Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Macrocystis: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Lessoniaceae, and one of the major forms of KELP. The species Macrocystis pyrifera, also known as giant kelp, is the largest of the marine algae.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases): A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.

Purification and properties of an alginate lyase from a marine bacterium. (1/937)

An unidentified pseudomonad isolated by enrichment procedures from decomposing seaweed was grown in defined medium containing sodium alginate as the sole carbon source. The alginate lyase recovered from disrupted bacterial cells was purified by a procedure of (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis experiments a mol.wt. of about 50 000 was determined. The enzyme was active against both algal and bacterial alginate preparations. Kinetic studies together with analysis of the unsaturated oligouronide products of alginate lyase action indicated the enzyme was specific for guluronic acid-containing regions of the macromolecular substrate. The specificity of the enzyme can be used to give information about the primary composition of alginate samples.  (+info)

Matrix degradation by chondrocytes cultured in alginate: IL-1 beta induces proteoglycan degradation and proMMP synthesis but does not result in collagen degradation. (2/937)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the degradation of proteoglycans and collagen by articular chondrocytes. DESIGN: Chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads for 2 weeks to produce extracellular matrix, followed by the addition of IL-1 beta for 1 or 2 days. Breakdown of extracellular matrix (with and without activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by APMA) was monitored by release of glycosaminoglycans (GAG, proteoglycans) and hydroxyproline (collagen) from the beads into the medium, and by the amount of damaged collagen in the bead. Levels of (pro)MMPs in the beads were assayed by zymography and their activity was quantified fluorometrically. RESULTS: IL-1 beta induced a profound GAG release (approximately 80% after 2 days at 20 ng/ml IL-1 beta) that was both time and IL-1 beta concentration dependent. Under these conditions no increase in collagen release or damaged collagen in the bead was detected. Zymography demonstrated that the synthesis of a variety of proMMPs was induced by IL-1 beta, without a detectable increase of MMP-activity as measured in the activity assay. After activation of the proMMPs by APMA, a time and IL-1 beta concentration-dependent increase in MMP-activity was found, which resulted in almost complete deterioration of collagen already after 18 h of incubation. In the presence of APMA, GAG release from IL-1 beta treated beads was significantly increased from 24 to 31%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that proteoglycan and collagen degradation are regulated through different mechanisms: IL-1 beta induces the synthesis of active enzymes that degrade proteoglycans, such as 'aggrecanase', and inactive proMMPs. Thus, IL-1 beta alone is not sufficient to result in collagen-degrading MMPs. Once activated, MMPs may account for up to a quarter of the aggrecan degradation in this model.  (+info)

Factors affecting dimensional instability of alginate impressions during immersion in the fixing and disinfectant solutions. (3/937)

To clarify the factors determining the dimensional stability of alginate impressions during immersion in disinfectant and fixing solution, the weight change of impressions in solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), NaClO, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, and ZnSO4 was measured. In the nonelectrolytic solution, GA, the weight decreased in proportion to concentration, possibly due to the gradient of osmotic pressure between the impression and solution. In monovalent metallic salt solutions the weight change decreased with increased concentration. Especially at lower concentrations the rate of weight loss was high. A chemical action of the solution might also be involved, in addition to the osmotic pressure difference. The weight loss in divalent metallic salt solutions was greater than in monovalent solutions, implicating crosslinking reactions between the impression and solution.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (4/937)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (5/937)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Regulation of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. (6/937)

Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the phytopathogen P. syringae produce the exopolysaccharide alginate. However, the environmental signals that trigger alginate gene expression in P. syringae are different from those in P. aeruginosa with copper being a major signal in P. syringae. In P. aeruginosa, the alternate sigma factor encoded by algT (sigma22) and the response regulator AlgR1 are required for transcription of algD, a gene which encodes a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the gene encoding AlgR1 from P. syringae. The deduced amino acid sequence of AlgR1 from P. syringae showed 86% identity to its P. aeruginosa counterpart. Sequence analysis of the region flanking algR1 in P. syringae revealed the presence of argH, algZ, and hemC in an arrangement virtually identical to that reported in P. aeruginosa. An algR1 mutant, P. syringae FF5.32, was defective in alginate production but could be complemented when algR1 was expressed in trans. The algD promoter region in P. syringae (PsalgD) was also characterized and shown to diverge significantly from the algD promoter in P. aeruginosa. Unlike P. aeruginosa, algR1 was not required for the transcription of algD in P. syringae, and PsalgD lacked the consensus sequence recognized by AlgR1. However, both the algD and algR1 upstream regions in P. syringae contained the consensus sequence recognized by sigma22, suggesting that algT is required for transcription of both genes.  (+info)

Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA. (7/937)

Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

R-factor inheritance and plasmid content in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (8/937)

Eighteen strains of alginate-producing mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated with respect to plasmid content and the ability to maintain well-characterized R plasmids. The spontaneous loss of alginate production in these strains varied from 0.01 to 0.7% and was not significantly increased by plasmid curing regimens. Examination of cleared lysates of these strains and their isogenic nonmucoid derivatives by agarose gel electrophoresis failed to reveal plasmid DNA. R-plasmid (P-incompatibility-group) transfer to mucoid P. aeruginosa was unaffected by the presence of the alginate capsule. Maintenance and expression of such plasmids in the mucoid strains were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by verification of plasmid-linked drug resistance and pilus-specific bacteriophage sensitivity. These studies demonstrate that alginate production does not appear to be plasmid linked and that mucoid P. aeruginosa are capable of receiving and donating certain drug resistance plasmids. Since some of the plasmids used here have been shown to mobilize chromosomal DNA, strains constructed in this study should afford the means for exploring the genetic basis of the mucoid phenotype.  (+info)

Calcium alginate is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate. Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. "Alginate" is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term "algin" is used instead of alginate. Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. The solution is too thick ...
