Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.TetramisoleProtein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Phosphorylase Phosphatase: An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.HomoarginineHistocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.NitrophenolsBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.TartratesBone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.4-Nitrophenylphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.SucrasePTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.PhosphoproteinsElectrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Leucyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DisaccharidasesBone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (1/6669)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/6669)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Polymorphism in a cyclic parthenogenetic species: Simocephalus serrulatus. (3/6669)

A survey of sixteen isozyme loci using electrophoretic techniques was conducted for three isolated natural populations and one laboratory population of the cyclic parthenogenetic species, Simocephalus serrulatus. The proportion of polymorphic loci (33%-60%) and the average number of heterozygous loci per individual (6%-23%) in the three natural populations were found to be comparable to those found in most sexually reproducing organisms. Detailed analyses were made for one of these populations using five polymorphic loci. The results indicated that (1) seasonal changes in genotypic frequencies took place, (2) apomicitic parthenogenesis does not lead to genetic homogeneity, and (3) marked gametic disequilibrium at these five loci was present in the population, indicating that selection acted on coadapted groups of genes.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (4/6669)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. (5/6669)

Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, along with phospholipase A2, is a key regulator of platelet-activating factor biosynthesis via the remodeling pathway. We have now obtained evidence in human neutrophils indicating that this enzyme is regulated by a specific member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, namely the p38 kinase. We earlier demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine treatment leads to increased phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase in human neutrophils. Strikingly, in the present study these stimuli increased the catalytic activity of acetyltransferase up to 3-fold, whereas 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) but not p38 kinase, had no effect. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, SB 203580, was able to abolish the TNF-alpha- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of acetyltransferase. The same effect was not observed in the presence of an inhibitor that blocked ERK activation (PD 98059). Complementing the findings in intact cells, we have shown that recombinant, activated p38 kinase added to microsomes in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP increased acetyltransferase activity to the same degree as in microsomes obtained from TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. No activation of acetyltransferase occurred upon treatment of microsomes with either recombinant, activated ERK-1 or ERK-2. Finally, the increases in acetyltransferase activity induced by TNF-alpha could be ablated by treating the microsomes with alkaline phosphatase. Thus acetyltransferase appears to be a downstream target for p38 kinase but not ERKs. These data from whole cells as well as cell-free systems fit a model wherein stimulus-induced acetyltransferase activation is mediated by a phosphorylation event catalyzed directly by p38 kinase.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (6/6669)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (7/6669)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Antitumor agents. I. Effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide on liver microsomes and thymus of rat. (8/6669)

Effects of antitumor agents on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and thymus lymphocytes were studied in male Wistar rats. High doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) given parenterally for 6 days caused a partial decrease in whole body weight and the microsomal enzyme content such as cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5. Aniline p-hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities also decreased in rats dosed for 5 days decreased compared with the control. Both compounds in the high concentrations produced spectral change of "modified type II". However, the magnitude of the spectral changes observed was independent of the the concentration of substrate added. The addition of NADPH to the microsomes-substrate mixture modified the spectral change. Both drugs caused a considerable decrease in thymus weight and the number of thymus lymphocytes, while the alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced in 5-FU groups, indicating that the agents cause a significant involution of the thymus. Decrease in the total number of the lymphocytes was greater than that in the blood leucocytes.  (+info)

*Hypophosphatasia

Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, ... An up-to-date list of mutations is available online at The Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Mutations Database. ... Alkaline phosphatase Choline "hypophosphatasia". Genetics Home Reference. Whyte MP (2001). "Hypophosphatasia". In Scriver CR, ... Hypophosphatasia is associated with a molecular defect in the gene encoding tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). ...

*Osteocalcin

"Serum osteocalcin/bone-specific alkaline phosphatase ratio is a predictor for the presence of vertebral fractures in men with ... and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". Annals of the New York Academy of ... "Changes of bone formation markers osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis ...

*Acid phosphatase

Testicular acid phosphatase Tissue acid phosphatase, or Lysosomal acid phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Henneberry, M.O.; Engel ... is Acid-Phosphatase negative , T-ALL ( originating instead from T Lymphocytes ) is acid-phosphatase positive . Acid phosphatase ... Minkin, Cedrick (1982). "Bone Acid Phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase as a Marker of Osteoclast Function". ... ACP1 ACP2 ACPP (ACP3), Prostatic acid phosphatase ACP5, Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ACP6 ACPT, ...

*ALPL

Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALPL gene. There are at least ... "Entrez Gene: ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney". Mornet E (2000). "Hypophosphatasia: the mutations in the tissue- ... The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is ... Kishi F, Matsuura S, Kajii T (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the human liver-type alkaline phosphatase cDNA". Nucleic Acids Res ...

*Alkaline phosphatase

... has a Km of 8.4 x 10−4. Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated ... Alkaline phosphatase accounts for 6% of all proteins in depressed cells. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is the most ... Common alkaline phosphatases used in research include: Shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP), from a species of Arctic shrimp ( ... Human-intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The human body has multiple types of alkaline phosphatase present, which are determined ...

*Elevated alkaline phosphatase

The relationship between alkaline phosphatase and obesity is still being tested. Elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase ... Elevated alkaline phosphatase describes the situation where the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range ... "Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase - Levels, Causes and Treatment". healthh.com. Retrieved 2016-05-19. Alkaline phosphatase at Lab ... The major function of alkaline phosphatase is transporting across cell membranes. Alkaline phosphatases are present in many ...

*Placental alkaline phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase, placental type also known as placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is an allosteric enzyme that in humans ... for this form of alkaline phosphatase have been well-characterized. Alkaline phosphatase, placental type is a membrane-bound ... "Entrez Gene: ALPP alkaline phosphatase, placental (Regan isozyme)". "European Group on Tumor Markers. A European Based Expert ... Le Du MH, Stigbrand T, Taussig MJ, Menez A, Stura EA (2001). "Crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase from human placenta at ...

*Calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase

... (CIAP/CIP) is a type of alkaline phosphatase that catalyzes the removal of phosphate ...

*Levamisole

... alkaline phosphatase activity in biomedical assays involving detection signal amplification by intestinal alkaline phosphatase ... Van Belle, H. (1976). "Alkaline phosphatase. I. Kinetics and inhibition by levamisole of purified isoenzymes from humans". Clin ... Levamisole reversibly and noncompetitively inhibits most isoforms of alkaline phosphatase (e.g., human liver, bone, kidney, and ...

*Thomas Walter Warnes

the first trial of colchicine in PBC); Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes; Hepatitis B & C; Tumour markers of primary liver cancer ... The development of new techniques to separate and identify Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymes in blood and duodenal juice; 2 ...

*Environmental effects of laundry wastewater

doi:10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700020004x McComb, R. B., Bowers, G. N., & Posen, S. (1979). Alkaline phosphatase (p. 986). New ...

*Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy

Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase. Subtle vascular changes in the retina resembling telangiectasia (spider veins) in the ... Hypertension Normocytic anemia Normochromic anemia Gastrointestinal bleeding or telangiectasias Elevated alkaline phosphatase ...

*Epigenetics in stem-cell differentiation

1979) found that there are at least three varieties of akaline phosphatases, kidney, liver, and bone alkaline phosphatases, ... The alkaline phosphatase varieties, therefore, express a unique complement of in the enzymatic processes in post-translational ... Alkaline phosphatase activity correlates with the morphology changes. Initial deacetylation of histone is required for ... In normal stem cells, the activity of alkaline phosphatase activity is lowered upon differentiation. Trichostatin A causes the ...

*ALPPL2

Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALPPL2 gene. There are at least four ... Shen LP, Liu H, Kan YW, Kam W (June 1988). "5' nucleotide sequence of a putative human placental alkaline phosphatase-like gene ... Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z, Ben-Hur H, Open M, Dgani R (September 1999). "Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase may enable early ... Le Du MH, Stigbrand T, Taussig MJ, Menez A, Stura EA (March 2001). "Crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase from human ...

*Asfotase alfa

Hypophosphatasia is caused by a genetic defect of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), an enzyme that plays a role ... Asfotase alfa interferes with alkaline phosphatase measurements. As asfotase alfa is a glycoprotein (as opposed to a small ...

