Earth Sciences: Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Medicine in ArtAcetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Los AngelesRacquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.OhioPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.AustriaOpsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.PolandTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Chamaecyparis: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Oxepins: Compounds based on a 7-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered a medium ring ether. A natural source is the MONTANOA plant genus. Some dibenzo-dioxepins, called depsidones, are found in GARCINIA plants.

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/582)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

The chloroplast infA gene with a functional UUG initiation codon. (2/582)

All chloroplast genes reported so far possess ATG start codons and sometimes GTGs as an exception. Sequence alignments suggested that the chloroplast infA gene encoding initiation factor 1 in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris has TTG as a putative initiation codon. This gene was shown to be transcribed by RT-PCR analysis. The infA mRNA was translated accurately from the UUG codon in a tobacco chloroplast in vitro translation system. Mutation of the UUG codon to AUG increased translation efficiency approximately 300-fold. These results indicate that the UUG is functional for accurate translation initiation of Chlorella infA mRNA but it is an inefficient initiation codon.  (+info)

Internuclear gene silencing in Phytophthora infestans. (3/582)

Transformation of the diploid oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans with antisense, sense, and promoter-less constructs of the coding sequence of the elicitin gene inf1 resulted in transcriptional silencing of both the transgenes and the endogenous gene. Since heterokaryons obtained by somatic fusion of an inf1-silenced transgenic strain and a wild-type strain displayed stable gene silencing, inf1 silencing is dominant and acts in trans. Inf1 remained silenced in nontransgenic homokaryotic progeny from the silenced heterokaryons, thereby demonstrating that the presence of transgenes is not essential for maintaining the silenced status of the endogenous inf1 gene. These findings support a model reminiscent of paramutation and involving a trans-acting factor that is capable of transferring a silencing signal between nuclei.  (+info)

A 210 kDa protein is located in a membrane-microtubule linker at the distal end of mature and nascent basal bodies. (4/582)

A monoclonal antibody raised against purified flagellar basal apparatuses from the green flagellate Spermatozopsis similis reacted with a protein of 210 kDa (p210) in western blots. The protein was partially cloned by immunoscreening of a cDNA library. The sequence encoded a novel protein rich in alanine (25%) and proline (20%), which contained regions similar to proteins of comparable amino acid composition such as extracellular matrix components or the membrane-cytoskeletal linker synapsin. Using a polyclonal antibody (anti-p210) raised against the C-terminal part of p210, it was shown that the protein was highly enriched in the basal apparatuses. Immunogold electron microscopy of isolated cytoskeletons or whole cells revealed that p210 was located in the flagellar transition region. The protein was part of the Y-shaped fibrous linkers between the doublet microtubules and the flagellar membrane, as indicated by statistical analysis of post-labeled sections using anti-centrin and anti-tubulin as controls. In premitotic cells p210 was located in a fibrous layer at the distal end of nascent basal bodies, which was perforated by the outgrowing axoneme. During deflagellation the protein remained at the basal body but we observed changes in its distribution, indicating that p210 partially moved to the tip of the basal body. p210 can be used as a marker to determine basal body position, orientation (parallel or antiparallel) and number in S. similis by indirect immunofluorescence. We suppose that p210 is involved in linking basal bodies to the plasma membrane, which is an important step during ciliogenesis.  (+info)

Crystal structure of carboxylase reaction-oriented ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from a thermophilic red alga, Galdieria partita. (5/582)

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1. 39) obtained from a thermophilic red alga Galdieria partita has the highest specificity factor of 238 among the Rubiscos hitherto reported. Crystal structure of activated Rubisco from G. partita complexed with the reaction intermediate analogue, 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (2-CABP) has been determined at 2.4-A resolution. Compared with other Rubiscos, different amino residues bring the structural differences in active site, which are marked around the binding sites of P-2 phosphate of 2-CABP. Especially, side chains of His-327 and Arg-295 show the significant differences from those of spinach Rubisco. Moreover, the side chains of Asn-123 and His-294 which are reported to bind the substrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, form hydrogen bonds characteristic of Galdieria Rubisco. Small subunits of Galdieria Rubisco have more than 30 extra amino acid residues on the C terminus, which make up a hairpin-loop structure to form many interactions with the neighboring small subunits. When the structures of Galdieria and spinach Rubiscos are superimposed, the hairpin region of the neighboring small subunit in Galdieria enzyme and apical portion of insertion residues 52-63 characteristic of small subunits in higher plant enzymes are almost overlapped to each other.  (+info)

Promotion of ATP and S-140 to ribosome inactivation with camphorin, cinnamomin, and other RNA N-glycosidases. (6/582)

AIM: To study the effect of ATP and extra-ribosomal factors (S-140) on type I and type II RNA N-glycosidases in inactivating ribosome. METHODS: The activity of ATP and S-140 was determined by characterization of R-fragment in gel. An improved two-step method of cell-free protein synthesis system was used to quantitate the requirements of S-140 in ribosome inactivation. RESULTS: IC50 ratios of camphorin, gamma-momorcharin, luffin S, luffin A, trichosanthin (type I); and ricin, ricin A-chain; cinnamonin, cinnamomin A-chain (type II) between the absence and presence of ATP and S-140 were 3108, 151, 51, 45, 15; and 47, 7, 26, 12, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ribosome-inactivating activity of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins, including intact protein and its A-chain, was promoted by ATP and S-140. Camphorin showed a significant difference from cinnamomin in need of ATP and S-140 for such promoting.  (+info)

The 2.1 A structure of an elicitin-ergosterol complex: a recent addition to the Sterol Carrier Protein family. (7/582)

Elicitins, produced by most of the phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Phytophthora, provoke in tobacco both remote leaf necrosis and the induction of a resistance against subsequent attack by various microorganisms. Despite the recent description of the three-dimensional crystal structure of cryptogein (CRY), the molecular basis of the interactions between Phytophthora and plants largely remains unknown. The X-ray crystal structure, refined at 2.1 A, of a ligand complexed, mutated CRY, K13H, is reported. Analysis of this structure reveals that CRY is able to encapsulate a ligand that induces only a minor conformational change in the protein structure. The ligand has been identified as an ergosterol by gas chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. This result is consistent with biochemical data that have shown that elicitins are a distinct class of Sterol Carrier Proteins (SCP). Data presented here provide the first structural description of the pertinent features of the elicitin sterol interaction and permit a reassessment of the importance of both the key residue 13 and the mobility of the omega loop for the accessibility of the sterol to the cavity. The biological implications thereof are discussed. This paper reports the first structure of a SCP/sterol complex.  (+info)