Like many natural polysaccharides, dried alginates are not stable to heat, oxygen, metallic ions, etc. Stored in such circumstances, alginates will be degraded naturally. The high-viscosity alginate is more rapidly degraded than the medium-or low- viscosity ones. The order of stability in storage is: sodium alginate , ammonium alginate , alginic acid.. Different kind of alginate salt gives different stability, so does the different grade product. The industrial grade alginate solution is more easily degraded by microbe in the air, because such products contain much algal particles and nitrogenous matter which offer plenty of nutrition for microbe. The pure sodium alginate solution can be kept at room temperature for several months without obvious change in viscosity. When temperature increases, all alginate solutions will depolymerize. Alginate solutions are stable in the pH range 5.5 - 10 at room temperature for a long time, but will form the gel below pH 5.5. Propylene glycol alginate solution ...
Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20μg/kg OTA and after 48h of incubation a significant reduction (,80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of sodium alginate on physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer. AU - Kim, Min Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Soo. AU - Hwang, Sung Joo. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium alginate on the physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer-equipped piston extruder and double-arm counter-rotating rollers. The mean values of the shape factor (eR) and the aspect ratio of Surelease®-matrix pellets were 0.615-0.625 and 1.06-1.070, respectively, indicating good sphericity of the pellets. The drug release rate increased as the amount of sodium alginate increased due to hydration, swelling, and erosion within the Surelease®-matrix pellets. In addition, the porosity of pellets also increased with increasing sodium alginate content. The results of this study show that sodium alginate has a greater effect on the drug release ...
The report on the Global Sodium Alginate market offers complete data on the Sodium Alginate market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Sodium Alginate market. The top contenders SNP, KIMICA, SNAP Natural & Alginate Products, IRO Alginate Industry, NovaMatrix, Bright Moon Seaweed, Lianyungang Tiantian Seaweed Industrial, Unikem of the global Sodium Alginate market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=19657. The report also segments the global Sodium Alginate market based on product mode and segmentation Industrial Grade, Food Grade, Pharma Grade. The study includes a profound summary of the key sectors and the segments Papermaking, Paper Coatings, Textiles, Food & ...
There have been few studies of the effect of alginate dressings on the processes of wound healing.. The healing of cutaneous ulcers requires the development of a vascularized granular tissue bed, filling of large tissue defects by dermal regeneration, and the restoration of a continuous epidermal keratinocyte layer. These processes were modeled in vitro in one study, utilizing human dermal fibroblast, microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC), and keratinocyte cultures to examine the effect of calcium alginate on the proliferation and motility of these cultures, and the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC.. In the study, the calcium alginate increased the proliferation of fibroblasts but decreased the proliferation of HMEC and keratinocytes. In contrast, the calcium alginate decreased fibroblast motility but had no effect on keratinocyte motility. There was no significant effect of calcium alginate on the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC. The effects of calcium alginate on ...
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Figure 1, a) 3D pore 100 µm droplet chip junction, b) 80 µm, c) 100 µm alginate beads.. The Dolomite Team is using microfluidics to produce small (80-120 µm) alginate beads suitable for cell encapsulation. A 2 % alginate solution was dissolved in water overnight with subsequent addition of Ca-EDTA. For the oil phase, 1 % Fluosurf in HFE 7500 was used with 0.05 % acetic acid to release the chelated calcium in the Ca-EDTA complex and allow alginate crosslinking from within. Both solutions were introduced into a 100 µm 3D pore fluorophilic single junction chip (figure 1a) to form spherical monodispersed beads. Depending on flow rates (Qd 16 µlmin-1 Qc 10 µlmin-1 and Qd 10 µlmin-1 Qc 18 µlmin-1) 80 µm (figure 1b) and 100 µm (figure 1c) alginate beads were produced respectively.. DOWNLOAD APPLICATION NOTE HERE. If you are interested in producing alginate beads for your applications, please contact us at [email protected], and keep an eye out for our alginate bead application ...
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The influence of the mixture of water and alcohols on the solubility and properties of alginate and its calcium-induced gels is of interest for the food, wound care and pharmaceutical industries. The solvent quality of water with increasing amounts of ethanol (0-20%) on alginate was studied using intrinsic viscosity. The effect of ethanol addition on the rheological and mechanical properties of calcium alginate gels was determined. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the network structure. It is shown that the addition of ethanol up to 15% (wt) increases the extension of the alginate chain, which correlates with increased moduli and stress being required to fracture the gels. The extension of the polymer chain is reduced at 20% (wt) ethanol, which is followed by reduced moduli and stress at breakage of the gels. The network structure of gels at high ethanol concentrations (24%) is characterized by thick and poorly connected network strands.. ...
Alginate hydrogels are commonly used in biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and as a medium for cell immobilization. Multivalent cations are often employed to create physical crosslinks between carboxyl and hydroxyl moieties on neighbouring polysaccharide chains, creating hydrogels with a range of mechanical properties. This work describes the manufacture and characterisation of sodium alginate hydrogels using the divalent cations Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+ to promote gelation via non-covalent crosslinks. The gelation time and Youngs modulus are characterised as a function of cation and alginate concentrations. The implications of this work towards the use of environmental elasticity to control stem cell differentiation are discussed.. ...
Sodium and potassium alginate are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders). Sodium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish, with no maximum recommended use level. Potassium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter). Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and potassium alginate were considered equivalent. The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food-producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed. The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes. They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidised alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells. AU - Wright, Bernice. AU - De Bank, Paul A.. AU - Luetchford, Kimberley. AU - Acosta, Fernando R.. AU - Connon, Che J.. PY - 2014/10. Y1 - 2014/10. N2 - Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2 - 0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: ...
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Oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis and enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.: Alginate production by the highly alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8821M wa
Objective(s): In this study, effects of encapsulated umbilical cord stem cells (UCSCs)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds was investigated on CCl4-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. Material and Methods: UCSCs were encapsulated in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds. Then the UCSCs differentiated into HLCs for treatment of CCl4-induced ALF in rats. Thirty rats randomly divided into 5 groups: Intoxicated group received only CCl4 to induce ALF. In other groups including cell-free, UCSCs and HLCs, alginate scaffolds were transplanted into the liver 4 days after CCl4 injection. Biochemical markers including albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Histological changes and gene expression of ALB, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) were also assessed.Results: Expression of CK-18 significantly increased in HLCs compared to the UCSCs
lginate is a polysaccharide found within brown seaweeds and has been targeted as a carbon source for biofuel production. Alginate consists of α-L-guluronate (G) and β-D-mannuronate (M) linked in various patterns, which results in either a homo- or heteropolymeric structure. Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade the linkage between G and M blocks and can have specificity to either polyG, polyM, or polyMG block degradation. The marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01 contains four putative alginate lyases which were investigated in this study. We identified, purified, and characterized the four PL7 alginates lyases. We found that these lyases have optimal activity between pH 7.5-8.5 and 20-25°C, consistent with use in a marine environment. Additionally, Ca 2+ is necessary for optimal enzyme activity. The binding constant (K m ) of the lyases toward alginate was found to be between 22 and 123 mM alginate and the maximum reaction rate (V max ) was found to be between 0.13 and 0.83 μM s -1 . ...