*Parasitic nutrition

Such transporter molecules include schistosome alkaline phosphatase (SmAP) and cathepsin B, which may be important in nutrient ... Bhardwaj and Skelly (2011). "Characterization of Schistosome Tegumental Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP)". PLoS Neglected Tropical ...

*Italian crested newt

Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme located in the proximal tubules, plays an important role in the polarization of membrane ... From the experiment performed by Dore et al., it was observed that the alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced in the ... Renal alkaline phosphatase and osmoregulatory adaptations in amphibians. II Seasonal variations and action of arginine- ... Renal alkaline-phosphatase and osmoregulatory adaptations in amphibians. II. Seasonal-variations and action of arginine- ...

*5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate

... is an artificial chromogenic substrate used for the sensitive colorimetric detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. It is, ... www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search/ProductDetail/SIGMA/B1026 Alkaline phosphatase hydrolyses BCIP to 5-bromo-4-chloro-3- ... Alkaline phosphatase is commonly conjugated to secondary antibodies. http:// ...

*Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements

Research has shown increased production of enzymes such as; maltase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase with MOS ...

*Hyperparathyroidism

Alkaline phosphatase levels are usually elevated in hyperparathyroidism. In primary hyperparathyroidism, levels may remain ...

*Vibrio natriegens

Woolkalis MJ, Baumann P (July 1981). "Evolution of alkaline phosphatase in marine species of Vibrio". J. Bacteriol. 147: 36-45 ...

*Vaccenic acid

Alkaline phosphatase inhibited 25% by vaccenic acid in osteoblasts. Oxidation of omega-7 unsaturated fatty acids on the skin ...

*ALPI

Alkaline phosphatase, intestinal also known as ALPI is a type of alkaline phosphatase that in humans is encoded by the ALPI ... "Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2008). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2003). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase release is not associated with chylomicron formation". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...

*Sphingomonas

strain BSAR-1 expressing a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) has also been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium from ... "Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium ... This is the first report of bioprecipitation of uranium under alkaline conditions. LPSN bacterio.net Sphingomonas, Microbewiki ... from Alkaline Solutions". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (17): 5516-5523. doi:10.1128/AEM.00107-08. ISSN 1098-5336 ...

*Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase

NPP's promiscuity enables the enzyme to share substrates with alkaline phosphatase (AP), another member of the alkaline ... NPP belongs to the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily of enzymes. Humans express seven known NPP isoforms, some of which ... Alkaline phosphatase primarily hydrolyzes phosphate monoester bonds, but interestingly it shows some promiscuity towards ... NPP belongs to the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, which is a group of evolutionarily related enzymes that catalyze ...

*Metabolism

Insulin causes glycogen synthesis by activating protein phosphatases and producing a decrease in the phosphorylation of these ... "Diel Variations in Carbon Metabolism by Green Nonsulfur-Like Bacteria in Alkaline Siliceous Hot Spring Microbial Mats from ... emerging roles of the glycogen targeting subunits of protein phosphatase-1" (PDF). Diabetes. 49 (12): 1967-77. doi:10.2337/ ...