Elicitins trap and transfer sterols from micelles, liposomes and plant plasma membranes. (8/582)

Using elicitins, proteins secreted by some phytopathogenic Oomycetes (Phytophthora) known to be able to transfer sterols between phospholipid vesicles, the transfer of sterols between micelles, liposomes and biological membranes was studied. Firstly, a simple fluorometric method to screen the sterol-carrier capacity of proteins, avoiding the preparation of sterol-containing phospholipidic vesicles, is proposed. The transfer of sterols between DHE micelles (donor) and stigmasterol or cholesterol micelles (acceptor) was directly measured, as the increase in DHE fluorescence signal. The results obtained with this rapid and easy method lead to the same conclusions as those previously reported, using fluorescence polarization of a mixture of donor and acceptor phospholipid vesicles, prepared in the presence of different sterols. Therefore, the micelles method can be useful to screen proteins for their sterol carrier activity. Secondly, elicitins are shown to trap sterols from purified plant plasma membranes and to transfer sterols from micelles to these biological membranes. This property should contribute to understand the molecular mechanism involved in sterol uptake by Phytophthora. It opens new perspectives concerning the role of such proteins in plant-microorganism interactions.  (+info)

*Drymocallis arguta

D. arguta displayed a capability to digest and absorb the 14C-labeled algal protein placed on its sticky trichomes. However, it ... using the digestion of proteins as the diagnostic tool to determine which plants appeared to produce protease enzymes capable ...

*Geranium viscosissimum

... displayed a capability to digest and absorb the 14C-labeled algal protein placed on the sticky trichomes ... using the digestion of proteins as the diagnostic tool to determine which plants appeared to produce protease enzymes capable ...

*Optogenetics

To identify expressing cells, they replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the algal protein with the fluorescent protein YFP, ... Yazawa, M.; Sadaghiani, A. M.; Hsueh, B.; Dolmetsch, R. E. (2009). "Induction of protein-protein interactions in live cells ... CRY2, LOV, DRONPA and PHYB are photosynthetic proteins involved in inducible protein association whereby activation via light ... where scientists have fused fluorescent proteins to detector proteins. An example of this is voltage-sensitive fluorescent ...

*Protocarnivorous plant

... exhibited protease activity and were further examined with 14C-labeled algal protein for nutrient absorption activity. Both of ... Douglas Darnowski published a paper describing the active digestion of proteins when they come in contact with a trichome of a ... these latter species displayed an ability to digest and absorb the labeled protein. Other plants that are considered to be ...

*Martek Biosciences Corporation

It is based in Columbia, Maryland, U.S. Martek Biosciences also produced and sold fluorescent algal proteins for use in life ...

*Phycodnaviridae

The PBCV-1 virus is specific to its host and recognition is mediated by the interaction of virus surface proteins with algal ... Among these proteins, the input domain of the supposed hybrid His-kinase 186 and the ORF 188 resemble ion channel proteins. ... At the five-fold vertices there are 12 pentamer-capsomers consist of different proteins. The protein(s) that can be found below ... The first known viral protein that functions as a potassium-selective ion channel was found in PBCV-1. The protein (called Kcv ...

*Phycotechnology

The algal-produced proteins showed biological activity comparable to the same proteins produced by traditional commercial ... Species of Dunaliella provide richest source of high quality products like glycerol, carotenoids, proteins etc. ... 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology and 1st International Conference on Coastal Biotechnology. Adelaide, ... algae have been used for evolutionary studies and the identification and comparison of the genes coding for specific proteins. ...

*Canthaxanthin

They are different proteins that complete the same function. Thus, bacterial (CrtW) and micro-algal beta-carotene ketolase ... Canthanaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via the action of a single protein, known as a beta-carotene ketolase ... Although functionally identical, several distinct beta-carotene ketolase proteins are known. That is to say they differ from an ... these beta-carotene ketolase proteins have been studied extensively. An E. coli based production system has been developed, ...

*Chlorosulfolipid

In addition to being integral components of algal membranes, chlorosulfolipids are also known to inhibit protein kinases. ... displayed both antimicrobial activity as well as an inhibition of the pp60 protein tyrosine kinase. Initially, docosanoic acid ...

*Enzyme inhibitor

The algal toxin microcystin is also a peptide and is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases. This toxin can contaminate water ... which binds to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. Natural enzyme inhibitors can also be ... Proteins can also be natural poisons or antinutrients, such as the trypsin inhibitors (discussed above) that are found in some ... Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ...

*Agricultural research in Israel

Improving Wheat-Seed Proteins by Molecular Approaches, Algal Culture and Improving Cut Flower Quality to name only a few where ...

*Edible algae vaccine

The convenience and speed of algal growth provides a more efficient means of testing new vaccine protein delivery mechanisms. ... Using an edible algae produced fusion protein of the malaria membrane protein pfs25 and the ganglioside binding protein ctxB, ... Recombination proteins produced by genetically engineered algae have accounted for up to 3.0% of all protein produced by the ... Proteins expressed inside the chloroplast of algae (the most common site of genetic engineering and protein production) do not ...

*Chloroplast

Another protein ARC3 may also be involved, but it is not very well understood. These proteins are active at the poles of the ... Many green algal derived chloroplasts contain pyrenoids, but unlike chloroplasts in their green algal ancestors, storage ... From here, chloroplast proteins bound for the stroma must pass through two protein complexes-the TOC complex, or translocon on ... Sometimes the transit sequence is found on the C-terminus of the protein, or within the functional part of the protein. After a ...

*Ishige (alga)

Cho, G.Y.; S.H. Lee; S. M. Boo (2004). "A new brown algal order, Ishigeales (Phaeophyceae), established on the basis of plastid ... protein-coding rbcL, psaA, and psbA region comparisons". Journal of Phycology. 40: 921-936. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03160. ...

*Channelrhodopsin

Whereas most 7-transmembrane proteins are G protein-coupled receptors that open other ion channels indirectly via second ... Hegemann P. (2008). "Algal sensory photoreceptors". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 59: 167-189. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607. ... In terms of structure, channelrhodopsins are retinylidene proteins. They are seven-transmembrane proteins like rhodopsin, and ... This change introduces a further one in the transmembrane protein, opening the pore to at least 6 Å. Within milliseconds, the ...

*GreenFuel Technologies Corporation

Although the algal biomass produced by the process consists of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which could be used to ... Once the algal biomass is harvested and processed, the resulting fuel may be sold for additional revenue or utilized on-site. ... Once harvested, the algae is processed to produce a variety of solids such as protein and bioplastics, gases such as methane, ...

