**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Pattern Recognition, Automated**: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Artificial Intelligence**: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Cluster Analysis**: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

**Image Processing, Computer-Assisted**: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

**Sequence Analysis, Protein**: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.

**Sequence Alignment**: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Phantoms, Imaging**: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.

**Software Validation**: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.

**Imaging, Three-Dimensional**: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

**Sequence Analysis, DNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

**Image Enhancement**: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

**Markov Chains**: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.

**Proteins**: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

**Databases, Protein**: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

**Bayes Theorem**: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

**Gene Expression Profiling**: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

**Monte Carlo Method**: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

**Computer Graphics**: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

**Automation**: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis**: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

**Neural Networks (Computer)**: A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

**Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**User-Computer Interface**: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.

**Data Compression**: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.

**Fuzzy Logic**: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.

**Artifacts**: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.

**Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted**: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.

**Databases, Genetic**: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Normal Distribution**: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

**Information Storage and Retrieval**: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

**Likelihood Functions**: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

**Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.

**Genomics**: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.

**Internet**: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

**Decision Trees**: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).

**Radiographic Image Enhancement**: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.

**Subtraction Technique**: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).

**Programming Languages**: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.

**Wavelet Analysis**: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).

**Computing Methodologies**: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.

**Signal-To-Noise Ratio**: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.

**Data Mining**: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.

**Protein Interaction Mapping**: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**Wireless Technology**: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.

**Support Vector Machines**: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.

**Automatic Data Processing**: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.

**Software Design**: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.

**Sequence Analysis, RNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.

**Computers**

**Molecular Sequence Data**: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

**Stochastic Processes**: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.

**Genome**: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

**Gene Regulatory Networks**: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**Equipment Design**: Methods of creating machines and devices.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Chromosome Mapping**: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

**Phylogeny**: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Base Sequence**: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

**Discriminant Analysis**: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.

**Cone-Beam Computed Tomography**: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Nonlinear Dynamics**: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

**Programming, Linear**: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.

**Equipment Failure Analysis**: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.

**Genome, Human**: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.

**Proteomics**: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.

**Databases, Nucleic Acid**: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Amino Acid Sequence**: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

**Computer Communication Networks**: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Natural Language Processing**: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.

**Tomography**: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.

**Proteome**: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.

## An effective approach for analyzing "prefinished" genomic sequence data. (1/42270)

Ongoing efforts to sequence the human genome are already generating large amounts of data, with substantial increases anticipated over the next few years. In most cases, a shotgun sequencing strategy is being used, which rapidly yields most of the primary sequence in incompletely assembled sequence contigs ("prefinished" sequence) and more slowly produces the final, completely assembled sequence ("finished" sequence). Thus, in general, prefinished sequence is produced in excess of finished sequence, and this trend is certain to continue and even accelerate over the next few years. Even at a prefinished stage, genomic sequence represents a rich source of important biological information that is of great interest to many investigators. However, analyzing such data is a challenging and daunting task, both because of its sheer volume and because it can change on a day-by-day basis. To facilitate the discovery and characterization of genes and other important elements within prefinished sequence, we have developed an analytical strategy and system that uses readily available software tools in new combinations. Implementation of this strategy for the analysis of prefinished sequence data from human chromosome 7 has demonstrated that this is a convenient, inexpensive, and extensible solution to the problem of analyzing the large amounts of preliminary data being produced by large-scale sequencing efforts. Our approach is accessible to any investigator who wishes to assimilate additional information about particular sequence data en route to developing richer annotations of a finished sequence. (+info)## A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (2/42270)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs. (+info)## Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (3/42270)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown. (+info)## An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (4/42270)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution. (+info)## Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (5/42270)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)## A new filtering algorithm for medical magnetic resonance and computer tomography images. (6/42270)

Inner views of tubular structures based on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data sets may be created by virtual endoscopy. After a preliminary segmentation procedure for selecting the organ to be represented, the virtual endoscopy is a new postprocessing technique using surface or volume rendering of the data sets. In the case of surface rendering, the segmentation is based on a grey level thresholding technique. To avoid artifacts owing to the noise created in the imaging process, and to restore spurious resolution degradations, a robust Wiener filter was applied. This filter working in Fourier space approximates the noise spectrum by a simple function that is proportional to the square root of the signal amplitude. Thus, only points with tiny amplitudes consisting mostly of noise are suppressed. Further artifacts are avoided by the correct selection of the threshold range. Afterwards, the lumen and the inner walls of the tubular structures are well represented and allow one to distinguish between harmless fluctuations and medically significant structures. (+info)## Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (7/42270)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 micrograms of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml showed a > or = 2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 micrograms of ampicillin per ml plus 10 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 10(8) CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 10(5) CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis. (+info)## The muscle chloride channel ClC-1 has a double-barreled appearance that is differentially affected in dominant and recessive myotonia. (8/42270)