Alginates have many beneficial uses across a wide variety of industries. Alginates are salts of alginic acid taking the form of sodium, calcium and/or ammonium alginate precipitated from brown seaweed (algae).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Controlling alginate gel degradation utilizing partial oxidation and bimodal molecular weight distribution. AU - Boontheekul, Tanyarut. AU - Kong, Hyun Joon. AU - Mooney, David J.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Degradability is often a critical property of materials utilized in tissue engineering. Although alginate, a naturally derived polysaccharide, is an attractive material due to its biocompatibility and ability to form hydrogels, its slow and uncontrollable degradation can be an undesirable feature. In this study, we characterized gels formed using a combination of partial oxidation of polymer chains and a bimodal molecular weight distribution of polymer. Specifically, alginates were partially oxidized to a theoretical extent of 1% with sodium periodate, which created acetal groups susceptible to hydrolysis. The ratio of low MW to high MW alginates used to form gels was also varied, while maintaining the gel forming ability of the polymer. The rate of degradation was ...
All chronic wounds are colonised by bacteria; for some, colonisation progresses to become infection. Alginate wound dressings are used for highly exuding chronic wounds as they are very absorbent, taking up large quantities of exudate while maintaining a moist wound bed to support healing. Some alginate dressings are doped with antimicrobials, most commonly silver, but evidence regarding the efficacy of these is largely inconclusive. This manuscript describes the development and in vitro assessment of alginate materials doped with chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate (CHX-HMP), a sparingly soluble salt which when exposed to aqueous environments provides sustained release of the common antiseptic chlorhexidine. Comparator materials were a commercial silver alginate dressing material and an alginate doped with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHXdg). CHX-HMP alginates provided a dose-dependent CHX release which was sustained for over 14 days, whereas CHXdg alginates released limited CHX and this ceased ...
Research work that began in 2013 has been able to establish, optimise and standardise the cultivation of the soil bacterium and the biotechnological process for producing and isolating bacterial alginates. By working specifically on optimising the bacteriums alginate biosynthesis, the researchers succeeded in improving the composition, and therefore the properties and yield of the alginate. This meant that they could make customised alginates that are particularly suitable for producing fibres for use in medical products. In a pilot production facility, the research partners were able to spin fibres from alginate and alginate-viscose, and turn them into innovative nonwoven materials and wound dressings within the established process. When the new wound dressings were tested in use, the alginate product that had been made using biotechnology was impressive for its liquid absorption capacity, which was significantly better than that of commercially available marine alginate-based wound dressings. ...
The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions, and solvents were subsequently examined. The entrapment was found to have minimal beneficial stability gains. However, enhanced enzyme reusability (up to 3 cycles) and stability (up to 18 days at 4°C) of the calcium alginate entrapped lipase, as indicated by
The relationship of high and low molecular weight mannuronic acid (M)- and guluronic acid (G)-rich alginate nanoparticles as oral insulin carrier was elucidated. Nanoparticles were prepared through ionotropic gelation using Ca2 +, and then in vitro physicochemical attributes and in vivo antidiabetic characteristics were examined. The alginate nanoparticles had insulin release retarded when the matrices had high alginate-to-insulin ratio or strong alginate-insulin interaction via O-H moiety. High molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles were characterized by assemblies of long polymer chains that enabled insulin encapsulation with weaker polymer-drug interaction than nanoparticles prepared from other alginate grades. They were able to encapsulate and yet release and have insulin absorbed into systemic circulation, thereby lowering rat blood glucose. High molecular weight G- and low molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles showed remarkable polymer-insulin interaction. This retarded ...
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The analysts forecast the global sodium alginate market to exhibit a CAGR of 5.43% during the period 2019-2024. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global sodium alginate for 2019-2024. To calculate the market size, the report considers the sodium alginate sales volume and revenue.. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: regional markets, product, and application.. Download Free Sample Report @ https://www.radiantinsights.com/research/sodium-alginate-market/request-sample. Geographically, the global sodium alginate market is segmented into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa and South America. This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the ...
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This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. ...
Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. ...
The two-phase model used previously to calculate the polymer-subphase volume of alginic acid was applied to interpret the dependence of apparent metal binding equilibrium on environmental conditions. In this model, the polymer subphase, a small aqueous region surrounding the polymer chain, was considered as a separate phase in the aqueous solution and as a protonation-deprotonation and metal binding reaction zone. Three factors were taken into account when treating experimental data: (1) the electric field due to the charged ligands on the polymer molecule, (2) the effective concentration of ligands based on polymer-subphase volume, and (3) the competition from hydrogen ions for the metal binding sites. The data of base titration of alginic acid in the presence of trace amounts of copper at different alginic acid concentrations and ionic strengths yielded unique intrinsic stability constants for complexes formed between a cupric ion and one or two binding ligands ...
Dolomite Microfluidics systems are enabling reliable, reproducible production of monodisperse alginate beads, overcoming the challenges associated with traditional batch techniques. Controlled and reproducible generation of alginate gel beads is crucial for biomedical science and engineering applications that require biologically and chemically inert polymers, such as the encapsulation of drugs or cells. However, this can be difficult to achieve with batch synthesis, which produces large beads with a wide size distribution and minimal control over bead size. The reproducibility and throughput of the technique are also low. Microfluidic synthesis of alginate beads overcomes these difficulties, allowing precise control of bead formation and enabling rapid production of particles with well-defined sizes, shapes and morphologies ...
