Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Magnesium Silicates: A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Silicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Dictionaries, ChemicalBiopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalViral Structures: The structural parts of the VIRION.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Santalaceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.AcrylatesPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cystamine: A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.

A new alkali-resistant hemoglobin alpha2J Oxford gammaF2 in a Sicilian baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia. (1/541)

A 10-mo-old baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia and alphaJOxford, presenting the clinical picture of homozygous beta thalassemia is described. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed three bands: the first two with the mobilities of hemoglobin Hb A2 (1%) and Hb F (69%), respectively, the third migrating a little faster than Hb A (30%). About 30% of her alpha chains were J Oxford which, bound to her gamma chains, produced a new alkali-resistant hemoglobin, alpha2 J Oxford gamma F2, which has not been described previously. Hemoglobin synthesis in vitro showed the absence of beta chain synthesis and an alpha/non-alpha ratio of 2. The patient's father was heterozygous for both the Hb J Oxford and beta0 thalassemia genes, the mother a carrier of beta0 thalassemia; four other relatives were carriers of Hb J Oxford, and one was a carrier of beta thalassemia.  (+info)

Alkali-treated collagen retained the triple helical conformation and the ligand activity for the cell adhesion via alpha2beta1 integrin. (2/541)

Alkaline treatment is a good method for extracting collagen with high recovery even from an aged animal specimen. However, the properties of collagen treated under alkaline conditions have not been well established yet. By the treatment with a solution of 3% sodium hydroxide and 1.9% monomethylamine, the isoelectric point of type I collagen was lowered from 9.3 to 4.8 because of the conversions of Asn and Gln to Asp and Glu. With the acidification of the pI, the denaturation temperature of the collagen was decreased from 42 to 35 degrees C after 20 d treatment, but the collagen-specific triple helical conformation was maintained. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the alkali-treated collagen via the collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1. This indicates that the alkali-treated collagen maintained its property as a biological adherent molecule. Unlike acid-soluble collagen, alkali-treated collagen lost the ability to form fibrils at neutral pH under physiological conditions. This ability was lost even after 4 h of alkaline treatment, when the denaturation temperature of the collagen did not change. On the other hand, the alkali-treated collagen formed a fibrous precipitate with a uniform diameter of 50-70 nm under acidic conditions at 30 degrees C.  (+info)

Meningitis caused by an alkali-producing pseudomonad. (3/541)

The clinical and microbiological features of a case of meningitis, due to an alkali-producing pseudomonad which closely resembles Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, are described. A respiratory infection and a course of antibiotic therapy before admission to hospital may have been predisposing factors to opportunistic infection by this normally saprophytic organism. The problems of identifying alkali-producing pseudomonads are discussed.  (+info)

Replication of African swine fever virus DNA in infected cells. (4/541)

We have examined the ultrastructural localization of African swine fever virus DNA in thin-sections of infected cells by in situ hybridization and autoradiography. Virus-specific DNA sequences were found in the nucleus of infected Vero cells at early times in the synthesis of the viral DNA, forming dense foci localized in proximity to the nuclear membrane. At later times, the viral DNA was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic autoradiography of African swine fever virus-infected macrophages showed that the nucleus is also a site of viral DNA replication at early times. These results provide further evidence of the existence of nuclear and cytoplasmic stages in the synthesis of African swine fever virus DNA. On the other hand, alkaline sucrose sedimentation analysis of the replicative intermediates synthesized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected macrophages showed that small DNA fragments ( approximately 6-12S) were synthesized in the nucleus at an early time, whereas at later times, larger fragments of approximately 37-49S were labeled in the cytoplasm. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these fragments are precursors of the mature cross-linked viral DNA. The formation of dimeric concatemers, which are predominantly head-to-head linked, was observed by pulsed-field electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analysis at intermediate and late times in the replication of African swine fever virus DNA. Our findings suggest that the replication of African swine fever virus DNA proceeds by a de novo start mechanism with the synthesis of small DNA fragments, which are then converted into larger size molecules. Ligation or further elongation of these molecules would originate a two-unit concatemer with dimeric ends that could be resolved to generate the genomic DNA by site-specific nicking, rearrangement, and ligation as has been proposed in the de novo start model of Baroudy et al. (B. M. Baroudy, S. Venkatesam, and B. Moss, 1982, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 723-729) for the replication of vaccinia virus DNA.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from human follicular fluid. (5/541)

