal sequences in exporting alkaline phosphatase. Other transmembrane sequences, in conjunction with cytoplasmic domains, can stably anchor alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that features of the amino acid sequence (possibly the positively charged amino acids) of the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are important in anchoring these domains in the cytoplasm. These studies in conjunction with our earlier results show that alkaline phosphatase fusions to membrane proteins can be an important aid in analyzing membrane topology and its determinants.. ...
I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor said that high normal is 136. All other bloodwork and enzymes are fine. I am being sent for a gall bladde...
BL21/pES2KI pellets were subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation (30-40%), resuspended in buffer A (30 mM NaCl and 20 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0), and applied to a Fractogel column (Merck, USA). The fraction. was eluted by a NaCl gradient (30 mM-1.4 M). After purification through a P-100 size-exclusion column (BioRad, USA), the CaroS2K fractions were CB-5083 pooled and concentrated using an Amicon centriprep-50 column (Millipore, USA) and dissolved in buffer A. BL21/pES2I pellets were precipitated by ammonium sulfate (70-100%) and resuspended in buffer A. CaroS2I purification involved a similar chromatographic procedure using the Amicon centriprep-3 column (Millipore, USA). The concentration of protein was determined by the Bradford assay (Amresco, USA). In vitro determination of Carocin S2 activity Total RNA was treated with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (Promega, USA) at 55°C for 30 min as recommended by the manufacturer. The reaction was arrested by adding 5 mM nitrilotriacetic acid, and ...
AIM: To determine the optimum form of labelling and the most efficient reporter molecule for non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation (ISH). METHODS: Nine deoxyoligonucleotides complementary to histone mRNA were synthesised and labelled either enzymatically or during solid-phase synthesis with the reporter molecules digoxigenin, 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP), or alkaline phosphatase. Pooled deoxyoligonucleotide cocktails were then used in non-radioisotopic ISH detection of histone mRNA in human tonsil. Hybrid detection was by nitroblue tetrazoleum/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate colorimetric development. RESULTS: The use of a spacer in 3 enzymatic labelling and when labelling with alkaline phosphatase significantly increased ISH signal. The 3 and 5 labelling of oligonucleotides with triple DNP groups during solid-phase synthesis produced the strongest signal as determined by the highest cell signal intensity and shortest development time. CONCLUSIONS: 3 and 5 solid-phase labelling with triple ...
Alkaline phosphatase[edit]. Alkaline phosphatase from E. coli can be purified using a DEAE-Cellulose matrix. A. phosphatase has ...
doi:10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700020004x McComb, R. B.; Bowers, G. N.; Posen, S. (1979). Alkaline phosphatase. New York: ...
... alkaline phosphatase activity in biomedical assays involving detection signal amplification by intestinal alkaline phosphatase ... Van Belle H (July 1976). "Alkaline phosphatase. I. Kinetics and inhibition by levamisole of purified isoenzymes from humans". ... Levamisole reversibly and noncompetitively inhibits most isoforms of alkaline phosphatase (e.g., human liver, bone, kidney, and ...
Alkaline phosphataseEdit. Alkaline phosphatase levels are usually elevated in hyperparathyroidism. In primary ...
Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, ... An up-to-date list of mutations is available online at The Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Mutations Database. ... Hypophosphatasia is associated with a molecular defect in the gene encoding tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). ... The symptom that best characterizes hypophosphatasia is low serum activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP). In general, ...
Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase. Subtle vascular changes in the retina resembling telangiectasia (spider veins) in the ... Hypertension Normocytic anemia Normochromic anemia Gastrointestinal bleeding or telangiectasias Elevated alkaline phosphatase ...
Transient increase in blood alkaline phosphatase. *INR abnormal. *Prothrombin level abnormal. *bulbous skin reaction[20] ...
1979) found that there are at least three varieties of alkaline phosphatases, kidney, liver, and bone alkaline phosphatases, ... The alkaline phosphatase varieties, therefore, express a unique complement of in the enzymatic processes in post-translational ... Alkaline phosphatase activity correlates with the morphology changes. Initial deacetylation of histone is required for ... In normal stem cells, the activity of alkaline phosphatase activity is lowered upon differentiation. Trichostatin A causes the ...
Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALPPL2 gene. There are at least four ... "Entrez Gene: Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2". Human ALPPL2 genome location and ALPPL2 gene details page in the UCSC ... Shen LP, Liu H, Kan YW, Kam W (June 1988). "5' nucleotide sequence of a putative human placental alkaline phosphatase-like gene ... Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z, Ben-Hur H, Open M, Dgani R (September 1999). "Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase may enable early ...
The enzyme tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays a key role in creating and maintaining healthy bones, and ... Hypophosphatasia is caused by a genetic defect of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), an enzyme that plays a role ... Asfotase alfa interferes with alkaline phosphatase measurements. As asfotase alfa is a glycoprotein (as opposed to a small ...
Alkaline phosphatase acts in vitamin B6 metabolism". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 76 (2): 752-756. doi:10.1172/JCI112031 ...
Research has shown increased production of enzymes such as; maltase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase with MOS ...
Alkaline phosphatase prevents intestinal inflammation (and "leaky gut") from bacteria by dephosphorylating the Lipid A portion ... Lallès JP (February 2014). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: novel functions and protective effects". Nutrition Reviews. 72 (2 ... "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents antibiotic-induced susceptibility to enteric pathogens". Annals of Surgery. 259 (4): ... "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut ...
... is an artificial chromogenic substrate used for the sensitive colorimetric detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. It is, ... Alkaline phosphatase hydrolyses BCIP to 5-bromo-4-chloro-3- ... Alkaline phosphatase is commonly conjugated to secondary antibodies. http:// ...
Moak, G; Harris, H (1979). "Lack of homology between dog and human placental alkaline phosphatases". Proceedings of the ... Goldstein, DJ; Rogers, CE; Harris, H (1980). "Expression of alkaline phosphatase loci in mammalian tissues". Proceedings of the ...
Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in osteoblasts.[11] Oxidation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the ...
Each isoenzymes is a dimer of 2 subunits M (muscle) , B (brain) or both 3.) Isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase: Six isoenzymes ...
"Repeated probing of Southwestern blots using alkaline phosphatase stripping". Journal of Chromatography A. 1217 (45): 7177-7181 ...
Woolkalis MJ, Baumann P (July 1981). "Evolution of alkaline phosphatase in marine species of Vibrio". J. Bacteriol. 147 (1): 36 ...
