###### Algorithms

###### Software

###### Pattern Recognition, Automated

###### Computer Simulation

###### Computational Biology

A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Artificial Intelligence

###### Models, Statistical

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Cluster Analysis

A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Sequence Analysis, Protein

###### Sequence Alignment

The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

###### Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Phantoms, Imaging

Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

###### Models, Genetic

###### Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Imaging, Three-Dimensional

The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

###### Sequence Analysis, DNA

###### Image Enhancement

###### Markov Chains

###### Proteins

Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

###### Databases, Protein

###### Bayes Theorem

A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

###### Gene Expression Profiling

###### Monte Carlo Method

In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

###### Computer Graphics

###### Automation

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

###### Neural Networks (Computer)

A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

###### Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted

###### Models, Theoretical

###### User-Computer Interface

###### Data Compression

Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.

###### Fuzzy Logic

Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.

###### Artifacts

Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.

###### Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Models, Biological

###### Normal Distribution

###### Information Storage and Retrieval

###### Likelihood Functions

###### Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Internet

###### Decision Trees

###### Radiographic Image Enhancement

###### Subtraction Technique

Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).

###### Wavelet Analysis

Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).

###### Signal-To-Noise Ratio

###### Data Mining

###### Models, Molecular

###### Wireless Technology

###### Support Vector Machines

###### Sequence Analysis, RNA

###### Molecular Sequence Data

Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

###### Stochastic Processes

###### Genome

###### Gene Regulatory Networks

Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.

###### ROC Curve

###### Models, Chemical

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Chromosome Mapping

###### Magnetic Resonance Imaging

###### Base Sequence

###### Discriminant Analysis

###### Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

###### Tomography, X-Ray Computed

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Nonlinear Dynamics

The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

###### Programming, Linear

A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.

###### Equipment Failure Analysis

###### Genome, Human

###### Databases, Nucleic Acid

###### Principal Component Analysis

###### Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

###### Amino Acid Sequence

###### Computer Communication Networks

###### Natural Language Processing

###### Tomography

## An effective approach for analyzing "prefinished" genomic sequence data. (1/42270)

Ongoing efforts to sequence the human genome are already generating large amounts of data, with substantial increases anticipated over the next few years. In most cases, a shotgun sequencing strategy is being used, which rapidly yields most of the primary sequence in incompletely assembled sequence contigs ("prefinished" sequence) and more slowly produces the final, completely assembled sequence ("finished" sequence). Thus, in general, prefinished sequence is produced in excess of finished sequence, and this trend is certain to continue and even accelerate over the next few years. Even at a prefinished stage, genomic sequence represents a rich source of important biological information that is of great interest to many investigators. However, analyzing such data is a challenging and daunting task, both because of its sheer volume and because it can change on a day-by-day basis. To facilitate the discovery and characterization of genes and other important elements within prefinished sequence, we have developed an analytical strategy and system that uses readily available software tools in new combinations. Implementation of this strategy for the analysis of prefinished sequence data from human chromosome 7 has demonstrated that this is a convenient, inexpensive, and extensible solution to the problem of analyzing the large amounts of preliminary data being produced by large-scale sequencing efforts. Our approach is accessible to any investigator who wishes to assimilate additional information about particular sequence data en route to developing richer annotations of a finished sequence. (+info)## A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (2/42270)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs. (+info)## Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (3/42270)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown. (+info)## An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (4/42270)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution. (+info)## Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (5/42270)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)## A new filtering algorithm for medical magnetic resonance and computer tomography images. (6/42270)

Inner views of tubular structures based on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data sets may be created by virtual endoscopy. After a preliminary segmentation procedure for selecting the organ to be represented, the virtual endoscopy is a new postprocessing technique using surface or volume rendering of the data sets. In the case of surface rendering, the segmentation is based on a grey level thresholding technique. To avoid artifacts owing to the noise created in the imaging process, and to restore spurious resolution degradations, a robust Wiener filter was applied. This filter working in Fourier space approximates the noise spectrum by a simple function that is proportional to the square root of the signal amplitude. Thus, only points with tiny amplitudes consisting mostly of noise are suppressed. Further artifacts are avoided by the correct selection of the threshold range. Afterwards, the lumen and the inner walls of the tubular structures are well represented and allow one to distinguish between harmless fluctuations and medically significant structures. (+info)## Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (7/42270)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 micrograms of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml showed a > or = 2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 micrograms of ampicillin per ml plus 10 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 10(8) CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 10(5) CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis. (+info)## The muscle chloride channel ClC-1 has a double-barreled appearance that is differentially affected in dominant and recessive myotonia. (8/42270)

Single-channel recordings of the currents mediated by the muscle Cl- channel, ClC-1, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, provide the first direct evidence that this channel has two equidistant open conductance levels like the Torpedo ClC-0 prototype. As for the case of ClC-0, the probabilities and dwell times of the closed and conducting states are consistent with the presence of two independently gated pathways with approximately 1.2 pS conductance enabled in parallel via a common gate. However, the voltage dependence of the common gate is different and the kinetics are much faster than for ClC-0. Estimates of single-channel parameters from the analysis of macroscopic current fluctuations agree with those from single-channel recordings. Fluctuation analysis was used to characterize changes in the apparent double-gate behavior of the ClC-1 mutations I290M and I556N causing, respectively, a dominant and a recessive form of myotonia. We find that both mutations reduce about equally the open probability of single protopores and that mutation I290M yields a stronger reduction of the common gate open probability than mutation I556N. Our results suggest that the mammalian ClC-homologues have the same structure and mechanism proposed for the Torpedo channel ClC-0. Differential effects on the two gates that appear to modulate the activation of ClC-1 channels may be important determinants for the different patterns of inheritance of dominant and recessive ClC-1 mutations. (+info)###### A proposal of «neuron mask» in neural network algorithm for combinatorial optimization problems<...

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###### Isotonic regression

**Algorithms**[edit]. In terms of numerical analysis, isotonic regression involves finding a weighted least-squares fit x. ∈. R. n ... These two

**algorithms**can be seen as each other's dual, and both have a computational complexity of O. (. n. ). .. {\ ... a simple iterative

**algorithm**for solving this quadratic program is called the pool adjacent violators

**algorithm**. Conversely, ... Leeuw, Jan de; Hornik, Kurt; Mair, Patrick (2009). "Isotone Optimization in R: Pool-Adjacent-Violators

**Algorithm**(PAVA) and ...

###### Health informatics

**Algorithms**[edit]. *Datafly

**algorithm**. References[edit]. *^ Nadri H, Rahimi B, Timpka T, Sedghi S (August 2017). "The Top 100 ...

**algorithms**and systems to be developed. Thus, computer scientists working in computational health informatics and health ...

###### Line graph

**Algorithms**[edit]. Roussopoulos (1973) and Lehot (1974) described linear time

**algorithms**for recognizing line graphs and ... While adding vertices to L, maintain a graph G for which L = L(G); if the

**algorithm**ever fails to find an appropriate graph G, ... Roussopoulos, N. D. (1973), "A max {m,n}

**algorithm**for determining the graph H from its line graph G", Information Processing ... Lehot, Philippe G. H. (1974), "An optimal

**algorithm**to detect a line graph and output its root graph", Journal of the ACM, 21: ...

###### TCP congestion control

**Algorithms**[edit]. The "TCP Foo" names for the

**algorithms**appear to have originated in a 1996 paper by Kevin Fall and Sally ... The overall

**algorithm**here is called fast recovery.. Once ssthresh is reached, TCP changes from slow-start

**algorithm**to the ... Congestion control

**algorithms**are classified in relation to network awareness, meaning the extent to which these

**algorithms**are ... The additive increase/multiplicative decrease (AIMD)

**algorithm**is a closed-loop control

**algorithm**. AIMD combines linear growth ...

###### Separable permutation

**Algorithms**[edit]. Bose, Buss & Lubiw (1998) showed that it is possible to determine in polynomial time whether a given ...

