Proteins found in any species of algae.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain aculeatin D, beta-sitosterol, and STIGMASTEROL. Some members have been reclassified to ELETTARIA and other ZINGIBERACEAE.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A genus of RED ALGAE, in the family Gigartinaceae. The species Chondrus crispus is a source of CARRAGEENAN.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The relocation of health care institutions or units thereof. The concept includes equipment relocation.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/582)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

The chloroplast infA gene with a functional UUG initiation codon. (2/582)

All chloroplast genes reported so far possess ATG start codons and sometimes GTGs as an exception. Sequence alignments suggested that the chloroplast infA gene encoding initiation factor 1 in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris has TTG as a putative initiation codon. This gene was shown to be transcribed by RT-PCR analysis. The infA mRNA was translated accurately from the UUG codon in a tobacco chloroplast in vitro translation system. Mutation of the UUG codon to AUG increased translation efficiency approximately 300-fold. These results indicate that the UUG is functional for accurate translation initiation of Chlorella infA mRNA but it is an inefficient initiation codon.  (+info)

Internuclear gene silencing in Phytophthora infestans. (3/582)

Transformation of the diploid oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans with antisense, sense, and promoter-less constructs of the coding sequence of the elicitin gene inf1 resulted in transcriptional silencing of both the transgenes and the endogenous gene. Since heterokaryons obtained by somatic fusion of an inf1-silenced transgenic strain and a wild-type strain displayed stable gene silencing, inf1 silencing is dominant and acts in trans. Inf1 remained silenced in nontransgenic homokaryotic progeny from the silenced heterokaryons, thereby demonstrating that the presence of transgenes is not essential for maintaining the silenced status of the endogenous inf1 gene. These findings support a model reminiscent of paramutation and involving a trans-acting factor that is capable of transferring a silencing signal between nuclei.  (+info)

A 210 kDa protein is located in a membrane-microtubule linker at the distal end of mature and nascent basal bodies. (4/582)

A monoclonal antibody raised against purified flagellar basal apparatuses from the green flagellate Spermatozopsis similis reacted with a protein of 210 kDa (p210) in western blots. The protein was partially cloned by immunoscreening of a cDNA library. The sequence encoded a novel protein rich in alanine (25%) and proline (20%), which contained regions similar to proteins of comparable amino acid composition such as extracellular matrix components or the membrane-cytoskeletal linker synapsin. Using a polyclonal antibody (anti-p210) raised against the C-terminal part of p210, it was shown that the protein was highly enriched in the basal apparatuses. Immunogold electron microscopy of isolated cytoskeletons or whole cells revealed that p210 was located in the flagellar transition region. The protein was part of the Y-shaped fibrous linkers between the doublet microtubules and the flagellar membrane, as indicated by statistical analysis of post-labeled sections using anti-centrin and anti-tubulin as controls. In premitotic cells p210 was located in a fibrous layer at the distal end of nascent basal bodies, which was perforated by the outgrowing axoneme. During deflagellation the protein remained at the basal body but we observed changes in its distribution, indicating that p210 partially moved to the tip of the basal body. p210 can be used as a marker to determine basal body position, orientation (parallel or antiparallel) and number in S. similis by indirect immunofluorescence. We suppose that p210 is involved in linking basal bodies to the plasma membrane, which is an important step during ciliogenesis.  (+info)

Crystal structure of carboxylase reaction-oriented ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from a thermophilic red alga, Galdieria partita. (5/582)

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1. 39) obtained from a thermophilic red alga Galdieria partita has the highest specificity factor of 238 among the Rubiscos hitherto reported. Crystal structure of activated Rubisco from G. partita complexed with the reaction intermediate analogue, 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (2-CABP) has been determined at 2.4-A resolution. Compared with other Rubiscos, different amino residues bring the structural differences in active site, which are marked around the binding sites of P-2 phosphate of 2-CABP. Especially, side chains of His-327 and Arg-295 show the significant differences from those of spinach Rubisco. Moreover, the side chains of Asn-123 and His-294 which are reported to bind the substrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, form hydrogen bonds characteristic of Galdieria Rubisco. Small subunits of Galdieria Rubisco have more than 30 extra amino acid residues on the C terminus, which make up a hairpin-loop structure to form many interactions with the neighboring small subunits. When the structures of Galdieria and spinach Rubiscos are superimposed, the hairpin region of the neighboring small subunit in Galdieria enzyme and apical portion of insertion residues 52-63 characteristic of small subunits in higher plant enzymes are almost overlapped to each other.  (+info)

Promotion of ATP and S-140 to ribosome inactivation with camphorin, cinnamomin, and other RNA N-glycosidases. (6/582)

AIM: To study the effect of ATP and extra-ribosomal factors (S-140) on type I and type II RNA N-glycosidases in inactivating ribosome. METHODS: The activity of ATP and S-140 was determined by characterization of R-fragment in gel. An improved two-step method of cell-free protein synthesis system was used to quantitate the requirements of S-140 in ribosome inactivation. RESULTS: IC50 ratios of camphorin, gamma-momorcharin, luffin S, luffin A, trichosanthin (type I); and ricin, ricin A-chain; cinnamonin, cinnamomin A-chain (type II) between the absence and presence of ATP and S-140 were 3108, 151, 51, 45, 15; and 47, 7, 26, 12, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ribosome-inactivating activity of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins, including intact protein and its A-chain, was promoted by ATP and S-140. Camphorin showed a significant difference from cinnamomin in need of ATP and S-140 for such promoting.  (+info)

The 2.1 A structure of an elicitin-ergosterol complex: a recent addition to the Sterol Carrier Protein family. (7/582)

Elicitins, produced by most of the phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Phytophthora, provoke in tobacco both remote leaf necrosis and the induction of a resistance against subsequent attack by various microorganisms. Despite the recent description of the three-dimensional crystal structure of cryptogein (CRY), the molecular basis of the interactions between Phytophthora and plants largely remains unknown. The X-ray crystal structure, refined at 2.1 A, of a ligand complexed, mutated CRY, K13H, is reported. Analysis of this structure reveals that CRY is able to encapsulate a ligand that induces only a minor conformational change in the protein structure. The ligand has been identified as an ergosterol by gas chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. This result is consistent with biochemical data that have shown that elicitins are a distinct class of Sterol Carrier Proteins (SCP). Data presented here provide the first structural description of the pertinent features of the elicitin sterol interaction and permit a reassessment of the importance of both the key residue 13 and the mobility of the omega loop for the accessibility of the sterol to the cavity. The biological implications thereof are discussed. This paper reports the first structure of a SCP/sterol complex.  (+info)

Elicitins trap and transfer sterols from micelles, liposomes and plant plasma membranes. (8/582)

Using elicitins, proteins secreted by some phytopathogenic Oomycetes (Phytophthora) known to be able to transfer sterols between phospholipid vesicles, the transfer of sterols between micelles, liposomes and biological membranes was studied. Firstly, a simple fluorometric method to screen the sterol-carrier capacity of proteins, avoiding the preparation of sterol-containing phospholipidic vesicles, is proposed. The transfer of sterols between DHE micelles (donor) and stigmasterol or cholesterol micelles (acceptor) was directly measured, as the increase in DHE fluorescence signal. The results obtained with this rapid and easy method lead to the same conclusions as those previously reported, using fluorescence polarization of a mixture of donor and acceptor phospholipid vesicles, prepared in the presence of different sterols. Therefore, the micelles method can be useful to screen proteins for their sterol carrier activity. Secondly, elicitins are shown to trap sterols from purified plant plasma membranes and to transfer sterols from micelles to these biological membranes. This property should contribute to understand the molecular mechanism involved in sterol uptake by Phytophthora. It opens new perspectives concerning the role of such proteins in plant-microorganism interactions.  (+info)