"Function assignment to conserved residues in mammalian alkaline phosphatases". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (25): 22992-9. doi:10.1074/ ...
Alkaline phosphatase, intestinal also known as ALPI is a type of alkaline phosphatase that in humans is encoded by the ALPI ... "Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2008). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2003). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase release is not associated with chylomicron formation". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...
Of note, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are usually normal. Autoimmune hepatitis frequently appears associated with other ...
strain BSAR-1 expressing a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) has also been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium from ... "Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium ... This is the first report of bioprecipitation of uranium under alkaline conditions. LPSN Minamino, Miki; Sakaguchi ... from Alkaline Solutions" (PDF). Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (17): 5516-5523. doi:10.1128/AEM.00107-08. ISSN 1098 ...
Another example is alkaline phosphatase, which contains two essential disulfides. It was used as an indicator protein to screen ...
strain BSAR-1 has been found to express a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) that has been applied for bioprecipitation ... Nilgiriwala, K.S.; Alahari, A.; Rao, A. S. & Apte, S.K. (2008). "Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from ... In nature, uranium(VI) forms highly soluble carbonate complexes at alkaline pH. This leads to an increase in mobility and ... However, it is difficult to precipitate uranium as phosphate in the presence of excess carbonate at alkaline pH. A Sphingomonas ...
Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel (2006). "Alkaline Phosphatase Mono- and Diesterase Reactions: Comparative Transition State ...
It also markedly raises the serum level of alkaline phosphatase.[citation needed] Chlorpropamide is a white crystalline powder ...
The stratum intermedium has a notably high alkaline phosphatase activity. This layer, along with the inner enamel epithelium, ...
Takizawa, T.; Saito, T. (1997-01-01). "New fracture-labelling method: alkaline phosphatase in unstimulated human neutrophils". ...
... and with 250 mg/kg mildly elevated Alkaline phosphatase and Gamma-GT. Studies in dogs revealed no toxicity relevant for humans ...
... alkaline phosphatase - alopecia - alpha interferon (INFa) - alternative medicine - alveolar - amebiasis - amino acids - ...
The leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) score, which refers to the amount of alkaline phosphatase per neutrophil, will ...
Blood tests may detect the presence of placental alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) in fifty percent of cases. ...
... alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels, and relatively normal transaminase levels. Such laboratory ...
negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity. • regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. • defense response ... negative regulation of myosin-light-chain-phosphatase activity. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ...
... an alkaline phosphatase, a cyclic phosphodiesterase, an acid phosphatase, and a 5'-nucleotidase.[9] Sucrose-tris(hydroxymethyl) ...
Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the gene for secreted alkaline phosphatase from Lysobacter enzymogenes. J Bacteriol ... Comparison of the phosphatases of Lysobacter enzymogenes with those of related bacteria. J Gen Microbiol 133:3121-7. Wright, D ... Production of two phosphatases by Lysobacter enzymogenes and purification and characterization of the extracellular enzyme. ...
Alkaline phosphatase. *Lactoferrin. *Lysozyme. *NADPH oxidase. *Collagenase. *Cathelicidin. Eosinophil. *Cathepsin. *Major ...
Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were both substantially elevated (18.7-21.6 ng/mL and 33.3-35.9 ng/mL ...
protein phosphatase type 2A complex. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • respiratory chain. • nucleus. • ... "Tyrosine phosphorylation turns alkaline transition into a biologically relevant process and makes human cytochrome c behave as ... protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • heme binding. • electron carrier ... Favre B, Zolnierowicz S, Turowski P, Hemmings BA (Jun 1994). "The catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is carboxyl- ...
The pecten is highly rich in alkaline phosphatase activity and polarized cells in its bridge portion - both befitting its ...
... and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); bilirubin (which causes the jaundice); and protein levels, specifically, total protein and ...
2009). „Serum osteocalcin/bone-specific alkaline phosphatase ratio is a predictor for the presence of vertebral fractures in ... Lumachi F, Camozzi V, Tombolan V, Luisetto G (2009). „Bone mineral density, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase ... 2009). „Changes of bone formation markers osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in postmenopausal women with ...
The intestine is used to make Goldbeater's skin, and is the source of Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (CIP). ...
3.1.3: Phosphatase. *Alkaline phosphatase *ALPI. *ALPL. *ALPP. *Acid phosphatase (Prostatic)/Tartrate-resistant acid ...
It is stable at acidic pH, but is unstable in alkaline solutions.[10][21] Thiamine, which is a persistent carbene, is used by ... Thiamine is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the upper small intestine. At low concentrations, the ...
It can also cause elevations in hepatic enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase.[20] ...
... phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate involves their dephosphorylation catalyzed by a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Those ...
Others have already developed cirrhosis at diagnosis.[6] Of note, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are usually normal. ...
Yield is typically 50%:50%, although slightly alkaline reaction conditions can slightly increase mannitol yields.[17] ... Mannitol-1-phosphatase. *Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase. *Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (NADP+). *Mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase ...
Biochemical markers (e.g. alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin) are often used to indicate liver damage. ... initial alkaline phosphatase rise) types. However they are not mutually exclusive and mixed types of injuries are often ...
There can be a mild elevation in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in some instances, such as cholecystitis. If gallstones are ...
Abnormalities in liver enzyme tests are usually present and elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ... Obeticholic acid, which is a modified bile acid, produced a reduction in the level of the biomarker alkaline phosphatase, a ... 1986). "Positive Antimitochondrial Antibody but Normal Alkaline Phosphatase: Is this Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?". Hepatology. 6 ... Bezafibrate has been shown to improve biomarkers including alkaline phosphatase, but has not been licensed in PBC.[51][52] ...
Hou, G; Hou, G. & Cui, Q. QM/MM Analysis Suggests that Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/ ...
3.1.3: Phosphatase. *Alkaline phosphatase *ALPI. *ALPL. *ALPP. *Acid phosphatase (Prostatic)/Tartrate-resistant acid ... Mutations of the glucose 6-phosphatase system, to be specific the glucose 6-phosphatase-α subunit (glucose 6-phosphatase-α), ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Glucose 6-phosphatase.. *Glucose-6-Phosphatase at the US National Library of Medicine ... The main phosphatase function is performed by the glucose 6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. In humans, there are three isozymes ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ...
In order to mineralise the bone, the osteoblasts secrete vesicles containing alkaline phosphatase. This cleaves the phosphate ... Acid-base balance - bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts.[citation ... Upon arrival, active enzymes, such as tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, are secreted against the mineral substrate.[citation ...