###### Stan (software)

**Algorithms**[edit]. Stan implements gradient-based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)

**algorithms**for Bayesian inference, stochastic ... Optimization

**algorithms**: *Limited-memory BFGS (Stan's default optimization

**algorithm**). *Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno ... MCMC

**algorithms**: *No-U-Turn sampler[1][3] (NUTS), a variant of HMC and Stan's default MCMC engine ...

###### Conway's Game of Life

**Algorithms**[edit]. Early patterns with unknown futures, such as the R-pentomino, led computer programmers to write programs to ... The Game of Life is undecidable, which means that given an initial pattern and a later pattern, no

**algorithm**exists that can ... For exploring large patterns at great time depths, sophisticated

**algorithms**such as Hashlife may be useful. There is also a ... It includes the Hashlife

**algorithm**for extremely fast generation, and Lua or Python scriptability for both editing and ...

###### Spaced repetition

Some[who?] have theorized that the precise length of intervals does not have a great impact on

**algorithm**effectiveness,[8] ... Without a program, the user has to schedule physical flashcards; this is time-intensive and limits users to simple**algorithms**... SM-family of**algorithms**(SuperMemo): SM-0 (a paper implementation) to SM-17 (in SuperMemo 17) ... The program schedules pairs based on spaced repetition**algorithms**. ...###### Contour line

**Algorithms**[edit]. *finding boundaries of level sets after image segmentation *Edge detection ...

###### Dither

**Algorithms**[edit]. There are several

**algorithms**designed to perform dithering. One of the earliest, and still one of the most ... error-diffusion

**algorithms**typically produce images that more closely represent the original than simpler dithering

**algorithms**. ... Some dither

**algorithms**use noise that has more energy in the higher frequencies so as to lower the energy in the critical audio ... This may be the simplest dithering

**algorithm**there is, but it results in immense loss of detail and contouring.[16] ...

###### Edge coloring

5

**Algorithms***5.1 Optimally coloring special classes of graphs. *5.2**Algorithms**that use more than the optimal number of colors ... The time for the**algorithm**is bounded by the time to edge color a bipartite graph, O(m log Δ) using the**algorithm**of Cole, Ost ... Karloff, Howard J.; Shmoys, David B. (1987), "Efficient parallel**algorithms**for edge coloring problems", Journal of**Algorithms**... and his**algorithm**solves the two subproblems recursively. The total time for his**algorithm**is O(m log m). ...###### Arrangement of lines

Discrete

**Algorithms**(SODA '99), pp. 310-316. .. *. Erdős, P.; Lovász, L.; Simmons, A.; Straus, E. G. (1973), "Dissection graphs ...**Algorithms**[edit]. Constructing an arrangement means, given as input a list of the lines in the arrangement, computing a ... Chan, T. (1999), Remarks on k-level**algorithms**in the plane, archived from the original on 2010-11-04. . ...**Algorithm**Engineering (WAE '99), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1668, Springer-Verlag, pp. 139-153, doi:10.1007/3-540-48318 ...###### Heart failure

**Algorithms**[edit]. There are various

**algorithms**for the diagnosis of heart failure. For example, the

**algorithm**used by the ... ESC

**algorithm**[edit]. The ESC

**algorithm**weights the following parameters in establishing the diagnosis of heart failure:[54] ... In contrast, the more extensive

**algorithm**by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) weights the difference between supporting ... Using a special pacing

**algorithm**, biventricular cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can initiate a normal sequence of ...

###### wolfSSH

**Algorithms**[edit]. wolfSSH uses the cryptographic services provided by wolfCrypt.[2] wolfCrypt Provides RSA, ECC, Diffie-Hellman ...

###### LP-type problem

Clarkson (1995) defines two

**algorithms**, a recursive**algorithm**and an iterative**algorithm**, for linear programming based on ...**Algorithms**[edit]. Seidel[edit]. Seidel (1991) gave an**algorithm**for low-dimensional linear programming that may be adapted to ... and suggests a combination of the two that calls the iterative**algorithm**from the recursive**algorithm**. The recursive**algorithm**... Discrete**Algorithms**, pp. 423-429. .. *. Chazelle, Bernard; Matoušek, Jiří (1996), "On linear-time deterministic**algorithms**for ...###### Minimum spanning tree

A fourth

**algorithm**, not as commonly used, is the reverse-delete**algorithm**, which is the reverse of Kruskal's**algorithm**. Its ...**Algorithms**[edit]. In all of the**algorithms**below, m is the number of edges in the graph and n is the number of vertices. ... found a linear time randomized**algorithm**based on a combination of Borůvka's**algorithm**and the reverse-delete**algorithm**.[3][4] ... Classic**algorithms**[edit]. The first**algorithm**for finding a minimum spanning tree was developed by Czech scientist Otakar ...###### k-means clustering

then the expected running time of k-means

**algorithm**is bounded by O. (. n. 34. k. 34. d. 8. log. 4. . (. n. ). /. σ. 6. ). {\ ... The**algorithm**is not guaranteed to find the optimum.[9] The**algorithm**is often presented as assigning objects to the nearest ... Hartigan, J. A.; Wong, M. A. (1979). "**Algorithm**AS 136: A k-Means Clustering**Algorithm**". Journal of the Royal Statistical ... 3**Algorithms***3.1 Standard**algorithm**(naive k-means) *3.1.1 Initialization methods ...###### List of random number generators

Cryptographic

**algorithms**[edit]. Cipher**algorithms**and cryptographic hashes can be used as very high-quality pseudorandom number ... A few cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators do not rely on cipher**algorithms**but try to link mathematically ... Wichmann, Brian A.; Hill, David I. (1982). "**Algorithm**AS 183: An Efficient and Portable Pseudo-Random Number Generator". ... 2 Seminumerical**Algorithms**, 3rd ed., Addison Wesley Longman (1998); See pag. 27. ...###### Directed acyclic graph

... for arbitrary graphs the shortest path may require slower

**algorithms**such as Dijkstra's**algorithm**or the Bellman-Ford**algorithm**... Path**algorithms**[edit]. Some**algorithms**become simpler when used on DAGs instead of general graphs, based on the principle of ... In many randomized**algorithms**in computational geometry, the**algorithm**maintains a history DAG representing the version history ... Jungnickel, Dieter (2012), Graphs, Networks and**Algorithms**,**Algorithms**and Computation in Mathematics, 5, Springer, pp. 92-93, ...###### Advanced life support

ALS

**algorithms**[edit]. ALS assumes that basic life support (bag-mask administration of oxygen and chest compressions) are ... The main**algorithm**of ALS, which is invoked when actual cardiac arrest has been established, relies on the monitoring of the ... Resuscitation Council UK adult ALS**algorithm**2005 Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ... although they may employ slightly modified version of the Medical**algorithm**. In the United States, Paramedic level services are ...###### Secure Hash **Algorithms**

**Algorithm**and variant Output size. (bits) Internal state size. (bits) Block size. (bits) Rounds Operations Security (in bits) ... All SHA-family

**algorithms**, as FIPS-approved security functions, are subject to official validation by the CMVP, a joint program ... SHA-1: A 160-bit hash function which resembles the earlier MD5