Two proteoglycans differing in size and composition were isolated from human follicular fluid. The larger one of high density had a molecular mass of 3.0x10(6) Da, as determined by laser light-scattering, and was substituted with 15-20 chondroitin sulphate (CS) chains (Mr 60000-65000). Half of the CS disaccharides were 6-sulphated, whereas the remaining ones were non-sulphated. Digestion of the CS proteoglycan with chondroitinase ABC lyase, followed by SDS/PAGE, yielded a protein core of 600 to 700 kDa including substituted oligosaccharides, and a band of 70 kDa that was identified as the heavy-chain component of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI). Western blotting of the CS proteoglycan showed that this had reactivity with antibodies raised against human versican. Electron microscopy (EM) of the CS proteoglycan also revealed a versican-like structure, with one globular domain at each end of a long extended segment substituted with CS side chains, as well as a structure interpreted as being the heavy chain of ITI attached to CS chains. Laser light-scattering revealed that the smaller proteoglycan had a molecular mass of 1. 1x10(6) Da, and EM demonstrated that it had a globular-protein core structure. The core protein, which showed immunological reactivity with perlecan antibodies, was substituted with approximately seven heparan sulphate (HS) and CS chains of similar size (50-55 kDa), the CS disaccharides being mainly 6-sulphated (68%), with a small proportion being 4-sulphated. The protein core was shown to be heterogeneous, with bands occurring at 215, 330 and 400 kDa after enzymic degradation of the glycosaminoglycan chains followed by SDS/PAGE analysis. The demonstration of intact molecules and fragments obtained after stepwise degradations, as shown by gel chromatography, supported a 'composite' structure of this proteoglycan.  (+info)

Isolation and properties of Enterococcus hirae mutants defective in the potassium/proton antiport system. (6/541)

A K+/H+ antiporter regulates cytoplasmic pH in Enterococcus hirae growing at alkaline pH. Mutants defective in this antiport activity were alkaline pH sensitive. One mutant, Pop1, lacked both K+/methylamine exchange at pH 9.5 and concomitant acidification of cytoplasmic pH. Pop1 grew well at pHs below 8 but did not at pHs above 9, conditions under which cytoplasmic pH was not fully acidified.  (+info)

Interaction of collagen molecules from the aspect of fibril formation: acid-soluble, alkali-treated, and MMP1-digested fragments of type I collagen. (7/541)

Collagen type I extracted with acid or digested with pepsin forms fibrils under physiological conditions, but this ability is lost when the collagen is treated with alkaline solution or digested with matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). When acid-soluble collagen was incubated with alkali-treated collagen, the fibril formation of acid-soluble collagen was inhibited. At 37 degrees C, at which alkali-treated collagen is denatured, the lag time was prolonged but the growth rate of fibrils was not affected. At 30 degrees C, at which the triple helical conformation of alkali-treated collagen is retained, the lag time was prolonged and the growth rate reduced. Heat-denatured alkali-treated collagen and MMP1-digested fragments have no inhibitory effect on the fibril formation of acid-soluble collagen. This means that the triple helical conformation and the molecular length are important factors in the interaction of collagen molecules and that alkali-treated collagen acts as a competitive inhibitor for fibril formation of collagen. We found that alkali-treated collagen and MMP1-digested fragments form fibrils that lack the D periodic banding pattern and twisted morphology under acidic conditions at the appropriate ionic strength. We also calculated the relative strengths of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between collagen molecules. When the hydrophobic interaction between linear collagen molecules was considered, we found a pattern of periodic maximization of the interactive force including the D period. On the other hand, the electrostatic interaction did not show the periodic pattern, but the overall interaction score affected fibril formation.  (+info)

Analysis of the in vivo interaction between a basic repressor and an acidic activator. (8/541)

The artificial basic repressor SSB24 represses transcription of a reporter construct activated by GCN4. We show that the positively charged SSB24 and the negatively charged acidic activator GCN4 interact in vitro and in vivo. However, deleting the interaction domain from the GCN4 activator does not result in loss of repression by SSB24. Similarly, transcription activated by the holoenzyme component SRB2 is repressed, although SSB24 and SRB2 do not interact. Repression by SSB24 therefore does not depend on the observed protein-protein interaction between SSB24 and GCN4.  (+info)