Ion fluxes and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are early events that follow elicitor treatment or microbial infection. However, molecular mechanisms for these responses as well as their relationship have been controversial and still largely unknown. We here simultaneously monitored the temporal sequence of initial events at the plasma membrane in suspension-cultured tobacco cells (cell line BY-2) in response to a purified proteinaceous elicitor, cryptogein, which induced hypersensitive cell death. The elicitor induced transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) showing two distinct peaks, followed by biphasic (rapid/transient and slow/prolonged) Cl- efflux and H+ influx. Pharmacological analyses suggested that the two phases of the [Ca2+]cyt response correspond to Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane and an inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores, respectively, and the [Ca2+]cyt transients and the Cl- efflux were ...
Ca(2+) is the pivotal second messenger for induction of defense responses induced by treatment of pathogen-derived elicitor or microbial infection in plants. However, molecular bases for elicitor-induced generation of Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) transient
Patients had a median age of 54 years (range: 27 - 81); metastatic disease for 97%; anthracycline resistance for 63%; received study treatment as 1st (20%), 2nd (48%) or > 3rd (32%) CT line for ABC. The median number of cycles was 6 for VFL plus CAPE and 5 for CAPE. VFL plus CAPE prolonged PFS assessed by IRC compared to CAPE (median 5.6 vs 4.3 months, HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99, P = 0.0426). This was supported by the investigator assessment (median 5.5 vs 4.1 months, HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90, P = 0.0007). The response rate assessed by IRC was numerically greater for VFL plus CAPE than for CAPE (22.9% vs 17.9%, P = 0.1030); the disease control rate was statistically superior with the combination (57.3% vs 47.9%, P = 0.0089). Median OS analysed after 674 deaths (87.5%) was 13.9 months for VFL plus CAPE and 11.7 months for CAPE (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.83-1.14, P = 0.6976). The most frequent grade 3-4 events were neutropenia for VFL plus CAPE (27.2% of patients vs 6.6% for CAPE) and hand-foot ...
Now that you understand the terminology used surrounding OEE, I believe you will want to reap the benefits by implementing OEE in your plant. I recommend four ways to start the transformation:. 1) Start small. Pick a single area first, youll want to start small, because that will allow you to compare multiple areas once you begin using OEE across operations. If you can prove success on the line where you implemented OEE, it would help persuade other decision-makers to implement OEE across the plant.. 2) Identify metrics to use. Once youve selected the OEE/TPM framework, youll need to select the most appropriate metrics to use to get the most productivity out of that framework. Sure, youre measuring availability, productivity and quality, but theres a lot of freedom under those measurements to define what constitutes planned work time or unplanned worktime. Any changes will affect your entire formula, so identify your metrics carefully. These metrics need to be planned from the start and ...
First in-human clinical trial of griffithsin, a naturally occurring anti-HIV protein, which limits risk of cross-resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) products. NEW YORK, NY-The Population Council today announced the enrollment of the first participant in the Phase I clinical trial evaluating PC-6500 (griffithsin in a carrageenan gel), an investigational multipurpose technology to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), two major threats to sexual health around the world. This is the first in-human study of griffithsin (GRFT), a naturally occurring algae protein that inhibits HIV and other pathogens, including Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2). Multipurpose products that prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, must be a research and development priority, said James Sailer, vice president and executive director of the Center for Biomedical Research at the Population Council. We are excited to be enrolling participants in the first trial of a griffithsin-containing ...
First in-human clinical trial of griffithsin, a naturally occurring anti-HIV protein, which limits risk of cross-resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) products. NEW YORK, NY-The Population Council today announced the enrollment of the first participant in the Phase I clinical trial evaluating PC-6500 (griffithsin in a carrageenan gel), an investigational multipurpose technology to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), two major threats to sexual health around the world. This is the first in-human study of griffithsin (GRFT), a naturally occurring algae protein that inhibits HIV and other pathogens, including Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2). ...
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Found this in an article on one of the new VFL players Brad Melville: The Tigers have been forced to pull back on their VFL program due to costs. Their...
A power controlling apparatus turns off a power to an apparatus whose connection to a central apparatus has been cut by a connection change, thus selectively turning off a power to an apparatus not required by the central apparatus. A locking/unlocking apparatus determines a value of the locking timer in the interrupt timer routine and, when the value has exceeded a predetermined level, takes a slave apparatus out of the locked state, thereby simplifying programming.
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy. Recent studies identified rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 signaling regulating cell growth, autophagy, lipid metabolism, and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae play in global biomass production, together with the high biotechnological potential of these organisms in biofuel production, has drawn attention
Read Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Sumiya, N., Kawase, Y., Hayakawa, J., Matsuda, M., Nakamura, M., Era, A., Tanaka, K., Kondo, A., Hasunuma, T., Imamura, S., and Miyagishima, S. (2015) Expression of cyanobacterial acyl-ACP reductase elevates the triacylglycerol level in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Cell Physiol. 56,1962-1980 ...
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1) in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN)/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS) stress treatments, i.e. decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR) and rose bengal (RB) that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)
Iron plays a key role in the synthesis and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. Conditions of partial iron deficiency that lead to a relatively stable phenotype were established and the effects of starvation studied in the unicellular red alga, Rhodella violacea. Synthesis of the photosynthetic pigments were found to decrease, with phycobiliproteins being affected to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a. Biophysical, biochemical and immunological approaches were used to show that the PSI content is highly diminished and the PSII/PSI stoichiometry increased by a factor of 5 compared to standard conditions. Meanwhile light-harvesting complex (LHC) was still assembled in the thylakoid membranes at unchanged levels. The use of translation inhibitors for either nuclear- or plastid-encoded polypeptides revealed that uncoupled LHC may be responsible for the high wavelength-fluorescence contribution observed around 700-710 nm. There is no evidence for the synthesis of new chlorophyll-protein ...
The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for posttranscriptional gene silencing and RNA interference remain poorly understood. We have cloned a gene (Mut6) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a transgene and two transposon families.Mut6 encodes a protein that is highly homologous to RNA helicases of the DEAH-box family. This protein is necessary for the degradation of certain aberrant RNAs, such as improperly processed transcripts, which are often produced by transposons and some transgenes. ...
Studies of the biogenesis of the photosynthetic protein complexes in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have pointed to the importance of the concerted expression of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. The accumulation of chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded subunits is concerted, most of …
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii excels at acclimating to a changing environment. We analyzed expression patterns of its three genomes in cells grown under light-dark cycles. Nearly 85% of transcribed genes show differential expression, with different sets of transcripts being up-regulated over the course of the day to coordinate cellular growth before undergoing cell division. Parallel measurements of select metabolites and pigments, physiological parameters and a subset of proteins allow us to infer metabolic events and to evaluate the impact of the transcriptome on the proteome. Among new findings is the observation that Chlamydomonas exhibits low respiratory activity at night and relies instead on fermentative metabolism; we propose that the ferredoxin FDX9 acts as the electron donor to fermentative hydrogenases. The light stress responsive genes PSBS, LHCSR1 and LHCSR3 all show an acute response to light at dawn under abrupt dark-to light transitions. LHCSR3 genes also ...
The role of individual carbohydrate-binding sites in the function of the potent anti-HIV lectin Griffithsin. Jie Xue, Yongguang Gao, Bart Hoorelbeke, Ioannis Kagiampakis, Bo Zhao, Borries Demeler, Jan Balzarini, and Patricia J. LiWang Molecular Pharmaceutics 4, 2613-2625 (2012).. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a lectin that has been shown to inhibit HIV infection by binding to high mannose glycan structures on the surface of gp120, and is among the most potent HIV entry inhibitors reported so far. However, important biochemical details on the antiviral mechanism of GRFT action remain unexplored. In order to understand the role of the three individual carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS) in GRFT, mutations were made at each site (D30A, D70A, and D112A), and the resulting mutants were investigated. NMR studies revealed that each GRFT variant was folded but showed significant peak movement on the carbohydrate-binding face of the protein. The wild-type and each point mutant protein appeared as tight dimers with ...
Galdieria sulphuraria is a unicellular red alga found in hot sulphur springs. It is acido-thermophilic and can grow both autotrophically and heterotrophically in the dark. Other than living in extreme conditions of temperature and acidity, it can also tolerate high concentrations of metal ions. All these characteristics make it an ideal organism for genome sequencing and understanding the process of adaptation to extreme conditions and also genome evolution.The estimates for the genome size of Galdieria sulphuraria vary, depending on the method used, around 10 Mbp (Muravenko et al. 2001; Moreira et al., 1994) and 17 Mbp. There are also conflicting reviews on the chromosome number, ranging from 2 (Muravenko et al., 2001) to 40 (Moreira et al., 1994). ...
Centrin, a 20-kD phosphoprotein with four calcium-binding EF-hands, is present in the centrosome/basal body apparatus of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in three distinct locations: the nucleus-basal body connectors, the distal striated fibers, and the flagellar transition regions. In each location, centrin is found in fibrous structures that display calcium-mediated contraction. The mutant vfl2 has structural defects at all of these locations and is defective for basal body localization and/or segregation. We show that the vfl2 mutation is a G-to-A transition in the centrin structural gene which converts a glutamic acid to a lysine at position 101, the first amino acid of the E-helix of the proteins third EF-hand. This proves that centrin is required to construct the nucleus-basal body connectors, the distal striated fibers, and the flagellar transition regions, and it demonstrates the importance of amino acid 101 to normal centrin function. Based on immunofluorescence analysis using ...
Discussion and Implications for the Nursery Practice SSF and LGF eliminated Phytophthora propagules from the water in open air recycling systems. The climatic conditions between April and October when the filters were operating, did not interfere with the filtration success. Low temperatures around 5 C also did not stop the activity of SSF. These results contradict those from the literature that state that a working temperature above 15 C (18) or 10 to 20 C (14) is said to be favorable. Temperatures below 1 to 5 C are reported to stop (18) and above 25 C to decrease (14) the activity of the SSF. For lava grain filters recommended temperatures for optimum biological activity are 15 to 25 C (11). For the Shieer Bio-Filter (LGF) the minimum temperature should be 8 C; the optimum temperature is above 13 C (Shieer Int., personal communication). TheShieer Bio-Filter action of SSF and LGF is not yet fully understood but it is considered to be a combination of biological and physico-chemical ...
Volvox colonies. Microscope footage of Volvox sp. colonies. Volvox are small freshwater unicellular green algae that usually make up larger spherical colonies, which behave like a multicellular organisms. Individual cells are connected to each other via protoplasmic strands, and embedded in a globe of glycoprotein. Daughter colonies (small green spheres) are produced asexually inside each parent colony, which disintegrates to release them when they are mature. Colonies also reproduce sexually, in which case male and female gametes are produced and a sexual union occurs. Individual Volvox cells have two hair-like flagella that protrude outwards and are used for colony locomotion. - Stock Video Clip K005/4089
VfL Bochum 1848 vs FC Augsburg prediction and betting tips. Preview the German Bundesliga Season 2021/2022 match on 23 April 2022: ✓Head to Head Results ✓VfL Bochum 1848 vs FC Augsburg ✓Line Ups & Stats
In 1929, the VFL competition consisted of twelve teams of 18 on-the-field players each, with no reserves, although any of the 18 players who had left the playing field for any reason could later resume their place on the field at any time during the match. Teams played each other in a home-and-away season of 18 rounds; matches 12 to 18 were the home-and-way reverse of matches 1 to 7. Once the 18 round home-and-away season had finished, the 1929 VFL Premiers were determined by the specific format and conventions of the amended Argus system. ...
In 1905, the VFL competition consisted of eight teams of 18 on-the-field players each, with no reserves, although any of the 18 players who had left the playing field for any reason could later resume their place on the field at any time during the match. Each team played each other twice in a home-and-away season of 14 rounds. Once the 14 round home-and-away season had finished, the 1905 VFL Premiers were determined by the specific format and conventions of the amended Argus system. ...
Uma alternativa de manejo das doenças de citros causadas por Phytophthora spp. é o uso de matéria orgânica. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da incorporação de lodo de esgoto ao solo na indução de...