Single-channel recordings of the currents mediated by the muscle Cl- channel, ClC-1, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, provide the first direct evidence that this channel has two equidistant open conductance levels like the Torpedo ClC-0 prototype. As for the case of ClC-0, the probabilities and dwell times of the closed and conducting states are consistent with the presence of two independently gated pathways with approximately 1.2 pS conductance enabled in parallel via a common gate. However, the voltage dependence of the common gate is different and the kinetics are much faster than for ClC-0. Estimates of single-channel parameters from the analysis of macroscopic current fluctuations agree with those from single-channel recordings. Fluctuation analysis was used to characterize changes in the apparent double-gate behavior of the ClC-1 mutations I290M and I556N causing, respectively, a dominant and a recessive form of myotonia. We find that both mutations reduce about equally the open probability of single protopores and that mutation I290M yields a stronger reduction of the common gate open probability than mutation I556N. Our results suggest that the mammalian ClC-homologues have the same structure and mechanism proposed for the Torpedo channel ClC-0. Differential effects on the two gates that appear to modulate the activation of ClC-1 channels may be important determinants for the different patterns of inheritance of dominant and recessive ClC-1 mutations. (+info)**Algorithms**[edit]. In terms of numerical analysis, isotonic regression involves finding a weighted least-squares fit x. ∈. R. n ... These two

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**Algorithms**(SODA '99), pp. 310-316. .. *. Erdős, P.; Lovász, L.; Simmons, A.; Straus, E. G. (1973), "Dissection graphs ...**Algorithms**[edit]. Constructing an arrangement means, given as input a list of the lines in the arrangement, computing a ... Chan, T. (1999), Remarks on k-level**algorithms**in the plane, archived from the original on 2010-11-04. . ...**Algorithm**Engineering (WAE '99), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1668, Springer-Verlag, pp. 139-153, doi:10.1007/3-540-48318 ...**Algorithms**[edit]. There are various

**algorithms**for the diagnosis of heart failure. For example, the

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**algorithm**by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) weights the difference between supporting ... Using a special pacing

**algorithm**, biventricular cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can initiate a normal sequence of ...

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Clarkson (1995) defines two

**algorithms**, a recursive**algorithm**and an iterative**algorithm**, for linear programming based on ...**Algorithms**[edit]. Seidel[edit]. Seidel (1991) gave an**algorithm**for low-dimensional linear programming that may be adapted to ... and suggests a combination of the two that calls the iterative**algorithm**from the recursive**algorithm**. The recursive**algorithm**... Discrete**Algorithms**, pp. 423-429. .. *. Chazelle, Bernard; Matoušek, Jiří (1996), "On linear-time deterministic**algorithms**for ...A fourth

**algorithm**, not as commonly used, is the reverse-delete**algorithm**, which is the reverse of Kruskal's**algorithm**. Its ...**Algorithms**[edit]. In all of the**algorithms**below, m is the number of edges in the graph and n is the number of vertices. ... found a linear time randomized**algorithm**based on a combination of Borůvka's**algorithm**and the reverse-delete**algorithm**.[3][4] ... Classic**algorithms**[edit]. The first**algorithm**for finding a minimum spanning tree was developed by Czech scientist Otakar ...... for arbitrary graphs the shortest path may require slower

**algorithms**such as Dijkstra's**algorithm**or the Bellman-Ford**algorithm**... Path**algorithms**[edit]. Some**algorithms**become simpler when used on DAGs instead of general graphs, based on the principle of ... In many randomized**algorithms**in computational geometry, the**algorithm**maintains a history DAG representing the version history ... Jungnickel, Dieter (2012), Graphs, Networks and**Algorithms**,**Algorithms**and Computation in Mathematics, 5, Springer, pp. 92-93, ...ALS

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Iterative Reconstruction

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**algorithm**is applied to the six images to recreate the high dynamic range radiance map of the original scene (a high dynamic ... Despite this, if**algorithms**could not sufficiently map tones and colors, a skilled artist was still needed, as is the case with ... Those**algorithms**are more complicated than the global ones; they can show artifacts (e.g. halo effect and ringing); and the ... Tone mapping**algorithms**[edit]. *Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions ...Design and

**algorithms**[edit]. Video search has evolved slowly through several basic search formats which exist today and all use ... Rather than applying a text search**algorithm**after speech-to-text processing is completed, some engines use a phonetic search ... Many efforts to improve video search including both human powered search as well as writing**algorithm**that recognize what's ... depends entirely on the searcher and the**algorithm**that the owner has chosen. That's why it has always been discussed and now ...Use of

**algorithms**[edit]. Data is being generated by**algorithms**, and the**algorithms**associate preferences with the user's ...**Algorithms**may also be manipulated. In February 2015, Coca-Cola ran into trouble over an automated,**algorithm**-generated bot ...**algorithm**-generated bot was tricked into tweeting a racial slur from the official team account.[17] ...There have been several generations of HTM

**algorithms**.[6]. Zeta 1: first generation node**algorithms**[edit]. During training, a ... Cortical learning**algorithms**: second generation[edit]. The second generation of HTM learning**algorithms**was drastically ... Cortical Learning**Algorithm**Tutorial: CLA Basics, talk about the cortical learning**algorithm**(CLA) used by the HTM model on ... 1 HTM structure and**algorithms***1.1 Zeta 1: first generation node**algorithms**...Girvan-Newman