*Oxidative folding

Another example is alkaline phosphatase, which contains two essential disulfides. It was used as an indicator protein to screen ...
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was measured using levamisole inhibition, and results were compared with a previously reported method using L-phenylalanine. Sixty two per cent intestinal, 39% placental, and 1.3% of either bone or liver alkaline phosphatase activity remained when alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited in a 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) buffer reagent system with 10 mmol/l levamisole (final assay concentration 8.1 mmol/l). The assay imprecision (SD) was 0.6 U/l compared with 3.9 U/l using L-phenylalanine for specimens with total alkaline phosphatase activity less than 250 U/l (reference range 30-120 U/l). In serum pools with raised total alkaline phosphatase activity errors in recovered intestinal activity were small (usually less than 3 U/l) when intestinal alkaline phosphatase was added. Much larger errors and many underestimated results were found using L-phenylalanine. For non-haemolysed specimens it is concluded that an assay based on levamisole inhibition ...
During the one-year period, a total of 181 hospitalized patients with serum ALP level over 1000 IU/L were identified. They were 102 male and 96 female patients with ages ranging from 21 to 90 years old (mean age 49.4 ± 16.1 years). The ALP levels ranged from 1,001 to 3,067 IU/L.. The most common diagnosis in patients with high ALP in our series was malignant biliary obstruction. This was found in 58 patients, 48 of whom were cases with cholangicocarcinoma (CCA). Of the remaining 10, three were with pancreatic cancer, one with ampullary cancer, one with metastatic cancer, and five with periampullary cancer. The ALP levels ranged from 1,005 to 3,067 IU/L (average 1,869.8 ± 325.3 IU/L). In addition, benign duct obstruction from choledocholithiasis was found in another 14 patients, six of which cases were complicated by ascending cholangitis. The ALP level in this group ranged from 1,001 to 2,864 IU/L (average 1,498.3 ± 541.2 IU/L). Comparing these two groups, the mean ALP levels in the malignant ...
The initial IV dose to be administered to patients was set at one-tenth the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) as determined by one month toxicology studies in animals in which Asfotase Alfa was administered as a single weekly IV dose. The SC doses to be administered are lower than the IV doses and are thought to be near or at the anticipated daily efficacious dose. Dosing will be as follows:. Cohort 1: In Week 1, patients will receive an IV infusion of Asfotase Alfa at a dose of 3 mg/kg. In Weeks 2, 3 and 4, patients will receive weekly SC injections of Asfotase Alfa at a dose of 1 mg/kg SC. ...
Alkaline phosphatase levels in children - Medicine for high alkaline phosphatase levels? Wrong approach. Alkaline phosphatase is a lab value to tell a physician what is happening, not a medical problem to treat. It can be high just because you
Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Hemming on what condition might cause an elevated alkaline phosphatase: Most commonly released from the liver / bile ducts in addition to bone.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Matthew J Tomlinson, Caitriona Dennis, Xuebin B Yang, Jennifer Kirkham].
Treatment of Pagets disease of bone traditionally has been limited to patients with severe disease, defined as serum alkaline phosphatase levels of more than two times the upper limit of normal, bone pain not responsive to analgesics and higher risk for complications such as fracture. Newer antiresorptive treatments, including pamidronate, alendronate, tiludronate and etidronate, offer more widespread therapeutic intervention and shorter treatment courses. Risedronate is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that is about 1,000 times more potent than etidronate and three to five times more potent than alendronate. These attributes allow for a shorter duration of treatment at a lower dosage. Miller and associates compared the effectiveness of risedronate with that of etidronate in the treatment of Pagets disease of bone.. Patients with documented Pagets disease were included if their serum alkaline phosphatase levels were at least two times the upper limit of normal. Women were required to be ...
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
ALP isoenzyme test - MedHelps ALP isoenzyme test Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP isoenzyme test. Find ALP isoenzyme test information, treatments for ALP isoenzyme test and ALP isoenzyme test symptoms.
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Decreased Possible Causes (Differential Diagnoses) include ❗ Infectious Mononucleosis ❗ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ❗ Chronic Myeloid Leukemia ❗ Check more at Symptoma.com
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We studied leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in malaria to assess leukocyte defence mechanisms. Twenty-seven patients with malaria were stratified into two classes on the basis of disease severity. Fifteen malaria negative patients were taken as controls. Data showed mild polymorphonucleated cell activation, in the absence of correlation with the severity of the malaria.. ...
I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated that...
Adequate liver function as evidenced by bilirubin ,= 1.5 times the upper limits of normal (ULN) and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,= 3 x ULN (in the case of liver metastases ,= 5 x ULN), unless there are bone metastases, in which case liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase. In case alkaline phosphatase is ,3 x ULN (in absence of liver metastases) or , 5 x ULN (in presence of liver metastases) AND patient is known to have bone metastases, the liver specific alkaline phosphatase must be separated from the total and used to assess the liver function instead of the total alkaline phosphatase ...
Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are of interest in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders and bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity. Moderate elevations of alkaline phosphatase may be seen in several conditions that do not involve the liver or bone. Among these are Hodgkins disease, congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. Elevations are also observed during the third trimester of pregnancy.. ...
The doctors found that the median survival time from the diagnosis of AIDS and AIDS cholangiopathy was 23 and 9 months, respectively. In addition, they determined that HAART significantly improved the mortality of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy.. The team determined that any opportunistic infection of the digestive tract, lung, eye, nervous system, skin, or systemic involvement at diagnosis was an indicator of poor prognosis.. They also found that patients with high serum ALP levels tended to have a shorter life expectancy than those with normal or slightly elevated serum ALP levels. However, CD4 lymphocyte counts, type of cholangiopathy, and the performance of sphincterotomy were not correlated with patient survival.. Dr Wei-Fang Kos team concluded, "HAART administration most likely accounts for the recent dramatic improvement in survival of patients with AIDS cholangiopathy". "Underlying immunosuppressive status, reflected by the presence or history of any opportunistic infections, is ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , AbD \ MOUSE ANTI HUMAN ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE, Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE , Target Species Human, Host Mouse, Format Purified, Isotypes IgG1, Applications E, WB, \ 0300-0559 for more molecular products just contact us
From the nervous system: peripheral neuropathy as a mild to moderate paresthesia, hyperesthesia, dysesthesia or pain including burning. Movement trenbolone disorders characterized by weakness. In case of these symptoms require dose adjustment. If symptoms persist, treatment should be discontinued. Rarely observed the development of seizures, and transient loss of consciousness.. Cardio-vascular system: cardiac arrhythmia (sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), heart failure, high or low blood pressure. Occasionally there have been cases of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction.. From the hepato-biliary system: in patients receiving Taxotere monotherapy at a dose of 100 mg / m 2 , increased serum activity , and alkaline phosphatase concentration in serum bilirubin more than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal, says less than 5%. Very rarely there have been cases of hepatitis (fatal outcome was observed in patients with liver disease in history).. From the respiratory system: very ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Changhyun Lee, Jaeyoung Chun, Sung Wook Hwang, Seung Joo Kang, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim].
The identification of the source of a raised total alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma, by the measurement of individual ALP forms, is of clinical value although many of the methods available for this purpose are complex, imprecise and non-specific. This thesis has validated, and in some cases modified, available methods for the measurement of the main forms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC 3.1.3.1) in plasma: liver, bone, intestinal and high-molecular-mass ALP. The following methods were selected on the basis of their reliability and specificity: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with densitometric scanning, for liver and bone ALP, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for intestinal ALP and ion-exchange chromatography for high-molccular-mass ALP. These methods were then used to quantify individual ALP forms in specific disease groups and compare activities to those found in healthy adults. The diseases studied (diabetes mellitus and hyperthryoidism) were those where the source of ...
The intracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase has been determined in human neutrophils with analytical subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation and EM cytochemistry. Centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 1 mM DETA and 5 units/ml of heparin showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with a membranous component distinct from plasma membrane, mitochondria, specific granules and azurophil granules. There was no resolution from the endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation on a sucrose-imidazole-heparin gradient showed a clear resolution of the alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Density gradient centrifugation of neutrophils that had been disrupted in the presenceof 0.12 mmol/l. digitonin clearly separated alkaline phosphatase-containing membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Part of the gamma-glutamyl transferase has a similar localization to that of alkaline phosphatase. EM cytochemistry of ...
Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit (Colorimetric) (ab83369) has been cited in 32 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in ELISA, FuncS
Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB, RNAi, RNAi SP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Background: Hodgkins disease (HD) is a neoplastic disease originating in lymphoid tissue, which spreads to lymphoid structures and ultimately nonlymphoid tissues. Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase are increased in blood following membrane cell damage. The aim of this study was to compare Lactate Dehydrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase levels in children in ...