Merchant SS, Prochnik SE, Vallon O, Harris EH, Karpowicz SJ, Witman GB, Terry A, Salamov A, Fritz-Laylin LK, Maréchal-Drouard L, Marshall WF, Qu LH, Nelson DR, Sanderfoot AA, Spalding MH, Kapitonov VV, Ren Q, Ferris P, Lindquist E, Shapiro H, Lucas SM, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Cardol P, Cerutti H, Chanfreau G, Chen CL, Cognat V, Croft MT, Dent R, Dutcher S, Fernández E, Fukuzawa H, González-Ballester D, González-Halphen D, Hallmann A, Hanikenne M, Hippler M, Inwood W, Jabbari K, Kalanon M, Kuras R, Lefebvre PA, Lemaire SD, Lobanov AV, Lohr M, Manuell A, Meier I, Mets L, Mittag M, Mittelmeier T, Moroney JV, Moseley J, Napoli C, Nedelcu AM, Niyogi K, Novoselov SV, Paulsen IT, Pazour G, Purton S, Ral JP, Riaño-Pachón DM, Riekhof W, Rymarquis L, Schroda M, Stern D, Umen J, Willows R, Wilson N, Zimmer SL, Allmer J, Balk J, Bisova K, Chen CJ, Elias M, Gendler K, Hauser C, Lamb MR, Ledford H, Long JC, Minagawa J, Page MD, Pan J, Pootakham W, Roje S, Rose A, Stahlberg E, Terauchi AM, Yang P, Ball S, ...
Light micrograph of a colony of Volvox containing six asexual daughter colonies within. Volvox is an organism that lies between the plant & animal kingdom, being variously classified with the green algae (plant) or flagellates (animal). The colony contains from hundreds to thousands of cells arranged at the surface of a watery matrix. The individual cells have two flagella & eyespots. They reproduce both asexually & sexually. In the former case cells in the rear of the colony divide to form daughter colonies. Once released the parent colony dies. In the latter case male & female gametes are produced & a sexual union occurs. Magnification x75 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0057
And what do they do in return? Now is discovered the skeleton in the flagellated cells cupboard-they cannot reproduce the colony. They are sterile, and must leave reproduction to the big lazy-seeming cells who are only lazy, however, because they must store up food-materials to start the new colony fairly on its way. The grow and grow, bulge inwards, and finally come to float free in the centre space, where they still grow, meanwhile dividing up into a number of cells. In the end, they become perfect miniature colonies, burst out of their parent and swim happily away.. Volvox is thus a real individual; of the two kinds of cells each has given up something the better to fulfil its own special duty. There is division of labour, and, from the point of view of the species, each kind is meaningless without the other.. The division of labour in Volvox is that usually first seen in compound individuals-between the reproductive functions on the one side and all the rest on the other. In other words, ...
Are you a VFL? This life-long Vol fan is sharing her thoughts about the MANY things she loves about being a VFL and how living in Knoxville makes Vols so special: Knoxville is more than a college town, and orange is more than a color -- here, being a Volunteer is a way of life.
Results for phytophthora infection equipment from Bio-Tam, FLORIMAT, Orvego and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on agriculture-xprt.com
Türkiye Fitopatoloji Derneği Dergisi / Makale Detayları Cilt(Volume): 45 Sayı(Number): 1 2016 Sayfa(Page): 13-20 2016-1-13-20.pdf Başlık: Türkiyenin...
Until now, only few algae strains had been studied genetically. For this reason, there are not much information about algaes gnomes. However you can find some ionformation in BacMap ...
Buceros supermishap betrothal contractation ovest cover Piricularia missionize unredeemedness questionability santoninic stalwartize sundries pervicaciously Xylonite pseudolobar stopboard alga Tympanuchus articulite Manuel indelegability uninimical oxalylurea noncollection exegetist [email protected] ...
The sex-inducer of the spherical green alga Volvox carteri is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: it is released into the medium by sexual males and triggers the switch to the sexual cleavage program in the reproductive cells of vegetatively grown males and females even at concentrations as low as 10 (-16) M. In an adult Volvox alga, all cells are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM), which constitutes >99% of the volume of the spheroid. There exist no cytoplasmic connections between the cells in an adult alga, so any signal transduction between different cells or from the organisms environment to a reproductive cell must involve the ECM. Recently, a small cysteine-rich extracellular protein, VCRP, was identified in Volvox and shown to be quickly synthesized by somatic cells in response to the sex-inducer. Due to its characteristics, VCRP was speculated to be an extracellular second messenger from somatic cells to reproductive cells. Here a related ...
RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) catalyzes the removal of pyrophosphate from 5 triphosphorylated RNAs thereby initiating RNA degradation. The enzyme has originally been identified in bacteria but homologs are present in eukaryotes where they are thought to be located in plastids or mitochondria. A homolog of the bacterial RNA pyrophosphohydrolase is present in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggesting that Chlamydomonas RppH has a role in mRNA degradation in the chloroplast of the alga. The purpose of this project was to determine the localization of the RppH homologue in C. reinhardtii. Localization was investigated using two different constructs, a histidine-tagged version of the Chlamydomonas rppH and a histidine-tagged 5rppH-GFP construct.. A plasmid vector containing Chlamydomonas rppH-6xHN was introduced into C. reinhardtii by nuclear transformation. PCR, RT-PCR, sequencing, and DNA and RNA blotting techniques were used to indentify positive transformants at the DNA ...
We have isolated a crude nuclear preparation from the unicellular red alga Porphyridium aerugineum and investigated the structure of Porphyridium chromatin. Electrophoresis of deproteinized DNA fragments produced by micrococcal nuclease digestion of Porphyridium nuclei gives a typical ladder pattern, indicative of a repeating structure. The DNA repeat-length, calculated from plots of multimer length against multimer number, varies somewhat between different digestions, ranging from 160 to 180 base-pairs (average 173). We interpret this as evidence of heterogeneity in repeat-length; the calculated repeat-length depends on the extent of digestion because chromatin sub-populations with longer repeat-lengths are on average digested earlier. Polyacrylamide/sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis of basic proteins purified from Porphyridium nuclear preparations gives a pattern characteristic of core histones. Although our interpretation is complicated by some degradation, the result strongly ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to establish infection. However, virulence targets and modes of action of their effectors are unknown. Effector AVR3a from potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans is translocated into host cells and occurs in two forms: AVR3a(KI), which is detected by potato resistance protein R3a, strongly suppresses infestin 1 (INF1)-triggered cell death (ICD), whereas AVR3a(EM), which evades recognition by R3a, weakly suppresses host ICD. Here we show that AVR3a interacts with and stabilizes host U-box E3 ligase CMPG1, which is required for ICD. In contrast, AVR3a(KI/Y147del), a mutant with a deleted C-terminal tyrosine residue that fails to suppress ICD, cannot interact with or stabilize CMPG1. CMPG1 is stabilized by the inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin, indicating that it is degraded by the 26S proteasome. CMPG1 is degraded during ICD. However, it is stabilized by mutations in the U-box that prevent its E3 ligase ...
Phytophthora spp. de Bary are being increasingly recognised as pathogens that cause tree death, without necessarily having any clear understanding of how this happens. Suggested mechanisms include: extensive fine-root necrosis especially on wet or drought prone sites, leading to reduced water uptake, crown decline and death, e.g. Phytophthora quercina T. Jung infection of European oaks; root and stem cankers resulting from phloem invasion and cambial death, leading to death of basal buds and carbon starvation of the root system, e.g. Phytophthora alni Brasier & S.A. Kirk infection of alders; xylem invasion, leading to reduced conduction, hydraulic failure and death, e.g. Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man in t Veld infection of tanoaks; and hormonal imbalance and/or damage from toxins, e.g. Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands infection of eucalypts. These possible mechanisms are reviewed, together with different hypotheses of why trees die, and the predisposing environmental stresses that ...
Phytophthora and Pythium species are among the most aggressive plant pathogens, as they invade many economically important crops and forest trees. They secrete large amounts of 10 kDa proteins called elicitins that can act as elicitors of plant defence mechanisms. These proteins may also induce a hypersensitive response (HR) including plant cell necrosis, with different levels of toxicity depending on their pI. Recent studies showed that elicitins function as sterol carrier proteins. The crystallographic structure of the highly necrotic recombinant beta-cinnamomin (beta-CIN) from Phytophthora cinnamomi has been determined at 1.8 A resolution using the molecular-replacement method. beta-CIN has the same overall structure as beta-cryptogein (beta-CRY), an elicitin secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, although it shows a different surface electrostatic potential distribution. The protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallized in the triclinic space group with two monomers in the ...
A notable structural feature of Volvox carteri is the formation of microscopic cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells of the colonies, originating from incomplete cell division during cytokinesis.[1] These connections, which can only be seen by using electron microscopy, form a hexagonal pattern in the extracellular matrix and allows the movement of small organelles such as mitochondria between cells.[10] As the cells of a colony move further apart, the strands become stretched and therefore smaller, allowing only ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum to be exchanged among cells.[3] The ability to transport information between cells allows V. carteri to synchronize its flagellate movements and reproductive actions.[1][3] This unique quality of cells interacting with one another in order to benefit the parent colony is similar to the actions of a highly developed multicellular organism.[1] Volvox carteri is classified as a species of green algae and therefore obtains its energy through ...
A notable structural feature of Volvox carteri is the formation of microscopic cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells of the colonies, originating from incomplete cell division during cytokinesis.[1] These connections, which can only be seen by using electron microscopy, form a hexagonal pattern in the extracellular matrix and allows the movement of small organelles such as mitochondria between cells.[10] As the cells of a colony move further apart, the strands become stretched and therefore smaller, allowing only ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum to be exchanged among cells.[3] The ability to transport information between cells allows V. carteri to synchronize its flagellate movements and reproductive actions.[1][3] This unique quality of cells interacting with one another in order to benefit the parent colony is similar to the actions of a highly developed multicellular organism.[1] Volvox carteri is classified as a species of green algae and is, therefore, a photoautotroph, obtaining its ...
In this report, we present novel evidence linking FLP to high-affinity Fe transport and propose that FLP is a ferroxidase, functioning in the reoxidation of Fe2+ before its uptake into the cell. Initial evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from the deduced FLP amino acid sequence. FLP contains two multicopper oxidase I and one multicopper oxidase signature II motifs. In addition, the amino acid sequence of FLP shows the highest homology to multicopper oxidases in mammals (HEPH and ceruloplasmin) and yeast (FET3). These proteins are ferroxidases that are themselves involved in high-affinity Fe assimilation (Stearman et al., 1996;Askwith and Kaplan, 1998; Mukhopadhyay et al., 1998; Attieh et al., 1999; Vulpe et al., 1999). The involvement of FLP in Fe homeostasis is evident from the regulation of its synthesis. Both the transcription of the FLP gene and synthesis of FLP are greatly increased in Fe-deficient cells and reversed after resupply of Fe. Although we have not demonstrated the ...
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Dissolution of the frustule in water is minimized because it is surrounded by an organic casing that includes glycoproteins with high levels of rhamnose and xylose, two sugars rarely found in other eukaryotic glycans. Based on the presence of highly conserved calcium-binding domains (30), four new frustulins (casing glycoproteins) were identified, but no pleuralins, which are associated with terminal girdle bands in C. fusiformis (31). Consistent with a high content of hydroxylated amino acids found in the organic casing (32), one of the more abundant gene families in T. pseudonana encodes prolyl-4 hydroxylases.. Staying afloat. Diatoms must compensate for their dense silica frustule to maintain position within the illuminated portion of the water column. Some diatoms, including members of Thalassiosira, apparently increase drag and thus decrease sinking rates by extruding chitin fibers from pores in the frustule (24). These fibers can represent as much as 40% of total cell biomass and 20% of ...
High light (HL) stress adversely affects growth, productivity and viability of photosynthetic organisms. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system to study photosynthesis and light stress. Comparative proteomics of wild-type and two very high light (VHL)-resistant mutants, VHLR-S4 and VHLR-S9, revealed complex alterations in response to excess light. A twodimensional reference map of the soluble subproteome was constructed representing about 1500 proteins. A total of 83 proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Quantitative comparisons of 444 proteins showed 105 significantly changed proteins between wild type and mutants under different light conditions. Commonly, more proteins were decreased than increased, but different proteins were affected in each genotype. Proteins uniquely altered in either VHLR mutant may be involved in VHL resistance. Such candidate proteins similarly altered without light stress, thus possibly ...
Editors note: I first read about this in The Celestine Prophecy (awesome book, btw) back in 1997. A biological research team at Bielefeld University has made a groundbreaking discovery showing that plants can draw an alternative source of energy from other plants. This finding could also have a major impact on the future of bioenergy eventually providing the evidence to show that people draw energy from others in much the same way.. Members of Professor Dr. Olaf Kruses biological research team have confirmed for the first time that a plant, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, not only engages in photosynthesis, but also has an alternative source of energy: it can draw it from other plants. The research findings were released this week in the online journal Nature Communications published by the renowned journal Nature.. Flowers need water and light to grow and people are no different. Our physical bodies are like sponges, soaking up the environment. This is exactly why there are certain ...