**algorithm**[edit]. Another commonly used**algorithm**for finding communities is the Girvan-Newman**algorithm**.[1] This ... The classic**algorithm**to find these is the Bron-Kerbosch**algorithm**. The overlap of these can be used to define communities in ... Testing methods of finding communities**algorithms**[edit]. The evaluation of**algorithms**, to detect which are better at detecting ... practical**algorithms**are based on approximate optimization methods such as greedy**algorithms**, simulated annealing, or spectral ...Pseudo-Marginal Metropolis-Hastings

**algorithm**. Bayesian**algorithms**and methods[edit]. Bayesian statistics is often used for ...Cache-Oblivious

**Algorithms**. Masters thesis, MIT. 1999. *^ Kumar, Piyush. "Cache-Oblivious**Algorithms**" (PDF).**Algorithms**for ... In computing, a cache-oblivious**algorithm**(or cache-transcendent**algorithm**) is an**algorithm**designed to take advantage of a CPU ... An optimal cache-oblivious**algorithm**is a cache-oblivious**algorithm**that uses the cache optimally (in an asymptotic sense, ... Optimal cache-oblivious**algorithms**are known for the Cooley-Tukey FFT**algorithm**, matrix multiplication, sorting, matrix ...In general,

**algorithms**that "learned" how to find correct matches out of larger image datasets outperformed those that only had ... How well do facial recognition**algorithms**cope with a million strangers?. Engineering , News releases , Research , Technology ... All of the**algorithms**suffered in accuracy when confronted with more distractions, but some fared much better than others. ... But the SIAT MMLab**algorithm**developed by a research team from China, which learned on a smaller number of images, bucked that ...What are

**algorithms**,**Algorithms**as technology, Evolution of**Algorithms**, Design of**Algorithm**, Need of Correctness of**Algorithm**, ... Design and Analysis of**Algorithms**(DAA) Unit I . Fundamentals (09 Hours). The Role of**Algorithms**in Computing - ... Embedded**Algorithms**: Embedded system scheduling (power optimized scheduling**algorithm**), sorting**algorithm**for embedded systems ... Unit VI . Multi-threaded and Distributed**Algorithms**(09 Hours). Multi-threaded**Algorithms**- Introduction, Performance measures ...the

**algorithms**conform to [. XML Namespaces. ], otherwise if [. XML 1.1. ] is in use,**algorithms**conform to [. XML Namespaces ... This appendix contains several namespace**algorithms**, such as namespace normalization**algorithm**that fixes namespace information ... Appendix B: Namespaces**Algorithms**. Editors: Arnaud Le Hors, IBM. Elena Litani, IBM. Table of contents. *B.1 Namespace ... The**algorithm**will then continue and consider the element child2. , will no longer find a namespace declaration mapping the ...Python implementations of various

**algorithms**, more Python**algorithm**implementations, and still more Python**algorithms**. ... Nov: 2: Dijkstras**algorithm**(Chapter 14). Nov. 4: Minimum spanning trees (Chapter 15). Week 7: Midterm; dynamic programming. ... 2: Approximation**algorithms**(Chapter 18). Final exam:. Dec. 5 (Monday), 4:00 - 6:00 (per schedule) Other Course-Related ... 28: Streaming**algorithms**(not in text; see Graham Cormodes slides on finding frequent items and the Wikipedia article on ......

**algorithms**are also quite common topics in interviews. There are many interview questions about search and sort**algorithms**. ... All of these**algorithms**will be discussed in this chapter.. Keywords. Binary Search Edit Distance Sort**Algorithm**Edit Operation ... There are many interview questions about search and sort**algorithms**. Backtracking, dynamic programming, and greedy**algorithms**... This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning**algorithm**improves. ...**Algorithms**Software Software. Free, secure and fast downloads from the largest Open Source applications and software directory ... The engine is a library of already tested

**algorithms**,include collaborative filtering. We will try to add some new

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**Algorithms**Software. * Get your Apps to customers 5x faster with RAD Studio.. The easiest and most powerful cross platform ... Hot topics in

**Algorithms**Software. panda cron c# barcode c# usps barcode inventory c# visualization tools expression parser ...

**Algorithms**Software Software. Free, secure and fast downloads from the largest Open Source applications and software directory ...

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**algorithm**(and therefore the program code) is simpler than other**algorithms**, especially compared to strong**algorithms**that ... An**algorithm**combining a constraint-model-based**algorithm**with backtracking would have the advantage of fast solving time, and ... In his paper Sudoku as a Constraint Problem,[12] Helmut Simonis describes many reasoning**algorithms**based on constraints which ...**Algorithms**designed for graph colouring are also known to perform well with Sudokus.[11] It is also possible to express a ...SNCStream: A Social Network-based Data Stream Clustering

**Algorithm**. In ACM 30th Symposium On Applied Computing (ACM SAC), 2015 ... In order to make use of these**algorithms**you will need to use MOA framework, which you can find at {M}assive {O}nline {A} ... In order to use these**algorithms**, please download both moa.jar and sizeofag.jar from {M}assive {O}nline {A}nalysis Framework. ... You can also unzip MOAs any of the JAR files, add the source code for the**algorithms**desired to moa.classifiers/moa.clusterers ...In this chapter we introduce the important concept of approximation