  • Also sometimes considered as alkalies are the salts of strong bases and weak acids ( see ACIDS AND BASES ), whose aqueous solutions exhibit alkaline reactions, for example, the hydro-sulfides NaSH and KSH, the carbonates Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 , the hydrocarbonate NaHCO 3 and the borax Na 2 B 4 O 7 . (
  • Alkalies are readily soluble in water and form strongly basic solutions with a characteristic acrid taste. (
  • Alkalis are normally water-soluble, although some like barium carbonate are only soluble when reacting with an acidic aqueous solution. (
  • Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer different from monomer (A), and (C) a hydrophobic, alkoxylated macromonomer polymerizable with monomers (A) and (B). The monoethylenically. (
  • Alkali soluble thickeners are dislcosed which comprise a reaction product of (A) an unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer, (B) a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer different from monomer (A), and (C) a hydrophobic, alkoxylated macromonomer polymerizable with monomers (A) and (B). The monoethylenically unsaturared monomer different from monomer (A) comprises a methyl group, preferably is an acrylate and more preferably is methyl acrylate. (
  • The definition of an alkali is a soluble salt that comes from the ashes of plants and is made up of mostly potassium or sodium carbonate. (
  • The alkali lignins are insoluble in water, but soluble in alkali. (
  • They form ionic compounds ( salts ) in reaction with the halogens (alkali halides). (
  • Current data for the alkali halides (interatomic distances in crystal and vapor, specific gravities, melting temperatures, and elastic moduli) are brought together to show that several mutually consistent ionic and covalent radius values can be developed which, interpolated on the basis of ionicity, will additively describe observed interatomic distances within the required accuracy. (
  • Some of the properties of the alkali halides are compared to the properties which would be displayed by a rock-salt structure of ideal octahedral packing. (
  • It is suggested that, for the alkali halides at least, correction for this can be provided by an added 'spacing' factor which depends only on the size of the host atom and on the radius ratio. (
  • We report on an electron-induced modification of alkali halides in the ultrathin film regime. (
  • Combustion under flame conditions also showed a stark contrast between the strongly catalyzed degradation of samples in the presence of alkali metals, and the uncatalysed degradation of mineral-free samples. (
  • distillates can be achieved by treating the oil with finely divided alkali metal dispersions consisting of particles of one micron or less in size, resulting in products of excellent color and color stability. (
  • The severity of this corrosive action depends on the strength of the acid or alkali, the concentration of the chemical, the temperature of the chemical, and the duration of contact. (
  • Strong acid/alkali should never be used without wearing eye protection such as safety glasses or a face shield. (
  • These practices include adding acid/alkali to water so that any splash will be primarily the water. (
  • This treatment with acid and alkali is usually effected by agitation with compressed air. (
  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali , or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid. (
  • If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds. (
  • 5. The process of producing large surface area lignin derivatives which comprises, reacting in an aqueous medium an alkali lignin with from 0.17 to 2.0 moles of hexamethylene tetramine per mole of lignin at a temperature between 70° and 180° C., mixing said product with varsol and acetic acid, and drying said mixture. (
  • The sulphuric acid required for the conversion of the salt into "salt cake" is made by the alkali manufacturer himself, this manufacture necessitating a large plant of "lead chambers" and accessories, and keeping up an immense trade in pyrites from Spain and Portugal. (
  • The investigators will test alkali treatment, to treat acid build-up, in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate effects on muscles, bones, glucose metabolism and kidney. (
  • A delicate balance of acid and alkali exists in the blood, and bicarbonate serves to maintain the delicate balance of acid and alkali in the blood, also known as the pH balance, which is chiefly maintained by the lungs and kidneys. (
  • Diseases affecting the kidney and gastrointestinal tract functions are usually involved in the disruption of the acid and alkali balance in the blood. (
  • The next step will be to perform laboratory testing to check the levels of acid and alkali in the different body fluids. (
  • Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), muriatic acid, and potassium hydroxide are the major alkalis' produced during this process. (
  • The FDA received a complaint describing alkali dosing errors that occurred during hemodialysis using dialysate concentrates containing acetic acid and acetate. (
  • The work conducted for this thesis mainly deals with topics related to thermal degradation kinetics of biomass and the influence of alkali metals on these kinetics, as well as their effects on the thermal behaviour of the fuel. (
  • Acids and alkalis can not only eat away at metal and metal oxides, but also at materials like skin and lung tissue. (
  • where x is the number of moles of alkali metal oxides and is an integer from 0.01 to 2.0, M is the alkali metal, y is the number of moles of SiO 2 in the unique SAMS compositions and is an integer greater than 2.0, and z is the number of moles of bound water and is an integer ranging from 1.0 to 5.0. (
  • According to the report's estimations, as of 2018, Chlor-Alkali market attained a global value of $91,126m, and the market is expected to register a CAGR of 5.65% during the forecast period 2019-2025. (
  • The region held a dominating position with 36% of the global revenue share in Chlor-Alkali market as of 2018. (
  • By 2020, Chlor-Alkali industries of Europe are committed to cease the mercury-based plants as they majorly account for the mercury pollution in the environment. (
  • Typically in ionic reactions, the alkali earth metals oxidize to a 2+ state since alla element in this period have two valence electrons. (
  • together with measured interatomic distances these serve to generate unique values for metal and halogen radii for each salt, and these in turn can be extrapolated to obtain unique ionic radii for the halogens and ionic and covalent radii for the alkali metals (for which the latter differ significantly from half the observed interatomic distance in the metals). (
  • In this chapter, it is proposed to give a historical review of studies of alkali halide crystals with special reference to the interpretation of experimental Raman data on the basis of lattice dynamics. (
  • We report for the first time a severe (Pfister-Koski classification scheme) bilateral airbag related ocular alkali injury. (
  • As demonstrated in this case, airbags despite their life saving intent can also be associated with serious ocular injuries including severe alkali burns. (
  • In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content of the cement was below 0.6% and that expansion could be reduced by supplementary cementitious materials, thereby setting the groundwork for mitigation procedures. (
  • We investigated whether alkali supplementation with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), with or without vitamin D3 (± VD3), alters urinary nitrogen (indicator of muscle proteolysis), muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), fiber number (FN), and anabolic (IGF-1, Akt, p70s6k) and catabolic (FOXO3a, MURF1, MAFbx) signaling pathways regulating muscle mass. (
  • When metabolized, these potential sources of alkali can contribute to elevated bicarbonate levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis. (