*Sammy Boussiba

Algal Research. 10: 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2015.03.022. Shemesh, Z.; Leu, S.; Khozin-Goldberg, I.; Didi-Cohen, S.; Zarka, A ... This subspecies produces a crystal composed of four main proteins encoded by four genes which are situated on a single plasmid ... Algal Research. 18: 321-331. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2016.07.002. "Microalgal Biofuels Production". in.bgu.ac.il. Retrieved 2016-11 ... Bt toxins are termed insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) and are active within the intestine, thus must be digested by the ...

*Culture Biosystems

... protein, and nutraceuticals. They significantly increase algal biomass density which reduces the capital and energy needed for ...

*Beyond Meat

The vegetarian meat substitutes are made from mixtures of soy protein, pea protein isolates, yeast, and other ingredients. As ... sunflower oil and dha algal oil). A twin-screw extruder mixed, cooked, and pressurizes the ingredients. After leaving the ... The vegetable protein-based burger patties are taste tested by The New York Mets during a pre-game event. The Beast Burger was ... The Beyond Burger contains 20 grams of protein and has no soy, no gluten, no GMOS, zero cholesterol, and half the saturated fat ...

*Elysia chlorotica

The researchers found a vital algal gene, psbO (a nuclear gene encoding for a manganese-stabilizing protein within the ... It punctures the algal cell wall with its radula, then holds the algal strand firmly in its mouth and sucks out the contents as ... By taking on the green color from the chloroplasts of the algal cells, the slugs are able to blend in with the sea bed beneath ... Mollusc/Algal Chloroplast Symbiosis." Plant Physiology.May 2000. Rudman, W.B. (2005). Elysia chlorotica Gould, 1870. [In] Sea ...

*Iron/lead transporter

Its copper binding domain is homologous to that of the PcoA copper binding protein of E. coli. Ftr1p is a protein of 404 amino ... It exhibits homology with other yeast open reading frames (ORFs) as well as algal, bacterial and archaeal ORFs. The bacterial ... This protein, when overexpressed, increases sensitivity to Pb2+. The protein exhibits a single N-terminal hydrophobic segment ( ... suggesting that a complex of the two proteins is formed. Both proteins are coordinately regulated, being expressed at high ...

*Sea foam

... including proteins, lignins, and lipids) derived from sources such as the offshore breakdown of algal blooms. These compounds ... If the foam forms from the breakdown of a harmful algal bloom (including those caused by some dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria ...

*Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Harmful algal blooms ... HABs) Dawson, JF; Holmes CF (Oct 1999). "Molecular mechanisms underlying inhibition of protein phosphatases by marine toxins". ...

*Capsid

A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called ... For example, the bacteriophage PRD1, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella algal virus, and mammalian adenovirus have been placed in ... The recruitment of cellular proteins appears to have occurred at different stages of evolution, so that some cellular proteins ... As a result, some capsid proteins are widespread in viruses infecting distantly related organisms (e.g., capsid proteins with ...

*Methanethiol

In surface seawater, methanethiol is the primary breakdown product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). ... Marine bacteria appear to obtain most of the sulfur in their proteins by the breakdown of DMSP and incorporation of ...