Elevated serum B12 or low white blood cell alkaline phosphatase, or leukocytic abnormalities in a peripheral smear indicates a ...
Ishino Y, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase ...
There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... This is especially true in a field such as alkaline phosphatase research, in which very real dangers exist that the seeds of ... There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... The history of the study of alkaline phosphatase provides several instances when valuable generalizations have emerged. ...
An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in the blood. It is used to diagnose liver damage or bone ... What is an alkaline phosphatase test?. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in your blood. ALP is an ... Why do I need an alkaline phosphatase test?. Your health care provider may have ordered an alkaline phosphatase test as part of ... What happens during an alkaline phosphatase test?. An alkaline phosphatase test is a type of blood test. During the test, a ...
Our knowledge of the structure and function of alkaline phosphatases has increased greatly in recent years. The crystal ... Mammalian alkaline phosphatases are allosteric enzymes. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 22781-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Alkaline phosphatases (APs; EC occur widely in nature, and are found in many organisms from bacteria to man [1]. With ... Structural evidence of functional divergence in human alkaline phosphatases. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 49808-14.CrossRefPubMed ...
Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : * ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ...
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one kind enzyme found in your body. If you show signs of liver disease or a bone disorder, your ... What Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Test? Medically Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson, MD on May 20, 2021 Articles On What Is an ... Alkaline phosphatase is one kind enzyme found in your body. Enzymes are proteins that help chemical reactions happen. For ... If you show signs of liver disease or a bone disorder, your doctor may order an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test to measure the ...
Alkaline phosphatase substrates. Unmasking of trimethyl lock substrate 1 with alkaline phosphatase requires two steps: an ... Michaelis-Menten plots for the serial dilution of substrate 1 (128→5.9 μM) with E. coli alkaline phosphatase (25 ng·mL−1) in ... Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a ... Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase.. Levine MN1, Raines RT.. Author information. 1. Department of ...
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Low levels of alkaline phosphatase have been linked to malnutrition, Wilsons disease and protein deficiency. The alkaline ... Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Alkaline phosphatase helps the teeth and bones grow properly. It is also active in kidney and liver function. The normal range ...
My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... Elevated alkaline phosphatase I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase ... My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... What other tests do I need to have other than having another alkaline phosphatase test done in 3 months? ...
I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor said that high normal is 136. All ... alkaline phosphatase MAWorried I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor ... that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase ... An alkaline phosphatase of 153 is mildly elevated. There are many reasons why this can be elevated. Here is a excerpt from ...
Gilbert syndrome: Increase in intestinal alkaline phosphatase is seen.7. Hepatitis: Moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase ... may elevate alkaline phosphatase. There is evidence that thyroid hormone (T3) acts to stimulate bone alkaline phosphatase ... Causes of low alkaline phosphatase are said to include: Hypothyroidism − but most hypothyroid patients have normal alkaline ... 3. Narayanan S. Alkaline phosphatase as tumor marker. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1983 Mar-Apr; 13(2):133-136. 6859804 ...
For the direct colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase in human serum.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies, ... Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC). 5. Alkaline phosphatase FS (IFCC). 6. Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C). 7. Alkaline ... Alkaline Phosphatase. 2. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase Liquid Reagent (Kinetic Procedure). 4. ... Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (DIMENSION). 9. Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes. 10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 11. ...
CPG Sec 527.300 Microbial Contaminants & Alkaline Phosphatase Activity December 2010 Download the Final Compliance Policy Guide ...
... ANSWER This test checks for an enzyme in your blood that might show if ... Be sure to let your doctor know if you are pregnant, because that will raise the level of alkaline phosphatase in your blood. ... How is an alkaline phosphatase test done?. NEXT QUESTION: What do your alkaline phosphatase test results mean? ...
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE. A, B. 449. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: phoA. EC: ... Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase: X-ray structural studies of a mutant enzyme (His-412Asn) at one of the catalytically ... Reaction Mechanism of Alkaline Phosphatase Based on Crystal Structures. Two Metal Ion Catalysis. Kim, E.E., Wyckoff, H.W. ... The X-ray structure of a mutant version of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (H412N) in which His-412 was replaced by Asn ...
The past few years have witnessed the reports of significant new events in alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes. The cloning of ... Alkaline phosphatase isozymes: recent progress Clin Biochem. 1990 Apr;23(2):99-104. doi: 10.1016/0009-9120(90)80019-f. ... The past few years have witnessed the reports of significant new events in alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes. The cloning of ...
alkaline phosphatase synonyms, alkaline phosphatase pronunciation, alkaline phosphatase translation, English dictionary ... definition of alkaline phosphatase. adj. 1. Of, relating to, or containing an alkali. 2. a. Having a pH greater than 7. b. ... Alkaline phosphatase - definition of alkaline phosphatase by The Free Dictionary ... alkaline. (redirected from alkaline phosphatase). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. al·ka· ...
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme necessary for normal phosphate metabolism found in several different tissues in your body. ... Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase and Disease. Alkaline phosphatase blood levels rise when a disease involves any of those tissues ... Low Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Mildly decreased alkaline phosphatase levels can be seen with zinc deficiency or malnutrition ... Normal Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Important tissue sites containing alkaline phosphatase include the liver, bone, intestine, ...
... For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. For Hitachi 717. ... Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC). 6. Alkaline phosphatase FS (IFCC). 7. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). 8. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP ... Alkaline Phosphatase. 2. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent Set. 4. Alkaline Phosphatase Liquid ... Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes. 10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 11. Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum or Plasma. ...
Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... However, primary cancers in various organs can generate alkaline phosphatase elevations in the absence of metastasis. These ... Clinical Chemistry; A Variant Alkaline Phosphatase in Renal Cell Carcinoma; Whitaker K, et al.; 1982 ...
... a new thermosensitive alkaline phosphatase, which active in all Promega restriction enzyme buffers, including MULTI-CORE™ ... TSAP: A New Thermosensitive Alkaline Phosphatase. John Brandon and Michael R. Slater. Promega Corporation. Publication Date: ... Here we describe TSAP, a new thermosensitive alkaline phosphatase. TSAP is active in all Promega restriction enzyme buffers, ... The robust phosphatase activity effectively dephosphorylates all DNA termini (5´, 3´ and blunt) in 15 minutes at 37°C. As TSAP ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other ... View list of E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase Products. KM: 0.02 × 10-3 M (p-Nitrophenyl phosphate)4. Molecular weight:2 89 kDa ( ... E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase. E. coli ALKP is a dimeric, non-glycosylated protein assumed to reside mainly in the periplasmic ... Conjugation of Alkaline Phosphatase to Antibodies and Other Proteins. Dephosphorylation of DNA. Dephosphorylation of Protein ...
Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture. Br Med J 1978; 1 :620 ... Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: ( ...
Alkaline phosphatase has a Km of 8.4 x 10−4. Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated ... Common alkaline phosphatases used in research include: Shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP), from a species of Arctic shrimp ( ... Human-intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The human body has multiple types of alkaline phosphatase present, which are determined ... Calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP) Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and its C terminally truncated version that ...
DIMINUTION IN RENAL ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK. Wesley W. Spink and Mary Jean Landeryou Department of Medicine, ...
ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal [Homo sapiens] ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:248 ... intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase. Names. Kasahara isozyme. alkaline phosphomonoesterase. glycerophosphatase. intestinal ... alkaline phosphatase, intestinalprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:437 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000163295 MIM:171740 ... Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: a summary of its role in clinical disease. Fawley J, et al. J Surg Res, 2016 May 1. PMID ...
... coli alkaline phosphatase provide insight towards the structure and function of mammalian and yeast alkaline phosphatases. ...
Measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase-in some cases, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)-can be useful in the ... Alkaline Phosphatase. Because of increased osteoblastic activity and bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) ... the total alkaline phosphatase level may be normal. Consequently, a normal alkaline phosphatase level does not exclude the ... Measuring total alkaline phosphatase levels may be useful in patients with normal liver function. However, BSAP is more ...
The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... What is an alkaline phosphate blood test?. A: An alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, blood test measures the bodys level of ALP, ... The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... The alkaline phosphatase test consists of a simple blood test, and it is often taken at the same time as other routine blood ...
... Test Overview. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood. ALP ... A test for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is done to:. *Check for liver disease or damage to the liver. Symptoms of liver disease ... An alkaline phosphatase test is often done at the same time as a routine blood test. You do not need to do anything before ... An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood. ...
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  • Alkaline phosphatase is one kind enzyme found in your body. (
  • If you show signs of liver disease or a bone disorder, your doctor may order an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test to measure the amount of the enzyme in your blood and help in diagnosing the problem. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a reporter in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and other biochemical methods. (
  • The tight binding of the enzyme to its inorganic phosphate product leads to strong inhibition of catalysis and confounds measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human body's tissues. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme necessary for normal phosphate metabolism found in several different tissues in your body. (
  • Important tissue sites containing alkaline phosphatase include the liver, bone, intestine, kidney and placenta, with bone and liver having the highest concentrations of the enzyme. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase blood levels measure the sum of enzyme from all these sites, which vary predictably with age. (
  • The different tissue sources of alkaline phosphatase each produce a slightly different molecular form of the enzyme, called an isoenzyme, which can also be measured to help determine the cause of a change in blood levels. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase blood levels rise when a disease involves any of those tissues containing the enzyme. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as nucleotides, which are building blocks for DNA, and proteins. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase is a zinc-containing dimeric enzyme with the MW: 86,000 Da, each subunit containing 429 amino acids with four cysteine residues linking the two subunits. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase contains four Zn ions and two Mg ions, with Zn occupying active sites A and B, and Mg occupying site C, so the fully active native alkaline phosphatase is referred to as (ZnAZnBMgC)2 enzyme. (
  • The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. (
  • Serum total acid phosphatase is an osteoclastic enzyme that may be elevated in active Paget disease. (
  • The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme derived from bovine intestinal mucosa, is often used as a label for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Southern and Northern hybridization, and DNA sequencing. (
  • Elevated levels of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme are reported with those who have obesity. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in high amounts in bone and liver. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase ( ALP ) ( EC ) is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides , proteins , and alkaloids . (
  • Although the actual purpose of the enzyme is still not fully understood, the simple hypothesis, that it is a means for the bacteria to generate free phosphate groups for uptake and use, is supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase is usually only produced by the bacteria during phosphate starvation and not when phosphate is plentiful. (
  • Another important use of alkaline phosphatase is as a label for enzyme immunoassays . (
  • Since the intestinal form of the enzyme is used as the marker enzyme in the VECTASTAIN ® ABC-AP Kit, levamisole can be used to inhibit endogenous alkaline phosphatase in most cases. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found throughout your body. (
  • alkaline phosphatase an enzyme localized on cell membranes that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 10.0. (
  • al·ka·line phos·pha·tase/ (ALP) ( fos´fah-tās ) an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under alkaline conditions. (
  • As the name implies, this enzyme works best at an alkaline pH, and thus the enzyme is virtually inactive in the blood. (
  • It has long been realized that serum alkaline phosphatase arises from tissues rich in the enzyme, and the origin of this enzyme is intricately bound up with that of the mechanisms by which the serum activity is increased in health and in disease. (
  • A sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used in a retrospective study of serum levels of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in testicular cancer. (
  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an ubiquitous enzyme present in all tissues but is mainly concentrated in the liver, kidney, placenta, and bone. (
  • Since the mucosal cells that line the bile system of the liver are the source of alkaline phosphatase, the free flow of bile through the liver and down into the biliary tract and gallbladder are responsible for maintaining the proper level of this enzyme in the blood. (
  • When the liver, bile ducts or gallbladder system are not functioning properly or are blocked, this enzyme is not excreted through the bile and alkaline phosphatase is released into the blood stream. (
  • An in vitro reaction was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) a hydrolase enzyme and the synthetic substrate 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (4-NPP). (
  • The reaction which showed the least absorbance in the assay was used in further tests to determine how various other reactants reacted in alkaline phosphatase with and without enzyme present, at different concentrations, and pH values. (
  • An Enzyme assay to discover the absorbance spectrum for 4-NPP and 4-NP in ALP was carried out using diluted 4-NPP and 4-NP respectively in steps of 5 or 10 nm in an alkaline buffer of 0.5 M Tris, pH 9.2 into cuvettes with the aim of attaining a wavelength of between 360 nm and 440 nm in the fewest steps possible. (