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It is also a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis, that confer it a high resistance to antibiotics and killing by macrophages. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms. Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. The monomers can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. A wide variety of brown seaweeds of the phylum Phaeophyceae are harvested ...
Sodium alginate is a seaweed-derived fibre that has previously been shown to moderate appetite in models of acute feeding. The mechanisms underlying this effect may include slowed gastric clearance and attenuated uptake from the small intestine. In order to assess whether alginate could be effective as a means of appetite control in free-living adults, 68 males and females (BMI range: 18.50-32.81 kgl M-2) completed this randomised, controlled two-way crossover intervention to compare the effects of 7 day daily ingestion of a strong-gelling sodium alginate formulation against a control. A sodium alginate with a high-guluronate content was chosen because, upon ingestion, it forms a strong gel in the presence of calcium ions. Daily preprandial ingestion of the sodium alginate formulation produced a significant 134.8 kcal (7%) reduction in mean daily energy intake. This reduced energy intake was underwritten by significant reductions in mean daily carbohydrate, sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein ...
Alginate can be produced by a microbial fermentation using bacteria such as Azobacter Vinelandii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Linker and Jones 1964, Gorin and Spencer 1966). These bacteria produce a polysaccharide with a structure resembling alginate, differing only in that there are acetyl groups on a portion of the C2 and C3 hydroxyls. It is believed that the acetate groups are associated mainly with the D-mannuronic acid residues (Davidson 1977, Sutherland 1983, Paul 1986). The level of acetylation is variable as is the mannuronic and guluronic acid content. However the level of guluronic acid in the final polymer can be controlled to some extent by altering the level of calcium in the fermentation broth (Haug and Larsen 1971). The sequence structures and acetylation patterns of bacterial alginate, from different sources, have been studied with 2D COSY proton NMR techniques. The acetyl residues were found to be exclusively associated with the mannuronic acid residues with degrees of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gypsum Compatibility of Antimicrobial Alginates After Spray Disinfection. AU - King, Barbara B.. AU - Norling, Barry K.. AU - Seals, Richard. PY - 1994/12. Y1 - 1994/12. N2 - This investigation examined the gypsum compatibility of two antimicrobial alginates after spray disinfection. Subjective compatibility evaluations were compared with objective quantitative profilometer readings of gypsum cast surface roughness. COE Hydrophilic Gel Alginate, Jeltrate Plus Antimicrobial Alginate, and their nonantimicrobial counterparts, Coe Alginate and Jeltrate Plus, were used in this study. After spray disinfection with water (control), Alcide LD, Biocide, OMC II, and 0.5% NaOCl, impressions of the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) specification no. 18 detail reproduction die and impressions made simultaneously of a smooth glass die were cast in Microstone, Silky‐Rock, and Die‐Keen. Five specimens were made for each alginate/disinfectant/gypsum ...
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Alginate lyase (Sphingomonas sp.) [ME-ALGLS] - High purity recombinant Alginate lyase (Sphingomonas sp.) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitrodiagnostic analysis. EC 4.2.2.3 CAZY Family: PL7 Recombinant. From Sphingomonas sp. In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate. endo-acting β-elimination cleavage of the polysaccharide, alginate. Specific activity: ~ 120 U/mg (40oC, pH 7.2 on sodium alginate). Store at 4oC.
In accordance with this invention, an aqueous solution of drug or drugs and alginate is prepared in DW/NS/PBS with an alginate: drug ratio of 1:6-1:8 w/w and a final alginate concentration of 0.05-0.07% w/v. Methanol may be added (if one of the drug is hydrophobic) in a ratio of 0.2:1-10 v/v. The mixture can comprise an excess amount of drug solution or sodium alginate solution, but which would only constitute a waste. To the mixture is added an aqueous solution of calcium chloride (drug-alginate solution: calcium chloride solution-18:1-22:1 v/v) with a molarity of calcium chloride maintained between 15-20mM. To the mixture is further added an aqueous solution of chitosan (drug-alginate solution: chitosan solution=8:1-12:1 v/v) with an alginatexhitosan ratio maintained preferably, but not limited to a ratio between 4:1-7:1 w/w. The nanoparticles formed are left as such for l-18h and subsequently collected by centrifugation at 19,000-37,000 rpm, at 4°C-30°C for 30 min-45 min ...
Packaging & Delivery Packaging Details:25kg bags E401 Sodium Alginate Delivery Detail:Prompt Specifications Sodium Alginate Powder Food Grade white or yellowish granular or powder CAS No. 9005-38-3 25kgs/bag shlef life:2 years E401 Sodium Alginate...
Alginate is used in various pharmaceutical preparations. Chemically, it is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked ?-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer ?-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. Alginic acid can be separated from benzoate, citric acid and saccharin by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep C HPLC column. This method can be used to quantitate alginic acid, citric acid or saccharin in complex mixtures. Various detection technique can be used (UV, ELSD, LC/MS), based on mobile phase selection. ...
Chitosan, carrageenan and alginate are among the most abundant biopolymers in nature. They were prepared in uniform beads shape with a diameter of 2 mm ± 10%, using the encapsulator for removal of calcium, magnesium and iron cations from hard water. Solutions of 100-500 mg/L were prepared from each cation, and the detection of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer. Carrageenan and chitosan were able to chelate the three cations without further modification. However, alginate beads succeeded to chelate iron and magnesium and failed to chelate any calcium ions; in contrast, it increased the initial calcium concentration! That could be due to the pre-cross-linking of alginate beads using calcium chloride solution, which may be leaked back to the solution. However, grafting the alginate beads with polyethyleneimine and bromoacetic acid rectified this problem and the new functional group, -COOH, has been proved using the FT-IR. Optimization of the results in terms of beads ...
Injection of a biomaterial scaffold into the infarcted myocardium can replace the injured extracellular matrix and improve the mechanical strength of the scar. The present study aimed to determine and compare the effect of novel injectable alginate scaffold, with or without staged cardiomyocyte transplantation, with injectable collagen scaffold, or saline on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. We developed a novel injectable, absorbable biomaterial composed of a calcium cross-linked alginate solution, which displays low viscosity and undergoes phase transition into hydrogel after injection into the infarct. Rats (n=58) were subjected to anterior MI and subsequently treated with injection of alginate biomaterial (n=22), collagen (n=12), or saline (n=12) into the infarct. One week later, 10 of 22 biomaterial-treated rats and 10 MI rats received rat fetal cardiomyocyte transplantation (1×10 6 cells) into the scar. Hemodynamic studies, performed ...