*Silicibacter pomeroyi

This gene (dmdA) codes for a protein (DmdA) that removes a methyl group (-CH3) from DMSP. The DmdA protein has since been ... S. pomeroyi also has the ability to degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a sulfur-containing algal osmolyte and use the ... Although many marine bacteria are capable of degrading DMSP, the genes and proteins used to do so were elusive to researchers ...
Ion fluxes and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are early events that follow elicitor treatment or microbial infection. However, molecular mechanisms for these responses as well as their relationship have been controversial and still largely unknown. We here simultaneously monitored the temporal sequence of initial events at the plasma membrane in suspension-cultured tobacco cells (cell line BY-2) in response to a purified proteinaceous elicitor, cryptogein, which induced hypersensitive cell death. The elicitor induced transient rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) showing two distinct peaks, followed by biphasic (rapid/transient and slow/prolonged) Cl- efflux and H+ influx. Pharmacological analyses suggested that the two phases of the [Ca2+]cyt response correspond to Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane and an inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores, respectively, and the [Ca2+]cyt transients and the Cl- efflux were ...
Ca(2+) is the pivotal second messenger for induction of defense responses induced by treatment of pathogen-derived elicitor or microbial infection in plants. However, molecular bases for elicitor-induced generation of Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) transient
Patients had a median age of 54 years (range: 27 - 81); metastatic disease for 97%; anthracycline resistance for 63%; received study treatment as 1st (20%), 2nd (48%) or > 3rd (32%) CT line for ABC. The median number of cycles was 6 for VFL plus CAPE and 5 for CAPE. VFL plus CAPE prolonged PFS assessed by IRC compared to CAPE (median 5.6 vs 4.3 months, HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99, P = 0.0426). This was supported by the investigator assessment (median 5.5 vs 4.1 months, HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90, P = 0.0007). The response rate assessed by IRC was numerically greater for VFL plus CAPE than for CAPE (22.9% vs 17.9%, P = 0.1030); the disease control rate was statistically superior with the combination (57.3% vs 47.9%, P = 0.0089). Median OS analysed after 674 deaths (87.5%) was 13.9 months for VFL plus CAPE and 11.7 months for CAPE (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.83-1.14, P = 0.6976). The most frequent grade 3-4 events were neutropenia for VFL plus CAPE (27.2% of patients vs 6.6% for CAPE) and hand-foot ...
First in-human clinical trial of griffithsin, a naturally occurring anti-HIV protein, which limits risk of cross-resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) products. NEW YORK, NY-The Population Council today announced the enrollment of the first participant in the Phase I clinical trial evaluating PC-6500 (griffithsin in a carrageenan gel), an investigational multipurpose technology to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), two major threats to sexual health around the world. This is the first in-human study of griffithsin (GRFT), a naturally occurring algae protein that inhibits HIV and other pathogens, including Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2). "Multipurpose products that prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, must be a research and development priority," said James Sailer, vice president and executive director of the Center for Biomedical Research at the Population Council. "We are excited to be enrolling participants in the first trial of a griffithsin-containing ...
First in-human clinical trial of griffithsin, a naturally occurring anti-HIV protein, which limits risk of cross-resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) products. NEW YORK, NY-The Population Council today announced the enrollment of the first participant in the Phase I clinical trial evaluating PC-6500 (griffithsin in a carrageenan gel), an investigational multipurpose technology to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), two major threats to sexual health around the world. This is the first in-human study of griffithsin (GRFT), a naturally occurring algae protein that inhibits HIV and other pathogens, including Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2). ...
A power controlling apparatus turns off a power to an apparatus whose connection to a central apparatus has been cut by a connection change, thus selectively turning off a power to an apparatus not required by the central apparatus. A locking/unlocking apparatus determines a value of the locking timer in the interrupt timer routine and, when the value has exceeded a predetermined level, takes a slave apparatus out of the locked state, thereby simplifying programming.
Companies that have implemented Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), often do OEE as a part of an implementation of other manufacturing improvement procedures.
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy. Recent studies identified rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 signaling regulating cell growth, autophagy, lipid metabolism, and central metabolic pathways in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The central role that microalgae play in global biomass production, together with the high biotechnological potential of these organisms in biofuel production, has drawn attention
Read "Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Sumiya, N., Kawase, Y., Hayakawa, J., Matsuda, M., Nakamura, M., Era, A., Tanaka, K., Kondo, A., Hasunuma, T., Imamura, S., and Miyagishima, S. (2015) Expression of cyanobacterial acyl-ACP reductase elevates the triacylglycerol level in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Cell Physiol. 56,1962-1980 ...
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1) in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN)/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS) stress treatments, i.e. decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR) and rose bengal (RB) that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)
Iron plays a key role in the synthesis and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. Conditions of partial iron deficiency that lead to a relatively stable phenotype were established and the effects of starvation studied in the unicellular red alga, Rhodella violacea. Synthesis of the photosynthetic pigments were found to decrease, with phycobiliproteins being affected to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a. Biophysical, biochemical and immunological approaches were used to show that the PSI content is highly diminished and the PSII/PSI stoichiometry increased by a factor of 5 compared to standard conditions. Meanwhile light-harvesting complex (LHC) was still assembled in the thylakoid membranes at unchanged levels. The use of translation inhibitors for either nuclear- or plastid-encoded polypeptides revealed that uncoupled LHC may be responsible for the high wavelength-fluorescence contribution observed around 700-710 nm. There is no evidence for the synthesis of new chlorophyll-protein ...
as1, for antenna size mutant 1, was obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This strain has a low chlorophyll content, 8% with respect to the wild type, and displays a general reduction in thylakoid polypeptides. The mutant was found to carry an insertion into a homologous gene, prokaryotic arsenite transporter (ARSA), whose yeast and mammal counterparts were found to be involved in the targeting of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to cytosol-exposed membranes, essential for several cellular functions. Here we present the characterization in a photosynthetic organism of an insertion mutant in an ARSA-homolog gene. The ARSA1 protein was found to be localized in the cytosol, and yet its absence in as1 leads to a small chloroplast and a strongly decreased chlorophyll content per cell. ARSA1 appears to be required for optimal biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes because of its involvement in the accumulation of TOC34, an essential component of the ...
The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for posttranscriptional gene silencing and RNA interference remain poorly understood. We have cloned a gene (Mut6) from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is required for the silencing of a transgene and two transposon families.Mut6 encodes a protein that is highly homologous to RNA helicases of the DEAH-box family. This protein is necessary for the degradation of certain aberrant RNAs, such as improperly processed transcripts, which are often produced by transposons and some transgenes. ...