  • This test measures blood levels of a form the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) which is produced by the skeletal system. (
  • Elevated bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) is a laboratory result that indicates an abnormal blood level of this bone enzyme. (
  • Phosphatase is an enzyme released into the blood by either liver, bone, kidney, placenta (if you are pregnant). (
  • This is called an alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes test. (
  • Isoenzymes, which are certain forms of alkaline phosphatase generated by these tumors, enlarges the total volume of alkaline phosphatase levels on experiential studies. (
  • Plasma magnesium and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were also estimated in some cases. (
  • All mammalian alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes except placental (PLAP and SEAP) are inhibited by homoarginine and similarly all except the intestinal and placental ones are blocked by levamisole . (
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in serum of rats during cholestasis. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. (
  • This antibody recognizes both Regan and Nagao isoenzymes of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). (
  • It belongs to a multigene family composed of four alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. (
  • An alkaline phosphatase test is used to detect diseases of the liver or bones. (
  • Your health care provider may have ordered an alkaline phosphatase test as part of a routine checkup or if you have symptoms of liver damage or a bone disorder. (
  • High alkaline phosphatase levels may mean there is damage to your liver or that you have a type of bone disorder. (
  • If these results are normal and your alkaline phosphatase levels are high, it may mean the problem is not in your liver. (
  • You have alkaline phosphatase throughout your body, including your liver , digestive system , kidneys , and bones. (
  • If your ALP level is high, your doctor may have you take another test, called an ALP isoenzyme test, to determine whether the alkaline phosphatase in your blood is coming from your liver or your bones. (
  • A high level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood may indicate liver disease, bone disorders, leukemia, lymphoma or other problems with the bones or liver. (
  • The increase in alkaline phosphatase in these disorders is thought to be related to hepatic dysfunction despite the absence of overt liver disease. (
  • Additionally, abnormal levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood could indicate issues relating to the liver, gall bladder or bones. (
  • There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). (
  • Measuring total alkaline phosphatase levels may be useful in patients with normal liver function. (
  • In patients with abnormal liver function or other causes of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity not due to bone, BSAP is a reasonable means of assessing Paget disease activity. (
  • Chronic kidney disease Elevated alkaline phosphatase in patients with cancer normally spans throughout the bones or liver. (
  • Elevated alkaline phosphatase is most commonly caused by liver disease or bone disorders. (
  • Higher levels of alkaline phosphatase levels are linked to problems related to liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestine, or other serious infections. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase levels are also indicative of liver and bile ducts cancer. (
  • The change in alkaline phosphatase level and activity is associated with many diseases in the liver and bones. (
  • Changes in alkaline phosphatase level and activity are associated with various disease states in the liver and bone. (
  • Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and 5'nucleotidase may be useful in identifying disorders of bone and liver, respectively. (
  • Although the primary importance for measuring alkaline phosphatase is to check for the possibility of bone disease or liver disease, forming a differential diagnosis should focus on the pathology (see below for causes of normal, physiologic elevations) found within each location where the enzymes are found. (
  • Because alkaline phosphatase is usually measured collectively within "liver function tests", it may be helpful to start by organizing the diagnoses into hepatobiliary and non-hepatobiliary causes of elevated alkaline phosphatase. (
  • It may be seen that two of the patients had elevated alkaline phosphatase levels without other evidence of liver disfunction. (
  • Alkaline Phosphatases are a group of enzymes found primarily the liver (isoenzyme ALP-1) and bone (isoenzyme ALP-2). (
  • The primary importance of measuring alkaline phosphatase is to check the possibility of bone disease or liver disease. (
  • In addition to liver, bile duct, or gallbladder dysfunction, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase can be due to rapid growth of bone since it is produced by bone-forming cells called osteoblasts. (
  • Because acid-alkaline is influenced by many other glands, the implications of serum alkaline phosphatase levels must consider more than just bone and liver function. (
  • The Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme test is typically ordered when a person has signs of a bone or liver disorder. (
  • Background Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder of bone and mineral metabolism, caused by mutations in the ALPL (alkaline phosphatase liver type) gene, with reduction of activity of the tissue-non-specific isoenzyme of ALP (TNSALP). (
  • Alkaline phosphatase from human liver was purified to homogeneity. (
  • My doc regularly tests liver enzymes, E2, CBC, Hematocrit, cholesterol and PSA which have all looked good except I'm noticing a trend that my Alkaline Phosphatase is getting lower. (
  • Alkaline phosphotase is elevated in diseaes of gall bladder /liver or diseases of bones. (
  • How do I lower my alkaline phosphatase levels in my liver? (
  • What if your liver is producing too much alkaline phosphatase? (
  • Liver does not produce alkaline phosphatase . (
  • Measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase-in some cases, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)-can be useful in the diagnosis of Paget disease. (
  • Because of increased osteoblastic activity and bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) levels are elevated. (
  • What do high elevations of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) suggest in the workup of osteoporosis? (
  • The Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat), Polyclonal antibody (Cat. (
  • Each Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (
  • Choose from our Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP polyclonal antibodies and browse our Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP monoclonal antibody catalog. (
  • I want to use secondary antibody alkaline phosphatase conjugated. (
  • Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP in Human samples. (
  • The secondary antibody and streptavidin conjugates of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase are extensively used as secondary detection reagents in ELISA. (
  • This antibody recognizes alkaline phosphatase, it has been found to be reactive with both placental and bone alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Dot Blot of Rabbit anti-Sheep IgG antibody Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugated. (
  • Primary antibody: N/A. Secondary antibody: Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugated Rabbit anti-Sheep IgG Antibody. (
  • Catalog number key for antibody number 0141, Anti-Alkaline Phosphatase (V17.1) The prefix indicates conjugation, followed by the antibody number and size suffix. (
  • Gilbert syndrome: Increase in intestinal alkaline phosphatase is seen. (
  • Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Deficiency Is Associated with Ischemic Heart Disease. (
  • 1-alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 up-regulates the expression of 2 types of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase alternative splicing variants in Caco-2 cells and may be an important regulator of their expression in gut homeostasis. (
  • Menaquinone-4 (vitamin K 2 ) up-regulates expression of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase in Caco-2 cells. (
  • Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: a summary of its role in clinical disease. (
  • Expressions of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase-isomaltase, which are intestinal differentiation markers, were highly enhanced in Caco-2 cells by menaquinone-4. (
  • Unlike Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase, SAP is irreversibly heat inactivated at 65°C for 15 minutes, allowing for streamlining of cloning experiments. (
  • Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. (
  • Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) exhibits its biological activity in alkaline conditions with highest activity at a pH 9.7 [ 1 , 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Your search returned 1 intestinal alkaline phosphatase ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (
  • The receptor affinity probe or receptor alkaline phosphatase (RAP) staining method uses soluble protein ectodomains fused to secreted placental alkaline phosphatase to locate ectodomain binding sites within cells or tissues. (
  • Soluble ectodomain placental alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins are therefore highly sensitive reagents that permit the direct localization of available binding sites through simple chromogenic assays without purification, radioactive labeling, or secondary reagents. (
  • Low levels of alkaline phosphatase have been linked to malnutrition, Wilson's disease and protein deficiency. (
  • Our BioUltra Grade Alkaline Phosphatase has a very high specific activity making it particularly useful for protein labeling when high sensitivity is required. (
  • An alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, blood test measures the body's level of ALP, which is a protein existing in all body tissues, explains MedlinePlus. (
  • it was found that elevated levels are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which could reflect an inflammatory and atherogenic milieu, possibly an alternative cause for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Hydrolysis of phosphoesters, phosphate transferase activity, protein phosphatase activity, phosphate transport, modulation of organic cation transport, and involvement in cell proliferation have been suggested as possible functions of ALP. (
  • The mutant alkaline phosphatase protein was found instead in the cytoplasm in precursor form. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an alkaline phosphatase, a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters. (
  • In addition, regularly increased alkaline phosphatase levels can run in certain families without indicating the presence of any disease, a finding known as familial benign hyperphosphatasemia. (
  • Extrahepatic tumors, including osteosarcomas, lung, gastric, head and neck, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian, uterine cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase into serum by an unknown mechanism. (
  • If the reason for alkaline phosphatase is unknown, isoenzyme studies using electrophoresis can confirm the source of the ALP. (
  • Breast carcinoma Colon cancer Leukemia - cancer of the bone marrow Lymphoma - cancer of the white blood cells Pancreatic cancer Lung cancer An alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test can be done to check for elevated ALP levels. (
  • Levamisole is a reversible inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, effective against most forms of alkaline phosphatase other than the intestinal isoenzyme. (
  • Levamisole does not inhibit the isoenzyme used for either the VECTASTAIN ® ABC-AP reagents or other alkaline phosphatase conjugates. (
  • Be sure to let your doctor know if you are pregnant, because that will raise the level of alkaline phosphatase in your blood. (
  • The level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood is checked through the ALP test, which is often part of routine blood tests. (
  • Kidney tumors and infections as well as malnutrition have also shown abnormal level of alkaline phosphatase in blood. (
  • The level of alkaline phosphatase in a patient's blood helps doctors identify conditions like hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholecystitis, and blockage of bile ducts. (
  • Catalysis of the hydrolysis of substrate 1 by alkaline phosphatase, as monitored by absorbance spectroscopy and a malachite green assay for inorganic phosphate. (
  • Very low levels of alkaline phosphatase occur in a rare genetic disorder called hypophosphatasia, which interferes with normal phosphate metabolism. (
  • What is an alkaline phosphate blood test? (
  • Elevated alkaline phosphate is associated with certain medical conditions or syndromes (e.g., hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome, HPMRS). (
  • In general, APs are anchored to outside surface of the plasma membrane and catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate groups from a variety of different substrates (dephosphorylation) in an alkaline environment, freeing inorganic phosphate (Pi) ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • The relative affordability of alkaline phosphate kits with pack sizes ranging from 101 to 500 have made it the most preferred choice among end-users. (
  • Thus, alkaline phosphatase may potentially also hydrolyze phosphate groups of proteins, but we cannot provide any in-house data and procedures concerning dephosphorylation of proteins. (
  • In the alkaline phosphatase assay protocol, ALP cleaves the phosphate group of the non-fluorescent 4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate disodium salt (MUP) substrate, resulting in an increased fluorescent signal (Ex/Em = 360nm/440nm) when the substrate is dephosphorylated. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in alkaline buffer and produces an organic radical and inorganic phosphate. (
  • In a cross-sectional survey 624 schoolchildren were screened for plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a superfamily of metalloenzymes known to catalyse the hydrolytic removal of phosphate from a variety of molecules [ 1 ]. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase has become a useful tool in molecular biology laboratories, since DNA normally possesses phosphate groups on the 5' end. (
  • Alkaline phosphatases are a group of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate esters with widespread tissue distribution. (
  • Nutrient regulation of alkaline phosphatase (phosphomonoesterase - PMEase) was studied in some diazotrophic cyanobacterial strains like Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena torulosa, Calothrix brevissima, Scytonema javanicum and Hapalosiphon intricatus, in response to the macronutrients (Phosphate, Calcium and Magnesium) and the micronutrients (Zinc, Copper, Iron and Manganese). (
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters with alcohol and inorganic phosphate release. (
  • The TRACP and ALP Assay Kit allows for the simultaneous detection of both ACP (acid phosphatase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) enzymes via pNPP (p-nitro-phenyl phosphate) substrate. (
  • In males, however, the clinical value of this finding is compromised, as acid phosphatase levels also may be elevated in the presence of metastatic prostate carcinoma. (
  • The disposition of alkaline and acid-phosphatase activity was examined in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the chick embryo during their migration from extraembryonic areas to the gonads in order to assess the metabolic activity of these cells during this critical early developmental period. (
  • No specific acid-phosphatase activity was noted in 1 and 2 day old embryos. (
  • the circulating PGCs were negative for acid-phosphatase activity. (
  • a few PGCs demonstrated a positive reaction for acid-phosphatase, but most of these were located some distance from the gonad. (
  • The fifth and sixth day studies indicated that most PGCs were within the developing gonads and showed no acid-phosphatase activity. (
  • Two enzymes involved in bone metabolism, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), are used as markers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. (
  • Alternate name for TRACP include TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5, TR-AP, trATPase, acid phosphatase type V, type 5 acid phosphatase, and tartrate-resistant acid ATPase. (
  • This enables osteoblast and osteoclast detection due to the simultaneous cell staining for both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. (