**algorithm**. This was designed by the National Security Agency ( ... The Secure Hash

**Algorithms**are a family of cryptographic hash functions published by the National Institute of Standards and ...

###### Tomographic reconstruction

Iterative Reconstruction

**Algorithm**[2][edit]. Main article: Iterative reconstruction. Iterative**algorithm**is computationally ... Reconstruction**algorithms**[edit]. Practical reconstruction**algorithms**have been developed to implement the process of ... Fourier-Domain Reconstruction**Algorithm**[4][edit]. Reconstruction can be made using interpolation. Assume N. {\displaystyle N}. ... Back Projection**Algorithm**[2][edit]. In practice of tomographic image reconstruction, often a stabilized and discretized version ...###### Dynamic programming

The Earley

**algorithm**(a type of chart parser). *The Needleman-Wunsch**algorithm**and other**algorithms**used in bioinformatics, ... Examples: Computer**algorithms**[edit]. Dijkstra's**algorithm**for the shortest path problem[edit]. From a dynamic programming point ... Of course, this**algorithm**is not useful for actual multiplication. This**algorithm**is just a user-friendly way to see what the ... 2 Examples: Computer**algorithms***2.1 Dijkstra's**algorithm**for the shortest path problem ...###### Tone mapping

An

**algorithm**is applied to the six images to recreate the high dynamic range radiance map of the original scene (a high dynamic ... Despite this, if**algorithms**could not sufficiently map tones and colors, a skilled artist was still needed, as is the case with ... Those**algorithms**are more complicated than the global ones; they can show artifacts (e.g. halo effect and ringing); and the ... Tone mapping**algorithms**[edit]. *Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions ...###### Video search engine

Design and

**algorithms**[edit]. Video search has evolved slowly through several basic search formats which exist today and all use ... Rather than applying a text search**algorithm**after speech-to-text processing is completed, some engines use a phonetic search ... Many efforts to improve video search including both human powered search as well as writing**algorithm**that recognize what's ... depends entirely on the searcher and the**algorithm**that the owner has chosen. That's why it has always been discussed and now ...###### Personalized marketing

Use of

**algorithms**[edit]. Data is being generated by**algorithms**, and the**algorithms**associate preferences with the user's ...**Algorithms**may also be manipulated. In February 2015, Coca-Cola ran into trouble over an automated,**algorithm**-generated bot ...**algorithm**-generated bot was tricked into tweeting a racial slur from the official team account.[17] ...###### Hierarchical temporal memory

There have been several generations of HTM

**algorithms**.[6]. Zeta 1: first generation node**algorithms**[edit]. During training, a ... Cortical learning**algorithms**: second generation[edit]. The second generation of HTM learning**algorithms**was drastically ... Cortical Learning**Algorithm**Tutorial: CLA Basics, talk about the cortical learning**algorithm**(CLA) used by the HTM model on ... 1 HTM structure and**algorithms***1.1 Zeta 1: first generation node**algorithms**...###### Community structure

Girvan-Newman

**algorithm**[edit]. Another commonly used**algorithm**for finding communities is the Girvan-Newman**algorithm**.[1] This ... The classic**algorithm**to find these is the Bron-Kerbosch**algorithm**. The overlap of these can be used to define communities in ... Testing methods of finding communities**algorithms**[edit]. The evaluation of**algorithms**, to detect which are better at detecting ... practical**algorithms**are based on approximate optimization methods such as greedy**algorithms**, simulated annealing, or spectral ...###### Latent variable

Pseudo-Marginal Metropolis-Hastings

**algorithm**. Bayesian**algorithms**and methods[edit]. Bayesian statistics is often used for ...###### Outline of cryptography

Modern symmetric-key

**algorithms**[edit]. Main article: Symmetric-key**algorithm**. Stream ciphers[edit]. *A5/1 & A5/2 - ciphers ... Modern asymmetric-key**algorithms**[edit]. Asymmetric key**algorithm**[edit]. *ACE-KEM - NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption ... Streebog - Russian**algorithm**created to replace an obsolete GOST hash function defined in obsolete standard GOST R 34.11-94. ... CAST-128 (CAST5) - 64-bit block; one of a series of**algorithms**by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, insistent that the name ...###### Advanced **Algorithms**

What are

**algorithms**,**Algorithms**as technology, Evolution of**Algorithms**, Design of**Algorithm**, Need of Correctness of**Algorithm**, ... Design and Analysis of**Algorithms**(DAA) Unit I . Fundamentals (09 Hours). The Role of**Algorithms**in Computing - ... Embedded**Algorithms**: Embedded system scheduling (power optimized scheduling**algorithm**), sorting**algorithm**for embedded systems ... Unit VI . Multi-threaded and Distributed**Algorithms**(09 Hours). Multi-threaded**Algorithms**- Introduction, Performance measures ...**Algorithms**

Python implementations of various

**algorithms**, more Python**algorithm**implementations, and still more Python**algorithms**. ... Nov: 2: Dijkstras**algorithm**(Chapter 14). Nov. 4: Minimum spanning trees (Chapter 15). Week 7: Midterm; dynamic programming. ... 2: Approximation**algorithms**(Chapter 18). Final exam:. Dec. 5 (Monday), 4:00 - 6:00 (per schedule) Other Course-Related ... 28: Streaming**algorithms**(not in text; see Graham Cormodes slides on finding frequent items and the Wikipedia article on ...**Algorithms** | SpringerLink

...

**algorithms**are also quite common topics in interviews. There are many interview questions about search and sort**algorithms**. ... All of these**algorithms**will be discussed in this chapter.. Keywords. Binary Search Edit Distance Sort**Algorithm**Edit Operation ... There are many interview questions about search and sort**algorithms**. Backtracking, dynamic programming, and greedy**algorithms**... This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning**algorithm**improves. ...**Algorithms** Software - SourceForge.net

**Algorithms**Software Software. Free, secure and fast downloads from the largest Open Source applications and software directory ... The engine is a library of already tested

**algorithms**,include collaborative filtering. We will try to add some new

**algorithms**...

**Algorithms**Software. * Get your Apps to customers 5x faster with RAD Studio.. The easiest and most powerful cross platform ... Hot topics in

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**Algorithms** Software - SourceForge.net

###### Sudoku solving **algorithms** - Wikipedia

The

**algorithm**(and therefore the program code) is simpler than other**algorithms**, especially compared to strong**algorithms**that ... An**algorithm**combining a constraint-model-based**algorithm**with backtracking would have the advantage of fast solving time, and ... In his paper Sudoku as a Constraint Problem,[12] Helmut Simonis describes many reasoning**algorithms**based on constraints which ...**Algorithms**designed for graph colouring are also known to perform well with Sudokus.[11] It is also possible to express a ...###### MOA Social-based **Algorithms**

SNCStream: A Social Network-based Data Stream Clustering

**Algorithm**. In ACM 30th Symposium On Applied Computing (ACM SAC), 2015 ... In order to make use of these**algorithms**you will need to use MOA framework, which you can find at {M}assive {O}nline {A} ... In order to use these**algorithms**, please download both moa.jar and sizeofag.jar from {M}assive {O}nline {A}nalysis Framework. ... You can also unzip MOAs any of the JAR files, add the source code for the**algorithms**desired to moa.classifiers/moa.clusterers ...###### Category:Cryptographic **algorithms** - Wikipedia

This category contains articles on

**algorithms**in cryptography. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cryptographic**algorithms**. ... Pages in category "Cryptographic**algorithms**". The following 53 pages are in this category, out of 53 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cryptographic_**algorithms**&oldid=543795714" ...###### Approximation **Algorithms** | SpringerLink

In this chapter we introduce the important concept of approximation

**algorithms**. So far we have dealt mostly with polynomially ... Here approximation**algorithms**must be mentioned in the first place.. Keywords. Approximation**Algorithm**Chromatic Number Vertex ... Slavík, P. [1997]: A tight analysis of the greedy**algorithm**for set cover. Journal of**Algorithms**25 (1997), 237-254CrossRef ... Korte B., Vygen J. (2012) Approximation**Algorithms**. In: Combinatorial Optimization.**Algorithms**and Combinatorics, vol 21. ...###### Pyramid **Algorithms** [Book]