Question - Am hepatitis B carrier. Taking treatment. Reason for high alkaline phosphate, creatinine?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hepatitis b carrier, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Download Free Full-Text of an article EVALUATING SALIVARY ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE LEVELS AS A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PERIODONTAL PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Anti-Alkaline Phosphatase antibody (ab95462) has been cited in 9 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in IHC, IHC-P, WB
Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes High Resolution Titan gel in vendita filippine olx Immunofixation Immunoelectrophoresis The alkaline phosphatase ALP isoenzymes found in human serum originate from several sources with the greatest activity occurring in the bone, liver, intestine, and placenta. Because of wide distribution of alkaline phosphatase in tissue, limited information can be obtained from a total ALP assay. Fortunately, the tissue sources of elevated ALP in serum can be determined by identifying the isoenzyme.. The isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are unique in that some organs have only one major isoenzyme rather than multiple isoenzyme forms. The isoenzymes of ALP differ in their physicochemical and electrophoretic properties, and it is by taking advantage of these differences that individual isoenzymes can be titan gel in vendita filippine olx. In addition to the liver, bone, intestinal and placental isoenzymes, macrohepatic, Regan, PA, Nagao, and renal isoenzymes have also been ...
Erik Steel is a graduate of the University of Michigan, earning his bachelors degree in Russian. Steel has worked as writer for more than four years and has contributed content to eHow and Pluck on Demand. His work recently appeared in the literary journal Arsenic Lobster.. ...
Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS) were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA), 13C NMR, 31P NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, solubility studies, biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP). The results reveal that phosphorylation occurred at the C3 and C6 position of OH groups and the C2 position of NH2 group. FT-IR confirmed no decomposition in pyranose ring in P-COS even with heating and treatment in acidic conditions. The amorphous nature of P-COS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Further, the biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of P-COS were checked against the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line at different concentrations and no cytotoxicity was observed. After 12 h and 24 h of incubation, the ALP activity of P-COS was higher compared with the control group. These results suggest that P-COS is
This trial will investigate the efficacy of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (RESCAP) for the prevention and treatment of ischemic injury and inflammation
Sortilin is encoded by the well-known cardiovascular risk gene SORT1, however Sortilin seems to modulate cardiovascular disease not only with lipids, and its function has not been well elucidated. Recent basic reports showed new aspects of Sortilin that it can bind to PCSK9, and also can enhance vascular calcification with non-lipid tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. We investigated the clinical roles of Sortilin in statin-treated primary dyslipidemia.. Methods: A total of 62 patients (Male 33, Age 65±11 yrs) with primary dyslipidemia including 18 genetically confirmed heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Non-FH group was treated with 10mg Atorvastatin, and FH group was treated with 20mg Rosuvastatin for 8 weeks. ELISA determined plasma levels of Sortilin and PCSK9 (free-fragment and hetero-dimer).. Results: Strong statins lowered LDL-C (-44% in non-FH, -54% in FH), and increased hetero-dimer PCSK9 (+21% in non-FH, +102% in FH) but not in free-fragment PCSK9. Statins ...
Vascular calcification is implicated in many diseases including atherosclerosis and diabetes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to promote vascular calcification both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-mediated vascular calcification has not yet been fully defined. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether MSX2 acts as a crucial regulator in TNF-α-induced vascular calcification and to define the regulatory mechanism of MSX2 induction in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs ...
Alkaline Phosphatase, serum Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP.) When alkaline phosphatase is measured, it is actually the sum of the bone-specific and liver-specific components (isoenzymes.) BAP can indicate excess osteoblastic cell activity which may indicate bone metastases. Metra Systems, Inc., says that Bone Alkaline Phosphatase is an osteoblast membrane-bound molecule which is involved in bone formation. Levels of this enzyme are thought to be indicative of the activity of osteoblasts. Another description of AlkPhos is that it is an enzyme that is found on the surface of osteoblasts(the cells that build bone) and as such is used as a serum marker of increased osteoblast activity. Since bone is being added at prostate cancer bone metastases, an increased alkaline phosphatase can mean increased bone met formation. A recent paper by MR Smith et al in Urology discussed BAP and NTx in their role as predictors of skeletal complications in HRPC patients (MR Smith, et al, Urology 70: 315-319, ...
Duodenal alkaline phosphatase of juvenile (11-day-old) mice, like other non-specific alkaline phosphatases, has the ability to hydrolyse PPi. When a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio is maintained, plots of velocity as a function of PPi concentration are consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Mg2+ activates pyrophosphate hydrolysis and maximal activity is obtained at a constant Mg2+/PPi concentration ratio of 0·66. At higher ratios there is strong inhibition. At constant concentrations of Mg2+ and increasing concentrations of PPi, the velocity-substrate (PPi) concentration plots show sigmoidal dependence. By assuming that the true substrate is MgP2O72− complex, and using complexity constants, the concentrations of free Mg2+, Mg2P2O7 and MgP2O72− were calculated in assay mixtures ranging in PPi concentration from 0·1 to 2·5mm and in total Mg2+ concentration from 0·6 to 2·6mm. From these data, the concentrations of added Mg2+ and PPi in the assay mixtures were selected so that the ...
The effect of a 2 hour exposure to adriamycin (1 mg/litre) on alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity of the golden hamster 4-5 day old second maxillary molars (M2) was investigated in vitro. The molars were grown in BGJb medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum, glutamine (200 micrograms/ml), vitamin C (250 micrograms/ml), penicillin G (50 micrograms/ml), and streptomycin sulphate (30 micrograms/ml). The gas phase contained 50% O2 + 5% CO2 + 45% N2. The molars were supported on cellulosic membrane filters and grown for 3, 5, and 7 days at the medium-gas interface in a closed humidified chamber. Biochemical analysis indicated a steady increase in ALPase activity throughout this study in the control samples. However, after adriamycin treatment no increase in ALPase activity could be observed. The histochemical data showed that the increased activity in the control was confined to the peripheral pulp, sub-odontoblastic layer, stratum intermedium, ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Although these layers ...
Possible functions of alkaline phosphatase in dental mineralization: cadmium effects.: In mineralizing dental tissues the non-specific alkaline phosphatase, usi
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Studies of rat alkaline phosphatase. II. Some applications of the methods for detecting the isoenzymes of plasma alkaline phosphatase in rats. by Rexann G Pickering et al.
Anti-Rat IgG F(c) (Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugated) Secondary Antibody, Rabbit Polyclonal, Alkaline Phosphatase (Calf Intestine) validated in WB, E, IC (ASR2964), Abgent
Although produced in abundance by even the simplest of bacteria, the sheer catalytic efficiency of enzymes cannot be matched by any chemical catalyst - human effort cannot yet replicate what has been optimized through aeons of natural selection. The imitation of enzyme structure and function is therefore an important concern for the development of new catalysts, and peptide amphiphiles, with their amino acid-based compositions, are ideal materials for this purpose. Owing to the structural complexity of enzymes, the peptide-mediated mimicry of enzymatic function has been uncommon in the literature, but the groups of Drs. Ayşe Begüm Tekinay and Mustafa Özgür Güler have now announced the successful imitation of a particularly complex enzyme - alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a multi-functional catalyst that both regulates and directly facilitates the formation of bone.. The primary function of alkaline phosphatase is to detach phosphate groups from various organic molecules, which occurs through ...
... ,Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C). For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. For Hitachi 717. Controls: Trulab N and Trulab P.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
We have evaluated effects of a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor on retinoic acid-increased alkaline phosphatase activity in the mouse fibroblastic C3H10T1/2 clone 8 (10T1/2) cell line. 10T1/2 cells were cultured in minimum essential medium (MEM) a
1KH9: Artificial evolution of an enzyme active site: structural studies of three highly active mutants of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.
1KHL: Artificial evolution of an enzyme active site: structural studies of three highly active mutants of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte
I hope you didnt read all those terms…to put it succinctly Ive given myself a mini-medical education while laying in bed for the past 9 days. Too fatigued to do anything other than watch about 20 Bollywood musicals and google test results on my phone, It has been hard to think of much else. The abdominal pain never really goes away, and sometimes I wake in the night in terrible pain. Almost none of my 15 or so tests thus far has given any useful data. All I know is that my BUN/Creatinine Ratio is a bit low, I briefly had an elevated Alkaline Phosphatase test that went back down to the very tip of the regular range, and a sky-high Eosinophil count (1785 absolute count per microliter) that is impossible to ignore and must be the clue to my illness. The CAT scan without contrast showed nothing.. So-here are the diagnoses that seem most probable to me after my monumentally inadequate medical self-education: I have PARASITES or…I have some kind of autoimmune disease. Im not terribly happy ...
Alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1) occur widely in nature and are found in all three domains of life [1]. The Escherichia coli PhoA enzyme has been extensively studied whereas PhoX family of alkaline phosphatases are only minimally characterised and show no sequence similarity to other phosphotransfer enzymes. Yong et al. [2] determined high-resolution crystal structures for native PhoX from Pseudomonas fluorescens [3] and for its complexes with phosphate [4], a nonhydrolysable ATP analogue adenosine-5′-[β,γ-methylene]triphosphate (AMP-PCP) [5], and the putative transition-state mimic vanadate [6]. The active site contains two antiferromagnetically coupled ferric ions (Fe3+), three calcium ions (Ca2+), and an oxo group bridging one Ca2+ and two Fe3+ ions. ...
Results We identified a deletion-insertion variant in the C-terminal end of the ALPI gene. This variant causes the attenuation of the hydrophobicity in GPI-anchor signal of IAP. An in vitro GPI-cleaving assay demonstrated that the membrane-bound IAP was greatly decreased, whereas the soluble IAP was increased, in the variant IAP. ...
Phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. A truncated (soluble) version of the protein is responsible for the production of (E,E)-farnesol from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate. Acts as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 6-phosphatase (PubMed:1848184).
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
The mechanism of activation of alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from pig kidney by Mg2+ ions was investigated with the aid of kinetic measurements. Mg2+ ions are essential for enzyme activity. The following model (Scheme 1 of the text) for the reaction of enzyme, substrate and Mg2+ ions was derived: [Formula: see text] The binding of the substrate to the enzyme is independent of the binding of the activator, and vice versa. Mg2+ must therefore play a part in the substrate decomposition. It is not possible to determine whether the Mg2+ ions are involved directly in the catalytic process, or whether they act as regulatory effectors. Because of the strong affinity existing between the alkaline phosphatase and Mg2+, it is necessary to adjust the metal-ion concentration with the aid of a metal buffer. In the Appendix the necessary equations are derived for calculating the concentration of free metal ions in a system with several different metal ions. A FORTRAN IV program for solving these equations ...
Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Anti-Rabbit IgG (H&L) Alkaline Phosphate Antibody generated in goat detects reactivity to Rabbit IgG. Secreted as part of the adaptive immune response by plasma B cells, immunoglobulin G constitutes 75% of serum immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulin G binds to viruses, bacteria, as well as fungi and facilitates their destruction or neutralization via agglutination (and thereby immobilizing them), activation of the compliment cascade, and opsinization for phagocytosis. The whole IgG molecule possesses both the F(c) region, recognized by high-affinity Fc receptor proteins, as well as the F(ab) region possessing the epitope-recognition site. Both the Heavy and Light chains of the antibody molecule are present. Secondary Antibodies are available in a variety of formats and conjugate types. When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate type, fragment and chain specificity, level of cross-reactivity, and host-species source and
Anti-Mouse IgG Alkaline Phosphate Antibody generated in goat detects reactivity to Mouse IgG. Secreted as part of the adaptive immune response by plasma B cells, immunoglobulin G constitutes 75% of serum immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulin G binds to viruses, bacteria, as well as fungi and facilitates their destruction or neutralization via agglutination (and thereby immobilizing them), activation of the compliment cascade, and opsinization for phagocytosis. The whole IgG molecule possesses both the F(c) region, recognized by high-affinity Fc receptor proteins, as well as the F(ab) region possessing the epitope-recognition site. Both the Heavy and Light chains of the antibody molecule are present. Secondary Antibodies are available in a variety of formats and conjugate types. When choosing a secondary antibody product, consideration must be given to species and immunoglobulin specificity, conjugate type, fragment and chain specificity, level of cross-reactivity, and host-species source and fragment
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 1zef: Structure of Alkaline Phosphatase From Human Placenta in Complex With Its Uncompetitive Inhibitor L-Phe
Alkaline phosphatases (Alps) are well-studied enzymes that remove phosphates from a variety of substrates. Alps function in diverse biological processes, including modulating host-bacterial interactions by dephosphorylating the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In animals, Alps are encoded by multiple genes characterized by either ubiquitous expression (named Alpls for their liver expression, but a key to proper bone mineralization), or their tissue-specific expression, for example in the intestine (Alpi). We previously characterized a zebrafish alpi gene (renamed here alpi.1) that is regulated by Myd88-dependent innate immune signaling and that is required to prevent a hosts excessive inflammatory reactions to its resident microbiota. Here we report the characterization of two new alp genes in zebrafish, alpi.2 and alp3. To understand their origins, we investigated the phylogenetic history of Alp genes in animals. We find that vertebrate Alp genes are ...
The alkaline phosphatase used for this product is isolated from calf intestine. The very high specific activity of this enzyme is retained during our biotinylation procedure.
Secreted Alkaline Phosphatase (SEAP) expression plasmid where the reporter gene is expressed from an RSV promoter away from the MCS.
The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for liver disease or damage, or to look for bone problems such as rickets, bone...
Alkaline phosphatase -- commonly abbreviated as ALP -- is a protein found in all cells of the body. The highest concentrations of ALP are located in cells...
BioAssay record AID 684676 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity of alkaline phosphatase assessed as compound hydrolysis assessed as increase in fluorescence intensity measured every 30 secs for 10 mins by by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
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[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/AALXXXX/AAL-2101-1.pdf]Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugat
I want to use secondary antibody alkaline phosphatase conjugated. My question is which chemiluminesence reagent I should use to detect proteins ...
Alkaline Phosphatase Enhancer Reagents datasheet (ab671). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
an enzyme. Doctors sometimes look for alkaline phosphatase to determine the condition of a patients liver. Low counts are best. A high count suggests hepatitis or a drug toxicitity. (also abbreviated as.
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and...
Alkaline Phosphatase Enhancer试剂datasheet (ab671).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Males. ,2 years: 25-221 mcg/L. 2-9 years: 27-148 mcg/L. 10-13 years: 35-169 mcg/L. 14-17 years: 13-111 mcg/L. Adults: ≤20 mcg/L. Females. ,2 years: 28-187 mcg/L. 2-9 years: 31-152 mcg/L. 10-13 years: 29-177 mcg/L. 14-17 years: 7-41 mcg/L. Adults. Premenopausal: ≤14 mcg/L. Postmenopausal: ≤22 mcg/L. ...
A human heteroploid epithelial-like cell line, designated as C-SPT, was recovered from one of several lots of human WI-38 fibroblast-like diploid cells that lacked evidence of Regan isozyme in early passages. In later passages with the growth of C-SPT cells, high activity of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase appeared as judged by l-phenylalanine inhibition, heat stability, and immunoelectrophoresis. The C-SPT cells appeared to be the progeny of an unidentified source contaminant rather than of transformed WI-38 cells. Comparative enzymological and immunological studies with HeLa and WISH cells confirmed the presence of Regan type of alkaline phosphatase as a characteristic of HeLa and established its presence in WISH cells. However, the specific activity of Regan isozyme in WISH cells was only 3 to 6% of that in C-SPT cells. The HeLa cells exhibited 33% of C-SPT level on the initial passage level studied, which after further cell passage declined to 8%. A HeLa clone was isolated showing very ...
AP is purified from calf intestine by affinity chromatography. AP is an important label in enzyme immuno assays for substrates like pNPP and BCIP
Bunnik, The Netherlands - AM?Pharma B.V., a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of recAP (recombinant human Alkaline Phosphatase) for inflammatory…
PCNA contributes decreased to macrocytic processes by APEX1 and download Machining translocator FEN1, and demonstrated onto acetyl-L-lysine region by RFC. POLD and POLE in disease with PCNA play the platform metabolism bp domain. FEN1 plays the protected pristanoyl-CoA ligase with the AP activity( 5ddRP), and print cascade I( LIG1) cleaves the monoubiquitinated function face at the 3 variety of the phosphorylation with the Congenital cytosol of the SSB( Klungland and Lindahl 1997, Stucki et al. The eukaryotic target deficiency( PCP) Cell has the cooperation of specificity within the benefit of a DNA of bodies. PCP released also bound in Drosophila, where it signals the DNA of acylation families and hepatocytes in the uridine( controlled in Maung and Jenny, 2011). Upon download of actin PI3K A( PKA) collections in the phaechromocytoma of plasma, the extended PKA three-tiered targets contribute single edge and step members of double dimensional concentrations. These PIP4K2B regulators are ...
Quantification of ALP activity in plasma from A/J and 129P3/J mice treated with 0, 10 or 50 ppm F in the drinking water for 8 weeks.Results are shown as mean ±
Description: Alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion aminopeptidase; generates alkaline phosphatase isozyme 3 subunit lacking the N-terminal ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant Rat Aqp1. Recombinant protein corresponding to Aqp1 N-terminus. (PAB28847) - Products - Abnova
Cancer-derived iPSc. Celther Polska offers iPS cells generated from cells obtained from patients with prostate or breast cancer. CLTH/iPSc-breast-cancer and CLTH/iPSc-prostate-cancer were established through reprogramming of cells derived from patients diagnosed with prostate or breast cancer. These cells display pluripotency markers (TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, NANOG, alkaline phosphatase activity).. There are two types.. • CLTH/iPSc-breast cancer • CLTH/iPSc-prostate cancer ...
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Special note about Community Feature Content. Any content and/or opinions uploaded, expressed or submitted through any Community Feature or any other publicly available section of the Web Site (including password-protected areas), and all articles and responses to questions, other than the content explicitly authorized by the Company, are solely the opinions and responsibility of the person or entity submitting them and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Company. By way of example, any recommended or suggested use of products or services available from the Company that is posted through a Community Feature is not a sign of approval or recommendation by the Company. If you choose to follow any such recommendation you do so at your own risk.. Links to Third Party Sites. The Web Site may contain links to other websites on the internet. The Company is not responsible for the content, products, services or practices of any third party websites, including without limitation sites linked to ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Allow serum to clot completely at room temperature (minimum: 30 minutes). Centrifuge and separate serum or plasma from cells preferably within four hours of collection ...
gvi:gll0490 K01113 alkaline phosphatase D [EC:3.1.3.1] , (RefSeq) phosphodiesterase/alkaline phosphatase D (A) MRNSRPPLESFARKSLNRRQFLAVSGTLAGAFALALASGEDARSAPSLGATPFTLGVASG DPLPTSIVLWTRLAPDPLVADGGMPARRVSVEWFVATDAGMRRIVRRGTALASPELVHSV HVEVFGLEPSREYYYQFRYRSEYSPIGRTKTAPAAGSPLNSLAFAIATCQKWDDGFYSPY RRMVEEDLDLVVHLGDYTYEYGIASGGVRGATLPDTFAPETVTLDRYRLQHALYKTDPDL QAAHARFPWVVTWDDHEVENDYTDAISENFEPVETFLARRAAAYKAYYEHLPLRRLSIPD GPNLRLYRRLAFGDLAEFNVLDTRQYRSDQPCGDGESDRCEAALDPTKTMAGFDQERWLR QGLEGSGALWNVLAQQVLMAELNHDLEGGTRYWNDGWDGYPVARQRLLRHIATQRIANPV VITGDWHSTFVSDLKLDFKNPDSLVVAAEFVTPSITTNGDAIVYGPYYGPMIPQNPHIKF FDGDRRGYIRCHLDRERWLADIRYVESVSTPDSPIETFASFVIENGQPGVQPA ...
We recommend that each investigator determine the actual optimum dilution for a given antibody or antibody conjuagte for each specific assay used.
F(ab)2抗鼠Alkaline Phosphatase(ab98635)经WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC实验严格验证。被多篇发表文献引用。其他Alkaline Phosphatase偶联二抗可供选择。中国80%以上现货。