  • M183) reacts against the C-terminal peptide of rat Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRACP). (
  • Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase (ALP/ALKP) preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other proteins for ELISA, Western blotting, and histochemical detection. (
  • Our Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bovine, Human. (
  • To the editor: Rosner and Karayalcin (1) have confirmed the work of Wajima and Kraus (2), who first noted low leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity in the granulocytes of individuals with sickle-cell anemia. (
  • an elevated leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level because of the chronic stressful state of persons with sickle-cell disease (1). (
  • The cellular content of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase depends partly on the degree of maturity of the granulocyte. (
  • Causes of low alkaline phosphatase are said to include: Hypothyroidism − but most hypothyroid patients have normal alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Consequently, a normal alkaline phosphatase level does not exclude the disorder. (
  • Unfortunately, a normal alkaline phosphatase does not exclude hepatobiliary dysfunction. (
  • In humans, alkaline phosphatases are encoded by one tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene and three tissue-specific alkaline phosphatase genes, intestinal, placental (PLAP), and germ cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (GCAP). (
  • The X-ray structure of a mutant version of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (H412N) in which His-412 was replaced by Asn has been determined at both low (-Zn) and high (+Zn) concentrations of zinc. (
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (
  • In the laboratory , however, mutant Escherichia coli lacking alkaline phosphatase survive quite well, as do mutants unable to shut off alkaline phosphatase production. (
  • Mutations that alter the signal sequence of alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli. (
  • The IAP is expressed throughout the intestine with the highest expression in the duodenum, whereas its phosphatase activity is highest in the terminal ileum [ 7 ]. (
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Turkey IgG, anti-Turkey Serum and anti-Alkaline Phosphatase (calf intestine). (
  • Thus the serum alkaline phosphatase is a measure of the integrity of the hepatobiliary system and the flow of bile into the small intestine. (
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (
  • Dephosphorylation of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase (Phosphorylated by Cyclic AMP-independent Synthase Kinase 1) by Phosphatases. (
  • To achieve maximal dephosphorylation, fresh phosphatase was added to the reaction every 3 h to a final concentration of 100 U/ml. (
  • Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP) nonspecifically catalyzes the dephosphorylation of 5'-termini DNA and RNA phosphomonoesters but does not degrade diphosphate or triphosphate linkages. (
  • Low levels of alkaline phosphatase may indicate hypophosphatasia, a rare genetic disease that affects bones and teeth. (
  • Hypophosphatasia: Very low alkaline phosphatase values are found in the presence of normocalcemia or hypocalcemia. (
  • THU0553 Low alkaline phosphatase levels: could it be hypophosphatasia? (
  • Alkaline phosphatase kits play a pivotal role in the detection of disorders and paving the pathway for the further treatment required in each case. (
  • The origin of serum alkaline phosphatase has interested many workers ever since H. D. Kay (1929) and W.M. Roberts (1930) demonstrated that increased serum activity was found in certain bone and hepatobiliary disorders. (
  • What could cause abnormal levels of alkaline phosphatase? (
  • Basically, the Regan isozenzyme is an alkaline phosphatase that is located in the placenta and associated with the gonadal and urologic cancers. (
  • In later passages with the growth of C-SPT cells, high activity of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase appeared as judged by l -phenylalanine inhibition, heat stability, and immunoelectrophoresis. (
  • Comparative enzymological and immunological studies with HeLa and WISH cells confirmed the presence of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase as a characteristic of HeLa and established its presence in WISH cells. (
  • A HeLa clone was isolated showing very high activity of non-Regan type of alkaline phosphatase, presumably of "bone" type. (
  • Your search returned 137 bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) ELISA ELISA Kit across 9 suppliers. (
  • What Is Elevated Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BALP) In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity? (
  • If the test results show high alkaline phosphatase levels, your health care provider may order additional tests to find out where the extra ALP is coming from. (
  • What Does High Alkaline Phosphatase Mean on Blood Tests? (
  • What is considered to be a high alkaline phosphatase level? (
  • Medicine for high alkaline phosphatase levels? (
  • What does it mean when you have high alkaline phosphatase levels, but low bilirubin, high aspartate transaminase? (
  • Yet, cancers that are already present in certain organs and tissues can produce alkaline phosphatase elevations if metastasis is not present. (
  • Tissues can contain endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity that will produce background staining if an alkaline phosphatase detection system and substrate are used. (
  • What is measured in the blood is the total amount of alkaline phosphatases released from these tissues into the blood. (
  • This test is used to calculate Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels in several different tissues throughout the body. (
  • Summary of the gene nomenclature, accession numbers, common names, tissue distribution and function, if known, for the human and mouse alkaline phosphatase isozymes. (
  • Pichia pastoris that has been genetically modified with a gene coding ashrimp alkaline phosphatase. (
  • In addition, this gene is polymorphic and three common alleles (type 1, type 2 and type 3) for this form of alkaline phosphatase have been well characterized. (
  • A phoA-lacZ gene fusion was used to isolate mutants altered in the alkaline phosphatase signal sequence. (
  • When the mutations were genetically recombined into an otherwise wild-type phoA gene, they interfered with export of alkaline phosphatase to the periplasm. (
  • In Paget disease of bone there is often isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. (
  • A short-term elevation of alkaline phosphatase, called transient hyperphosphatasemia, or THP, can occur in 1 to 5 percent of young children, as reported in in April 2010. (
  • A strong relationship exists between the extent of disease activity measured by scintigraphy and the degree of the elevation of alkaline phosphatase in persons with untreated Paget disease. (
  • The following list of conditions have ' Alkaline phosphatase elevation ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (
  • Our patients lacked the characteristic features of HPMRS, such as facial dysmorphology (showing only a tented mouth) and hypoplasia of distal phalanges, and had only a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). (
  • Freezing alkaline phosphatase conjugates will result in a substantial loss of enzymatic activity. (
  • Hepatitis: Moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase occur in viral hepatitis, but greater elevations of the transaminases (AST [SGOT], ALT [SGPT]) are usually found. (
  • Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase. (
  • The dye is a cell-permeable fluorescent substrate for alkaline phosphatase (AP) that is non-toxic to cells, diffusing out over the course of two hours. (
  • For the direct colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase in human serum. (
  • For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. (
  • Hypervitaminosis D may cause elevations in alkaline phosphatase. (
  • However, primary cancers in various organs can generate alkaline phosphatase elevations in the absence of metastasis. (
  • Further, the reagents used in the alkaline phosphatase kit are stable for a year when stored in conditions as directed by the manufacturers and need to be replaced annually. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase substrates. (