Pyramid

**Algorithms**presents a unique approach to understanding, analyzing, and computing the most common polynomial and spline ... Chapter 7: B-Spline Approximation and the de Boor**Algorithm*** 7.1 The de Boor**Algorithm**... Pyramid**Algorithms**presents a unique approach to understanding, analyzing, and computing the most common polynomial and spline ... Chapter 8: Pyramid**Algorithms**for Multisided Bezier Patches * 8.1 Barycentric Coordinates for Convex Polygons ...**Algorithms** (MSR India) - Microsoft Research

**Algorithms**and Data Sciences. Two features are common to much of the field of

**Algorithms**- mathematical guarantees of time and ... Visit:

**Algorithms**and Data Sciences. Cryptography. Cryptographic

**algorithms**are the core mathematical ingredients of most ... Distributed Computation, Streaming

**Algorithms**and the study of Communication requirements in

**Algorithms**have all received some ... Novel machine learning

**algorithms**and paradigms. *Foundational aspects of optimization techniques, including new

**algorithms**and ...

###### The Danger of **Algorithms**

This video of a talk at TED though challenges that whole theory though and makes us all think again about

**algorithms**and how ... Even though most people dont even know that they are seeing content based on**algorithms**its widely believed that they are a ... out the volume and leaving us with the important content but those editors are increasingly being replaced by**algorithms**on ...###### 15-499: Parallel **Algorithms**

Assign 2 (

**algorithms**in NESL) handed out (see notes). Assigned Reading: Parallel**Algorithms**up through 10.3 ... Asynchronous**Algorithms**I. Final project proposal due.. Notes on Asynchronous**Algorithms**(Updated April 19th) ... Course Description: In this course students will learn about parallel**algorithms**. The emphasis will be on**algorithms**that can ... Topics to be covered include: modeling the cost of parallel**algorithms**, lower-bounds, and parallel**algorithms**for sorting, ...**Algorithms** For Dummies [Book]

**Algorithms**are mathematical equations that determine what we see-based on our likes ... - Selection from

**Algorithms**For Dummies ... Discover how

**algorithms**shape and impact our digital worldAll data, big or small, starts with

**algorithms**. ... Discover how

**algorithms**shape and impact our digital world. All data, big or small, starts with

**algorithms**.

**Algorithms**are ...

**Algorithms**for Dummies is a clear and concise primer for everyday people who are interested in

**algorithms**and how they impact ...

###### Re: Penrose and **algorithms**

**Algorithms** and Their Explanations

By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort

**algorithm**via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi ... an**algorithm**does, the**algorithm**designer focuses on "how" an**algorithm**achieves its result. In our example, the**algorithm**... The**algorithm**designers explanation So, the**algorithm**designer is able to show that his pseudo-code, the LoA he constructed, ...**Algorithms**and Their Explanations * 1.**Algorithms**and Their Explanations CiE 2014 - History and Philosophy of Computing 24th ...###### Approximation **Algorithms**

An approximation

**algorithm**instead is an**algorithm**that not only runs quickly, i.e., in polynomial time, but also gives a ... Sublinear-Time Approximation**Algorithms**for Clustering via Random Sampling. Random Structures and**Algorithms**, 30(1-2): 226 - ... One typical task in the design process of an approximation**algorithm**is to find worst-case inputs for a proposed**algorithm**. ... In DIMAP the design of approximation**algorithms**covers many different areas, from string**algorithms**and routing problems to ...###### Sorting **Algorithms**

**Algorithms** (ALG)

... The research The design and analysis of

**algorithms**and data structures forms one of the core areas within ... The subarea within**algorithms**research studying the visualization of graphs is called graph drawing, and it is one of the focus ...**Algorithms**for GIS and automated cartography. Spatial data play a central role in geographic information systems (GIS) and ... The**Algorithms**chair (ALG) performs fundamental research in this area, focusing on algorithmic problems for spatial data. Such ...###### Networks, Economics and **Algorithms** - Microsoft Research

###### Recalculation Sequence **Algorithm**

D Recalculation Sequence

**Algorithm**. XForms Processors are free (and encouraged) to skip or optimize any steps in this**algorithm**... Example: Sample**Algorithm**to Create the Pertinent Dependency Subgraph. This**algorithm**creates a pertinent dependency subgraph S ... If the recalculation**algorithm**is invoked with a list of changed instance data nodes since the last recalculation, then the ... The XForms recalculation**algorithm**considers model items and model item properties to be vertices in a directed graph. Edges ...**Algorithms** in Africa | Linux Journal

###### DAO: Distributed **Algorithms** and Optimization

Parallel

**Algorithms**by Guy E. Blelloch and Bruce M. Maggs [BB]. Introduction to**Algorithms**by Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein ... Lecture 5 (4/21): Quicksort, Matrix Multiplication (Strassens**Algorithm**), Minimum Spanning Tree (Kruskals**Algorithm**). Reading ... CME 323: Distributed**Algorithms**and Optimization. Spring 2020, Stanford University 04/07/2020 - 06/10/2020 Lectures will be ... Lecture 2, Handbook of Scheduling, Grahams**Algorithm**, TensorFlow Scheduling, Better Bounds for Online Scheduling *Lecture 3 (4 ...###### A Library of Parallel **Algorithms**

The

**algorithms**. * Lubys**Algorithm**Graph separators. The**algorithms**. * Spectral * Recursive bisection * Teng/Vavasis/Miller ... The**algorithms**. * Naive**algorithm*** Vishkin**algorithm**Other String Operations. Here we consider various operations on strings, ... The**algorithms**. * Matrix-vector multiply * Jacobi * Conjugate gradient N-body Code. The**algorithms**. * All pairs * Barnes-Hut * ... The**algorithms**. * Quick Select * Sample Select Searching. The**algorithms**. * Hash Tables String Matching. The string matching ...**Algorithms**, Search, and Recommendations - Support

**Algorithms**, Search, and Recommendations. The WordPress.com Reader and some of our emails recommend posts and websites based on ... We have two goals with the

**algorithms**that we use:. *Help people find websites that they want to follow and keep up to date ... The above

**algorithms**are often being improved, and what content we show depends on a complex combination of factors. Here are ... We recommend content in many places and use different

**algorithms**for each:. *Reader Search (for both posts and sites) and ...

###### Evolutionary **algorithms** and brain functioning

This indicates that, after testing out a few

**algorithms**for moving the arm, the brain is able to find an**algorithm**such that ... Instead of starting with a population of random**algorithms**for reaching, however, you start with just one**algorithm**that is ... This could happen by some process resembling the evolutionary**algorithm**, with modifications occurring to keep the**algorithm**at ... The modification of the**algorithm**could take place by some means similar to the evolutionary**algorithm**discussed. ...###### CiteSeerX - ABSTRACT **Algorithms** for Storytelling

We outline an efficient storytelling implementation that embeds the CARTwheels redescription mining

**algorithm**in an A * search ... entation of our storytelling**algorithm**hinges on data structures for fast estimation of overlaps (e.g., see [7, 11]). In this ... Turning CARTwheels: An Alternating**Algorithm**for Mining Redescriptions - Ramakrishnan, Kumar, et al. - 2004 (Show Context) ... Supporting relational knowledge discovery: Lessons in architecture and**algorithm**design - Neville, Jensen (Show Context) ...###### PHP: mcrypt list **algorithms** - Manual

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###### Ethical principles for **algorithms** | CIO