The role of individual carbohydrate-binding sites in the function of the potent anti-HIV lectin Griffithsin". Jie Xue, Yongguang Gao, Bart Hoorelbeke, Ioannis Kagiampakis, Bo Zhao, Borries Demeler, Jan Balzarini, and Patricia J. LiWang Molecular Pharmaceutics 4, 2613-2625 (2012).. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a lectin that has been shown to inhibit HIV infection by binding to high mannose glycan structures on the surface of gp120, and is among the most potent HIV entry inhibitors reported so far. However, important biochemical details on the antiviral mechanism of GRFT action remain unexplored. In order to understand the role of the three individual carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS) in GRFT, mutations were made at each site (D30A, D70A, and D112A), and the resulting mutants were investigated. NMR studies revealed that each GRFT variant was folded but showed significant peak movement on the carbohydrate-binding face of the protein. The wild-type and each point mutant protein appeared as tight dimers with ...
Discussion and Implications for the Nursery Practice SSF and LGF eliminated Phytophthora propagules from the water in open air recycling systems. The climatic conditions between April and October when the filters were operating, did not interfere with the filtration success. Low temperatures around 5 C also did not stop the activity of SSF. These results contradict those from the literature that state that a working temperature above 15 C (18) or 10 to 20 C (14) is said to be favorable. Temperatures below 1 to 5 C are reported to stop (18) and above 25 C to decrease (14) the activity of the SSF. For lava grain filters recommended temperatures for optimum biological activity are 15 to 25 C (11). For the Shieer Bio-Filter (LGF) the minimum temperature should be 8 C; the optimum temperature is above 13 C (Shieer Int., personal communication). TheShieer Bio-Filter action of SSF and LGF is not yet fully understood but it is considered to be a combination of biological and physico-chemical ...
Volvox colonies. Microscope footage of Volvox sp. colonies. Volvox are small freshwater unicellular green algae that usually make up larger spherical colonies, which behave like a multicellular organisms. Individual cells are connected to each other via protoplasmic strands, and embedded in a globe of glycoprotein. Daughter colonies (small green spheres) are produced asexually inside each parent colony, which disintegrates to release them when they are mature. Colonies also reproduce sexually, in which case male and female gametes are produced and a sexual union occurs. Individual Volvox cells have two hair-like flagella that protrude outwards and are used for colony locomotion. - Stock Video Clip K005/4089
Uma alternativa de manejo das doenças de citros causadas por Phytophthora spp. é o uso de matéria orgânica. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da incorporação de lodo de esgoto ao solo na indução de...
Light micrograph of a colony of Volvox containing six asexual daughter colonies within. Volvox is an organism that lies between the plant & animal kingdom, being variously classified with the green algae (plant) or flagellates (animal). The colony contains from hundreds to thousands of cells arranged at the surface of a watery matrix. The individual cells have two flagella & eyespots. They reproduce both asexually & sexually. In the former case cells in the rear of the colony divide to form daughter colonies. Once released the parent colony dies. In the latter case male & female gametes are produced & a sexual union occurs. Magnification x75 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0057
Are you a VFL? This life-long Vol fan is sharing her thoughts about the MANY things she loves about being a VFL and how living in Knoxville makes Vols so special: Knoxville is more than a college town, and orange is more than a color -- here, being a Volunteer is a way of life.
Results for phytophthora infection equipment from Bio-Tam, FLORIMAT, Orvego and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on agriculture-xprt.com
Türkiye Fitopatoloji Derneği Dergisi / Makale Detayları Cilt(Volume): 45 Sayı(Number): 1 2016 Sayfa(Page): 13-20 2016-1-13-20.pdf Başlık: Türkiyenin...
Buceros supermishap betrothal contractation ovest cover Piricularia missionize unredeemedness questionability santoninic stalwartize sundries pervicaciously Xylonite pseudolobar stopboard alga Tympanuchus articulite Manuel indelegability uninimical oxalylurea noncollection exegetist [email protected] ...
The sex-inducer of the spherical green alga Volvox carteri is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: it is released into the medium by sexual males and triggers the switch to the sexual cleavage program in the reproductive cells of vegetatively grown males and females even at concentrations as low as 10 (-16) M. In an adult Volvox alga, all cells are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM), which constitutes >99% of the volume of the spheroid. There exist no cytoplasmic connections between the cells in an adult alga, so any signal transduction between different cells or from the organisms environment to a reproductive cell must involve the ECM. Recently, a small cysteine-rich extracellular protein, VCRP, was identified in Volvox and shown to be quickly synthesized by somatic cells in response to the sex-inducer. Due to its characteristics, VCRP was speculated to be an extracellular second messenger from somatic cells to reproductive cells. Here a related ...
RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) catalyzes the removal of pyrophosphate from 5 triphosphorylated RNAs thereby initiating RNA degradation. The enzyme has originally been identified in bacteria but homologs are present in eukaryotes where they are thought to be located in plastids or mitochondria. A homolog of the bacterial RNA pyrophosphohydrolase is present in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggesting that Chlamydomonas RppH has a role in mRNA degradation in the chloroplast of the alga. The purpose of this project was to determine the localization of the RppH homologue in C. reinhardtii. Localization was investigated using two different constructs, a histidine-tagged version of the Chlamydomonas rppH and a histidine-tagged 5rppH-GFP construct.. A plasmid vector containing Chlamydomonas rppH-6xHN was introduced into C. reinhardtii by nuclear transformation. PCR, RT-PCR, sequencing, and DNA and RNA blotting techniques were used to indentify positive transformants at the DNA ...
Phototaxis is a behavior in which organisms move toward or away from the light source (positive or negative phototaxis, respectively). It is crucial for phototrophic microorganisms to inhabit under proper light conditions for phototaxis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii rapidly changes its swimming direction upon light illumination, and thus is a nice model organism for phototaxis research. Here we show two methods to assay Chlamydomonas phototaxis; one is a quick, easy and qualitative analysis, so-called the dish assay; and the other is a quantitative single-cell analysis.
We have isolated a crude nuclear preparation from the unicellular red alga Porphyridium aerugineum and investigated the structure of Porphyridium chromatin. Electrophoresis of deproteinized DNA fragments produced by micrococcal nuclease digestion of Porphyridium nuclei gives a typical ladder pattern, indicative of a repeating structure. The DNA repeat-length, calculated from plots of multimer length against multimer number, varies somewhat between different digestions, ranging from 160 to 180 base-pairs (average 173). We interpret this as evidence of heterogeneity in repeat-length; the calculated repeat-length depends on the extent of digestion because chromatin sub-populations with longer repeat-lengths are on average digested earlier. Polyacrylamide/sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis of basic proteins purified from Porphyridium nuclear preparations gives a pattern characteristic of core histones. Although our interpretation is complicated by some degradation, the result strongly ...
The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light ...
Phytophthora spp. de Bary are being increasingly recognised as pathogens that cause tree death, without necessarily having any clear understanding of how this happens. Suggested mechanisms include: extensive fine-root necrosis especially on wet or drought prone sites, leading to reduced water uptake, crown decline and death, e.g. Phytophthora quercina T. Jung infection of European oaks; root and stem cankers resulting from phloem invasion and cambial death, leading to death of basal buds and carbon starvation of the root system, e.g. Phytophthora alni Brasier & S.A. Kirk infection of alders; xylem invasion, leading to reduced conduction, hydraulic failure and death, e.g. Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man in t Veld infection of tanoaks; and hormonal imbalance and/or damage from toxins, e.g. Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands infection of eucalypts. These possible mechanisms are reviewed, together with different hypotheses of why trees die, and the predisposing environmental stresses that ...