Feb 24, 2016 ... Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used as a food additive with E number 405. Chemically speaking, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is ... Sodium Alginate.. Read More ...
Algal alginates are of great importance for industrial applications. Since their properties depend on the kind of algae and the time of harvesting, supply problems caused price fluctuations. Hence, current research focuses on alternative alginate sources. Back in the 60s, exopolysaccharides similar to algal alginates were found. They were produced by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains which embed themselves in a slime matrix containing bacterial alginates. The focus of this thesis was a comparisons of the physico-chemical properties of bacterial and algal alginates. The main results of the performed investigations are as follows: a) both substances aggregate in highly diluted solutions, b) bacterial alginates have a bigger molar mass than algal alginates, c) their mean squared radii of gyration are bigger than those of algal alginates, d) the second osmotic virial coefficients of these systems are negative and temperature dependent, e) acetylation of alginates support the aggregation, f) ...
This study is a randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial with participants randomly allocated into two groups: A (n= 8 volunteers) and B (n=8 volunteers). The study will include a total of four arms.. By administration of test meals #1 (iron in alginate beads) and #4 (iron in a capsule) the possible protective effect of alginate on iron absorption will be investigated. By administration of test meal #2 (iron in alginate beads + calcium capsule)and #3 (iron in a capsule + calcium in a capsule)the study will investigate whether alginates can bind calcium (a well-known iron inhibitor) in vivo, thus diminish the potential negative effect of calcium on iron absorption.. Only half (8) of the volunteers will undergo treatments including calcium. Therefore group A will undergo all 4 tests, whereas group B will undergo 2 out of 4 tests.. The four test meals will be administered a week apart following an overnight fast. On each occasion blood sampling will take place over a period of 6h with samples ...
SILVERCEL Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing . SILVERCEL Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing is an effective barrier to bacterial penetration. SILVERCEL Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing is also great for pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, diabetic ulcers and surgical wounds.
COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012. Synonyms Hydroxypropyl alginate; 1,2-Propanediol ester of alginic acid; Propylene glycol alginate. Definition. Einecs:. Chemical name: 1,2-Propanediol ester of alginic acid; varies in composition according to its degree of esterification and the percentage of free and neutralised carboxyl groups in the molecule. Chemical formula: (C 9 H 14 O 7 ) n (esterified). Molecular weight: 10 000-600 000 (typical average). Assay: Yields, on the anhydrous basis, not less than 16 % and not more than 20 % of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Description Nearly odourless, white to yellowish brown fibrous or granular powder. Identification. Test for 1,2-propanediol: Passes test (after hydrolysis). Test for alginic acid: Passes test (after hydrolysis). Purity. Loss on drying: Not more than 20 % (105 °C, 4 hours). Total propane-1,2-diol content: Not less than 15 % and not more than 45 %. Free propane-1,2-diol content: Not more than 15 %. Water insoluble matter: Not ...
... (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used in food products. It is a food additive with E ... Chemically, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is derived from kelp. Some of the carboxyl groups are ... a b Propylene glycol alginate, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... What is the "propylene glycol alginate" found in salad dressings? at The Straight Dope ...
The harvest is also used for the production of alginates, with China producing up to ten thousand tons of the product each year ... "Alginates". www.seaweed.ie. Miyai, Kiyoshi; Tokushige, Tomoyasu; Kondo, Masahiko (2008-12-01). "Suppression of thyroid function ...
Alginate dressings: these dressings are composed of calcium, sodium salts and also provide a moist environment for the healing ... Hydro-fiber dressings: these dressings are similar to alginate dressings when it comes to absorbing characteristics, but they ... alginate dressings, hydrofiber dressings, transparent film dressings, hydrogel dressings, and hydrocolloid dressings. All of ...
Alginic acids (Alginates). E 400-E 407. in Algae Sodium alginate. E 401 ...
ISBN 1-4398-4887-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) editor, Bernd H. A. Rehm, (2009). Alginates biology and ...
Sodium alginate • Soft palate • SoftDent • SOHP • Sonicare • Southern Regional Testing Agency • Sozodont • Speech organ • ... Potassium alginate • Premolar • Preparation • Primordial cyst • Procaine • Procter & Gamble • Prognathism • Prosthodontics • ...
Alginate seaweed sources Alginate properties Alginate medical uses article Wired on Easy Cheese, describing sodium alginate. ... Sodium alginate is a gum, extracted from the cell walls of brown algae. Potassium alginate is a chemical compound that is the ... Calcium alginate, made from sodium alginate from which the sodium ion has been removed and replaced with calcium, has the ... Dental impression material utilizes alginate as its means of gelling. Alginate is both food and skin safe. Seaweeds can be ...
... sodium alginate and ulva (ID 1873); vitamins, minerals, trace elements and standardised ginseng G115 extract (ID 8, 1673, 1674 ...
Qin Y (2005). "Silver-containing alginate fibres and dressings". Int Wound J. 2 (2): 172-6. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4801.2005.00101. ... Dumville, JC; O'Meara, S; Deshpande, S; Speak, K (25 June 2013). "Alginate dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers". The ... A 2012 Cochrane review found that silver-containing hydrocolloid dressings were no better than standard alginate dressings in ...
Alginates can be extracted from L. hyperborea. In France, Ireland, Scotland and Norway, stipes cast up on beaches are collected ...
Alginates can be used as thickening agents. Although listed here under the category 'Microbial polysaccharides', commercial ... ISBN 978-1-904455-36-3. Remminghorst & Rehm (2009). "Microbial Production of Alginate: Biosynthesis and Applications". ... alginates are currently only produced by extraction from brown seaweeds such as Laminaria hyperborea or L. japonica. Poly-γ- ...