... is it time to ask questions about the ethical nature of the

**algorithms**employed by various organizations? Is it the ... responsibility of organizations to ensure that their**algorithms**contribute to social good? ... Therefore, an**algorithm**cant possibly avoid having an ethical character when the overwhelming likelihood is that the**algorithm**... Therefore, an**algorithm**cant possibly avoid having an ethical character when the overwhelming likelihood is that the**algorithm**...Introduction to AlgoritSkipComputer AlgorithmsProbabilistic Analysis oEfficient AlgorithmsApproximationMathematicalSolveSearchQuicksortSymposium on Discrete AlgorithmsLeisersonArtificial intelligenceDivide and ConGraphCryptographicMatrix algorithmsStandard algorithmsDifferent algorithmsParallelCormenDataPseudocode2001OptimizationKinds of planning aRole of AlgorithmsFacial recognition algorithmsChapterCombinatoricsEfficiency of the algorithmComputational geometryPolynomial timeRely on algorithmsSeveral sorting alFocuses on algorithmsBuilt into algorithmsResearch on algorithmsClusteringGraphsProblemsAnalysisGreedySort algorithmsHybrid algorithmClassic algorithmsDesignIncreasinglyStochasticMeetup1995ConverselyContentHeapsortTypically

###### Introduction to Algorit2

###### Skip1

- XForms Processors are free (and encouraged) to skip or optimize any steps in this algorithm, as long as the end result is the same. (w3.org)

###### Computer Algorithms5

- Players and investigators may use a wide range of computer algorithms to solve Sudokus, study their properties, and make new puzzles, including Sudokus with interesting symmetries and other properties. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several computer algorithms that will solve most 9×9 puzzles ( n =9) in fractions of a second, but combinatorial explosion occurs as n increases, creating limits to the properties of Sudokus that can be constructed, analyzed, and solved as n increases. (wikipedia.org)
- Starting from simple building blocks, computer algorithms enable machines to recognize and produce speech, translate texts, categorize and summarize documents, describe images, and predict the weather. (mit.edu)
- The goal of this class is to present fundamental problem-solving techniques, for designing efficient computer algorithms, proving their correctness, and analyzing their performance (e.g. running time, storage requirement, etc. (unc.edu)
- The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms , by Aho, Hopcroft and Ullman. (unc.edu)

###### Probabilistic Analysis o1

- Probabilistic Analysis of Algorithms started in the 70's built models of data and analyzed simple algorithms in the average case. (microsoft.com)

###### Efficient Algorithms4

- We apply our expertise in computational geometry and I/O-efficient algorithms to solve these problems in a rigorous way. (tue.nl)
- This symposium focuses on research topics related to efficient algorithms and data structures for discrete problems. (siam.org)
- The Bergen Algorithms Research Group is researching effective and efficient algorithms that can make computer programs to run as fast as possible. (uib.no)
- The most efficient algorithms are based on building the so called background of the scene and comparing each current frame with the background. (codeproject.com)

###### Approximation14

- In this chapter we introduce the important concept of approximation algorithms. (springer.com)
- Here approximation algorithms must be mentioned in the first place. (springer.com)
- Hochbaum, D.S. [1996]: Approximation Algorithms for NP -Hard Problems. (springer.com)
- Vazirani, V.V. [2001]: Approximation Algorithms. (springer.com)
- Bar-Yehuda, R., and Even, S. [1981]: A linear-time approximation algorithm for the weighted vertex cover problem. (springer.com)
- Becker, A., and Geiger, D. [1996]: Optimization of Pearl's method of conditioning and greedy-like approximation algorithms for the vertex feedback set problem. (springer.com)
- An approximation algorithm instead is an algorithm that not only runs quickly, i.e., in polynomial time, but also gives a guarantee on how far the obtained solution may be away from optimal. (warwick.ac.uk)
- The study of approximation algorithms has become a standard way of dealing with NP-hard problems in the theory community, but it is also becoming more and more accepted in practise as theoretical analysis provides a deeper understanding of the problem at hand. (warwick.ac.uk)
- One typical task in the design process of an approximation algorithm is to find worst-case inputs for a proposed algorithm. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In this way the design and theoretical analysis of approximation algorithms is also an important tool for evaluating heuristics in practical applications. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In DIMAP the design of approximation algorithms covers many different areas, from string algorithms and routing problems to graph partitioning and network optimization. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Although asymptotically efficient approximation algorithms exist, these algorithms are not practical due to the very high constant factors involved. (umd.edu)
- We consider the question of whether there exists a simple and practical approximation algorithm for k-means clustering. (umd.edu)
- The Design of Approximation Algorithms , David P. Williamson and David B. Shmoys, Cambridge University Press, 2011. (jhu.edu)

###### Mathematical8

- Two features are common to much of the field of Algorithms- mathematical guarantees of time and space for even the worst-case input and random access to the entire input. (microsoft.com)
- A focus of ours has been developing mathematical models under which simple algorithms (often ones used widely in practice) have provable guarantees of time and space. (microsoft.com)
- Cryptographic algorithms are the core mathematical ingredients of most solutions to security problems. (microsoft.com)
- But whether you know algorithms down to highly mathematical abstractions or simple as a fuzzy series of steps that transform input into output, it can be helpful to visualize what's going on under the hood. (slashdot.org)
- Isolated conventional algorithms or closed-loop mathematical modeling are not enough in scenarios in which a system must react dynamically to unpredictable events such as traffic jams, road blocks or staff absences. (fraunhofer.de)
- We will study asymptotic complexity and mathematical analysis of algorithms, design techniques, data structures, and possible applications. (unc.edu)
- The Algorithms for Threat Detection (ATD) program will support research projects to develop the next generation of mathematical and statistical algorithms for analysis of large spatiotemporal datasets with application to quantitative models of human dynamics. (nsf.gov)
- In elementary arithmetic, a standard algorithm or method is a specific method of computation which is conventionally taught for solving particular mathematical problems. (wikipedia.org)

###### Solve11

- Backtracking, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms are useful tools to solve many problems posed in coding interviews. (springer.com)
- Some hobbyists have developed computer programs that will solve Sudoku puzzles using a backtracking algorithm, which is a type of brute force search. (wikipedia.org)
- Although it has been established that approximately 6.67 x 10 21 final grids exist, a brute force algorithm can be a practical method to solve Sudoku puzzles. (wikipedia.org)
- One programmer reported that such an algorithm may typically require as few as 15,000 cycles, or as many as 900,000 cycles to solve a Sudoku, each cycle being the change in position of a "pointer" as it moves through the cells of a Sudoku. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike the latter however, optimisation algorithms do not necessarily require problems to be logic-solvable, giving them the potential to solve a wider range of problems. (wikipedia.org)
- The most challenging problems in complexity theory include proving lower bounds on the complexity of natural problems and hence proving inherent limitations on all conceivable algorithms that solve such problems. (microsoft.com)
- When using an evolutionary algorithm to solve a problem, the programmer must supply a set of basic functions that the program should be able to use in order to accomplish its goal, as well as supply a definition of how close the program came to achieving its goal. (archive.org)
- An algorithm is a sequence of steps or instructions that outline how to solve a particular problem. (encyclopedia.com)
- Once you've identified the problem you're trying to solve -- or the business result you're trying to achieve -- the algorithm sets forth the steps that will get you where you want to go. (informationweek.com)
- Each chapter describes real problems and then presents algorithms to solve them. (mit.edu)
- The world is full of problems, but not every problem has a good algorithm that can solve it. (uib.no)