**algorithms**. So far we have dealt mostly with polynomially ... Here approximation**algorithms**must be mentioned in the first place.. Keywords. Approximation**Algorithm**Chromatic Number Vertex ... Slavík, P. [1997]: A tight analysis of the greedy**algorithm**for set cover. Journal of**Algorithms**25 (1997), 237-254CrossRef ... Korte B., Vygen J. (2012) Approximation**Algorithms**. In: Combinatorial Optimization.**Algorithms**and Combinatorics, vol 21. ...Hiring

**algorithms**create a selection process that offers no transparency and is not monitored. Applicants struck from an ... Inadvertent or intentional, the ability to detect bias of an**algorithm**is extremely difficult because it can occur at any stage ... The data to build these**algorithms**increase exponentially.. One video interview service, HireVue, boasts of its ability to ... Although often historic biases are inadvertently built into**algorithms**and reflect human prejudices, recent scholarship by ...Come to Women Who Codes bi-weekly

**algorithms**meetup!This week we will be hosted by Megaphone (Panoply rebrande ... Interested in sharpening your problem solving skills and learning more about**algorithms**? ... We typically implement and discuss**algorithms**in the meetup - laptops are recommended, but not necessary.. Please RSVP at least ... Interested in sharpening your problem solving skills and learning more about**algorithms**? Come to Women Who Codes bi-weekly ...The subject lies at the crossroads between robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence,

**algorithms**, and computer graphics ... This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning**algorithms**. ... This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning**algorithms**. The subject lies at the crossroads ... between robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence,**algorithms**, and computer graphics. The particular subjects covered ...Examples of Parallel

**Algorithms***Primes *Sparse Matrix Multiplication *Planar Convex-Hull *Three Other**Algorithms***Summary * ... Other**algorithms**. *An online tutorial. *Some animations of parallel**algorithms**(requires X windows). *A page of resources on ... A brief overview of the current state in parallel**algorithms**. Includes pointers to good books on parallel**algorithms**. *A ... Programming Parallel**Algorithms**. Guy E. Blelloch. Computer Science Department. Carnegie Mellon University This page is an ...A randomized

**algorithm**is an**algorithm**that uses random numbers to influence the choices it makes in the course of its ... For many applications a randomized**algorithm**is the fastest**algorithm**available, or the simplest, or both. ... Randomized**algorithms**, once viewed as a tool in computational number theory, have by now found widespread application. Growth ... A randomized**algorithm**is an**algorithm**that uses random numbers to influence the choices it makes in the course of its ...Beginning

**Algorithms**A good understanding of**algorithms**, and the knowledge of when to apply them, is crucial to producing ... Beginning**Algorithms**. A good understanding of**algorithms**, and the knowledge of when to apply them, is crucial to producing ... The Boyer-Moore**Algorithm*** 16.4.1. Creating the Tests * 16.4.1.1. How It Works ... This book is for anyone who develops applications, or is just beginning to do so, and is looking to understand**algorithms**and ...Pyramid

**Algorithms**presents a unique approach to understanding, analyzing, and computing the most common polynomial and spline ... Chapter 7: B-Spline Approximation and the de Boor**Algorithm*** 7.1 The de Boor**Algorithm**... Pyramid**Algorithms**presents a unique approach to understanding, analyzing, and computing the most common polynomial and spline ... Chapter 8: Pyramid**Algorithms**for Multisided Bezier Patches * 8.1 Barycentric Coordinates for Convex Polygons ...Conversely, research on

**algorithms**and their complexity has established new perspectives in ... ... Combinatorial mathematics has substantially influenced recent trends and developments in the theory of**algorithms**and its ... Conversely, research on**algorithms**and their complexity has established new perspectives in discrete mathematics. This new ... Combinatorial mathematics has substantially influenced recent trends and developments in the theory of**algorithms**and its ...**Algorithms**and Data Sciences. Two features are common to much of the field of

**Algorithms**- mathematical guarantees of time and ... Visit:

**Algorithms**and Data Sciences. Cryptography. Cryptographic

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**Algorithms**. More Editorial**Algorithms**. Analysing and curating web content. This project looks at ways to ... Using**Algorithms**to Understand Content gets more technical and looks at our attempts at teaching**algorithms**(including Machine ... Create novel technology, or adopt state-of-the art**algorithms**to create a unique layer of understanding about the wealth of ... What might happen if**algorithms**and machine learning were to search out content from the BBC archive for BBC Four audiences? ...This video of a talk at TED though challenges that whole theory though and makes us all think again about

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**algorithms**in NESL) handed out (see notes). Assigned Reading: Parallel**Algorithms**up through 10.3 ... Asynchronous**Algorithms**I. Final project proposal due.. Notes on Asynchronous**Algorithms**(Updated April 19th) ... Course Description: In this course students will learn about parallel**algorithms**. The emphasis will be on**algorithms**that can ... Topics to be covered include: modeling the cost of parallel**algorithms**, lower-bounds, and parallel**algorithms**for sorting, ...... sound

**algorithm**. , , Assume X is an**algorithm**representing the human mathematical , intelligence. The point is not that man ... Re: Penrose and**algorithms**Bruno Marchal Fri, 29 Jun 2007 02:57:47 -0700 ...By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort

**algorithm**via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi ... an**algorithm**does, the**algorithm**designer focuses on "how" an**algorithm**achieves its result. In our example, the**algorithm**... The**algorithm**designers explanation So, the**algorithm**designer is able to show that his pseudo-code, the LoA he constructed, ...**Algorithms**and Their Explanations * 1.**Algorithms**and Their Explanations CiE 2014 - History and Philosophy of Computing 24th ...SkipApproximation algorithmMathematicalSolveQuicksortParallelMinimum Spanning TreesQuadratic-time algorithmLeisersonOptimizationDivide and ConCryptographicMatrix algorithmsClassic algorithmsStandard algorithmsDifferent algorithmsEfficient approximation algorithmsComputational geometryGraphDistributed ComputationCormenGrokking AlgorithmsGreedyExamplesPseudocode2001DatasetsKinds of planning aRole of AlgorithmsFacial recognition algorithmsProblemsCombinatoricsEfficiency of the algorithmChapterRely on algorithmsResearch on algorithmsCambridge UnivePracticeAnalysisWord algorithmSort algorithmsHybrid algorithmCommon algorithmsProvable guaranteesIncreasinglyFocusesStochasticGraduate courseMeetupLower-boundsBias1995

- Bar-Yehuda, R., and Even, S. : A linear-time approximation algorithm for the weighted vertex cover problem. (springer.com)
- The field is currently very active, with the toolbox of approximation algorithm design techniques getting always richer. (springer.com)
- In this way most of the most important results from the approximation algorithm literature are covered, often more easily comprehensible than the original articles. (springer.com)
- We consider the question of whether there exists a simple and practical approximation algorithm for k-means clustering. (umd.edu)

- Two features are common to much of the field of Algorithms- mathematical guarantees of time and space for even the worst-case input and random access to the entire input. (microsoft.com)
- A focus of ours has been developing mathematical models under which simple algorithms (often ones used widely in practice) have provable guarantees of time and space. (microsoft.com)
- Cryptographic algorithms are the core mathematical ingredients of most solutions to security problems. (microsoft.com)
- But whether you know algorithms down to highly mathematical abstractions or simple as a fuzzy series of steps that transform input into output, it can be helpful to visualize what's going on under the hood. (slashdot.org)
- Isolated conventional algorithms or closed-loop mathematical modeling are not enough in scenarios in which a system must react dynamically to unpredictable events such as traffic jams, road blocks or staff absences. (fraunhofer.de)
- We will study asymptotic complexity and mathematical analysis of algorithms, design techniques, data structures, and possible applications. (unc.edu)
- The Algorithms for Threat Detection (ATD) program will support research projects to develop the next generation of mathematical and statistical algorithms for analysis of large spatiotemporal datasets with application to quantitative models of human dynamics. (nsf.gov)
- Mathematical maturity and comfort with undergraduate algorithms and basic probability. (utexas.edu)
- In elementary arithmetic, a standard algorithm or method is a specific method of computation which is conventionally taught for solving particular mathematical problems. (wikipedia.org)

- Backtracking, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms are useful tools to solve many problems posed in coding interviews. (springer.com)
- Some hobbyists have developed computer programs that will solve Sudoku puzzles using a backtracking algorithm, which is a type of brute force search. (wikipedia.org)
- Although it has been established that approximately 6.67 x 10 21 final grids exist, a brute force algorithm can be a practical method to solve Sudoku puzzles. (wikipedia.org)
- One programmer reported that such an algorithm may typically require as few as 15,000 cycles, or as many as 900,000 cycles to solve a Sudoku, each cycle being the change in position of a "pointer" as it moves through the cells of a Sudoku. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike the latter however, optimisation algorithms do not necessarily require problems to be logic-solvable, giving them the potential to solve a wider range of problems. (wikipedia.org)
- The most challenging problems in complexity theory include proving lower bounds on the complexity of natural problems and hence proving inherent limitations on all conceivable algorithms that solve such problems. (microsoft.com)
- We apply our expertise in computational geometry and I/O-efficient algorithms to solve these problems in a rigorous way. (tue.nl)
- When using an evolutionary algorithm to solve a problem, the programmer must supply a set of basic functions that the program should be able to use in order to accomplish its goal, as well as supply a definition of how close the program came to achieving its goal. (archive.org)
- An algorithm is a sequence of steps or instructions that outline how to solve a particular problem. (encyclopedia.com)
- Once you've identified the problem you're trying to solve -- or the business result you're trying to achieve -- the algorithm sets forth the steps that will get you where you want to go. (informationweek.com)
- Each chapter describes real problems and then presents algorithms to solve them. (mit.edu)
- The world is full of problems, but not every problem has a good algorithm that can solve it. (uib.no)
- This follow-up course Algorithms focuses on the design and analysis of provably efficient algorithms to solve optimization problems such as finding shortest paths in a network, or comparing the similarity of two strings of DNA. (tue.nl)

- The primary topics in this part of the specialization are: asymptotic ('Big-oh') notation, sorting and searching, divide and conquer (master method, integer and matrix multiplication, closest pair), and randomized algorithms (QuickSort, contraction algorithm for min cuts). (coursera.org)