Hydrogel alginates have emerged as one of the most commonly used materials in organ printing research, as they are highly ... Materials for 3D printing usually consist of alginate or fibrin polymers that have been integrated with cellular adhesion ... Augst, Alexander D.; Kong, Hyun Joon; Mooney, David J. (2006). "Alginate Hydrogels as Biomaterials". Macromolecular Bioscience ...
"Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Rheological Characterization of Alginate Gels. 1. Ca−Alginate Gels". Macromolecules. 33 (5): ...
Dumville, JC; O'Meara, S; Deshpande, S; Speak, K (25 June 2013). "Alginate dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers". The ... Dressings and creams containing silver have not been properly studied nor have alginate dressings. Biologically active bandages ...
Sodium alginate is an unbranched copolymer of 1,4-linked-β-d-mannuronate (M) and α-l-guluronate (G) sugars. Sodium alginate ( ... Alginates are the natural product of brown algae and have been used extensively in wound dressing, drug delivery and tissue ... "CALCIUM ALGINATE - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database". toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-11-15. ... The edible water bottle is a blob-like water container made from sodium alginate gel. The biodegradable blob was created by ...
Additionally, these alginate-based bioinks can be blended with other materials such as nanocellulose for application in tissues ... Alginates are particularly suitable for bioprinting due to their mild cross-linking conditions via incorporation of divalent ... Jia, Jia (2014). "Engineering alginate as bioink for bioprinting". Acta Biomaterialia. 10 (10): 4323-4331. Markstedt, Kajsa ( ... Alginate is a naturally derived biopolymer from the cell wall of brown algae that has been widely used as a biomaterial. ...
The amount of free calcium ion needs to be sufficient in order to form a gel-like capsule reaction with Sodium Alginate. Milk ... When the liquid containing alcohol or calcium salt got dropped into an alginate bath, the liquid will draw itself into a ... Both the liquid for consumption and the alginate bath should be left to stand after preparing to eliminate air bubbles. Air ... After removing the jelly from the alginate bath, calcium would not continue to diffuse into the center of the sphere, therefore ...
Cheshire, Anthony C.; Hallam, Neil D. (1985). "The environmental role of alginates in Durvillaea potatorum (Fucales, Phaeophyta ...
Their cell walls are composed of alginate. They use laminarin and mannitol for storage. Like most brown algae, Postelsia goes ...
Other names in common use include alginate lyase I, alginate lyase, alginase I, alginase II, and alginase. This enzyme ... Davidson IW, Lawson CJ, Sutherland IW (1977). "An alginate lysate from Azotobacter vinelandii phage". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1 ...
... and Sodium alginate (E401); Carrageenan (E407); Natural gums obtained from non-marine botanical resources: Polyelectrolytes: ...
... or from a dentist who will take an impression in dental alginate material. The resulting impression is sent to a lab that makes ...
Collogel dispersed sodium alginate in domestic water systems. Two years later the company introduced Adjunct for use in ...
nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a microbial consortium". International Journal of Systematic and ... Dysgonomonas alginatilytica has the ability to degrade alginate. Parte, A.C. "Dysgonomonas". www.bacterio.net. "Dysgonomonas ...
... which converts the hydrophilic sodium alginate into hydrophobic calcium alginate (Ma). Guluronic acid residues that are linked ... which converts the hydrophilic sodium alginate into hydrophobic calcium alginate. Guluronic acid residues that are linked ... More specifically, sodium alginate contributes to the integrity of the gel-like network formed by the casein and salts. The ... About 0.05-0.5% weight by volume of sodium alginate at a 5.4-5.7 range must be added to the cheese mixture to exhibit these ...
Effect of alginate supplementation on weight loss in obese subjects completing a 12-wk energy-restricted diet: a randomized ...
... alginate (helps remove radioactive elements and heavy metals from cells), and sterols (reported to exhibit anti- ...
Raw material for seaweed polymers such as the alginate industry. *Cosmetics, body care, thalassotherapy and medicinal ...
The sodium alginate in seaweed, especially kelp, absorbs toxins from the digestive tract. A Canadian study from McGill ...
5.Venkatesan J, Bhatnagar I, Kim S-K. Chitosan-alginate biocomposite containing fucoidan for bone tissue engineering. Mar drugs ...
Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used in food products. It is a food additive with E ... Chemically, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is derived from kelp. Some of the carboxyl groups are ... a b Propylene glycol alginate, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... What is the "propylene glycol alginate" found in salad dressings? at The Straight Dope ...
1,2-propane-diol ester of alginic acid; hydroxypropyl alginate; propane 1,2-diol alginate; INS No. 405. ... Propylene glycol alginate. Prepared at the 49th JECFA (1997). superseding specifications prepared at the 44th JECFA (1995),. ... Propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid in which some of the carboxyl groups are esterified with propylene glycol ...
To the sodium alginate from the initial extraction solution, a calcium salt is added. This causes calcium alginate to form with ... Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. "Alginate" is ... Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also ... The rationale behind the extraction of alginate from the seaweed is to convert all the alginate salts to the sodium salt, ...
... alginate)n+1 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GDP-D-mannuronate and (alginate)n, whereas its two products are GDP ... In enzymology, an alginate synthase (EC 2.4.1.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-D-mannuronate + ( ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-D-mannuronate:alginate D-mannuronyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... and (alginate)n+1. This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases. ...
alginate synonyms, alginate pronunciation, alginate translation, English dictionary definition of alginate. n. A salt of ... alginate. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to alginate: sodium alginate ... Our objective was to evaluate alginate and alginate-chitosan as encapsulating polymers for glycerol.. Evaluation of glycerol ... Suo and co-workers developed highly stretchable, tough alginate/PAM hybrid DN hydrogels with alginate network ionically ...
Alginates is made up of long chains of two monomers -- guluronic acid and manuronic acid. The chains can be made of all one ... Alginates are used as thickeners in fat substitutes, pet food, stuffed olives, onion rings, low fat sauces and spreads, and pie ... It also makes alginates useful as wound dressings, where they absorb fluids, and stop bleeding, and act as a scaffold. ... Propylene glycol alginate is stable in acids, and is used to keep the foamy head on beers. ...