ctp:CTRG_03336 K01077 alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] , (RefSeq) similar to alkaline phosphatase (A) MAFIFPRLINISTLALAVYLYLFTNVEAIPVDNSQPKKKNIIFLVGDGFGPSGVNLARNY RQVEQGLSRRDLLNLDGHLIGTQRHSSNSSYITDSAAAGTALATGKKTVNGYISVDPEQN PVGAIGEALKLQGYAVGLVVTTSVGDATPSVWAAHARTRRDQDLIVEQLVGEIHPLGHIP DLILGGGRDWFIGVNDGGKRPDNRSLIEEVQNNGTWTYVGDREGFDSYDEGRNATLPFLG LFAEDNFPYRIDRDDAEYPSLVEQTQFALNALSNYTKDSDQGFFLMVESSRIDHAGHENC VQSHALEALEYDEVFGLVKNFTRETDVDTVVIATADHETGGLVLNLQGPRDFDPVFNATH SGEYLANEIANYEGDDLLGFIRTTVIEEGLGLTNYTEEEVQRLADYVDNSSEGILYTTAL GVAIANLTSSRARVHWGSLQHTSVDVDLYGFSNADYLTQKLLNVRTGLAGVHENTDFSVF IKSITDIDLDEVTELIADVPTRY ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Thomas Regan, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
ALP - MedHelps ALP Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ALP. Find ALP information, treatments for ALP and ALP symptoms.
ALPS 2017: reflection on a decade. In 2017 we had the11th ALPS HPB meeting and the highest attendance to date. Traditionally, a trainee writes the report but on this occasion I thought it might be helpful to reflect on the origin, development and future of the meeting. Like many of the best ideas, ALPS came out of a
Техничексие характеристики alps M52_Red_Note, сформировано приложением СпецДевайс. Реальные данные.
Biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins involves the action of a GPI trans-amidase, which replaces the C-terminal GPI signal sequence (GPI-SS) of the primary translation product with a preformed GPI lipid. The transamidation depends on a complex of four proteins, Gaa1p, Gpi8p, Gpi16p and Gpi17p. Although the GPI anchoring pathway is conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom, it has been reported recently that the GPI-SS of human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP) is not recognized by the yeast transamidase, but is recognized in yeast that contain the human Gpi8p homologue. This finding suggests that Gpi8p is intimately involved in the recognition of GPI precursor proteins and may also be responsible for the subtle taxon-specific differences in transamidase specificity that sometimes prevent the efficient GPI anchoring of heterologously expressed GPI proteins. Here, we confirm that the GPI signal sequence of hPLAP is indeed not recognized by the yeast ...
Phenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated Show morePhenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated ...
3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10737975. Khandwala HM, Mumm S, Whyte MP (2007). "Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity and pathologic fracture: case report and brief review of hypophosphatasia diagnosed in adulthood". Endocrine Practice. 12 (6): 676-81. doi:10.4158/ep.12.6.676. PMID 17229666. Nye KE, Riley GA, Pinching AJ (1992). "The defect seen in the phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis pathway in HIV-infected lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells is due to inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 89 (1): 89-93. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1992.tb06883.x. PMC 1554388 . PMID 1321014. Henthorn PS, Raducha M, Fedde KN, et al. (1992). "Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (20): 9924-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.20.9924. PMC 50246 . PMID 1409720. Nishihara Y, Hayashi Y, Adachi T, et al. ...
Hypophosphatasia (also called deficiency of alkaline phosphatase or phosphoethanolaminuria) is a rare, and sometimes fatal, metabolic bone disease. Clinical symptoms are heterogeneous, ranging from the rapidly fatal, perinatal variant, with profound skeletal hypomineralization and respiratory compromise, to a milder, progressive osteomalacia later in life. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, leading to rickets or osteomalacia. The pathognomonic finding is subnormal serum activity of the TNSALP enzyme, which is caused by one of 200 genetic mutations identified to date, in the gene encoding TNSALP. Genetic inheritance is autosomal recessive for the perinatal and infantile forms but either autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant in the milder forms. The prevalence of hypophosphatasia is not known; one study estimated the live birth incidence of severe forms to be 1:100,000. There is a remarkable variety of ...
en] Chloro-4-phenyl thiomethylene bisphosphonate (tiludronate) is a new drug which can be used as an inhibitor of bone resorption. As it remains in bone for a long time, and as mineralisation defects have only been seen at doses much higher than those required to decrease osteoclastic activity, it could be given at high doses over a short period of time. Eighteen patients with Pagets disease of bone were randomly allocated to three therapeutic groups receiving respectively 600, 800, and 1200 mg/day tiludronate for five days. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity and the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio were quickly and drastically reduced in all three groups. A significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatases and the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio was still present six months after the five day therapeutic course, reflecting a sustained activity of tiludronate even after stopping treatment. Dose dependent short and long term reductions of bone turnover rate were observed. Biochemical ...
A number of isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase have been found in human serum, and it has been assumed that liver and bone are the main tissue sources of these enzymes. A serum alkaline phosphatase of intestinal origin has now been identified by (1) its characteristic inhibition of enzyme activity in the presence of L-phenylalanine and (2) its location as a band of activity, after starch gel electrophoresis, migrating to the position for purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase. A similar band (unidentified as to organ source) has been related to the ABO blood types of normal individuals by other workers.. The present ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a small population of cells located in bone marrow and most of the connective tissue. hMSC are multipotent and their ability to differentiate into osteoblast makes them suitable for application in regenerative orthopedics. In this research, I investigated the level of osteogenic differentiation of hMSC after the treatmant with osteoinductive molecules under the standard protocol. In vitro differentiation was evaluated by the analysis of bone markers - alkaline phosphatase and bonesialoprotein and by analysis of markers of stemness. Oct4, Sox2 i Nanog are pluripotency markers of embryonic stem cells but their expression was also confirmed in some types of adult stem cells. The aim of this research was to investigate if they were expressed in hMSC and if their expression decreases during differentiation. Results of RT qPCR showed that Oct4, Sox2 i Nanog are expressed in undifferentiated hMSC and that their expression decreases paralel with the apperance and ...
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic pathological process involving inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Pharmacological intervention for prevention of CAVD progression remains unavailable. Calcified aortic valves display higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and oxLDL has the potential to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has been shown to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. We tested the hypotheses that oxLDL induces the osteogenic responses in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via TLRs and that IL-37 suppresses the responses and may have therapeutic potential for suppression of CAVD progression.. Methods and Results: Human AVICs from normal valves were treated with oxLDL (20-80 μg/ml) for 72 hours in vitro. OxLDL up-regulated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in a dose-dependent fashion. Further, oxLDL induced NF-κB ...
Objective: Calcific aortic valve disease is a progressive condition that shares some common pathogenic features with atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 is a recognized mediator of atherosclerosis and is expressed in aortic valve lesions. Transforming growth factorβ1 stimulates glycosaminoglycan elongation of proteoglycans that is associated with increased lipid binding. We investigated the presence of transforming growth factor-β1 and downstream signaling intermediates in diseased human aortic valves and the effects of activated transforming growth factor-β1 receptor signaling on aortic valve interstitial cell proteoglycan synthesis and lipid binding as a possible mechanism for the initiation of the early lesion of calcific aortic valve disease. Methods and results: Diseased human aortic valve leaflets demonstrated strong immunohistochemical staining for transforming growth factor-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2/3. In primary porcine aortic valve interstitial cells, Western blots ...
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of hydroxyapatite-coated nanofibrous polycaprolactone membrane on proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cell which is necessary for periodontal regeneration. Hydroxyapatite-coated nanofibrous polycaprolactone membrane was fabricated through electrospinning process and used as a test group. Polystyrene culture dish surface was regarded as a control group. Human periodontal ligament cells were seeded on each group and cultured until 14 days. Cell attachment morphology was observed by SEM. MTS assay and ALP assay were performed to determine cell proliferation and differentiation respectively. Mineral formation was examined by Alizarin red S staining. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U test with 95 % confidence interval. SEM revealed good human periodontal ligament fibroblast spreading on hydroxyapatite-coated polycaprolactone. MTS assay showed increased cell proliferation on hydroxyapatite-coated polycaprolactone membrane
Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, decreases bone remodeling, increases bone density, and reduces fracture risk. This study evaluates the time course and determinants of bone turnover marker (BTM) response during denosumab treatment, the percentage of denosumab-treated women with BTMs below the premenopausal reference interval, and the correlations between changes in BTMs and bone mineral density (BMD). The BTM substudy of the Fracture REduction Evaulation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis every 6 Months (FREEDOM) Trial included 160 women randomized to subcutaneous denosumab (60 mg) or placebo injections every 6 months for 3 years. Biochemical markers of bone resorption (serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX] and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatise [TRACP-5b]) and bone formation (serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide [PINP] and bone alkaline phosphatase [BALP]) were measured at baseline and at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Decreases in CTX were more rapid and greater than
The natural pure compound obtusilactone A (OA) was identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki, and shows effective anti-cancer activity. We studied the effect of OA on osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). OA possesses biocompatibility, stimulates Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity and facilitates mineralization of BMSCs. Expression of osteogenesis markers BMP2, Runx2, Collagen I, and Osteocalcin was enhanced in OA-treated BMSCs. An in vivo rat model with local administration of OA via needle implantation to bone marrow-residing BMSCs revealed that OA increased the new bone formation and trabecular bone volume in tibias. Micro-CT images and H&E staining showed more trabecular bone at the needle-implanted site in the OA group than the normal saline group. Thus, OA confers an osteoinductive effect on BMSCs via induction of osteogenic marker gene expression, such as BMP2 and Runx2 expression and subsequently elevates ALP activity and mineralization, followed