- Some animations of parallel algorithms (requires X windows). (cmu.edu)
- A brief overview of the current state in parallel algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- Includes pointers to good books on parallel algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- In this course students will learn about parallel algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- The emphasis will be on algorithms that can be used on shared-memory parallel machines such as multicore architectures. (cmu.edu)
- Topics to be covered include: modeling the cost of parallel algorithms, lower-bounds, and parallel algorithms for sorting, graphs, computational geometry, and string operations. (cmu.edu)
- Parallel Algorithms by Guy Blelloch and Bruce Maggs. (cmu.edu)
- 12. Parallel Algorithms. (informit.com)
- Topics include distributed and parallel algorithms for: Optimization, Numerical Linear Algebra, Machine Learning, Graph analysis, Streaming algorithms, and other problems that are challenging to scale on a commodity cluster. (stanford.edu)
- The course will be split into two parts: first, an introduction to fundamentals of parallel algorithms and runtime analysis on a single multicore machine. (stanford.edu)
- Lecture 1: Fundamentals of Distributed and Parallel algorithm analysis. (stanford.edu)
- In the 1990s, parallel developments in techniques for designing approximation algorithms as well as methods for proving hardness of approximation results have led to a beautiful theory. (springer.com)
- Finally, I will briefly show how strategic considerations motivate nice questions in 'traditional' areas of algorithm design as well, and present some of my work in online algorithms, convex optimization, and parallel algorithms. (princeton.edu)
- In this minisymposium, the speakers will discuss parallel algorithms and parallel applications of graph partitioning. (siam.org)

- The primary topics in this part of the specialization are: greedy algorithms (scheduling, minimum spanning trees, clustering, Huffman codes) and dynamic programming (knapsack, sequence alignment, optimal search trees). (coursera.org)

- For example, a quadratic-time algorithm means that 10x increase in data size requires a 100x increase in resources! (columbia.edu)
- We demonstrate its strength by presenting a quadratic time algorithm for the Fréchet distance between polygonal curves in R^d under polyhedral distance functions, including L_1 and L_infinity. (tue.nl)

- The idea (and name) for cache-oblivious algorithms was conceived by Charles E. Leiserson as early as 1996 and first published by Harald Prokop in his master's thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
- The textbook by Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest is by far the most useful and comprehensive reference on standard algorithms. (hmc.edu)

- Cache-oblivious algorithms are contrasted with explicit blocking , as in loop nest optimization , which explicitly breaks a problem into blocks that are optimally sized for a given cache. (wikipedia.org)
- Becker, A., and Geiger, D. : Optimization of Pearl's method of conditioning and greedy-like approximation algorithms for the vertex feedback set problem. (springer.com)
- Many subfields such as Machine Learning and Optimization have adapted their algorithms to handle such clusters. (stanford.edu)
- Following the development of basic combinatorial optimization techniques in the 1960s and 1970s, a main open question was to develop a theory of approximation algorithms. (springer.com)
- In each of the 27 chapters an important combinatorial optimization problem is presented and one or more approximation algorithms for it are clearly and concisely described and analyzed. (springer.com)
- In this paper we propose a benchmark for verification of properties of fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms, namely, a benchmark of a TTEthernet network, where properties of the clock synchronization algorithm as implemented in a TTEthernet network can be verified, and optimization techniques for verification purposes can be applied. (easychair.org)

- Typically, a cache-oblivious algorithm works by a recursive divide and conquer algorithm , where the problem is divided into smaller and smaller subproblems. (wikipedia.org)

- Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Jones Request for Comments: 7518 Microsoft Category: Standards Track May 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721 JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) Abstract This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) specifications. (ietf.org)

- 1987, Frigo 1996 for matrix multiplication and LU decomposition, and Todd Veldhuizen 1996 for matrix algorithms in the Blitz++ library. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers currently at MSR India started the use of sampling from the input to speed up matrix algorithms and this remains one of their interests. (microsoft.com)

- If you want to get more from the classic algorithms inside this book then be sure to check out Algorithms in Motion . (manning.com)
- Based on the best-selling book Grokking Algorithms , this liveVideo course brings classic algorithms to life! (manning.com)
- This liveVideo course is perfect paired with Aditya Bhargava's Grokking Algorithms , bringing the classic algorithms inside to life. (manning.com)
- This easy-to-follow video course is perfect for self-taught programmers, engineers, or anyone who wants to brush up on classic algorithms. (manning.com)

- Some of these editorial parameters are extracted using standard algorithms (such as the Flesch-Kincaid readability test ), others use our in-house language processing technology, and others still are built on experimental machine learning algorithms. (bbc.co.uk)
- Students' alternative algorithms are often just as correct, efficient, and generalizable as the standard algorithms, and maintain emphasis on the meaning of the quantities involved, especially as relates to place values (something that is usually lost in the memorization of standard algorithms). (wikipedia.org)

- The WordPress.com Reader and some of our emails recommend posts and websites based on a number of different algorithms. (wordpress.com)
- This program provides a number of different algorithms for doing k-means clustering based on these ideas and combinations. (umd.edu)
- He also discusses the performance implications of different algorithms and how to evaluate the performance of a given algorithm. (lynda.com)