###### Search9

- There are many interview questions about search and sort algorithms. (springer.com)
- Approaches for shuffling the numbers include simulated annealing , genetic algorithm and tabu search . (wikipedia.org)
- Google's page-ranking algorithms, for example, are as secret as the recipe for Coca-Cola, and just as critical to Google's ability to generate relevant search results as the sugar water formula is to Coke's bottom line. (cio.com)
- In the simplest terms, a Google search algorithm has to produce an effective search result. (informationweek.com)
- This is a collection of C++ procedures for performing k-means clustering based on a combination of local search and Lloyd's algorithm (also known as the k-means algorithm). (umd.edu)
- It is also possible to combine these two approaches (Lloyd's algorithm and local search), producing a type of hybrid solution. (umd.edu)
- Zappos LLC, an online seller of shoes and apparel, said a self-learning algorithm has shown promise in solving one of its most perplexing search-engine issues: irrelevant results. (wsj.com)
- For now, search algorithms are as blind as anyone using assistive technology to read back the words on the screen. (searchengineland.com)
- The incentive behind algorithm chasers is to drive traffic to revenue generating web pages and to know that, search engines seek out what's relevant to users and what motivates them to click, read or link. (searchengineland.com)

###### Quicksort1

- Lecture 5 (4/21): Quicksort, Matrix Multiplication (Strassen's Algorithm), Minimum Spanning Tree (Kruskal's Algorithm). (stanford.edu)

###### Symposium on Discrete Algorithms4

- In Proceedings of the 17th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'06) , pages 61 - 69, 2006. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In Proceedings of the 16th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'05) , pages 119 - 128, 2005. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In Proceedings of the 15th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'04) , pages 489 - 498, 2004. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In Proceedings of the 10th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA'99) , pages 281 - 290, 1999. (warwick.ac.uk)

###### Leiserson2

- The idea (and name) for cache-oblivious algorithms was conceived by Charles E. Leiserson as early as 1996 and first published by Harald Prokop in his master's thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
- The textbook by Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest is by far the most useful and comprehensive reference on standard algorithms. (hmc.edu)

###### Artificial intelligence1

- Implementing an Artificial Intelligence algorithm is difficult. (openlibrary.org)

###### Divide and Con2

- Typically, a cache-oblivious algorithm works by a recursive divide and conquer algorithm , where the problem is divided into smaller and smaller subproblems. (wikipedia.org)
- Lecture 4 (4/16): Divide and Conquer Algorithms, Master Theorem, Quick Selection, Quick Sort. (stanford.edu)

###### Graph7

- Obviously - you'll still need some of the algorithms for analyzing the object graph and figuring out what might be a memory leak or not, and tools like MAT have these of course. (infoq.com)
- The subarea within algorithms research studying the visualization of graphs is called graph drawing, and it is one of the focus areas of our group. (tue.nl)
- The XForms recalculation algorithm considers model items and model item properties to be vertices in a directed graph. (w3.org)
- If the recalculation algorithm is invoked with a list of changed instance data nodes since the last recalculation, then the pertinent dependency subgraph is obtained by exploring the paths of edges and vertices in the computational dependency directed graph that are reachable from each vertex in the change list. (w3.org)
- Topics include distributed and parallel algorithms for: Optimization, Numerical Linear Algebra, Machine Learning, Graph analysis, Streaming algorithms, and other problems that are challenging to scale on a commodity cluster. (stanford.edu)
- Lecture 6: Graph contraction, star contraction, MST algorithms. (stanford.edu)
- No. 1 was the algorithm that creates the connection graph, the social networking graph. (cio.com)

###### Cryptographic1

- Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Jones Request for Comments: 7518 Microsoft Category: Standards Track May 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721 JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) Abstract This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) specifications. (ietf.org)

###### Matrix algorithms2

- 1987, Frigo 1996 for matrix multiplication and LU decomposition, and Todd Veldhuizen 1996 for matrix algorithms in the Blitz++ library. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers currently at MSR India started the use of sampling from the input to speed up matrix algorithms and this remains one of their interests. (microsoft.com)

###### Standard algorithms2

- Some of these editorial parameters are extracted using standard algorithms (such as the Flesch-Kincaid readability test ), others use our in-house language processing technology, and others still are built on experimental machine learning algorithms. (bbc.co.uk)
- Students' alternative algorithms are often just as correct, efficient, and generalizable as the standard algorithms, and maintain emphasis on the meaning of the quantities involved, especially as relates to place values (something that is usually lost in the memorization of standard algorithms). (wikipedia.org)

###### Different algorithms3

- The WordPress.com Reader and some of our emails recommend posts and websites based on a number of different algorithms. (wordpress.com)
- He also discusses the performance implications of different algorithms and how to evaluate the performance of a given algorithm. (lynda.com)
- This program provides a number of different algorithms for doing k-means clustering based on these ideas and combinations. (umd.edu)

###### Parallel7

- Some animations of parallel algorithms (requires X windows). (cmu.edu)
- A brief overview of the current state in parallel algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- Includes pointers to good books on parallel algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- 12. Parallel Algorithms. (informit.com)
- The course will be split into two parts: first, an introduction to fundamentals of parallel algorithms and runtime analysis on a single multicore machine. (stanford.edu)
- Lecture 1: Fundamentals of Distributed and Parallel algorithm analysis. (stanford.edu)
- Finally, I will briefly show how strategic considerations motivate nice questions in 'traditional' areas of algorithm design as well, and present some of my work in online algorithms, convex optimization, and parallel algorithms. (princeton.edu)

###### Cormen1

- Obviously, even a book as large as Cormen cannot cover all useful algorithms. (hmc.edu)