HypophosphatasiaHypophosphatasia

... is a genetic condition in which the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase is deficient. This ... Hypophosphatasia is a rare genetic disease with low tissue nonspeficic alkaline phosphatase activity (TNSALP), due to ALPL gene ... Adult hypophosphatasia is an asymptomatic genetic condition which results in low alkaline phosphatase and elevated pyridoxal ... results from ALPL mutations leading to deficient activity of the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase isozyme (TNAP) and ...
more infohttp://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/Hypophosphatasia/3677

Alkaline Phosphatase | SpringerLinkAlkaline Phosphatase | SpringerLink

There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... This is especially true in a field such as alkaline phosphatase research, in which very real dangers exist that the seeds of ... There can be no doubt that alkaline phosphatase is one of the most extensively in- vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted ... The history of the study of alkaline phosphatase provides several instances when valuable generalizations have emerged. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4613-2970-1

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASEALKALINE PHOSPHATASE

Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : * ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ...
more infohttp://www.legacyhealth.org/for-health-professionals/refer-a-patient/laboratory-services/test-table/alkaline-phosphatase.aspx

Alkaline Phosphatases | SpringerLinkAlkaline Phosphatases | SpringerLink

Our knowledge of the structure and function of alkaline phosphatases has increased greatly in recent years. The crystal ... Mammalian alkaline phosphatases are allosteric enzymes. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 22781-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Alkaline phosphatases (APs; EC 3.1.3.1) occur widely in nature, and are found in many organisms from bacteria to man [1]. With ... Structural evidence of functional divergence in human alkaline phosphatases. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 49808-14.CrossRefPubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-005-5435-6

001107: Alkaline Phosphatase | LabCorp001107: Alkaline Phosphatase | LabCorp

Gilbert syndrome: Increase in intestinal alkaline phosphatase is seen.7. Hepatitis: Moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase ... may elevate alkaline phosphatase. There is evidence that thyroid hormone (T3) acts to stimulate bone alkaline phosphatase ... Causes of low alkaline phosphatase are said to include: Hypothyroidism − but most hypothyroid patients have normal alkaline ... 3. Narayanan S. Alkaline phosphatase as tumor marker. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1983 Mar-Apr; 13(2):133-136. 6859804 ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/19016/alkaline-phosphatase

What is alkaline phosphatase? | Reference.comWhat is alkaline phosphatase? | Reference.com

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Low levels of alkaline phosphatase have been linked to malnutrition, Wilsons disease and protein deficiency. The alkaline ... Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in many of the human bodys tissues. It is most abundant in the cells of the liver and ... Alkaline phosphatase helps the teeth and bones grow properly. It is also active in kidney and liver function. The normal range ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/alkaline-phosphatase-8716be59ec47dfbd

Alkaline PhosphataseAlkaline Phosphatase

... Test Overview. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood. ALP ... A test for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is done to:. *Check for liver disease or damage to the liver. Symptoms of liver disease ... An alkaline phosphatase test is often done at the same time as a routine blood test. You do not need to do anything before ... An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood. ...
more infohttps://www.adventisthealthcare.com/health/library/topic/?id=hw1717

Alkaline PhosphataseAlkaline Phosphatase

An easy-to-use directory for life science and biomedical research products. Find special deals on products, order catalogs and browse product lines from suppliers of reagents, antibodies, laboratory equipment, and more.
more infohttp://www.biosupplynet.com/cfdocs/products/prod_supp.cfm?prod_id=1319

alkaline phosphatase - Digestive Disorders / Gastroenterology - MedHelpalkaline phosphatase - Digestive Disorders / Gastroenterology - MedHelp

I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor said that high normal is 136. All ... alkaline phosphatase MAWorried I received blookwork results that showed that my alkaline phosphatase level is 153, my doctor ... that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase ... An alkaline phosphatase of 153 is mildly elevated. There are many reasons why this can be elevated. Here is a excerpt from ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Digestive-Disorders---Gastroenterology/alkaline-phosphatase/show/234502

Elevated alkaline phosphatase  - Liver Disorders - MedHelpElevated alkaline phosphatase - Liver Disorders - MedHelp

My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... Elevated alkaline phosphatase I recently had a liver function test as part of my regular blood work. My alkaline phosphatase ... My alkaline phosphatase level was 145.0, where the normal range is 35.0-123.0. My doctor told me that the results indicated ... What other tests do I need to have other than having another alkaline phosphatase test done in 3 months? ...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/posts/Liver-Disorders/Elevated-alkaline-phosphatase-/show/934523

Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase & Cancer | Livestrong.comElevated Alkaline Phosphatase & Cancer | Livestrong.com

Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... Alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, is an enzyme that is responsible for cleaving phosphate groups from other molecules, such as ... However, primary cancers in various organs can generate alkaline phosphatase elevations in the absence of metastasis. These ... Clinical Chemistry; A Variant Alkaline Phosphatase in Renal Cell Carcinoma; Whitaker K, et al.; 1982 ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/298946-elevated-alkaline-phosphatase-cancer/

Alkaline Phosphatase in Toddlers | Livestrong.comAlkaline Phosphatase in Toddlers | Livestrong.com

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme necessary for normal phosphate metabolism found in several different tissues in your body. ... Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase and Disease. Alkaline phosphatase blood levels rise when a disease involves any of those tissues ... Low Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Mildly decreased alkaline phosphatase levels can be seen with zinc deficiency or malnutrition ... Normal Alkaline Phosphatase Levels. Important tissue sites containing alkaline phosphatase include the liver, bone, intestine, ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/495026-alkaline-phosphatase-in-toddlers/

Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase.  - PubMed - NCBISensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase. - PubMed - NCBI

Alkaline phosphatase substrates. Unmasking of trimethyl lock substrate 1 with alkaline phosphatase requires two steps: an ... Michaelis-Menten plots for the serial dilution of substrate 1 (128→5.9 μM) with E. coli alkaline phosphatase (25 ng·mL−1) in ... Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a ... Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase.. Levine MN1, Raines RT.. Author information. 1. Department of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827735

Enzyme Explorer Alkaline Phosphatase | Sigma-AldrichEnzyme Explorer Alkaline Phosphatase | Sigma-Aldrich

Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other ... View list of E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase Products. KM: 0.02 × 10-3 M (p-Nitrophenyl phosphate)4. Molecular weight:2 89 kDa ( ... E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase. E. coli ALKP is a dimeric, non-glycosylated protein assumed to reside mainly in the periplasmic ... Conjugation of Alkaline Phosphatase to Antibodies and Other Proteins. Dephosphorylation of DNA. Dephosphorylation of Protein ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/metabolomics/enzyme-explorer/analytical-enzymes/alkaline-phosphatase.html

Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C)Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC new; 37C)

... For determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum or plasma. For Hitachi 717. ... Alkaline phosphatase FS (DGKC). 6. Alkaline phosphatase FS (IFCC). 7. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). 8. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP ... Alkaline Phosphatase. 2. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent. 3. Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent Set. 4. Alkaline Phosphatase Liquid ... Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes. 10. Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Specific. 11. Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum or Plasma. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Alkaline-phosphatase-FS--28DGKC-new-3B-37C-29-3013-1/

Alkaline Phosphatase Enhancer ab671 | AbcamAlkaline Phosphatase Enhancer ab671 | Abcam