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... , Absorption Dressing, Absorptive Dressing, Dehydrating Dressing, Xerodressing, Algicell, Algisite M, ... Alginate Dressing. Alginate Dressing Aka: Alginate Dressing, Absorption Dressing, Absorptive Dressing, Dehydrating Dressing, ... Absorbable Suture Alginate Dressing Aluminum Chloride Anterior Ankle Nerve Block Antimicrobial Dressing Azathioprine Bile Acid ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Alginate Dressing." Click on the image (or right click) to ...
Restore Calcium Alginate Dressing is a high absorption dressing for highly exuding wounds. Restore Calcium Alginate Dressing ... Restore Calcium Alginate Dressing dressing can be removed in one piece. ... Restore SILVER Calcium Alginate Dressing. Restore SILVER Calcium Alginate Dressing releases silver ions in the presence of ... Restore SILVER Calcium Alginate Dressing - Sterile is also listed in these categories below:. / Wound Care. / Wound Dressings ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes an exopolysaccharide called alginate in response to environmental conditions. Alginate ... Transcription of the alginate biosynthetic genes is induced upon attachment to the substratum and this leads to increased ... Thus, both alginate biosynthetic and degradative enzymes are important for the development, maintenance and spread of P. ... This negates the anchoring properties of the alginate and results in increased detachment of the bacteria away from the surface ...
The investigators will use alginate, in the form of alginate beads, as a protective barrier for soluble iron gluconate. It has ... iron gluconate incorporated into alginate beads,ferrous gluconate incorporated into alginate beads given with calcium, and ... Dietary Supplement: alginate beads with ferrous gluconate in presence of calcium After insertion of the cannula and collection ... Alginate inhibits iron absorption from ferrous gluconate in a randomized controlled trial and reduces iron uptake into Caco-2 ...
Heres some pictures and a video of my first experiments with sodium alginate and spherification. I used sodium alginate from ... Sodium alginate is water soluble and can be mixed with many different fruit/vegetable juices and purés. When dripped into a ... When alginate is coordinated to sodium, its a very flexible chain. When sodium is replaced by calcium however, each calcium ... Chef Simon (French, click here for babelfish translation) has a nice page on alginates as well. Another french page here (with ...
Alginates isolated from certain types of seaweed may have potential in weight loss supplements and foods, according to new ... The team used bread as a vehicle for the delivery of the alginate a further during trial - finding that even a small amount ... "Method for quantifying alginate and determining release from a food vehicle in gastrointestinal digesta"​. Authors: David ... The study, published in Food Chemistry​, shows that alginate from sea kelp can suppress the digestion of fat in the gut - ...
Exploring Fabrication - Gummy Capsules" lets visitors make self-assembled polymer spheres. They learn that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures, and that self-assembly is used to make nanocapsules that can deliver medication ...
2005) Role of an alginate lyase for alginate transport in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun 73:6429-6436. ... 2006) In vitro alginate polymerization and the functional role of Alg8 in alginate production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl ... 2005) Role of the Pseudomonas fluorescens alginate lyase (AlgL) in clearing the periplasm of alginates not exported to the ... Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. John C. Whitney, Iain D. Hay, Canhui Li, Paul D. W ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Alginate de sodium/Bicarbonate de sodium Mylan is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Alginate de sodium/Bicarbonate de sodium Mylan is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Alginate de sodium/Bicarbonate de sodium Mylan. Sodium Alginate. Sodium Alginate is reported as an ... Alginate de sodium/Bicarbonate de sodium Mylan. Alginate de sodium/Bicarbonate de sodium Mylan may be available in the ...
Alginates in the Snack and wholesale bakery industry, which includes food processing and packaging equipment as well as ... Home » Directories » Buyers Guide » Gums, Vegetable Alginates. Buyers Guide. Directory & Buying Guide. * Construction, ... Companies in Gums, Vegetable Alginates DuPont Nutrition & Biosciences DuPont Nutrition & Biosciences delivers essential food ...
... alginate dressings are designed to interact with sodium in wounds to create an ionic exchange and help jump-start the ... Alginate Dressings. Kendall™ alginate dressings are designed to interact with sodium in wounds to create an ionic exchange and ... Kendall™ Calcium Alginate Dressings. Kendall™ calcium alginate dressings are designed to interact with sodium in wounds to ... Kendall™ Zinc Calcium Alginate Dressings. Kendall™ zinc calcium alginate dressings are designed to interact with sodium in ...
Due to the coronavirus outbreak worldwide, global demand for some personal protective equipment (PPE) is exceeding supply. In addition, manufacturing of PPE and many other wound care and infection prevention products have been impacted by global response to coronavirus. While you may see product availability reduction in the near-term, please be assured Medline continues to work to diversify production and provide your supply needs. As always, please reach out to your Medline sales representative with any specific questions or follow up. ...