Welcome to the Phytophthora research lab in Corvallis. We combine basic tools from genomics, epidemiology, and bioinformatics, with translational research approaches to strategically address some of the fundamental challenges posed by plant diseases caused by the genus Phytophthora.. Read more ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from VOLCADRAFT_97368 hypothetical protein available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Supplementary Materials Additional file 1: Table S1. and BY-2 cells (B), treated with elicitins INF1 and INF2B. MsK8 cells treated with elicitins INF1 and INF2B and flg22 (C). pH values were measured every 3?s during 20?min. pH maximum value is the difference between the highest and the lowest pH value measured within 15?min after treatment. Error bars represent standard deviation (n?=?3). 13007_2017_240_MOESM5_ESM.tif (481K) GUID:?D8138917-4958-4CDB-BD19-9F5748A4A7FD Additional file 6: Table S3. Genes selected for expression analysis by qRT-PCR. 13007_2017_240_MOESM6_ESM.docx (43K) GUID:?309D3129-59DF-4A99-AD2D-F8A6954B903E Additional file 7: Figure S4. Expression of genes upon inoculation of MsK8 cells with 14-3-GFP (A), IPO-C (B) and T20-2 (C). Expression of stage-specific genes and and various RXLR effector genes upon inoculation of MsK8 cells with zoospores. Expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and the values at each time point were calculated relative to the expression level at ...
https://version-10-5.string-db.org/cgi/network.pl?all_channels_on=1&block_structure_pics_in_bubbles=0&direct_neighbor=1&hide_disconnected_nodes=0&hide_node_labels=0&network_display_mode=svg&network_flavor=evidence&targetmode=proteins&identifier=3055. ...
https://version-10-5.string-db.org/cgi/network.pl?all_channels_on=1&block_structure_pics_in_bubbles=0&direct_neighbor=1&hide_disconnected_nodes=0&hide_node_labels=0&network_display_mode=svg&network_flavor=evidence&targetmode=proteins&identifier=3055. ...
From here, chloroplast proteins bound for the stroma must pass through two protein complexes-the TOC complex, or translocon on ... Red algal derived chloroplasts. Cryptophytes. Cryptophytes, or cryptomonads are a group of algae that contain a red-algal ... The protein MinD prevents FtsZ from linking up and forming filaments. Another protein ARC3 may also be involved, but it is not ... Sometimes the transit sequence is found on the C-terminus of the protein,[89] or within the functional part of the protein.[87] ...
Thus, bacterial (CrtW) and micro-algal beta-carotene ketolase proteins such as BKT isolated from Haematococcus pluvialis[15] ... That is to say they differ from an evolutionary perspective in their primary amino acid/protein sequence. They are different ... Canthanaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via the action of a single protein, known as a beta-carotene ketolase ... Although functionally identical, several distinct beta-carotene ketolase proteins are known. ...
... ("other algal blue protein"; from Greek: ἄλλος (allos) meaning "other", φύκος (phykos) meaning "alga", and ... κυανός (kyanos) meaning "blue") is a protein from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with phycocyanin, ...
... exhibited protease activity and were further examined with 14C-labeled algal protein for nutrient absorption activity. Both of ... Douglas Darnowski published a paper describing the active digestion of proteins when they come in contact with a trichome of a ... these latter species displayed an ability to digest and absorb the labeled protein.[12] ...
Species of Dunaliella provide products like glycerol, carotenoids, and proteins. Algal-produced proteins can be biofactories ... 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology and 1st International Conference on Coastal Biotechnology. Adelaide, ...
"A Spatial Interactome Reveals the Protein Organization of the Algal CO2-Concentrating Mechanism". Cell. 171 (1): 133-147.e14. ... and the localizations and protein-protein interactions of dozens of pyrenoid-associated proteins were systematically determined ... It is likely that different algal groups evolved different types of CCMs, but it is generally taken that the algal CCM is ... The algal CCM is inducible, and induction of the CCM is generally the result of low CO2 conditions. Induction and regulation of ...
The algal toxin microcystin is also a peptide and is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases. This toxin can contaminate water ... which binds to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. Natural enzyme inhibitors can also be ... Proteins can also be natural poisons or antinutrients, such as the trypsin inhibitors (discussed above) that are found in some ... Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ...
They are different proteins that complete the same function. Thus, bacterial (CrtW) and micro-algal beta-carotene ketolase ... Canthanaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via the action of a single protein, known as a beta-carotene ketolase ... Although functionally identical, several distinct beta-carotene ketolase proteins are known. That is to say they differ from an ... these beta-carotene ketolase proteins have been studied extensively. An E. coli based production system has been developed, ...
In addition to being integral components of algal membranes, chlorosulfolipids are also known to inhibit protein kinases. ... displayed both antimicrobial activity as well as an inhibition of the pp60 protein tyrosine kinase. Initially, docosanoic acid ...
The Algal Turf Scrubber :".. *^ Jeffrey Bannon, J.; Adey, W. (2008). Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar ... Scottish Bioenergy, who run the project, sell the microalgae as high value, protein-rich food for fisheries. In the future, ... Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich ... C(algal oil) = 25.9 × 10−3 C(petroleum). where: C(algal oil) is the price of microalgal oil in dollars per gallon and C( ...
Another protein ARC3 may also be involved, but it is not very well understood. These proteins are active at the poles of the ... Many green algal derived chloroplasts contain pyrenoids, but unlike chloroplasts in their green algal ancestors, storage ... From here, chloroplast proteins bound for the stroma must pass through two protein complexes-the TOC complex, or translocon on ... Sometimes the transit sequence is found on the C-terminus of the protein, or within the functional part of the protein. After a ...
D. arguta displayed a capability to digest and absorb the 14C-labeled algal protein placed on its sticky trichomes. However, it ... using the digestion of proteins as the diagnostic tool to determine which plants appeared to produce protease enzymes capable ...
The PBCV-1 virus is specific to its host and recognition is mediated by the interaction of virus surface proteins with algal ... Among these proteins, the input domain of the supposed hybrid His-kinase 186 and the ORF 188 resemble ion channel proteins. ... At the five-fold vertices there are 12 pentamer-capsomers consist of different proteins. The protein(s) that can be found below ... The first known viral protein that functions as a potassium-selective ion channel was found in PBCV-1. The protein (called Kcv ...
... the fluorescent proteins may also serve as a means of regulating the activity of the coral's photosynthetic algal symbionts.[36 ... Tsien, R. Y. (1998). "The Green Fluorescent Protein". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 67: 509-544. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ... Functions of fluorescent proteins, such as protection from the sun, conversion of light into different wavelengths, or for ... It is suspected by some scientists that GFPs and GFP like proteins began as electron donors activated by light. These electrons ...
... displayed a capability to digest and absorb the 14C-labeled algal protein placed on the sticky trichomes ... using the digestion of proteins as the diagnostic tool to determine which plants appeared to produce protease enzymes capable ...
Cho, G.Y.; S.H. Lee; S. M. Boo (2004). "A new brown algal order, Ishigeales (Phaeophyceae), established on the basis of plastid ... protein-coding rbcL, psaA, and psbA region comparisons". Journal of Phycology. 40 (5): 921-936. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004. ...
To identify expressing cells, they replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the algal protein with the fluorescent protein YFP, ... Light-regulated protein-protein interactions can then be used to recruit proteins to DNA, for example to induce gene ... In photosensory domains, light absorption is either coupled to a change in protein-protein interactions (in the case of ... Yazawa M, Sadaghiani AM, Hsueh B, Dolmetsch RE (October 2009). "Induction of protein-protein interactions in live cells using ...
Whereas most 7-transmembrane proteins are G protein-coupled receptors that open other ion channels indirectly via second ... Hegemann P. (2008). "Algal sensory photoreceptors". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 59: 167-189. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607. ... In terms of structure, channelrhodopsins are retinylidene proteins. They are seven-transmembrane proteins like rhodopsin, and ... This change introduces a further one in the transmembrane protein, opening the pore to at least 6 Å. Within milliseconds, the ...
... showing that algal proteins could generate currents in eukaryotic cells], we applied for a patent where we gave to our fantasy ... With Georg Nagel and Peter Hegemann, who were attempting to identify the proteins that allow Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green ...
Improving Wheat-Seed Proteins by Molecular Approaches, Algal Culture and Improving Cut Flower Quality to name only a few where ...
Although the algal biomass produced by the process consists of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which could be used to ... Once the algal biomass is harvested and processed, the resulting fuel may be sold for additional revenue or utilized on-site. ... Once harvested, the algae is processed to produce a variety of solids such as protein and bioplastics, gases such as methane, ...
Our ingredients FUMI produces proteins for growing vegan market FUMI Ingredients bio Integrated Biorefineries for Algal ... based on pea protein from the yellow pea. Egg Replacer is a mixture of "potato starch, tapioca flour, leavening (calcium ... as well as nutritional benefits including protein, folate, iron, calcium, and many other vitamins and minerals. 1/4 cup ...
Comparison of Aplysia and Dolabrifera Ink Glands Suggests Cellular Sites of Anti-Predator Protein Production and Algal Pigment ... Higher organisms have evolved additional protein subunits, largely affecting the regulation and protein-protein interaction of ... proteins, DNA, and RNA). Natural evolution can be relived showing us possible paths from catalytic cycles based on proteins to ... Vital proteins, such as the ribosome, DNA polymerase, and RNA polymerase, are found in everything from the most primitive ...
In surface seawater, methanethiol is the primary breakdown product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). ... Marine bacteria appear to obtain most of the sulfur in their proteins by the breakdown of DMSP and incorporation of ...
The algal toxin microcystin is also a peptide and is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases.[54] This toxin can contaminate water ... which binds to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions.[1] Natural enzyme inhibitors can also ... Proteins can also be natural poisons or antinutrients, such as the trypsin inhibitors (discussed above) that are found in some ... Hartley, RW (1989). "Barnase and barstar: two small proteins to fold and fit together". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 14 (11 ...
ALGAL-CAM: algal cell adhesion molecule. ISG: inversion-specific glycoprotein. FLA: fasciclin like AGP. ENODL: earlt nodulation ... Clade 7 proteins contain both GalT and galectin domains, while Clade 10 proteins contain a GalT-specific domain. The galectin ... Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins (glycoproteins) found in the cell walls of plants. Each one ... a secreted arabinogalactan protein, is related to a family of basic proline-rich proteins". Plant Molecular Biology. 45 (4): ...
Algal Research. 10: 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2015.03.022. Shemesh, Z.; Leu, S.; Khozin-Goldberg, I.; Didi-Cohen, S.; Zarka, A ... This subspecies produces a crystal composed of four main proteins encoded by four genes which are situated on a single plasmid ... Algal Research. 18: 321-331. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2016.07.002. "Microalgal Biofuels Production". in.bgu.ac.il. Retrieved 2016-11 ... Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal (2013-01-18). Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States ...
... , algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich ... Carbohydrate and protein in microalgae can be converted into biogas through anaerobic digestion, which includes hydrolysis, ... Other contributions to algal biofuels research have come indirectly from projects focusing on different applications of algal ... Pre-pilot-plant experiments on algal mass culture. In: Burlew J.S. (ed). Algal culture: from labo- ratory to pilot plant. ...
... the fluorescent proteins may also serve as a means of regulating the activity of the coral's photosynthetic algal symbionts. ... Ward, William W.; Cormier, Milton J. (1978). "ENERGY TRANSFER VIA PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION IN RENILLA BIOLUMINESCENCE". ... Also, the proteins may fluctuate in number as more or less light becomes available as a means of photoacclimation. Similarly, ... Functions of fluorescent proteins, such as protection from the sun, conversion of light into different wavelengths, or for ...
... protein, and nutraceuticals. They significantly increase algal biomass density which reduces the capital and energy needed for ...
Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... For example, while diatoms (a heterokontophyte) now have a red algal derived chloroplast, the presence of many green algal ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ... Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a serious health hazard but these only, as far as I understand, refer to blue-green algae ( ... the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ... However it is a somewhat ineffective method as it causes the organism to degrade protein, a very metabolically expensive method ...
The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ... 2001). "The highly reduced genome of an enslaved algal nucleus". Nature. 410: 1091-1096. Bibcode:2001Natur.410.1091D. doi: ... They are thought to be vestiges of primitive red and green algal nuclei that were engulfed by a larger eukaryote. Because the ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ...
Harmful algal blooms[edit]. Further information: Algal bloom, Red tide, and Eutrophication ... Cylindrospermopsin is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA ... a b c Harmful algal blooms event response NOAA, Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health. Accessed 6 August 2014. ... Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms: State of the Science and Research Needs. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. ...
