Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Burns, ChemicalSodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Nitroso CompoundsEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Halobacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE. Species are widely distributed in a variety of hypersaline environments.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).CitrullineGuanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Indazoles4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.OxadiazolesViscum: A plant genus in the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Species of this genus contain cytotoxic LECTINS. The common name of MISTLETOE is used for many species of this and the LORANTHACEAE families.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.PolysaccharidesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.HydrazinesCitratesBenzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
  • At ordinary pressures, the CsCl structure is adopted by only three of the alkali halides, CsCl, CsBr, and CsI. (wikibooks.org)
  • Under high pressure however, other alkali halides transform from the NaCl to the CsCl structure because of the higher Madelung constant of CsCl. (wikibooks.org)
  • Many manganese oxides are better identified using infra-red spectroscopy than by x-ray diffraction because of issues of crystal size, disorder, etc. (mindat.org)
  • The structures of manganese oxides can be divided into two types, the tunnel and the layer structures. (nature.com)
  • Tetracaesium monoxide (Cs4O) Heptacaesium monoxide (Cs7O) Tricaesium dioxide (Cs3O2) Heptacaesium dioxide (Cs7O2) Undecacaesium trioxide (Cs11O3) Undecacaesium monorubidium trioxide (Cs11RbO3) Undecacaesium dirubidium trioxide (Cs11Rb2O3) Undecacaesium trirubidium trioxide (Cs11Rb3O3) Lithium oxide (Li2O) is the lightest alkali metal oxide and a white solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caesium peroxide (Cs2O2) is produced by the decomposition of caesium oxide above 400 °C. Lithium superoxide (LiO2) has only been isolated in matrix isolation at 15 K. Sodium superoxide (NaO2) is a yellow-orange solid that melts at 551.7 °C. It is made by the high-pressure oxidation of sodium peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 42. Lithium Niobium Oxide: LiNbO2 and Superconducting LixNbO2. (wiley.com)
  • Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. (osti.gov)
  • C.I. 77947;C.I. Pigment White 4;zincoxideheavy;flowers of zinc;zinc white;active zinc oxide;zinkoxyd aktiv;zinci oxidum;activox;activox b;actox14;zine. (chemnet.com)
  • White Aluminum Oxide as blasting preparation for Engine Heads, Valves, and Pistons. (phrmg.org)
  • White Aluminum Oxide Sand Blasting Material Mesh 12-180 Alu. (phrmg.org)
  • China Zibo Honghe Chemical Co., Ltd., specializing in the production of high purity alumina.The company takes the production of aluminum oxide as a foundation, and devotes to the development and application of high purity Al2O3 of fine and superfine materials. (swkong.com)
  • Related products Company XT has a full line of synthetic iron oxide pigments as well as many other specialty pigment products. (alibaba.com)
  • Cool Colors ® PR101 red iron oxide pigments offer a dull red shade that is opaque to visible light with moderate NIR reflectance ("cool" pigment). (ferro.com)
  • Chiam, S. Y. Detrimental Effects of Oxygen Vacancies in Electrochromic Molybdenum Oxide. (alfa.com)
  • of Li ion transport number in poly(ethylene oxide)-LiX complexes. (nature.com)
  • Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. (dtu.dk)
  • We expect this model of the EOR to be valid for other organic electrolytes and other Li metal oxide surfaces, due to its simplicity, and the model leads to simple design principles for protective coatings. (dtu.dk)
  • The main electrolytes used today are alkali, molten carbonate, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane and solid oxide. (forbes.com)
  • WHITE ALUMINA OXIDE P SAND FOR COATED ABRASIVES White Fused Alumina(WA), also called White Fused Aluminium Oxide , named by its white color, belongs to the electro fused artificial corundum group and is an important mineral used. (phrmg.org)
  • The value chain of the chlor-alkali products ranges from the sourcing of raw materials (salt and limestone) to the delivery of the final product to end-use industries such as EDC/PVC, glass, water treatment, chlorinated intermediates, alumina refining, and glass. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The influences of the chemical constitution and local spin magnetic moment (on the transition metal atom) of the oxide or cation on its IP are presented and discussed. (springer.com)
  • even if it does turn out to be an alkali metal, it is predicted to have some differences in physical and chemical properties from its lighter homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical and chemical properties of the alkali metals can be readily explained by their having an ns1 valence electron configuration, which results in weak metallic bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research study involved extensive use of secondary sources, directories, and databases such as Hoovers, Bloomberg, Chemical Weekly, Factiva, and other government and private websites to identify and collect information useful for the technical, market-oriented, and commercial study of the global chlor-alkali market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. (lookchem.com)
  • Cool Colors ® Pigment Red 101 (C.I. 77491) is a red Iron Oxide offering moderate NIR (Near Infrared Reflectance) with chemical formula Fe 2 O 3 and a hematite structure. (ferro.com)
  • The market is driven by increasing demand for chlor-alkali products in the emerging markets and high demand from various application industries such as organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, pulp & paper, and water treatment. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • 2. The low-maintenance coating of claim 1 wherein the film comprising titania includes titanium dioxide or substoichiometric titanium oxide. (google.co.uk)
  • C.I. 77891;C.I. Pigment White 6;Titanium dioxide;Titanium Dioxide Anatase;Titanium Oxide;Titania;Titanium (IV) dioxide;Rutile;dioxotitanium;Titanium(I. (chemnet.com)
  • Good weatherability (Lightfastness, heat-resistant and alkali resistant) - Strong tinting power, excellent coverage and fine dispersion. (alibaba.com)
  • Cement Colors are synthetic mineral oxide additives that are durable and alkali and ultraviolet resistant. (lowes.com)
  • In this contribution, we present the results of our theoretical investigations of the structures and properties of another group of mixed oxides (MO N ) consisting of transition metal oxides (FeO, CoO, and NiO) functionalized through the attachment of an alkali metal atom ( N = Li or Na). (springer.com)
  • This group lies in the s-block of the periodic table of elements as all alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cupric oxide (CuO), having a narrow bandgap of 1.2 eV and a variety of chemophysical properties, is recently attractive in many fields such as energy conversion, optoelectronic devices, and catalyst. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, nanostructures of transition metal oxides have gained a great attention from material scientists and engineers due to their different properties compared with the corresponding bulk counterparts, which in turn provides promising applications in various fields of technology. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to some shared properties of metal oxide nanostructures, such as TiO 2 , ZnO, WO 3 , and SnO 2 , CuO nanostructures have other unique magnetic and super-hydrophobic [ 10 ] properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The layered structures of A x MO 2+y (A is alkali, M is transition metal) have been extensively investigated during the 1970s and 1980s, showing unique properties compared to the non-layered structure of the compound 32 . (nature.com)
  • CAS: 1317-39-1 M. F.: Cu2O M. W.: 143.08 HS Code: 28255000 Properties: Cuprous Oxide is red powder with density 6.00, melting point 1235degree. (made-in-china.com)
  • The magnetic properties of the oxides with corundum, ilmenite and perovskite-type crystal structure and amorphous oxides are given in volume 27f, partly in the present subvolume III/27f3. (springer.com)
  • The ns1 configuration also results in the alkali metals having very large atomic and ionic radii, as well as very high thermal and electrical conductivity. (wikipedia.org)