Phytophthora and Pythium species are among the most aggressive plant pathogens, as they invade many economically important crops and forest trees. They secrete large amounts of 10 kDa proteins called elicitins that can act as elicitors of plant defence mechanisms. These proteins may also induce a hypersensitive response (HR) including plant cell necrosis, with different levels of toxicity depending on their pI. Recent studies showed that elicitins function as sterol carrier proteins. The crystallographic structure of the highly necrotic recombinant beta-cinnamomin (beta-CIN) from Phytophthora cinnamomi has been determined at 1.8 A resolution using the molecular-replacement method. beta-CIN has the same overall structure as beta-cryptogein (beta-CRY), an elicitin secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, although it shows a different surface electrostatic potential distribution. The protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallized in the triclinic space group with two monomers in the ...
High light (HL) stress adversely affects growth, productivity and viability of photosynthetic organisms. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system to study photosynthesis and light stress. Comparative proteomics of wild-type and two very high light (VHL)-resistant mutants, VHLR-S4 and VHLR-S9, revealed complex alterations in response to excess light. A twodimensional reference map of the soluble subproteome was constructed representing about 1500 proteins. A total of 83 proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Quantitative comparisons of 444 proteins showed 105 significantly changed proteins between wild type and mutants under different light conditions. Commonly, more proteins were decreased than increased, but different proteins were affected in each genotype. Proteins uniquely altered in either VHLR mutant may be involved in VHL resistance. Such candidate proteins similarly altered without light stress, thus possibly ...
Editors note: I first read about this in The Celestine Prophecy (awesome book, btw) back in 1997. A biological research team at Bielefeld University has made a groundbreaking discovery showing that plants can draw an alternative source of energy from other plants. This finding could also have a major impact on the future of bioenergy eventually providing the evidence to show that people draw energy from others in much the same way.. Members of Professor Dr. Olaf Kruses biological research team have confirmed for the first time that a plant, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, not only engages in photosynthesis, but also has an alternative source of energy: it can draw it from other plants. The research findings were released this week in the online journal Nature Communications published by the renowned journal Nature.. Flowers need water and light to grow and people are no different. Our physical bodies are like sponges, soaking up the environment. "This is exactly why there are certain ...
Welcome to the Phytophthora research lab in Corvallis. We combine basic tools from genomics, epidemiology, and bioinformatics, with translational research approaches to strategically address some of the fundamental challenges posed by plant diseases caused by the genus Phytophthora.. Read more ...
For questions about Volvox 2017, the Fourth International Volvox Conference, please send email to [email protected] ...
1N9L: Crystal Structures and Molecular Mechanism of a Light-Induced Signaling Switch: The Phot-LOV1 Domain from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
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Anti-Lhcb4 (CP29) Chlamydomonas reinhardti, Lhcb4, CP29, Lhcbm4 antibody , Lhcb4 | CP29 (Lhcb4) homolog, Chlamydomonas, Q93WD2, AS06 117
A xine-lib update is available for Gentoo Linux - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Gentoo Linux Security Advisory GLSA 200408-18 - - - -...
Zhang F, Prigge M, Beyrière F, Tsunoda SP, Mattis J, Yizhar O, Hegemann P, Deisseroth K. Red-shifted optogenetic excitation: a tool for fast neural control derived from Volvox carteri ...
BLUE GREEN ALGAE AS A COMPONENT OF INM. BLUE GREEN ALGAE AS COMPONENT OF INM. INTRODUCTION. Cyanobacteria (BGA) can be found in almost every conceivable environment. Slideshow 6677093 by athena-thompson
All algae need access to light and live in oxygenated water. There are more than 7,000 species of green algae, which live in a variety of...
Phytophthora is the #1 disease impacting soybean yields. Learn more about this menacing disease and how to protect your soybean crop and yields today.
Alphabetic Listing of Presenting Authors - R. If you have any questions or comments then please send an email to [email protected] ...
Algae can be removed using a variety of methods including algicides, algae eaters, and natural methods/treatments including algae eatin additions to your tank!
Growing algae can require a lot of time and water to grow. US researchers have now developed a way to grow algae in days instead of weeks.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox is modified during development or in response to external stimuli, like the sex-inducing pheromone. It has recently been demonstrated that a number of genes triggered by the sex-inducing pheromone are also inducible by wounding. By differential screening of a cDNA library, a novel gene was identified that is transcribed in response to the pheromone. Its gene product was characterized as an ECM glycoprotein with a striking feature: it exhibits a hydroxyproline content of 68% and therefore is an extreme member of the family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). HRGPs are known as constituents of higher plant ECMs and seem to function as structural barriers in defense responses. The Volvox HRGP is also found to be inducible by wounding. This indicates that the wound response scenarios of higher plants and multicellular green algae may be evolutionary related ...
BackgroundDiatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids.Methodology/Principal FindingsThe whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based
Like a strict parent, the mother centriole keeps order in the cell by telling other organelles where to sit, according to new work by Jessica Feldman, Wallace Marshall (University of California, San Francisco, CA), and Stefan Geimer (Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany).. Marshalls team is interested in what controls the intracellular geometry of organelle positioning. To address this topic, they focus on one organelle that is well-known for its specific positioning: the centriole.. The tethered pair of mother and daughter centrioles is the major component of the centrosome complex and also promotes the assembly of cilia. Thus cilia can act as a cell surface indicator of centriole positioning. The team used the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which normally has two cilia at its apex, to scan for mutants in which cilia were misplaced.. In certain misplaced cilia mutants, the fibers that normally tether mother and daughter centrioles were absent. The team found that whereas the ...
In September 2011, a Phytophthora sp. was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) grown commercially in hydroponic culture in a large production facility in southwest Michigan. Approximately 20% of the plants were affected, resulting in serious losses for the grower. Plants exhibited severe wilting and root and crown rot, with soft water-soaked lesions on the crown and dark lesions on the roots. Small pieces of root tissue with dark lesions were excised and plated onto potato dextrose agar and unclarified V8 agar plates amended with 25 ppm of benomyl, 100 ppm of ampicillin, 30 ppm of rifampicin, and 100 ppm of pentachloronitrobenzene. Isolates of a Phytophthora sp. were recovered from root tissue. Isolates produced sporangia abundantly in culture. Sporangia averaged 48 μm long × 34 μm wide and were ellipsoid to ovoid, occasionally obpyriform, and were nonpapillate and noncaducous. Distinct hyphal swellings were noted and chlamydospores were observed rarely in culture. The isolate used ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_taxonomy_of_the_genus_Phytophthora_d.html?id=u8bvAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe taxonomy of the genus Phytophthora de Bary ...
We identified a glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) protein, XEG1, produced by the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae that exhibits xyloglucanase and β-glucanase activity. It acts as an important virulence factor during P. sojae infection but also acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in soybean (Glycine max) and solanaceous species, where it can trigger defense responses including cell death. GH12 proteins occur widely across microbial taxa, and many of these GH12 proteins induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. The PAMP activity of XEG1 is independent of its xyloglucanase activity. XEG1 can induce plant defense responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. The perception of XEG1 occurs independently of the perception of ethylene-inducing xylanase. XEG1 is strongly induced in P. sojae within 30 min of infection of soybean and then slowly declines. Both silencing and overexpression of XEG1 in P. sojae severely reduced virulence. Many P. sojae RXLR effectors could suppress defense ...