###### Data42

- In addition to data structures, algorithms are also quite common topics in interviews. (springer.com)
- The Social Network Clusterer Stream (SNCStream) is a one-step social network-based data stream clustering algorithm capable of finding non-hyper-spherical clusters. (google.com)
- Inadvertent or intentional, the ability to detect bias of an algorithm is extremely difficult because it can occur at any stage of the development of AI, from data collection to modeling. (fastcompany.com)
- The data to build these algorithms increase exponentially. (fastcompany.com)
- This is the only book to impart all this essential information-from the basics of algorithms, data structures, and performance characteristics to the specific algorithms used in development and programming tasks. (oreilly.com)
- Packed with detailed explanations and instructive examples, the book begins by offering you some fundamental data structures and then goes on to explain various sorting algorithms. (oreilly.com)
- In the end, you'll be prepared to build the algorithms and data structures most commonly encountered in day-to-day software development. (oreilly.com)
- This book is for anyone who develops applications, or is just beginning to do so, and is looking to understand algorithms and data structures. (oreilly.com)
- Data Science, drawing from Statistics and Machine Learning has focused on stochastic models of data and analysis (mainly empirical) of simple algorithms for big data problems. (microsoft.com)
- The Algorithms and Data Science research at MSR India brings in the best of all worlds. (microsoft.com)
- The design and analysis of algorithms and data structures forms one of the core areas within computer science. (tue.nl)
- The Algorithms chair (ALG) performs fundamental research in this area, focusing on algorithmic problems for spatial data. (tue.nl)
- We use and test a multiple data sources for building these algorithms. (wordpress.com)
- As big data analytics continues to transform the economic and social landscape, is it time to ask questions about the ethical nature of the algorithms employed by various organizations? (cio.com)
- One is the data component, the other is the algorithm component. (cio.com)
- An algorithm is a set of operations that tells a computer what calculations to run on what data, then how to process that data to generate a result. (cio.com)
- One reason why Sussin ranked LinkedIn's data behind its algorithms was because she saw pitfalls if Microsoft misused that data or commingled it improperly with its own. (cio.com)
- In this course, author and developer Joe Marini explains some of the most popular and useful algorithms for searching and sorting information, working with techniques like recursion, and understanding common data structures. (lynda.com)
- In this course, we're going to learn about some of the basic algorithms using all kinds of programs, such as sorting data, searching for information, and working with basic data structures. (lynda.com)
- Chief Algorithms Officer Eric Colson led the data charge and his team built out the Stitch Fix algorithms over the last 5 years. (forbes.com)
- We even wrote the " Algorithms Tour " to show some of the ways we use data. (forbes.com)
- Part III provides basic conceptual information to help you understand the algorithms supported by Oracle Data Mining. (oracle.com)
- Also, if you have a general understanding of the workings of an algorithm, you will be better prepared to optimize its use with tuning parameters and data preparation. (oracle.com)
- Data is elusive on algorithms' exact share in sterling trade, it likely mirrors broader trends - around 70% of orders in all currencies on the EBS platform, a major trading venue, are submitted via algorithms, the Bank of International Settlements estimated last September. (rte.ie)
- While your ability to build effective algorithms depends upon the quality of your data, the data itself is effectively useless without algorithms that can tease out meaning. (informationweek.com)
- Algorithms rely on data. (informationweek.com)
- Once the developers making AI for Hollywood have a few summers worth of blockbuster data returned, assuming they're successful at predicting the hits, it's quite likely tomorrow's movies won't get made without the say-so of an algorithm. (thenextweb.com)
- This algorithm is easy to implement, requiring a kd-tree as the only major data structure. (umd.edu)
- First, we present a data-sensitive analysis of the algorithm's running time, which shows that the algorithm runs faster as the separation between clusters increases. (umd.edu)
- Auto white balance algorithms are usually applied on the raw image data, before the image is compressed and saved to the memory card. (mathworks.com)
- Given all the talk we hear about big data and HR, it's no surprise that algorithms are playing more of a role in recruiting. (shrm.org)
- Most recruiters and developers see much promise in the idea of running algorithms against the increasingly large data sets becoming available on candidates through social media, professional assessments and other channels. (shrm.org)
- Algorithms are needed "to take massive amounts of data being generated before, during and after the recruiting process and turn it into actionable information-with one goal being to predict whether a person will be right for the job, the team and the company," said Steve Levy, director of global sourcing at Austin, Texas-based job site Indeed. (shrm.org)
- Meanwhile, their executives use algorithms to study data that was previously too unwieldy to do much with-for example, to analyze closed deals for promising trends. (shrm.org)
- Once the doodling-and-thinking phase that we now call algorithm design is over, you should whip up some proof-of-concept code (it's OK if it's ugly), show that your approach will work (or that it won't, which is also useful data), then test your ugly code in several contexts, and finally iterate until the code is cleaner and more understandable to others. (quirksmode.org)
- Using a unique mix of algorithms, the adiuta.PLAN solution monitors travel and weather data in real time, and factors it into its planning. (fraunhofer.de)
- The classic algorithms for processing data are often insufficient to deal with the datasets of modern sizes. (columbia.edu)
- For example, a quadratic-time algorithm means that 10x increase in data size requires a 100x increase in resources! (columbia.edu)
- Learn the most popular and useful programming algorithms for searching and sorting data, counting values, and more. (lynda.com)
- Data collected by occult means and analyzed by algorithms of often dubious validity help to determine who gets a mortgage, who goes to college, what you pay for insurance, who gets what job, what level of scrutiny you will be subjected to when you fly, how aggressively your neighborhood will be policed, and how you will be treated if arrested. (prospect.org)
- O'Neil's book can be read as a plea to her fellow data scientists to take a Hippocratic oath for the age of big data: Above all, a good algorithm should do no harm. (prospect.org)
- For n ≥ 2 observations DeWit/USNO Nautical Almanac/Compac Data, Least squares algorithm for n LOPs Kaplan algorithm, USNO. (wikipedia.org)

###### Pseudocode1

- The algorithms are presented in pseudocode and can readily be implemented in a computer language. (mit.edu)

###### 20011

- Covers distributed algorithms a topic recommended by the ACM (2001 report) for an undergraduate curriculum. (informit.com)

###### Optimization2

- Cache-oblivious algorithms are contrasted with explicit blocking , as in loop nest optimization , which explicitly breaks a problem into blocks that are optimally sized for a given cache. (wikipedia.org)
- Many subfields such as Machine Learning and Optimization have adapted their algorithms to handle such clusters. (stanford.edu)

###### Kinds of planning a1

- This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning algorithms. (psu.edu)

###### Role of Algorithms2

- The Role of Algorithms in Computing - What are algorithms, Algorithms as technology, Evolution of Algorithms, Design of Algorithm, Need of Correctness of Algorithm, Confirming correctness of Algorithm - sample examples, Iterative algorithm design issues. (google.com)
- Mr Meaney is keen to play down the role of algorithms in Hollywood. (bbc.co.uk)

###### Facial recognition algorithms4

- How well do facial recognition algorithms cope with a million strangers? (washington.edu)
- It is the first benchmark that tests facial recognition algorithms at a million scale. (washington.edu)
- Facial recognition algorithms that fared well with 10,000 distracting images all experienced a drop in accuracy when confronted with 1 million images. (washington.edu)
- Don a pair of these near-infrared LED-studded goggles and any facial-recognition algorithms that work on infrared cameras will be blocked by the lights, says its inventor. (fastcompany.com)

###### Chapter3

- All of these algorithms will be discussed in this chapter. (springer.com)
- Provides students with comprehensive chapter on topics with significant importance in algorithms. (informit.com)
- With/their many years of experience in teaching algorithms courses, Richard Johnsonbaugh and Marcus Schaefer include applications of algorithms, examples, end-of-section exercises, end-of-chapter exercises, solutions to selected exercises, and notes to help the reader understand and master algorithms. (informit.com)

###### Combinatorics1

- The 7th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments ( ALENEX05 ) and the 2nd Workshop on Analytic Algorithmics and Combinatorics ( ANALCO05 ) will be held immediately preceding the conference at the same location. (siam.org)

###### Efficiency of the algorithm1

- For the use in teaching, they propose a slight generalization of the CYK algorithm, "without compromising efficiency of the algorithm, clarity of its presentation, or simplicity of proofs" ( Lange & Leiß 2009 ). (princeton.edu)

###### Computational geometry1

- Mulmuley, Ketan (1994) Computational Geometry: An Introduction through Randomized Algorithms, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ (ISBN: 0-13-336363-5). (hmc.edu)

###### Polynomial time3

- Numerous practical optimisation problems are NP-hard and therefore do not have polynomial-time algorithms unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Recent results -Such as Pearson's polynomial-time algorithm for the coin-changing problem and parameterized complexity. (informit.com)
- No exact polynomial-time algorithms are known for this problem. (umd.edu)

###### Rely on algorithms2

- Employers increasingly rely on algorithms to determine who advances through application portals to an interview. (fastcompany.com)
- The rest of us rely on algorithms for much of our daily Web and mobile interactions, though we're not always conscious of the important role they play. (informationweek.com)

###### Several sorting al1

- Lower bounds integrated into sections that discuss problems -e.g. after presentation of several sorting algorithms, text discusses lower bound for comparison-based sorting. (informit.com)

###### Focuses on algorithms1

- Our research in this area focuses on algorithms with provable guarantees on their I/O- and caching behavior. (tue.nl)

###### Built into algorithms2

- Although often historic biases are inadvertently built into algorithms and reflect human prejudices, recent scholarship by Philip M. Nichols has identified an additional threat of potential intentional manipulation of underlying algorithms to benefit third parties. (fastcompany.com)
- To address disparate impact concerns, standards of fairness can be built into algorithms that guide eligibility decisions in areas like credit, insurance, employment, school admissions, and parole, but the standards can be in conflict. (cio.com)