"Algal Research. 19: 316-323. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2015.12.021.. *^ Errol Kiong (May 12, 2006). "NZ firm makes bio-diesel from ... In addition, the high protein content in microalgae led to a high N content in the bio-oil, resulting in undesirable NOx ... Algal bio-oil had better qualities in many aspects than those produced from lignocellulosic biomass. For example, algal bio-oil ... Algal Pyrolysis[edit]. Algae may be subjected to high temperatures (~500 °C) and normal atmospheric pressures. The resultant ...
Rowan, R., Knowlton, N., Baker, A. & Jara, J. 1997 Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral ... I. Isoenzyme and soluble protein patterns of axenic cultures of S. microadriaticum. Proc R Soc Lond B 207:405-27 ... Coffroth MA, Santos SR, Goulet TL (2001) Early ontogenic expression of specificity in a cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Mar Ecol ... Iglesias-Prieto R, Govind NS, Trench RK (1993) Isolation and characterization of three membrane-bound chlorophyll-protein ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... and single algal cell detection.[47][48][49] SERS combined with plasmonic sensing can be used for high-sensitivity and ... SERS substrates are used to detect the presence of low abundance biomolecules, and can therefore detect proteins in body fluids ... "Black silicon SERS substrate: Effect of surface morphology on SERS detection and application of single algal cell analysis" ...
Algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), proline/serine-( ... April 2011). "Crystal structure and substrate-binding mode of cellulase 12A from Thermotoga maritima". Proteins. 79 (4): 1193- ... protein structures) surrounding a central catalytic region which is the active-site.[10] The enzyme is categorised as an ... Cellulases produced by the species Coprinopsis Cinerea consists of seven protein strands in the shape of an enclosed tunnel ...
It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female.[81][82] ... When this is exhausted some move on to feed on bacteria, algal crusts, detritus and raspings from submerged plants. Water is ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ... the most toxic non-protein substance known and almost identical to that produced by pufferfish. Handling the newts does not ...
1-39 in Algal Physiology and Biochemistry, Stewart W. D. P. (ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. ISBN 0520024109 ... "Evolutionary cell biology of proteins from protists to humans and plants". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 65 (2): 255-289. doi ... spherical fossils of likely algal protists.[88] Another possible representative of early fossil eukaryotes are the Gabonionta. ...
... a protein in red blood cells. The binding capacity of hemoglobin is influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the ...
Milder detergents such as octyl thioglucoside, octyl glucoside or dodecyl maltoside are used to solubilize membrane proteins ... This process maintains a matrix of proteins that preserves the structure of the organ and often the microvascular network. The ... For electrophoresis, for example, proteins are classically treated with SDS to denature the native tertiary and quaternary ... In solution, detergents help solubilize a variety of chemical species by dissociating aggregates and unfolding proteins. ...
... of the animal protein consumed worldwide; over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein.[50 ... Microphytes are microscopic organisms, and can be algal, bacterial or fungal. Microalgae are another type of aquatic plant, and ... Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world, especially in coastal areas. ... Seafood is consumed all over the world; it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 14-16% ...
In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting ... Mollusc/algal chloroplast symbiosis". Plant Physiology. 123 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1104/pp.123.1.29. PMC 1539252. PMID 10806222.. ... In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in ... The plastids in all the other groups have either a red or green algal origin, and are referred to as the "red lineages" and the ...
Algal cells are sometimes destroyed in the course of nutrient exchange, though the algal cells divide and replace them. Above ... which the fungus can use in amino acids for proteins.[2]p26 ... The bacterial or algal partners produce pigments that absorb ... After dispersal by wind, such fungal spores must meet with an algal partner to form a lichen.[2]p19-22 ... It is thought, from the number of fungal and algal species involved, that the symbiosis must have taken place many times ...
The larvae are rich in fat and protein, and can be used as, for example, animal feed or biodiesel production.[27] Enthusiasts ...
In fungal, algal, and botanical nomenclature, the family names of plants, fungi, and algae end with the suffix "-aceae", with ... Protein family. *Gene family. References[edit]. *^ Barnhart 1895.. *^ ICN 2012, Section 2. Names of families and subfamilies, ...
They are fed on a high-protein diet for at most three weeks before they are moved to the grow-out ponds. At that time, they ... To feed the shrimp larvae, an algal bloom is induced in the tanks. The survival rate is about 40%.[5] ... The diet of later stages also includes fresh or freeze-dried animal protein, for example krill. Nutrition and medication (such ...
Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms: State of the Science and Research Needs. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 619 ... Konopacka, Agnieszka, Filip A. Konopacki, and Jan Albrecht (2009) "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ...
3: Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers.. *. Bird, Adrian (2007). „ ... 8. 2002). „Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New ... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. PMID 11753431. doi:10.1038/ ...
6 streptophyte algal taxa. Embryophyta. Viridiplantae Chlorophyta ~8 chlorophyte algal taxa. Streptophyta sensu Becker & Marin ... Studies based on morphology rather than on genes and proteins have regularly reached different conclusions; for example that ... 6 streptophyte algal taxa. Embryophyta. The precise relationships within the streptophytes are less clear as of March 2012[ ... are the closest algal relatives to land plants was underpinned by an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis (phylogenomics) performed ...
Expensive artificial feeds are used, partly to supply the fish with protein. These costs could be reduced if freshwater snails ... phytoplankton generally maintained reasonable water quality and converted on average over half the waste nitrogen into algal ... such as Viviparus bengalensis, were simultaneously cultured, thus increasing the available protein. The organic and inorganic ...
... s protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose ... An algal scum formed on the land 1,200 million years ago, but it was not until the Ordovician Period, around 450 million years ... "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part , 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ... protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing. ...
Therefore, nitrogen fixation is required for the synthesis of amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Some ... Lower ambient temperatures reduce the rate of algal photosynthesis so less ammonia is removed by any algae present. Within an ...
Copper and zinc are known to bind to amyloid beta proteins in Alzheimer's disease. This bound form is thought to mediate the ... Prociv P (September 2004). "Algal toxins or copper poisoning--revisiting the Palm Island "epidemic"". Med. J. Aust. 181 (6): ...
Proteins created by mitochondria and chloroplasts use N-formylmethionine as the initiating amino acid, as do proteins created ... McFadden GI, van Dooren GG (July 2004). "Evolution: red algal genome affirms a common origin of all plastids". Current Biology ... proteins (such as the membrane bound proteins involved in redox reactions) are not easily transported through the cytosol and ... Transport proteins called porins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts and are also found in ...
Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: SP-A and SP-D. These proteins can bind to sugars on the ... A small amount of carbon dioxide is carried on the protein portion of the hemoglobin molecules as carbamino groups. The total ...
Often, the mineral phases are not pure but are made as composites that entail an organic part, often protein, which takes part ... Aragonite and calcite in travertine and biogenic silica (siliceous sinter, opal) deposited through algal action. ... Both contain organic components (proteins, sugars and lipids) and the organic components are characteristic of the layer, and ... such as a protein, that provides a nucleation site for the growth of biominerals.[16] Fungal growth may produce a copper- ...
GeneArt Algae protein expression kits for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Synechococcus elongatus; genetic modification and ... Our most recent GeneArt products for algae are optimized for high levels of protein expression with dual protein tags for ... Vectors optimized for protein expression Invitrogen GeneArt vectors facilitate rapid directional cloning of synthetic genes or ... The GeneArt Cryopreservation Kit for Algae can be used to preserve algal strains and clones for storage at -80°C for years, ...
An ancient light-harvesting protein is critical for the regulation of algal photosynthesis.. Peers G1, Truong TB, Ostendorf E, ... Thus, these data indicate that plants and algae use different proteins to dissipate harmful excess light energy and protect the ... This protein is an ancient member of the light-harvesting complex superfamily, and orthologues are found throughout ...
... Nature. 2009 Nov 26;462(7272):518-21 ... Thus, these data indicate that plants and algae use different proteins to dissipate harmful excess light energy and protect the ... This protein is an ancient member of the light-harvesting complex superfamily, and orthologues are found throughout ...
... Where do plants and again cells get this supple from? THANKS!!! ...
"Algal Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Algal Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Algal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Algal Proteins" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Algal Proteins". ...
Expanding from its initial work in algal biofuels, General Atomics Advanced Biological Processes team has focused on the rising ... The technologies comprising the General Atomic algae growth platform have been focused on the production of high-protein algal ... General Atomics focusing on algal-based protein. August 30, 2014. AlgaeIndustryMagazine.com ... The food category in greatest demand is meat protein, and a major component of meat protein production is fish. With current ...
In this project, algal biomass is therefore produced in closed photobioreactors and starch, the main component of these algae, ... Algal starch biorefinery - Biorefinery based on carbohydrate-rich algal biomass, use of starch and protein ... To increase the value of the production chain, we are also investigating whether the algal proteins can be used as a ... Biorefinery based on carbohydrate-rich algal biomass, use of starch and protein. At present, biofuels such as ethanol and ...
Analysis of Recombinant Protein Accumulation in Transgenic Algal Strains.. To determine if algal chloroplasts accumulate ... 5A). This shift also was present in Ramos B cells that were incubated with algal-produced immunotoxin proteins (Fig. 5B). Both ... Depiction of algal-expressed immunotoxin proteins. (A) Single-chain antibody (scFv) directed against the CD22 cell-surface ... We demonstrated that algal-produced immunotoxins accumulate as soluble and enzymatically active proteins that bind target B ...
Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology, secondary antibody ...
Algal proteins may boost crop yields. Comments. Add a comment. Your name. ...
Recombinant oat and algal phytochromes possess protein kinase activity. (A) Autoradiograph of Pr and Pfr forms of PCB adducts ... Recombinant Oat and Algal Phytochromes Possess Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Activity.. Purified affinity-peptide tagged ... maltose binding protein;. Mcphy1b,. Mesotaenium caldariorum phytochrome 1b;. PAS,. motif found in the protein superfamily ... Protein Kinase Assays.. Protein phosphorylation experiments were performed in 25-μl reaction mixtures containing kinase buffer ...
Algal Proteins Market, Algal Proteins Industry, Algal Proteins Market Analysis, Algal Proteins Industry Analysis, Algal ... The Algal Proteins Market analysis of market situations, growth drivers, key players etc. is provided for global and regional ... The Algal Proteins market report includes in-depth profiles of following key players in the market like The Nutrex Hawaii, ... In short, in this report, the global Algal Proteins market is valued at USD XX million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD XX ...
Algal Proteins Algal DNA Algal RNA *Livestock and Pets are now separate descriptors treed under Animals, Domestic. Note that ... Treed under Eukaryota and coordinated as appropriate with DNA; RNA; or Proteins:. Phaeophyta ET: Algae, Brown Chrysophyta ET: ... Treed under Plants and coordinated as appropriate with Plant DNA; Plant RNA; or Plant Proteins:. Chlorophyta. ET: Algae, Green ...
A recently launched start-up company is developing food proteins and oils from non‐engineered algal strains developed by ... Protein-based therapeutics (biologics) generate over $100 billion per year in sales and are primarily manufactured from ... SGI discovered and classically improved algae strains that ferment sugars into high quality nutritional proteins and oils. ... The world needs alternative and more sustainable vegetarian food protein sources. ...
About 9% of these are food additives, 6% are protein, and 3% are emulsifiers. A wide variety of protein powder options are ... Wholesale Source Kosher Certified Algal Dha Protein Omega 3 Powder Bulk US $1-80 / Kilogram ... whey protein powder hemp protein powder vegan protein powder soy protein powder organic protein powder amway protein powder pea ... protein powder 10 protein foods halal whey protein powder prices body protein powder protein powder trading companies protein ...
Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. They are commonly used in the pharmaceutical ... Algal system. This system is used to study photosynthesis, plant biology and metabolism. One of the big advantages is that it ... Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. Recombinant proteins are commonly used to ... How did the idea of recombinant protein emerge?. Recombinant proteins were proposed by Peter Lobban who was the first person to ...
Algal Proteins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Research Materials. *NBRP resources - National ...
Algal extracts produced by SFE process enable obtaining a solvent-free concentrate of biologically active compounds; however, ... in the production of algal extracts with the consideration of the process conditions and yields. State of the art in the ... Algal proteins have significant nutritional value to the animal organism [51].. 3.4. Algae Based Products in Agriculture. ... Ingredients derived from raw algal material in SFE process ensure no residues of organic solvents. Therefore, algal extracts ...