Themann K., S. Werres, H.A. Diener, and R. Lüttmann. 2002. Epidemiology of Phytophthora spp. in water recycling systems of commercial nurseries. European Journal for Plant Pathology 108(4): 337-343 ...
Veja Foto de stock de Chlamydomonas Are Common Unicellular Green Algae With Two Flagella Sem. Encontre fotografias premium e de alta resolução na Getty Images.
Encystation in Phytophthora parasitica can be divided into 3 stages. In the first, the zoospores line their peripheries with flattened vesicles and fibrillar vacuoles in preparation for encystation. In the second stage, as the zoospores round up and shed their flagella, an initial wall is produced which takes the form of the mature cyst wall in thickness, but not in density. The participation of the flattened vesicles and fibrillar vacuoles in the formation of this initial wall is suggested by the disappearance of these organelles concomitant with wall formation. The third stage involves the maturation of the cyst wall and occurs only after dictyosomes produce vesicles which move to the cyst periphery and fuse to the plasmalemma.. Germ tubes are formed in direct and indirect germination and involve the evagination of the plasmalemma and cyst wall proximal to an accumulation of dictyosome-derived vesicles. These vesicles remain at the germ-tube tip as it extends. In indirect germination the germ ...
The unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can perceive light and respond by altering its swimming behavior. The eyespot is a specialized structure for sensing light, which is assembled de novo at every cell division from components located in two different cellular compartments. Photoreceptors and associated signal transduction components are localized in a discrete patch of the plasma membrane. This patch is tightly packed against an underlying sandwich of chloroplast membranes and carotenoid-filled lipid granules, which aids the cell in distinguishing light direction. In a prior screen for mutant strains with eyespot defects, the EYE2 locus was defined by the single eye2-1 allele. The mutant strain has no eyespot by light microscopy and has no organized carotenoid granule layers as judged by electron microscopy. Here we demonstrate that the eye2-1 mutant is capable of responding to light, although the strain is far less sensitive than wild type to low light intensities ...
One of the most destructive diseases of soybean is Phytophthora root and stem rot, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, which thrives in wet conditions and poorly drained soils. This disease can cause major damage to soybean yields resulting in economic losses. P. sojae has been successfully controlled by genetic resistance in soybean cultivars. Breeding for this resistance is critical to Ohio agriculture and business because of soybeans importance as an export, animal feed, and industrial product. Current methods for breeding for resistance to P. sojae involve time-consuming disease assays requiring a relatively large number of seed. Alternatively, molecular markers can be efficiently applied to an earlier generation of a single plant from large numbers of breeding lines. In addition, molecular markers can be used for the combination of multiple resistance genes that will provide a full spectrum of resistance against virulent P. sojae strains. Designing these markers begin with ...
The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. ...
The goal of our scientific work is the molecular analysis of the biogenesis of photosynthetic thylakoid membranes which represent one of the most complex energy-transducing membranes currently known. We especially ask the questions how the biogenesis process is organized in space, what the molecular working mode of assisting factors is and how these factors developed by evolutionary means.. A second aspect of our work concerns the transformation of a cyanobacterium into an organelle of the plant cell, namely the chloroplast. This "domestification" of a former free-living procaryote throughout evolution was enabled by the advention of an intracellular communication system harmonizing gene expression in the former cyanobacterium and its host. This system is based on regulatory RNA/protein compexes which we study by applying genetic and biochemical techniques in the unicellular model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. ...
The machine manufacturer Ålö AB, headquartered in Umeå, Sweden, makes multi-million (SEK) investment in new robotic technology. In connection with the investment, in what could be Swedens most modern robotic facility outside the automotive industry, Ålö chose to invest in the production monitoring system AXXOS OEE.. "We are making a comprehensive upgrade to our overall production. To remain at the forefront in a competitive market, we will measure, monitor and continuously improve the production in the new equipment with AXXOS OEE." says Joakim Lundin, Project Manager, Global Manufacturing Engineering, Ålö.. Initially the production monitoring system will be installed on four robotic cells for welding, with 9 measuring points. There are plans to install AXXOS OEE on more machines in the facility.. "Its exciting to get the opportunity to collaborate with a progressive company such as Ålö. With AXXOS OEE they will quickly acquire a good basis for improvement strategies and we ...
In den Jahren 1955 bis 1957 wurden 383 Kulturkartoffelsorten auf ihr Verhalten gegenüber 15 Rassen der Phytophthora infestans geprüft und dabei festgestellt, daß 61 Sorten das Gen R1und 7 Sorten...
The genomes uncoupled 4 (GUN4) protein stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis by increasing the activity of Mg-chelatase, the enzyme that inserts magnesium into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. One of the roles of GUN4 is in binding PPIX and Mg-PPIX. In eukaryotes, GUN4 also participates in plastid-to-nucleus signalling, although the mechanism for this is unclear. Here, the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic GUN4, from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is presented. The structure is in broad agreement with those of previously solved cyanobacterial structures. Most interestingly, conformational divergence is restricted to several loops which cover the porphyrin-binding cleft. The conformational dynamics suggested by this ensemble of structures lend support to the understanding of how GUN4 binds PPIX or Mg-PPIX.
Several plant pathogenic oomycetes have been under investigation using modern molecular approaches. Genome sequencing and annotations are underway or near to completion for some of the species....
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA
Flagellar adhesion of the green alga Chlamydomonas to surfaces is light-dependent, as discovered by O. Bäumchen of the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization.
S.C.Whisson S.C.WhissonS.C.Whisson S.WhissonS. C.https://api.elsevier.com/content/author/author_id/6603339400 (1993) An assessment of genetic relationships between members of the phytophthora megasperma complex and phytophthora vignae using molecular markers. Australian Systematic Botany, 6 4: 295-308. doi:10.1071/SB9930295 ...
PIP binding interface in oomycete RXLR effector AVR3a reqd for stability in host cells to modulate plant immunity. http://t.co/SRLoU9Fn # ...
1FCT: NMR structures of ferredoxin chloroplastic transit peptide from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii promoted by trifluoroethanol in aqueous solution.
... Learn about the reported side effects, related class drugs, and how these medications will affect your daily lifestyle. Visit cvs.com for more details.
This model does not account for two published observations: An mt+ strain carrying the MID gene transposed to an autosome differentiates as minus, as do mt+ cells transformed with the MID gene, even though neither possesses a copy of the MTD1 gene (Ferris and Goodenough 1997). To reconcile these observations with the results reported here, we are led to propose that plus gametes express a system, the "MTD1-equivalent system," that is functionally equivalent to the "MTD1 system" but achieves this outcome without requiring the Mtd1 protein itself. When MID is introduced into a plus background, the MTD1-equivalent system enables sufficiently high MID expression to allow transformants to undergo minus differentiation, albeit success is usually incomplete (see results and Ferris and Goodenough 1997), meaning that the MTD1-equivalent system is not repressible by Mid. Importantly, at least one essential gene in the posited plus MTD-equivalent system must be resident in the MT+ locus. If the system were ...