  • Vector offers alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrates in both original and ImmPACT™ formulations. (
  • There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. (
  • An emphasis is also placed on the substrate specificity of alkaline phosphatases, their catalytic properties as phosphohydrolases as well as phosphodiesterases and their structural and functional relatedness to a large superfamily of enzymes that includes nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase. (
  • Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. (
  • Hi, usually for most of the enzymes 5mM MgCl2 would be good enough but not sure about alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Alkaline phosphatases (EC are periplasmic enzymes that are found in organisms ranging from bacteria (including extremophiles) to mammals. (
  • Elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase has been associated with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). (
  • Heat stable MAPs (5 mg/ml) were treated with calf intestinal phosphatase in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris HCI, pH 8.4, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM EDTA, 2 mM PMSF, 1 μg/ml pepstatin, 1 U/ml aprotinin, and 0.1 mM ZnCl2 for 12 h at 37 °C. From a range of commercial preparations tested, only that from Boehringer Mannheim (Roche Applied Science Cat. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase (prepared from bovine intestinal mucosa) was purchased from Sigma (Poole, Dorset, UK) as were all other chemicals. (
  • Moderately high levels of alkaline phosphatase may indicate conditions such as Hodgkin lymphoma , heart failure , or a bacterial infection . (
  • Alkaline phosphatase levels vary with age and health status. (
  • Although normal ranges can vary somewhat among different laboratories, most children from age 1 month to 3 years have alkaline phosphatase levels from 70 to 250 U/L, according to "Cases in Chemical Pathology. (
  • These children's alkaline phosphatase levels return to normal within several weeks to months, without any treatment or long-term health effects. (
  • Mildly decreased alkaline phosphatase levels can be seen with zinc deficiency or malnutrition. (
  • Blood levels of alkaline phosphatase also increase by two to four times during pregnancy. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture. (
  • Sharland D E , Overstall P W . Alkaline phosphatase: changes in serum levels after a fracture. (
  • Elevated alkaline phosphatase occurs when levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range. (
  • A study reported there were higher serum levels of alkaline phosphatase in obese than in the non obese. (
  • With elevated alkaline phosphatase levels there is an increase in disproportionate intracellular fat depots and thereby releasing itself into the bloodstream. (
  • Although alkaline phosphatase kit is an efficient way of detecting higher or lower levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood, it is not necessarily indicative of an abnormality in the body. (
  • Sometimes, during pregnancy, alkaline phosphatase levels may rise due to the placental influx. (
  • Also, higher levels of alkaline phosphatase are observed during bone formation and development. (
  • Levels of alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus varied with both age and sex. (
  • To the editor: Dalovisio, Blonde, Cortez, and Pankey ( Ann Intern Med 88:505-507, 1978) have reported elevated alkaline phosphatase levels in three patients with subacute thyroiditis. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase levels above normal were predictive of shorter survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis. (
  • Close monitoring of alkaline phosphatase levels may be useful when considering initiation or changes of therapy in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. (
  • Why would my plasma alkaline phosphatase levels be raised? (
  • That being said, low levels on many tests are not a problem: alk phosphatase is one. (
  • The major function of alkaline phosphatase is transporting across cell membranes. (
  • Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation. (
  • Since this space is much more subject to environmental variation than the actual interior of the cell, bacterial alkaline phosphatase is comparatively resistant to inactivation, denaturation , and degradation , and also has a higher rate of activity. (
  • Assays were performed in 0.10 M MOPS buffer, pH 8.0, containing NaCl (0.50 M), substrate 1 (0.31-120 μM), and E. coli alkaline phosphatase (13 ng·mL −1 , which was added at t = 30 s). (
  • i) Once tissue sections have been incubated with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase, wash them with buffer thoroughly. (
  • ii) Wipe the glass to remove excess of buffer and add enough drops of the alkaline phosphatase enhancer solution to cover the tissue sections. (
  • The availability of knockout mice deficient in each of the murine alkaline phosphatase isozymes has also given deep insights into their in vivo role. (
  • The past few years have witnessed the reports of significant new events in alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes. (
  • Although the presence of alkaline phosphatases in testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults has been utilized for both detection and patient monitoring, it is not known in detail which isozymes are expressed. (
  • Testicular cancers of germ cell and non-germ cell origin along with testicular parenchyma with and without CIS have been analysed for the expression of the different alkaline phosphatase isozymes. (
  • However, BSAP is more specific than total alkaline phosphatase for Paget disease. (
  • In patients with monostotic disease or local disease, the total alkaline phosphatase level may be normal. (
  • The identification of the source of a raised total alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma, by the measurement of individual ALP forms, is of clinical value although many of the methods available for this purpose are complex, imprecise and non-specific. (
  • The substrate enables the catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatase to be measured with high sensitivity and accuracy. (
  • There is evidence that thyroid hormone (T 3 ) acts to stimulate bone alkaline phosphatase activity through an osteoblast nuclear receptor-mediated process. (
  • Alkaline phosphatases (APs) belong to a superfamily of proteins (EC sharing conservation of metal binding sites, amino acids required for activity, and predicted fold structure ( 1 ). (
  • No. 713 023 , 25 U/ml) combined good phosphatase activity with lack of detectable proteolytic activity towards MAPs. (
  • Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit (Fluorometric) (ab83371) is a highly sensitive kit to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in serum and other biological samples. (
  • Effects of IL-17A and/or TNF-α on alkaline phosphatase activity are shown. (
  • Serum alkaline phosphatase activity is elevated in hepatobiliary disease, especially in obstructive jaundice, and in bone diseases with increased osteoblastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism , osteitis deformans , and bone cancer. (
  • Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in migrating primordial germ cells of the early chick embryo. (
  • Alkaline- phosphatase activity was noted at 2 days of incubation in PGCs during the passive phase of their migration in extraembryonic blood vessels. (
  • For NHANES 2001, the HybritechTandem-MP Ostase ImmunoEnzymetric assay was used for quantitative measurement of Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP), an indicator of osteoblastic activity, in human serum. (
  • The Tandem-MP Ostase ImmunoEnzymetric Assay is an in vitro device for the quantitative measurement of Skeletal Alkaline Phosphatase (sALP), an indicator of osteoblastic activity, in human serum. (
  • The SensoLyte FDP Alkaline Phosphatase ELISA Assay Kit uses highly purified FDP to quantify alkaline phosphatase activity in ELISA. (
  • Background: The goal of this study was to validate the DiaSorin Liaison BAP OSTASE, a new method for measurement of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and to compare this method with the Beckman-Coulter Access Ostase. (
  • Due to space constraints this mini-review focuses exclusively on structural and functional features of mammalian alkaline phosphatases as identified by crystallography and probed by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis. (