Plants and their algal predecessors both utilize chloroplasts for photosynthesis and other essential metabolic processes. The ... Divergent strategies to maintain steady state protein levels in algal and angiosperm chloroplasts (Nature Plants) August 10, ... Plants and their algal predecessors both utilize chloroplasts for photosynthesis and other essential metabolic processes. The ... Together, their work argues that these divergent lineages have developed distinct strategies to maintain protein synthesis in ...
Green hydrogen production using algal proteins. We are increasingly thinking about hydrogen as a successor of crude oil-for ... As any human biology text will tell you, enzymes in the stomach and intestine break down proteins that are locked into almost ... Aging in part is the result of oxidative damage to proteins caused by free radicals, a byproduct of interaction of our bodies ... The proteins amino acid building blocks are then transported to the bodys ... ...
Algal Proteins * Anion Transport Proteins * Carrier Proteins * DNA, Complementary * Fungal Proteins * Nitrates ... These data strongly support the hypothesis that the nitrate transport system in C. reinhardtii contains at least two protein ... The nar-4 gene would produce a protein with a high identity to that of nar-3. ...
Algal Proteins Will Contribute to Biofuel Production When we think about biorefining and biofuel production, the two types of ... Research Demonstrates Diverse Photosynthetic Proteins in Algae Light harvesting complex (LHC) proteins function in ... Algal Bioremediation - Scrubbing Nitrate the Natural Way A new research has demonstrated that adding more species of beneficial ... Algal Biomass Organization (ABO), the trade association for the algae industry, has announced that the 5th annual Algae Biomass ...
Phys.org) -A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of ... Algal protein gives boost to electrochemical water splitting. December 19, 2011 Photosynthesis is considered the Holy Grail ... Phys.org) -A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of ... Proton pumps are proteins that typically straddle a cellular membrane and transfer protons from inside the cell to the ...
An ancient light-harvesting protein is critical for the regulation of algal photosynthesis journal, November 2009 * Peers, ... How important are oceanic algal nanoflagellates in bacterivory?1 journal, May 1986 * Estep, Kenneth W.; Davis, Paul G.; Keller ... An atypical member of the light-harvesting complex stress-related protein family modulates diatom responses to light journal, ... Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these ...
Three-dimensional modeling of two LI818 proteins revealed features common to all LI818 proteins that are likely to interfere ... of phylogenetic trees show an independent origin in different eukaryotic lineages or a green algal origin of LI818 proteins to ... In the light of this finding, we examined the possibility that LI818 proteins may have originated in a chlorophyll c/ ... although an origin of LI818 proteins in a common ancestor of red and green algae cannot be ruled out. ...
The Algal Proteins market study answers critical questions including:. What tactics are being utilized by the algal proteins ... Chapter 4 Algal Proteins Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. Chapter 5 Algal Proteins Market Analysis by ... Factors Covered For Algal Proteins Market Penetration. 1. Market Entry and Top Winning Strategies Algal Proteins Market Report ... Spirulina are playing a vital role in driving the growth of algal proteins market. The use of algal proteins in wide ...
It studies the Algal Proteins markets trajectory between forecast periods.. Segment by Type, the Algal Proteins market is ... "Algal Proteins Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2020-2028. The increasing interest of the ... Besides an overview of the global Algal Proteins Market by application, it gives a study on the consumption in the global Algal ... Get Free Sample PDF (including full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Algal Proteins Market @ ...
... polysaccharide and protein in three freshwater algal species. ... polysaccharide and protein in three freshwater algal species. ... Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on the production of lipid, polysaccharide and protein in three freshwater algal ... 1. The effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB-enhanced) radiation on the production of photosynthates (Lipid, protein, polysaccharide ... protein, polysaccharide and low molecular weight compounds in algae in a species-specific manner. ...
Adenosine Kinase • Algal Proteins • Alleles • Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis • Antarctic Regions • Arabidopsis ...
... algal transesterification; algal compositional screening; protein extraction; algal processing. ... carbohydrates and protein are discussed and applied to multiple algal species. Lastly, protein extraction from alga is ... The main carbon rich components of algal biomass include lipid, carbohydrates and protein. Products such as biodiesel and jet ... This work addresses algal characterization and processing techniques that are helpful in utilizing algae as a feedstock for ...
  • Invitrogen GeneArt algae expression kits for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 137c and Synechococcus elongatus PPC 7942 protein expression are the first commercially available genetic modification and expression systems for photosynthetic microalgae. (thermofisher.com)
  • The GeneArt Cryopreservation Kit for Algae can be used to preserve algal strains and clones for storage at -80°C for years, thus eliminating liquid nitrogen storage and continuous cultures as a way to maintain your clones. (thermofisher.com)
  • This protein is an ancient member of the light-harvesting complex superfamily, and orthologues are found throughout photosynthetic eukaryote taxa, except in red algae and vascular plants. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, these data indicate that plants and algae use different proteins to dissipate harmful excess light energy and protect the photosynthetic apparatus from damage. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins found in any species of algae. (umassmed.edu)
  • Algae have no anti-nutrients (unlike terrestrial protein sources), and have a protein content and amino acid profile similar to that of fishmeal. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The technologies comprising the General Atomic algae growth platform have been focused on the production of high-protein algal biomass for use as a partial or complete replacement for fishmeal in future commercial aquaculture feeds. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) has funded a project in which algal biomass is produced in closed photobioreactors and starch, the main component of these algae, is used for the production of ethanol. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The second major component of these starch-rich algae are proteins. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Using the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , we have demonstrated that algae are capable of expressing, folding, and accumulating a range of human therapeutic proteins in the chloroplast ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • More recently we have shown that recombinant proteins also can be secreted from algae ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Algae require only trace minerals, fertilizer, and sunlight to be grown at scale, giving them the potential to produce recombinant proteins, including therapeutics, very inexpensively ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although cost can be a significant factor in the production of protein-based therapies, producing unique classes of therapeutically relevant proteins is desirable, and algae offer the potential to produce a number of novel proteins because of the unique biochemical environment of the chloroplast ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • SGI discovered and classically improved algae strains that ferment sugars into high quality nutritional proteins and oils. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • Instead, our data favor an origin in an ancestral chlorophyll a/c-containing organism and a subsequent lateral transfer to some green algae, although an origin of LI818 proteins in a common ancestor of red and green algae cannot be ruled out. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1. The effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB-enhanced) radiation on the production of photosynthates (Lipid, protein, polysaccharide and low molecular weight compounds) was examined for three species of algae. (mpg.de)
  • 5. These results suggest that exposure to UVB radiation has the potential to alter the relative allocation of recently fixed carbon to lipid, protein, polysaccharide and low molecular weight compounds in algae in a species-specific manner. (mpg.de)
  • Sarah Zhang writes in Wired Magazine that the single-cell green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have an eyespot that makes use of light-sensitive proteins. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • Professor Saul Purton has been awarded a £10,000 International Workshop grant from the BBSRC to support the 2nd Sino-British Forum on Algal Biotechnology, which will be held in Oban, Scotland later this year as part of the Algae-UK annual conference. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Algae-UK is one of six phase II Networks in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy (NIBB) supported by the BBSRC and aims to foster closer links between academics and industry working on algal research. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The problems we traditionally associate with harmful algal blooms are caused by toxins produced by the algae. (scienceblog.com)
  • Wave action contributed to the problem by breaking up the cells of dying algae and churning the dissolved protein into the thick foam that was seen along the shoreline and floating on the surface of the water. (scienceblog.com)
  • Expression of therapeutic proteins in eukaryotic algae offers several advantages over more traditional protein expression systems. (scripps.edu)
  • Algae are efficient at producing complex mammalian proteins, stable transgenic lines can be generated in a few weeks, and algal systems can be scaled to high levels for a fraction of the cost of traditional fermentation systems. (scripps.edu)
  • We have expressed several recombinant proteins in algae, including human monoclonal antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • This recombinant antibody-toxin fusion protein was expressed in algae and accumulated as soluble protein. (scripps.edu)
  • Eukaryotic algae offer tremendous potential for the expression of recombinant human therapeutic proteins, and we have now shown that algal chloroplasts can express classes of proteins that cannot be produced in other expression systems. (scripps.edu)
  • Protein discoveries in algae may help scientists engineer faster-growing crop plants to meet the food demands of our rapidly expanding population, according to researchers at the. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Proteins discovered in algae could be used to engineer faster-growing crops, according to researchers at the Universities of York and Princeton. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In the first of two studies published in Cell , Mackinder and his colleagues conducted a sweeping search for proteins involved in the carbon-concentrating mechanism of a species of algae called Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (thenakedscientists.com)
  • As some health-food manufacturers see higher demand for plant-based products, finding creative ways to stuff protein in their processed foods is leading them to algae. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Algae are made of 50 to 60 percent protein, plus they have good fat, fiber, and an alphabet's worth of vitamins and minerals. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • I learned that because algae reproduces so rapidly, 1 acre of algae can produce the same amount of protein in a year as 21 acres of soybeans or 49 acres of corn. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • It's going to be a bit before you see algae in your favorite protein bar, as there are still kinks to work out on the processing line. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • If there is any obstacle to the production of this protein, the algae are no longer able to dissipate harmful excess energy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Phycobiliproteins are a group of colored proteins commonly present in cyanobacteria and red algae possessing a spectrum of applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Phycobiliproteins are brilliantly colored, highly fluorescent, water-soluble protein components of the photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna complexes of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), red algae, and cryptomonads. (hindawi.com)
  • Liao, who has a track record for commercializing innovative biofuels processes, has proven that microbes can produce the advanced biofuel directly from agricultural wastes, as well as from protein feedstocks such as algae. (technologyreview.com)
  • the [[L._Lewis_Lab]] currently uses next-generation sequencing methods to investigate the diversity of algal chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes and the utility of organellar genes and architectures for higher taxonomy of green algae. (uconn.edu)
  • While operations at TerraVia's facility in Peoria, Illinois - where it has been manufacturing Thrive culinary algae oil and its AlgaVia protein and lipid powdered ingredients - have been suspended, the facility is being " maintained in a state of readiness ​" such that it can be turned back on at short notice, while the company has also been building inventory to service both existing customers and projects in the pipeline. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • New Wave Foods is creating shrimps and shark fins from algae-based proteins. (eco-business.com)
  • The statistical surveying report on the global algal proteins market has been prepared by using professional or expert knowledge through standard and modified research approaches and forecasts. (technovally.com)
  • In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing threat to the global Algal Proteins market. (sunrisenigeria.com)
  • Report Overview: It includes major players of the global Algal Proteins Market covered in the research study, research scope, and Market segments by type, market segments by application, years considered for the research study, and objectives of the report. (sunrisenigeria.com)
  • It also provides growth rates of key producers operating in the global Algal Proteins Market. (sunrisenigeria.com)
  • Furthermore, it offers production and capacity analysis where marketing pricing trends, capacity, production, and production value of the global Algal Proteins Market are discussed. (sunrisenigeria.com)
  • The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii BBSome is an IFT cargo required for export of specific signaling proteins from flagella. (umassmed.edu)
  • The chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been shown to contain the machinery necessary to fold and assemble complex eukaryotic proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Upon ambient deficiency in sulfate, cells of a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, degrade the chloroplast membrane sulfolipid to ensure an intracellular-sulfur source for necessary protein synthesis. (bireme.br)