###### Research on algorithms2

- Conversely, research on algorithms and their complexity has established new perspectives in discrete mathematics. (springer.com)
- Nevertheless, a burst of research on algorithms written specifically for NISQs might enable these devices to perform certain calculations more efficiently than classic computers. (scientificamerican.com)

###### Clustering3

- A popular heuristic for k-means clustering is Lloyd's algorithm. (umd.edu)
- We present a simple and efficient implementation of Lloyd's k-means clustering algorithm, which we call the filtering algorithm. (umd.edu)
- Tests of a rapidly growing set of algorithms for NISQ devices have shown that quantum computers can indeed facilitate such machine-learning tasks as classifying information by categories, clustering similar items or features together, and generating new statistical samples from existing ones-for instance, predicting molecular structures likely to display a desired mix of properties. (scientificamerican.com)

###### Graphs1

- Logging mechanisms that algorithm developers can use to generate log messages as well as log snapshots of graphs as they are laid out. (eclipse.org)

###### Problems10

- Optimal cache-oblivious algorithms are known for the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm , matrix multiplication , sorting , matrix transposition , and several other problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Amortized Analysis - Binary, Binomial and Fibonacci heaps, Dijkstra's Shortest path algorithm, Splay Trees, Time-Space trade-off, Introduction to Tractable and Non-tractable Problems, Introduction to Randomized and Approximate algorithms, Embedded Algorithms: Embedded system scheduling (power optimized scheduling algorithm), sorting algorithm for embedded systems. (google.com)
- The primary goal of research in complexity theory may be viewed as understanding the inherent difficulty of problems in terms of the resources algorithms for those problems need. (microsoft.com)
- Grokking Algorithms is a fully illustrated, friendly guide that teaches you how to apply common algorithms to the practical problems you face every day as a programmer. (manning.com)
- In it, you'll learn how to apply common algorithms to the practical programming problems you face every day. (manning.com)
- Clinical management algorithms for common and unusual obstetric problems have been developed to help guide practitioners to the best treatment options for patients. (wiley.com)
- Saying you write algorithms in CSS is a psychological trick that can put you, and, more importantly, your co-workers, in the right frame of mind for approaching tricky CSS problems. (quirksmode.org)
- I will further apply this framework to extend Myerson's celebrated characterization of optimal single-item auctions to multiple items (Myerson 1981), design mechanisms for job scheduling (Nisan and Ronen 1999), and resolve other problems at the interface of algorithms and game theory. (princeton.edu)
- A special focus is put on hard decision problems, so-called NP-complete problems, and try to find practical algorithm for these. (uib.no)
- Calculators (and the like) do not need books (they have tables and ephemeris integrated) and, with their own algorithms, allow quick and error-free calculation of navigation problems. (wikipedia.org)

###### Analysis8

- This is a graduate course on the design and analysis of algorithms, covering several advanced topics not studied in typical introductory courses on algorithms. (merlot.org)
- We will focus on the analysis of parallelism and distribution costs of algorithms. (stanford.edu)
- When the analysis of an algorithm is not straightforward, you may need some high-powered tricks. (hmc.edu)
- Sedgewick, Robert and Philippe Flajolet (1996) An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA. (hmc.edu)
- This course is an introduction to the design and analysis of algorithms. (bowdoin.edu)
- COMS 4231 (Analysis of Algorithms) or equivalent is useful, but not required if you have solid math background. (columbia.edu)
- The Microsoft Association algorithm is an association algorithm provided by Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) that is useful for recommendation engines. (microsoft.com)
- The Microsoft Association algorithm is also useful for market basket analysis. (microsoft.com)

###### Greedy1

- 6. Greedy Algorithms. (informit.com)

###### Sort algorithms1

- Graphical illustrations of a heap of sort algorithms. (merlot.org)

###### Hybrid algorithm2

- In tuning for a specific machine, one may use a hybrid algorithm which uses blocking tuned for the specific cache sizes at the bottom level, but otherwise uses the cache-oblivious algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
- A simple hybrid algorithm, which does one swap followed by some number of iterations of Lloyd's. (umd.edu)

###### Classic algorithms1

- If you want to get more from the classic algorithms inside this book then be sure to check out Algorithms in Motion . (manning.com)

###### Design7

- The course text will be "Algorithm Design and Applications" by Goodrich and Tamassia (Wiley, 2015). (uci.edu)
- Pyramid Algorithms presents a unique approach to understanding, analyzing, and computing the most common polynomial and spline curve and surface schemes used in computer-aided geometric design, employing a dynamic programming method based on recursive pyramids. (oreilly.com)
- We study and design algorithms and protocols in the broad area of systems and services. (microsoft.com)
- These algorithms could enhance the design of new materials for use in areas ranging from energy to health science. (scientificamerican.com)
- Let's discuss CSS algorithm design, which presupposes CSS is in fact a programming language, and see if it helps. (quirksmode.org)
- Now if you slap the name "algorithm design" on this process you achieve several goals. (quirksmode.org)
- Most importantly, naming things gives you power over them: if a bunch of disconnected doodles and notes become an algorithm design, you grant them the much higher status of a computer problem . (quirksmode.org)

###### Increasingly2

- Editors play a vital role in sifting out the volume and leaving us with the important content but those editors are increasingly being replaced by algorithms on sites like Facebook and Google and pretty much most of the other big sites you use on the web. (thenextweb.com)
- Among the examples he cited were a robo-cleaner that maps out the best way to do housework, and the online trading algorithms that are increasingly controlling Wall Street. (bbc.co.uk)

###### Stochastic3

- Sudoku can be solved using stochastic (random-based) algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
- Stochastic-based algorithms are known to be fast, though perhaps not as fast as deductive techniques. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also possible to extend the CYK algorithm to parse strings using weighted and stochastic context-free grammars . (princeton.edu)

###### Meetup2

- Come to Women Who Code's bi-weekly algorithms meetup! (meetup.com)
- We typically implement and discuss algorithms in the meetup - laptops are recommended, but not necessary. (meetup.com)

###### 19951

- Motwani, Rajeev and Prabhakar Raghaven (1995) Randomized Algorithms, Cambridge Univ. (hmc.edu)

###### Conversely1

- Conversely, if the algorithm requires 2 doses but the user chooses 5, then the patient will still be counted as complete with 2 doses. (cdc.gov)

###### Content5

- Even though most people don't even know that they are seeing content based on algorithms it's widely believed that they are a good thing because they make content more relevant and cut down on the amount of time you waste consuming information that you don't need to. (thenextweb.com)
- This video of a talk at TED though challenges that whole theory though and makes us all think again about algorithms and how sites like Facebook and Google choose to serve us up content. (thenextweb.com)
- The above algorithms are often being improved, and what content we show depends on a complex combination of factors. (wordpress.com)
- The complex algorithms LinkedIn uses to, well, link people in networks, as well as to provide pertinent content for each individual, were, to Microsoft, the most valuable half of the deal, Sussin said. (cio.com)
- The Microsoft Association algorithm supports specific input column content types, predictable column content types, and modeling flags, which are listed in the following table. (microsoft.com)

###### Heapsort2

- By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort algorithm via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi, we give a concrete and precise example of how to deal with algorithmic knowledge. (slideshare.net)
- This is best understood looking at a concrete example: the Heapsort algorithm. (slideshare.net)

###### Typically2

- Cache-oblivious algorithms are typically analyzed using an idealized model of the cache, sometimes called the cache-oblivious model . (wikipedia.org)
- Typically these are algorithms that compute values modulo a sequence of primes, then perform reconstruction to obtain an integer or rational result. (maplesoft.com)