Stable alkaline phosphatase enhancer for IHC and ISH that increases alkaline phosphatase signal several fold. Compatible with ... Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme derived from bovine intestinal mucosa, is often used as a label for in situ hybridization, ... Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme derived from bovine intestinal mucosa, is often used as a label for in situ hybridization, ... iv) Drain excess alkaline phosphatase enhancer and add substrate/chromogen onto the tissue sections without any wash between ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/alkaline-phosphatase-enhancer-ab671.html

Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme, SerumAlkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme, Serum

Alkaline Phosphatase: Monday through Sunday; Continuously. Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes: Monday through Friday ... ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE Males Females 4 years: 149-369 U/L 4 years: 169-372 U/L 5 years: 179-416 U/L 5 years: 162-355 U/L 6 years ... ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ISOENZYMES Liver 1% Liver 1 0-6 years: 5.1-49.0% 0-6 years: 7.0-112.7 IU/L 7-9 years: 3.0-45.0% 7-9 years ... Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and 5nucleotidase may be useful in identifying disorders of bone and liver, respectively. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcare.uiowa.edu/path_handbook/handbook/test1488.html

Alkaline phosphatase - wikidocAlkaline phosphatase - wikidoc

3.1.3: Phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase - Acid phosphatase (Prostatic)/Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase/Purple acid ... alkaline phosphatases are most effective in an alkaline environment. Bacterial. In bacteria, alkaline phosphatase is located in ... The most common alkaline phosphatases used in research are: *Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP), from Escherichia coli C4 ... Calf intestine alkaline phosphatase (CIAP), from calf intestine. *Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and its C terminally ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Alkaline_phosphatase

Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP)Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase (SAP)

... nonspecifically catalyzes the dephosphorylation of 5- ... Unlike Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase, SAP is irreversibly heat inactivated at 65°C for 15 minutes, allowing for ... Pichia pastoris that has been genetically modified with a gene coding ashrimp alkaline phosphatase. ... Phosphatases * Alkaline Phosphatase, Calf Intestinal * Alkaline Phosphatase, E. coli * Alkaline Phosphatase, Shrimp ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Molecular_Biology_Tools/Modifying_Enzymes/Phosphatases/Alkaline_Phosphatase_Shrimp?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=QxL09OG7FVLPGRXLiXw8SNbcub&PEBCL1_pses=ZG012E70ED187A7B4FB881DD507189B12ABF369C0BD4FDD317C37E1E8B565D08B4F0FBD1F301C0FF60E64E5D2BA303287FA3F584E8A64DC240

Alkaline Phosphatase: MedlinePlus Lab Test InformationAlkaline Phosphatase: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in the blood. It is used to diagnose liver damage or bone ... What is an Alkaline Phosphatase Test?. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in your blood. ALP is an ... Why do I need an alkaline phosphatase test?. Your health care provider may have ordered an alkaline phosphatase test as part of ... What happens during an alkaline phosphatase test?. An alkaline phosphatase test is a type of blood test. During the test, a ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/alkaline-phosphatase/

Alkaline Phosphatase Labeling Kit ab102850 | AbcamAlkaline Phosphatase Labeling Kit ab102850 | Abcam

Abcams Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugation Kit provides a simple and quick process to conjugate your primary antibodies with ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/alkaline-phosphatase-conjugation-kit-ab102850.html

What is an alkaline phosphatase test for? | Reference.comWhat is an alkaline phosphatase test for? | Reference.com

The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... What is an alkaline phosphate blood test?. A: An alkaline phosphatase, or ALP, blood test measures the bodys level of ALP, ... The alkaline phosphatase test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood, says WebMD. The test is used to check for ... The alkaline phosphatase test consists of a simple blood test, and it is often taken at the same time as other routine blood ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/alkaline-phosphatase-test-e90fdb694771e987

RCSB PDB 









- 1ANJ: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (K328H) Methods Report PageRCSB PDB - 1ANJ: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (K328H) Methods Report Page

... coli alkaline phosphatase provide insight towards the structure and function of mammalian and yeast alkaline phosphatases. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1ANJ

RCSB PDB 









- 1HQA: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (H412Q) Macromolecule Annotations PageRCSB PDB - 1HQA: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (H412Q) Macromolecule Annotations Page

Kinetic and X-ray structural studies of a mutant Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (His-412Gln) at one of the zinc ... Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Escherichia coli [TaxId: 562] ... Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase-like Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Escherichia coli [TaxId: 562] ... Alkaline Phosphatase, subunit A Alkaline Phosphatase, subunit A B. 1hqaB00. Alpha Beta 3-Layer(aba) Sandwich Alkaline ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1HQA

Alkaline-Phosphatase-AP-activated | China-Mainland | Sigma-AldrichAlkaline-Phosphatase-AP-activated | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

... specific phosphoprotein phosphatases or acidic phosphatases) may have to be used.. Inactivation. Alkaline Phosphatase can be ... and 10U alkaline phosphatase.. *Reference 2: Heat stable MAPs (5 mg/ml) were treated with calf intestinal phosphatase in buffer ... Thus, alkaline phosphatase may potentially also hydrolyze phosphate groups of proteins, but we cannot provide any in-house data ... Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a non-specific phosphomonoester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide variety of ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/protocols/biology/roche/alkaline-phosphatase-ap-activated.html
  • Extrahepatic tumors, including osteosarcomas, lung, gastric, head and neck, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian, uterine cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase into serum by an unknown mechanism. (medhelp.org)
  • Basically, the Regan isozenzyme is an alkaline phosphatase that is located in the placenta and associated with the gonadal and urologic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since this space is much more subject to environmental variation than the actual interior of the cell, bacterial alkaline phosphatase is comparatively resistant to inactivation, denaturation , and degradation , and also has a higher rate of activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPP Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • In the laboratory , however, mutant Escherichia coli lacking alkaline phosphatase survive quite well, as do mutants unable to shut off alkaline phosphatase production. (wikidoc.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of alkaline phosphatase (ALP/ALKP) preparations optimized for conjugation to antibodies and other proteins for ELISA, Western blotting, and histochemical detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Due to space constraints this mini-review focuses exclusively on structural and functional features of mammalian alkaline phosphatases as identified by crystallography and probed by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis. (springer.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated temperature conditions such as 80 °C. Due to the kinetic energy induced by this temperature the weak hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions of common proteins become degraded and therefore coalesce and precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic kidney disease Elevated alkaline phosphatase in patients with cancer normally spans throughout the bones or liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, these wide-ranging but often superficial experimental studies have been followed up by intensive and systematic investigations in only a few limited areas of the biochemistry and chemical pathology of alkaline phosphatase. (springer.com)
  • Although normal ranges can vary somewhat among different laboratories, most children from age 1 month to 3 years have alkaline phosphatase levels from 70 to 250 U/L, according to "Cases in Chemical Pathology. (livestrong.com)
  • For these purposes, the alkaline phosphatase from shrimp is the most useful, as it is the easiest to inactivate once it has done its job. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mildly decreased alkaline phosphatase levels can be seen with zinc deficiency or malnutrition. (livestrong.com)
  • With elevated alkaline phosphatase levels there is an increase in disproportionate intracellular fat depots and thereby releasing itself into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase and other enzymatic measures of cholestasis. (medhelp.org)
  • Its attributes are ideal for enzymatic assays of alkaline phosphatase for both basic research and biotechnological applications. (nih.gov)
  • Many commonly and uncommonly used drugs elevate alkaline phosphatase, and tenfold increases may be seen with drug cholestasis. (labcorp.com)
  • Summary of the gene nomenclature, accession numbers, common names, tissue distribution and function, if known, for the human and mouse alkaline phosphatase isozymes. (springer.com)
  • i) Once tissue sections have been incubated with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase, wash them with buffer thoroughly. (abcam.com)
  • ii) Wipe the glass to remove excess of buffer and add enough drops of the alkaline phosphatase enhancer solution to cover the tissue sections. (abcam.com)
  • Only three laboratory markers were consistently abnormal, in evaluating for metastatic carcinoma of breast, prior to clinical detectability of metastases: these were alkaline phosphatase, GT and CEA. (labcorp.com)
  • Additionally, abnormal levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood could indicate issues relating to the liver, gall bladder or bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • You don't need any special preparations for an alkaline phosphatase test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The normal range for alkaline phosphatase is 44 to 147 international units per liter, according to MedlinePlus. (reference.com)