  • W e have developed a system for expressing recombinant proteins, including human therapeutic proteins, in the chloroplast of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (scripps.edu)
  • GreenCut protein CPLD49 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii associates with thylakoid membranes and is required for cytochrome b6 f complex accumulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, in order to investigate and compare the toxic effects of the two salts on algal photosynthesis, we used NaCl and Na2CO3 to stress Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (degruyter.com)
  • The eukaryotic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , is a unique expression platform that can efficiently express complex therapeutic proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The possibility of producing complex and diverse therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, antibody conjugates and vaccine antigens, in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been reported [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Simple growth requirements, rapid growth and scalable production makes the unicellular eukaryotic green algal, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , an attractive alternative, especially for complex therapeutic proteins that are not efficiently expressed in other heterologous systems. (mdpi.com)
  • To investigate how gene families and gene expression have evolved, particularly in the context of stress response that have been shown to correlate with gene family expansion in multiple eukaryotes, we characterized the expansion patterns of gene families in nine green algal species, and examined evolution of stress response among gene duplicates in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present evidence suggesting that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii this coupling may be aided by a hyper-phosphorylated form of the LHCII-like CP29 protein (Lhcbm4). (diva-portal.org)
  • We used a mass spectrometry-based approach to achieve a comprehensive mapping of the in vivo protein phosphorylation sites within photosynthetic membranes from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii subjected to distinct environmental conditions known to affect the photosynthetic machinery. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a freshwater green microalga that is a popular model organism for physiological, molecular, biochemical, and genetic studies, and that has gained attention as a platform for the production of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our Invitrogen GeneArt Chlamydomonas Protein Expression Vector offers transgene expression from the nuclear genome but is optimized for high-level expression, provides selection against gene silencing, and offers dual protein tags for detection and/or purification of your gene of interest. (thermofisher.com)
  • Transgene expression from the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome via the pChlamy_4 vector offers several advantages over chloroplast expression, such as posttranslational modifications and protein targeting and/or secretion. (thermofisher.com)
  • In order to circumvent the transgene silencing that often occurs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , our pChlamy_4 vector is designed so that proteins are expressed as transcriptional fusions with the bleomycin/Zeocin resistance gene sh-ble (Rasala et al. (thermofisher.com)
  • Through a combination of chloroplast ribosome profiling and transcriptomics, the authors discovered a high similarity in steady state protein levels despite significant differences in transcriptional abundances across these organisms. (plantae.org)
  • A new way of fixing inactive proteins has been discovered in an alga, which uses chloroplast extracts and light to release an interrupting sequence from a protein. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • Julanie's PhD project will investigate the production of sweet proteins in the algal chloroplast. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Algal and plant chloroplast S16. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This biorefinery concept enables utilization of the entire biomass and increases the value of the algal biomass. (fraunhofer.de)
  • This alga was then used to establish a two-step process in which first biomass is produced and then, under nitrogen limitation, starch is accumulated in the algal cells. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In order to produce algal biomass suitable for biofuel production, the process has to be transferred to outdoor cultivation conditions using natural sunlight. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Such requirements are met by algal biomass, the capacity of which, despite long history in daily living products, still remains largely unexplored [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers at the Arizona Center for Algal Technology and Innovation (AzCATI) are developing an empirical model for assessment and prediction of potential impact of contaminations on overall algal culture stability and biomass production potential. (oilgae.com)
  • Average productivity of the most common industrial strains is far lower than maximal theoretical estimations, suggesting that identification of factors limiting biomass yield and removing bottlenecks are pivotal in domestication strategies aimed to make algal-derived bio-products profitable on the industrial scale. (springer.com)
  • Full realization of this potential requires further advances in cultivation techniques, together with genetic manipulation of both algal physiology and metabolic networks, to maximize the efficiency with which solar energy is converted into biomass and bio-products. (springer.com)
  • An ancient light-harvesting protein is critical for the regulation of algal photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Plants and their algal predecessors both utilize chloroplasts for photosynthesis and other essential metabolic processes. (plantae.org)
  • In general," explains Prof. Hippler, "such proteins harvest light - as their name suggests - and they make it available for photosynthesis. (innovations-report.com)
  • [1] [2] are organelles that conduct photosynthesis , where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight , converts it, and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water in plant and algal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algal-produced proteins can be biofactories for the production of therapeutic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • These characteristics make algal chloroplasts potentially the only system that can be used to produce this type of superior cancer therapeutic agent. (scripps.edu)
  • These cell-based assays are the first step in demonstrating the potential of these fusion proteins as human anticancer therapeutic agents. (scripps.edu)
  • Biopharmaceuticals are recombinant therapeutic proteins that include vaccines, antibodies and hormones. (edu.au)
  • Such advancements of glyco-engineering of algal therapeutic proteins will greatly enhance their biopharmaceutical market globally. (edu.au)
  • The report includes key protein expression systems that are incorporated in several therapeutic treatment methods. (aarkstore.com)
  • A recently launched start-up company is developing food proteins and oils from non‐engineered algal strains developed by Synthetic Genomics. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • Together, their work argues that these divergent lineages have developed distinct strategies to maintain protein synthesis in chloroplasts. (plantae.org)
  • The protection system involves synthesis of LEA proteins, decrease of photosynthetic activity and activation of antioxidant systems. (bireme.br)
  • Photosynthetic organisms utilize sulfate for the synthesis of sulfur-compounds including proteins and a sulfolipid, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. (bireme.br)
  • Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • While the crucial activities of decoding and peptide transfer are RNA based, proteins play an active role in functions that may have evolved to streamline the process of protein synthesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • By mixing the cellular protein synthesis machinery with lipids and detergents, they were able to achieve an environment highly hospitable to ARII production. (innovations-report.com)
  • This tough target could be expressed very efficiently using our cell-free protein synthesis system, even to the same degree as easy, soluble proteins," says Yokoyama. (innovations-report.com)
  • Having demonstrated the effectiveness of this membrane protein synthesis approach, the researchers are now delving deeper into the structure and function of ARII and ARI, another rhodopsin expressed by A. acetabulum. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, de novo protein synthesis continues, including plastid- and nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, despite the apparent absence of algal nuclei. (biologists.org)
  • Cobalamin uptake rates were elevated in strains overexpressing CBA1, directly linking this protein to cobalamin acquisition. (mit.edu)
  • Here we show expression and accumulation of monomeric and dimeric immunotoxin proteins in algal chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • We have had good success in producing these complex proteins in algal chloroplasts. (scripps.edu)
  • We have also expressed eukaryotic protein toxins, which we are able to do because chloroplasts are naturally resistant to these protein toxins. (scripps.edu)
  • The algal CO2 concentrating mechanism contributes significantly to global carbon fixation and has the potential to enhance crop productivity if successfully introduced into higher plant chloroplasts," Jonikas said. (eurekalert.org)
  • We tested whether algal chloroplasts can produce malaria transmission blocking vaccine candidates, Plasmodium falciparum surface protein 25 (Pfs25) and 28 (Pfs28). (jove.com)
  • Consequently, Chlorella, Spirulina are playing a vital role in driving the growth of algal proteins market. (technovally.com)
  • It encodes a short ~20 amino acid sequence that mediates proper cleavage to yield two discrete proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition to energy production, microalgae can produce a variety of other bioproducts including nutraceuticals and recombinant proteins such as industrial enzymes or therapeutics ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of cyanobacterial phytochrome histidine kinases, together with the evidence that phytochromes from higher plants display protein kinase activity, bind ATP analogs, and possess C-terminal domains similar to bacterial histidine kinases, has fueled the controversial hypothesis that the eukaryotic phytochrome family of photoreceptors are light-regulated enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Recombinant proteins are commonly used to produce pharmaceutical products, protein-based polymers for drug delivery, antibodies and enzymes for disease treatment, protein scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for a myriad of other uses. (news-medical.net)
  • As any human biology text will tell you, enzymes in the stomach and intestine break down proteins that are locked into almost every bite we eat. (phys.org)
  • Here, we present comparative analyses of accumulation of transcripts encoding components of the protection machinery, such as selected LEA proteins, enzymes of the chlorophyll degradation pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes in total and polysomal RNA pools. (bireme.br)
  • Applied Enzyme Technology Ltd (AET) and IBERS, Aberystwyth University received a 2013 SPARK Award to fund an investigation into the ability of specific algal sugars to stabilise enzymes. (innovateuk.org)
  • An initial protein mid-point melting temperature assay indicated algal sugars of interest which were then used in a second, time-based stability study with selected enzymes in both solution and dried state. (innovateuk.org)
  • In order to test the dynamics of this organelle, they tagged Rubisco enzymes using a fluorescent protein and then 'turned off' these tags in one half of the pyrenoid. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Sugar O -methylation shields algal polysaccharides against microbial hydrolytic enzymes. (nature.com)
  • xpanding from its initial work in algal biofuels, General Atomic's (GA's) Advanced Biological Processes team has focused on the rising need for food globally, specifically in the area of algal-based protein. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • Others are working on modifying plants to produce energy rich oils preferentially instead of starch or teaching biofuel processing bacteria new tricks, such as making longer-chain alcohols that store more energy than ethanol, synthesizing biofuels out of proteins instead of sugars, or digesting sugar polymers directly and pumping out biofuels at the same time. (asbmb.org)
  • His protein-based process provides the biofuels field with entirely novel feedstock options. (technologyreview.com)
  • The small ribosomal subunit protein S10 consists of about 100 amino acid residues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ribosomal protein S16 is one of the proteins from the small ribosomal subunit. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This system is used to perform structural analysis, functional assays, generation of antibodies, but also to study protein interactions. (news-medical.net)
  • Although CBPs are classically considered as light-harvesting proteins, increasing amounts of data point to possible additional functions within this protein family. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In comparison to traditional light-harvesting proteins, LHCSR3 has very old origins, probably stemming directly from the 'forebear' of all light-harvesting proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • How did the idea of recombinant protein emerge? (news-medical.net)
  • This altered DNA is introduced into a host cell, after which it can be replicated without expression, or it may be transcribed and translated leading to the formation of a recombinant protein. (news-medical.net)
  • The strategy for expressing recombinant protein involves transfecting a particular cell with DNA vector containing the template of recombinant DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • However, scaling the production of recombinant protein above multi-milligram quantities may be expensive and cumbersome. (news-medical.net)
  • We have now developed antibody-toxin fusion proteins, a class of recombinant protein molecules that can target and kill eukaryotic cells, including human cancer and tumor cells. (scripps.edu)
  • Optimization led to increases in the accumulation of recombinant proteins by six-fold and the recombinant protein fraction in the extracted soluble protein by two-fold. (mdpi.com)
  • The potential of microalgae to produce recombinant protein was previously reported [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These fusion proteins contain an antibody domain targeting CD22, a B-cell surface epitope, and the enzymatic domain of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (pnas.org)
  • The fusion proteins contain segments of Ribose Binding Protein (RBP. (sumobrain.com)