- The book under review concentrates on the … design and analysis of efficient approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees. (springer.com)
- Although asymptotically efficient approximation algorithms exist, these algorithms are not practical due to the very high constant factors involved. (umd.edu)

- Mulmuley, Ketan (1994) Computational Geometry: An Introduction through Randomized Algorithms, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ (ISBN: 0-13-336363-5). (hmc.edu)

- Obviously - you'll still need some of the algorithms for analyzing the object graph and figuring out what might be a memory leak or not, and tools like MAT have these of course. (infoq.com)
- The subarea within algorithms research studying the visualization of graphs is called graph drawing, and it is one of the focus areas of our group. (tue.nl)
- The XForms recalculation algorithm considers model items and model item properties to be vertices in a directed graph. (w3.org)
- Lecture 6: Graph contraction, star contraction, MST algorithms. (stanford.edu)
- No. 1 was the algorithm that creates the connection graph, the social networking graph. (cio.com)
- Finally, you'll finish the course by applying more advanced algorithms, such as hash tables, graph algorithms, and K-nearest. (manning.com)

- Distributed Computation, Streaming Algorithms and the study of Communication requirements in Algorithms have all received some attention. (microsoft.com)

- Grokking Algorithms is a fully illustrated, friendly guide that teaches you how to apply common algorithms to the practical problems you face every day as a programmer. (manning.com)
- Get a sneak peek at the fun, illustrated, and friendly examples you'll find in Grokking Algorithms on YouTube . (manning.com)
- Grokking Algorithms by Adit Bhargava is available at manning.com in pBook, eBook, and liveBook formats. (manning.com)

- The Role of Algorithms in Computing - What are algorithms, Algorithms as technology, Evolution of Algorithms, Design of Algorithm, Need of Correctness of Algorithm, Confirming correctness of Algorithm - sample examples, Iterative algorithm design issues. (google.com)
- With/their many years of experience in teaching algorithms courses, Richard Johnsonbaugh and Marcus Schaefer include applications of algorithms, examples, end-of-section exercises, end-of-chapter exercises, solutions to selected exercises, and notes to help the reader understand and master algorithms. (informit.com)
- Includes more than 300 worked examples, which provide motivation, clarify concepts, and show how to develop algorithms, demonstrate applications of the theory, and elucidate proofs. (informit.com)
- Among the examples he cited were a robo-cleaner that maps out the best way to do housework, and the online trading algorithms that are increasingly controlling Wall Street. (bbc.co.uk)
- Algorithms in Motion introduces you to the world of algorithms and how to use them as effectively as possible through high-quality video-based lessons, real-world examples, and built-in exercises, so you can put what you learn into practice. (manning.com)

- The algorithms are presented in pseudocode and can readily be implemented in a computer language. (mit.edu)

- Vazirani, V.V. : Approximation Algorithms. (springer.com)
- Covers distributed algorithms a topic recommended by the ACM (2001 report) for an undergraduate curriculum. (informit.com)

- In general, algorithms that "learned" how to find correct matches out of larger image datasets outperformed those that only had access to smaller training datasets. (washington.edu)

- This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning algorithms. (psu.edu)

- Mr Meaney is keen to play down the role of algorithms in Hollywood. (bbc.co.uk)

- How well do facial recognition algorithms cope with a million strangers? (washington.edu)
- It is the first benchmark that tests facial recognition algorithms at a million scale. (washington.edu)
- Facial recognition algorithms that fared well with 10,000 distracting images all experienced a drop in accuracy when confronted with 1 million images. (washington.edu)
- Don a pair of these near-infrared LED-studded goggles and any facial-recognition algorithms that work on infrared cameras will be blocked by the lights, says its inventor. (fastcompany.com)

- Optimal cache-oblivious algorithms are known for the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm , matrix multiplication , sorting , matrix transposition , and several other problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Amortized Analysis - Binary, Binomial and Fibonacci heaps, Dijkstra's Shortest path algorithm, Splay Trees, Time-Space trade-off, Introduction to Tractable and Non-tractable Problems, Introduction to Randomized and Approximate algorithms, Embedded Algorithms: Embedded system scheduling (power optimized scheduling algorithm), sorting algorithm for embedded systems. (google.com)
- Hochbaum, D.S. : Approximation Algorithms for NP -Hard Problems. (springer.com)
- The primary goal of research in complexity theory may be viewed as understanding the inherent difficulty of problems in terms of the resources algorithms for those problems need. (microsoft.com)
- Lower bounds integrated into sections that discuss problems -e.g. after presentation of several sorting algorithms, text discusses lower bound for comparison-based sorting. (informit.com)
- It contains elegant combinatorial theory, useful and interesting algorithms, and deep results about the intrinsic complexity of combinatorial problems. (springer.com)
- Clinical management algorithms for common and unusual obstetric problems have been developed to help guide practitioners to the best treatment options for patients. (wiley.com)
- Algorithms - established processes for solving computational problems-are the foundation of computer programming. (manning.com)
- Algorithms in Motion teaches you how to apply common algorithms to the practical problems you face every day as a programmer. (manning.com)
- I will further apply this framework to extend Myerson's celebrated characterization of optimal single-item auctions to multiple items (Myerson 1981), design mechanisms for job scheduling (Nisan and Ronen 1999), and resolve other problems at the interface of algorithms and game theory. (princeton.edu)
- Students learn in Algorithms (2ILC0) that many computational problems are NP-hard. (tue.nl)
- It is widely believed that for such problems, no algorithm exists that always finds the optimal solution efficiently (in polynomial time). (tue.nl)
- One way to deal with NP-hard problems is to use approximation algorithms, as discussed in Advanced Algorithms (2IMA10), or to apply heuristics. (tue.nl)
- The goal is then to develop so-called FPT algorithms (for Fixed-Parameter Tractable), for which the exponential dependency of the running time (which is most likely unavoidable for NP-hard problems) is not on the input size n, but only on the parameter k. (tue.nl)
- There is a wide variety of algorithmic techniques for designing FPT algorithms for NP-hard problems. (tue.nl)
- However, there are also problems for which (for the given parameterization) FPT algorithms do not exist (under appropriate complexity-theoretic assumptions such as P! (tue.nl)