  • Kelp is a nutrient dense sea vegetable containing a pristine source of naturally chelated minerals, chlorophyll, vitamins, alginate (helps remove radioactive elements and heavy metals from cells), and sterols (reported to exhibit anti-hypercholesterolemic activity in the body). (optimallyorganic.com)
  • The sodium alginate in seaweed, especially kelp, absorbs toxins from the digestive tract. (healthwholeness.com)
  • A tunable silk-alginate hydrogel scaffold for stem cell culture and transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • This paper reports the development of a new silk-alginate based hydrogel with a focus on stem cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • The multifunctional anticancer-drug carrier bead was fabricated by incorporating functional nanomaterials, such as near-infrared (NIR)-responsive gold nanorod (GNR) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) that work as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, into an alginate hydrogel bead. (springer.com)
  • This video describes how an alginate hydrogel can be used to trigger the formation of new blood vessels at an ischemic site in the body. (harvard.edu)
  • Hydrogel ® Mold Compound is an alginate-based white powder that, after mixing with water, cures in 5 minutes to a moist, rubbery material. (polytek.com)
  • Alginate, a linear polysaccharide consisting of mannuronic and guluronic acids, was used as starting material in semisynthesis of pH-responsive hydrogel. (queensu.ca)
  • In certain circumstances, P. aeruginosa produces an alginate lyase enzyme which cleaves the polymer into short oligosaccharides. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the 2.3 Å crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded β-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of multiple subsites, the electropositive groove, and the non-random distribution of guluronate in the alginate polymer suggest that AlgG is a processive enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • Poly(ethylene oxide) and Its Blends With Sodium Alginate," Polymer 46(24):10750-10757, Nov. 2005. (patentgenius.com)
  • Electrospinning of Sodium Alginate With Poly(ethylene oxide)," Polymer 47(23):8026-8031, Oct. 2006. (patentgenius.com)
  • Study of Electrospinning of Sodium Alginate, Blended Solutions of Sodium Alginate/Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Sodium Alginate/Poly(ethylene oxide)," Journal of Applied Polymer Science 104(5):3245-3255, 2007. (patentgenius.com)
  • Alginate has been widely investigated since it was first isolated and described in 1881 by Stanford (E.C.C Stanford, 1881) and has since become a vastly utilised polymer with a variety of applications. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Linear alginate was chemically modified with di-aldehyde via acid-catalyzed acetalization, forming a tetrafunctional acetal-linked semisynthetic network alginate polymer (SNAP) with carboxylate moieties preserved as stimuli-responsive sensors. (queensu.ca)
  • Extracted from brown seaweed, sodium alginate is a high viscosity, low solids thickener for all dyes. (woolery.com)
  • sodium alginate LV is a low viscosity, pure sodium alginate suitable for use in pharmaceutical products. (frbiz.com)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to a dental alginate impression material that is superior in preservability, is free from change of viscosity of the main paste with time and from liquid separation of the setting paste, and does not cause a delay in setting time during the preservation. (google.com)
  • Starch, at equivalent viscosity to the alginate, inhibited the uptake and degradation of radiolabelled nonviable P. aeruginosa to a greater extent, but Dextran T500 had no effect. (nih.gov)
  • Various Viscosity Light Yellow Color Textile Printing Dyestuff Sodium Alginate Detailed Product Description Appearance: Light Yellow Color Grain H.S.CODE: 391310000 VISCOSITY (CPS): 50-800 PH: 6.5-7.5 ASH: 22-24 GRANULAR: 30-100 Mesh: As Customized 1. (disqueenfrance.com)
  • Led by Professor Jeff Pearson of Newcastle University, and backed by the BBSRC, the team identified the chemical properties of alginates which prevent fat from being digested by our bodies, noting that if we can reduce the amount digested, we reduce also the amount absorbed. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This chapter intends to provide a brief overview of the chemical properties of alginates and to review the influence of molecular structure on the physical, functional and more specifically, rheological properties which are exploited in food systems. (hud.ac.uk)
  • To understand the molecular basis of alginate epimerization, the structure of Pseudomonas syringae AlgG has been determined at 2.1-Å resolution, and the protein was functionally characterized. (rcsb.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate was purified and characterized in terms of uronic acid, carbohydrate and protein content, as well as by infra-red spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. (nih.gov)
  • Specific applications in foods are also covered which highlight the multi functional nature of alginate and its future potential. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This suggests that the viscous nature of alginate exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on the uptake and subsequent degradation of phagocytosible particles. (nih.gov)
  • Update: The Frog Blog has nice posts with pictures showing how Jay Veregge and Joel Robuchon utilize alginate gels. (khymos.org)
  • Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. (bibsys.no)
  • The modified gauzes contain a citrate conjugate of alginate and cellulose that gels upon hydration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • My currently evolving model involves growing primary rat costal chondrocytes in 1.2% alginate gels, examining the ECM proteins (collagens) and proteoglycans they produce. (protocol-online.org)
  • Thus, both alginate biosynthetic and degradative enzymes are important for the development, maintenance and spread of P. aeruginosa biofilms. (nih.gov)
  • Alginate contributes to the persistence of P. aeruginosa lung infection by facilitating microcolony formation during biofilm development ( 4 ), protecting the bacteria from opsonic phagocytosis ( 5 ) and limiting the toxicity of oxygen radicals produced by host macrophages ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Alginate is a linear copolymer of 1,4-linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronic acid (G). Of the thirteen genes required for the biosynthesis and secretion of alginate by P. aeruginosa , twelve are located on the tightly regulated algD operon. (pnas.org)
  • Added exogenous bacterial alginate inhibited the uptake and degradation of both viable and non-viable radiolabelled non-mucoid P. aeruginosa by resident mouse peritoneal macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in alginate microparticles containing different prebiotic sources (rice bran, inulin and hi-maize) produced by external ionic gelation technique followed by freeze-drying when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and storage at different temperatures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The silk-alginate scaffold promotes adherence of mouse embryonic stem cells and cell survival upon transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. (bibsys.no)
  • Owing to the growing demand and variation in composition of alginate extracted from different species, there is rising interest in synthesis of alginate by bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alginate serves to protect the bacteria from adversity in its surroundings and also enhances adhesion to solid surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • This negates the anchoring properties of the alginate and results in increased detachment of the bacteria away from the surface, allowing them to spread and colonize new sites. (nih.gov)
  • Alginate is thought to have a protective function in a relatively harsh environment in which the bacteria are continually subjected to oxidative stress and attack by the immune system ( 28 , 44 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • The genes encoding enzymes involved in alginate metabolism were detected in metagenomic data across taxonomically diverse bacterial communities, further indicating this capacity is likely widespread amongst bacteria in kelp forests. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present invention relates to the identification, production and use of thermostable alginate lyase enzymes that can be used to partially degrade alginate to yield oligosaccharides or to give complete degradation of alginate to yield (unsaturated) mono-uronates. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Eliminative cleavage of alginate to give oligosaccharides with 4-deoxy-alpha-L-erythro-hex-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends and beta-D-mannuronate at their reducing end. (uniprot.org)
  • The study, published in Food Chemistry ​, shows that alginate from sea kelp can suppress the digestion of fat in the gut - opening up 'exciting possibilities' for making everyday foods healthier. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Thinking the alginate (seeweed kelp) may do a better job at binding and preventing reabsorption. (healingwell.com)
  • Sodium Alginate , also called Algin , is one kind of electrolyte of organic macromolecule among algae of brown algae types, such as kelp, as principal components of cell membrane with other substances. (frbiz.com)