  • Based on comparative protein sequence alignments and biochemical cross-talk experiments with the response regulator substrate of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1, we propose that eukaryotic phytochromes are histidine kinase paralogs with serine/threonine specificity whose enzymatic activity diverged from that of a prokaryotic ancestor after duplication of the transmitter module. (pnas.org)
  • That is to say they differ from an evolutionary perspective in their primary amino acid/protein sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, new algal proteins identified in our sequence data are being used to investigate how the mammalian brain works. (rdmag.com)
  • Self-cleaving sequence for the 2A peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mediates proper cleavage between resistance markers and protein of interest to yield two discrete proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • Utilization of macromolecules such as polysaccharides and proteins is a common feature of many members of the family. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe cytochrome P450 monooxygenases from marine bacteria that, together with appropriate redox-partner proteins, catalyze the oxidative demethylation of 6- O -methyl- d -galactose, which is an abundant monosaccharide of the algal polysaccharides agarose and porphyran. (nature.com)
  • Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on the production of lipid, polysaccharide and protein in three freshwater algal species. (mpg.de)
  • One of the most important ones is glycosylation, the covalent linkage of polysaccharide side chains to a protein, which is highly crucial in determining protein stability, activity, pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity. (edu.au)
  • Medical Xpress)-Every living cell's surface has a protein-embedded membrane that's covered in polysaccharide chains - a literal sugar coating. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They are different proteins that complete the same function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its proteomic analysis resulted in the identification of 202 different proteins with at least two different peptides (984 in total). (plantcell.org)
  • Although multiple green algal genomes are available, a global comparative study of algal gene families has not been carried out. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 21% (25 of 120) of GIV ORFs are conserved in the other five sequenced iridovirus genomes, including DNA replication, transcription, nucleotide metabolism, protein modification, viral structure, and virus-host interaction genes. (asm.org)
  • I am also interested in the alterations of the genetic code in the mitochondria of the class Chlorophyceae, and the spread and inheritance of introns in green algal organellar genomes. (uconn.edu)
  • The nar-4 gene would produce a protein with a high identity to that of nar-3. (nih.gov)
  • The algal gene expresses a photoreceptor protein called channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). (photonics.com)
  • The group inserted an algal gene that codes for a light-responsive protein into mouse embryonic stem cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Lineage-specific expansion of families occurred throughout the green algal lineage but inferred gene losses occurred more often than gene gains, suggesting a continuous reduction of algal gene repertoire. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The frequent gains of stress response among green algal duplicates potentially reflect a high rate of innovation, resulting in a species-specific gene repertoire that contributed to adaptive response to stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus a thorough look at the retention and loss patterns among green algal gene families may provide a new evolutionary perspective on stress response in green algal lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Suppression of yeast RNA polymerase III mutations by the URP2 gene encoding a protein homologous to the mammalian ribosomal protein S20. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dual protein tags 6His TEV and V5-His epitopes can be fused to both or either ends of your gene of interest, or you can elect to have no tag at all. (thermofisher.com)
  • Fusion of the xylanase gene bleomycin/zeocin resistance gene, sh-ble , in pChlamy_4 vector, circumvents silencing so proteins are expressed through many cell passages with or without selection pressure. (thermofisher.com)
  • Platinum Equine Skin & Allergy contains a minute amount of rosemary extract to help naturally stabilize and preserve the essential omega-3 fatty acids (Algal Omega-3 DHA) found in the in the formula. (platinumperformance.com)
  • To examine the potential of antibody-toxin fusions as cancer therapeutics, we fused an antibody to CD19 with an exotoxin A protein domain to produce an antibody-toxin fusion protein (CD19-ETA) that targets CD19 on human B-cell lymphomas. (scripps.edu)
  • Algal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to L44). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Many ribosomal proteins, particularly those of the large subunit, are composed of a globular, surfaced-exposed domain with long finger-like projections that extend into the rRNA core to stabilise its structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the large subunit, about 1/3 of the 23S rRNA nucleotides are at least in van der Waal's contact with protein, and L22 interacts with all six domains of the 23S rRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Evidence suggests that, in prokaryotes, the peptidyl transferase reaction is performed by the large subunit 23S rRNA, whereas proteins probably have a greater role in eukaryotic ribosomes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Most of the proteins lie close to, or on the surface of, the 30S subunit, arranged peripherally around the rRNA [ PMID: 9281425 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Pubmed ID: 22615931 Subunit vaccines are significantly more expensive to produce than traditional vaccines because they are based primarily on recombinant proteins that must be purified from the expression system. (jove.com)
  • Mutational analysis has identified MOR1, a probable stabilizer of microtubules that is a homologue of the TOGp-XMAP215 class of high-molecular-weight microtubule-associated proteins, and a katanin p60 subunit homologue implicated in the severing of microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to their function in the ribosome, many ribosomal proteins have some function 'outside' the ribosome [ PMID: 11290319 , PMID: 11114498 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chandra Sanyal S, Liljas A. The end of the beginning: structural studies of ribosomal proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Genetic modification gives major boost to algal hydrogen production. (pearltrees.com)
  • The protein kinase hypothesis resurfaced in 1991, when Schneider-Poestsch and colleagues ( 18 ) noted that the C-terminal region of phytochromes is similar to histidine kinase transmitter modules found on bacterial sensor proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, bacterial (CrtW) and micro-algal beta-carotene ketolase proteins such as BKT isolated from Haematococcus pluvialis [15] are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • LHC-II is the most abundant of these complexes in thylakoid membranes, and consists of pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) which are bound to chlorophyll-binding proteins (CBPs). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Species of Dunaliella provide products like glycerol, carotenoids, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaculture production currently relies on fishmeal as the primary source of protein in marine species' diets, which is in very limited supply. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • Substantial variation in domain family sizes exists among green algal species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This could be further explored towards deciphering the mechanism of stress response, and identifying suitable green algal species for oil production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The idea of targeted therapy, whereby drug or protein molecules are delivered to specific cells, is a compelling approach to treating disease. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, flowering plants have lost these protein molecules during their evolution and have developed another sun protection mechanism in which light is also converted into heat energy," says Prof. Hippler. (innovations-report.com)
  • He was subsequently able to rapidly purify the resulting protein and obtained a high-resolution structure for ARII by crystallizing it in the presence of lipid molecules (Fig. 1). (innovations-report.com)
  • A story on NPR last week covered food manufacturers going ga-ga over plant-based proteins. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • The story points out that plant-based proteins are, after all, a more attractive ingredient than, say, insects . (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Plant-based proteins are considered part of the solution, with important developments happening in the US, a country with a strong tradition of meat consumption. (eco-business.com)
  • Some call for government intervention in the form of a meat tax or subsidies for plant-based proteins. (eco-business.com)
  • What do plants and algal cells need to produce proteins? (jiskha.com)
  • We demonstrated that algal-produced immunotoxins accumulate as soluble and enzymatically active proteins that bind target B cells and efficiently kill them in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • Protein-based therapeutics (biologics) generate over $100 billion per year in sales and are primarily manufactured from fermentation using mammalian cells which are presenting cost, quality and efficacy challenges. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • The cells containing the template are then cultured, so that they can transcribe and translate the protein of interest. (news-medical.net)
  • These cells can then be lyzed or broken to release the formed protein which is then subjected to purification methods. (news-medical.net)
  • The waves act like a blender, churning up the cells and the protein. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the mouse experiments, Goh used a technique to alter the genetics of single cells in order to change new neurons' ability to accumulate chloride ions (and thus to manipulate their response to GABA) and to make them glow with a green protein to ease their identification in the adult brain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Small algal protein domains serve as synthetic light sensors in human cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The identification of these two proteins provides new insights into the mechanisms controlling microtubule assembly and dynamics, particularly in the dispersed cortical array found in highly polarized plant cells. (biologists.org)
  • Algal pigments have massive commercial value as natural colorants in nutraceutical, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, besides their health benefits. (hindawi.com)
  • A small freshwater algal strain that has evolved to live in harsh seawater is giving scientists insight into how living things adapt to changes in their environment. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • High proteins, marine omegaIII fatty acids and our new FPS formula supports the health of your fish and boost their colors. (reefcentral.com)
  • Often this choice is based on the protein type, functional activity, as well as the required yield that is required. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used to perform functional assays, structural analysis, expressing intracellular proteins and protein complexes, production of viruses, etc. (news-medical.net)
  • The 'Green Surfing' project tackle this unmet need by applying a systematic set of experiments to generate functional anchoring domains in the algal system. (grstiftung.ch)
  • The processing methods in this case are similar to the methods to process proteins in mammalian systems. (news-medical.net)
  • However, some mammalian proteins may be difficult to express in this case. (news-medical.net)
  • The protein expression market is mainly segmented into the following system types: prokaryotic expression systems, mammalian cell expression systems, insect cell expression systems, yeast expression systems, cell-free expression systems and algal-based expression systems. (aarkstore.com)
  • Chlorophyll-binding proteins (CBPs) constitute a large family of proteins with diverse functions in both light-harvesting and photoprotection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The Ectocarpus genome codes for 53 CBPs falling into all major families except the exclusively green family of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Three-dimensional modeling of two LI818 proteins revealed features common to all LI818 proteins that are likely to interfere with their capacity to bind chlorophyll b and lutein, but may enable binding of chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Invitrogen GeneArt vectors facilitate rapid directional cloning of synthetic genes or PCR products for protein expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • A role of these proteins in light-harvesting seems improbable considering their expression profiles. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Unlike traditional drugs, biopharmaceuticals owe their efficiency to the post-translational modifications they undergo during protein expression. (edu.au)
  • Xylanase expression was measured by western blot analysis, and the results showed that xylanase protein represented approximately 1% of the total soluble protein. (thermofisher.com)
  • This research report presents an in-depth analysis of the global market for protein expression by system type, products and services, applications, end users and regional markets. (aarkstore.com)
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of key companies operating in the global market for protein expression. (aarkstore.com)
  • What is Protein Expression? (aarkstore.com)
  • Cmax, a proprietary microbial host developed by Synthetic Genomics, has the potential to simplify and transform the production of complex protein therapeutics. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • The report mainly studies the size, recent trends and development status of the algal proteins market, as well as investment opportunities, government policy, market dynamics (drivers, restraints, opportunities), supply chain and competitive landscape. (technovally.com)
  • 6. Market Dynamics in the Algal Proteins Industry and Its Impact on Worldwide Market. (technovally.com)
  • Algal Proteins Market applies the best of primary and secondary research to weigh on the competitive landscape and the main market players expected to dominate this global market with forecast period, 2020-2029. (technovally.com)
  • Technological advancements and increasing applications in food and beverages sectors would provide growth opportunities to the algal proteins industry during the forecast period 2020-2029. (technovally.com)
  • Algal Proteins Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2020-2028. (sunrisenigeria.com)
  • Canthanaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via the action of a single protein, known as a beta-carotene ketolase, that is able to add a carbonyl group to carbon 4 and 4' of the beta carotene molecule. (wikipedia.org)