- The 7th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments ( ALENEX05 ) and the 2nd Workshop on Analytic Algorithmics and Combinatorics ( ANALCO05 ) will be held immediately preceding the conference at the same location. (siam.org)

- For the use in teaching, they propose a slight generalization of the CYK algorithm, "without compromising efficiency of the algorithm, clarity of its presentation, or simplicity of proofs" ( Lange & Leiß 2009 ). (princeton.edu)

- All of these algorithms will be discussed in this chapter. (springer.com)
- In this chapter we introduce the important concept of approximation algorithms. (springer.com)
- Provides students with comprehensive chapter on topics with significant importance in algorithms. (informit.com)

- Employers increasingly rely on algorithms to determine who advances through application portals to an interview. (fastcompany.com)
- The rest of us rely on algorithms for much of our daily Web and mobile interactions, though we're not always conscious of the important role they play. (informationweek.com)

- Conversely, research on algorithms and their complexity has established new perspectives in discrete mathematics. (springer.com)
- Nevertheless, a burst of research on algorithms written specifically for NISQs might enable these devices to perform certain calculations more efficiently than classic computers. (scientificamerican.com)

- The Design of Approximation Algorithms , David P. Williamson and David B. Shmoys, Cambridge University Press, 2011. (jhu.edu)

- We will focus on the analysis of parallelism and distribution costs of algorithms. (stanford.edu)
- When the analysis of an algorithm is not straightforward, you may need some high-powered tricks. (hmc.edu)
- Sedgewick, Robert and Philippe Flajolet (1996) An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA. (hmc.edu)
- This course is an introduction to the design and analysis of algorithms. (bowdoin.edu)
- COMS 4231 (Analysis of Algorithms) or equivalent is useful, but not required if you have solid math background. (columbia.edu)
- The Microsoft Association algorithm is an association algorithm provided by Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) that is useful for recommendation engines. (microsoft.com)
- The Microsoft Association algorithm is also useful for market basket analysis. (microsoft.com)
- AMO(Analysis Management Objects) 개체 모델에서 Algorithm 의 부모에 해당하는 요소는 MiningModel 입니다. (microsoft.com)
- Algorithms is a peer-reviewed open access mathematics journal concerning design, analysis, and experiments on algorithms. (wikipedia.org)

- We take a closer look at the origins of the word algorithm, what it means for business today, and how companies such as Google and Airbnb use them. (informationweek.com)

- Graphical illustrations of a heap of sort algorithms. (merlot.org)

- In tuning for a specific machine, one may use a hybrid algorithm which uses blocking tuned for the specific cache sizes at the bottom level, but otherwise uses the cache-oblivious algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
- A simple hybrid algorithm, which does one swap followed by some number of iterations of Lloyd's. (umd.edu)

- Great way to quickly recap the most common algorithms. (manning.com)

- Our research in this area focuses on algorithms with provable guarantees on their I/O- and caching behavior. (tue.nl)

- Editors play a vital role in sifting out the volume and leaving us with the important content but those editors are increasingly being replaced by algorithms on sites like Facebook and Google and pretty much most of the other big sites you use on the web. (thenextweb.com)

- His research focuses on designing algorithms that address constraints imposed by the strategic nature of people that interact with them. (princeton.edu)

- Sudoku can be solved using stochastic (random-based) algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
- Stochastic-based algorithms are known to be fast, though perhaps not as fast as deductive techniques. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also possible to extend the CYK algorithm to parse strings using weighted and stochastic context-free grammars . (princeton.edu)

- Algorithms is written for an introductory upper-level undergraduate or graduate course in algorithms. (informit.com)
- The book can be used for a graduate course on approximation algorithms. (springer.com)

- Come to Women Who Code's bi-weekly algorithms meetup! (meetup.com)
- We typically implement and discuss algorithms in the meetup - laptops are recommended, but not necessary. (meetup.com)

- More distinct elements algorithms and lower bounds. (utexas.edu)

- Oleeo commissioned the Department of Computer Science at University College London to look into how algorithms can ensure that they don't inadvertently fall into gender bias, comments Charles Hipps, chief executive officer for Oleeo. (forbes.com)