The unicellular green alga is becoming an invaluable super model tiffany livingston system in plant biology. presented into our algal appearance strains bring about recombinant protein deposition degrees of up to 0.25?% of the full total cellular protein. Furthermore, in ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Phytophthora is a type of water mold, also know as an oomycete. Just like pythium, phytophthora is an exceptionally aggressive fungus that causes both economic
Some travel awards will be granted to students and postdocs attending the Fourth International Volvox Conference (Volvox 2017) in St. Louis. Applications are due July 1, 2017. If you are planning to attend the meeting as a student or postdoc, you really should apply.. The application procedure is not too onerous, basically fill out a form and email it in. The size and number of awards are a bit vague, but if years past are any indication, theyll cover a substantial portion of the costs:. ...
Buy REVOLOG Volvox Special-Effect, Color Negative Film (35mm Roll Film, 36 Exposures) features Special-Effect, Color Negative Film, Daylight-Balanced. Review REVOLOG Roll Film, Film
Joint EMBO Journal paper by IST Austria and Vienna Medical University groups on engineered cell surface receptors activated by light. Small algal protein domains serve as synthetic light sensors in human cells. First application ...
Nakamura Soichi , Itoh Shigeru , Kuroiwa Tsuneyoshi Plant and cell physiology 27(5), 775-784, 1986 CiNii 外部リンク 機関リポジトリ 被引用文献7件 ...
Invitrogen MAX Efficiency Transformation Reagent for Algae facilitates high efficiency delivery of exogneous DNA into multiple strains of Chlamydomonas.
A research project, led by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) has uncovered hundreds of genes of a tiny green alga.
The GNOME Structured File Library is an I/O library that can read and write common file types and handle structured formats that provide file-system-in-a-file semantics ...
The GNOME Structured File Library is an I/O library that can read and write common file types and handle structured formats that provide file-system-in-a-file semantics ...
A new security update has been released for Gentoo Linux - Streamripper: Multiple remote buffer overflows. Here the announcement:...
Pool Algaecides and Pool Algae Control chemicals for green pool water and black algae in pools. Over a dozen pool algae treatments to target specific algae types by strain or severity.
Ok so I thought I had red algae in ,y tank but it turns out to be black beard algae so what should I do I cant scrubb.daily I am going away for about a week the lights will be out for 3 days and no.food but after that they will be fine I will tell my mom not to turn lights on but would that help I am getting otos after I get back, what do I do?!
That may sound like a stupid question, but really, where does it come from? Does it sponteanously grow if conditions are condusive? Is it airborne? Can it be transfered from leaves that fall in? No I dont have algae, just curious.
IFT122兔多克隆抗体(ab111838)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
IFT43兔多克隆抗体(ab121195)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Potato late blight, caused by the destructive Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a major threat to global food security [2]. All late blight resistance genes identified to date belong to the coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat class of intracellular immune receptors. However, virulent races of the pathogen quickly evolved to evade recognition by these cytoplasmic immune receptors [3]. Here we demonstrate that the receptor-like protein ELR (elicitin response) from the wild potato Solanum microdontum mediates extracellular recognition of the elicitin domain, a molecular pattern that is conserved in Phytophthora species. ELR associates with the immune co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 and mediates broad-spectrum recognition of elicitin proteins from several Phytophthora species, including four diverse elicitins from P. infestans. Transfer of ELR into cultivated potato resulted in enhanced resistance to P. infestans. Pyramiding cell surface pattern recognition receptors with ...
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also found that long- and short-flagella mutants that regenerate normally require longer and ...
The potential of increasing disease problems through the use of recycled irrigation water in horticultural operations is a serious concern, yet basic research on waterborne plant pathogens in Virginia is lacking. In this work seasonal fluctuations and locations of Pythiaceae in a recycled water irrigation system at a container nursery were determined. Pythium spp. were recovered more frequently and in greater numbers than Phytophthora spp. Species of Phytophthora recovered in filtering assays were identified as P. capsici, P. citricola, P. citrophthora, P. cryptogea, P. drechsleri, and P. nicotianae. P. cryptogea and P. drechsleri were the only Phytophthora spp. recovered from baits placed on the surface of the irrigation reservoir, whereas a greater diversity of species was recovered from baits placed at depths. Hymexazol-amended medium was found to have limitations in recovery of Phytophthora spp. In pathogenicity tests, P. cactorum, P. capsici, P. citrophthora, and P. nicotianae caused ...
To date, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that target proteins to nuclei in oomycetes have not been defined, but have been assumed to be the same as in higher eukaryotes. Here, we use the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae as a model to investigate these sequences in oomycetes. By establishing a reliable in vivo NLS assay based on confocal microscopy, we found that many canonical monopartite and bipartite classical NLSs (cNLSs) mediated nuclear import poorly in P. sojae. We found that efficient localization of P. sojae nuclear proteins by cNLSs requires additional basic amino acids at distal sites or collaboration with other NLSs. We found that several representatives of another well-characterized NLS, proline-tyrosine NLS (PY-NLS) also functioned poorly in P. sojae. To characterize PY-NLSs in P. sojae, we experimentally defined the residues required by functional PY-NLSs in three P. sojae nuclear-localized proteins. These results showed that functional P. sojae PY-NLSs include an additional cluster
Evidence for Small RNAs Homologous to Effector-Encoding Genes and Transposable Elements in the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Glucans, with the (1-3)-b-glucosidic linkage as major feature, are present in most of the higher plants, in many lower plants, as well as in microorganisms (Stone and Clarke, 1992). The synthesis of (1-3)-b-glucan in vivo is catalysed by the enzyme (1-3)-b-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34; UDP-glucose:1,3-b-D-glucan 3-b-D-glucosyl transferase) using UDP-glucose as substrate. The (1-3)-b-glucan synthase was characterised in a number of fungi and plants, but not much work was done with oomycetes (Stone and Clarke, 1992), even though one of the earliest successful in vitro assays for glucan synthase activity was done using Phytophthora cinnamomi (Wang and Bartnicki-Garcia, 1976, Selitrennikoff 1995). In this work, the glucan synthase of the oomycete Phytophthora sojae was characterised, solubilized, and partially purified, and the cDNA for a protein co-purifying with the glucan synthase activity was cloned. The glucan synthase of P. sojae had several features that distinguish it from what is known for ...
Citation. Smith SR, Glé C, Abbriano RM, Traller JC, Davis A, Trentacoste E, Vernet M, Allen AE, Hildebrand M. Transcript Level Coordination of Carbon Pathways During Silicon Starvation-induced Lipid Accumulation in the Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana.. The New Phytologist. 2016 Feb 04;. External Citation. Abstract. Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid ...
S.P. Mayfield, P. Lee, P. Pettersson, J. Marìn-Navarro, A. Manuell, M. Muto, M. Tran We have developed a system for expressing recombinant proteins, including human therapeutic proteins, in the chloroplast of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Expression of therapeutic proteins in eukaryotic algae offers several advantages over more traditional protein expression systems. Algae are efficient at producing complex mammalian proteins, stable transgenic lines can be generated in a few weeks, and algal systems can be scaled to high levels for a fraction of the cost of traditional fermentation systems.. We have expressed several recombinant proteins in algae, including human monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies are complex multiprotein molecules that are difficult to express in simple expression systems and expensive to produce in mammalian cell culture. We have had good success in producing these complex proteins in algal chloroplasts. We have also expressed eukaryotic protein toxins, ...
Cilia and flagella are cell surface organelles with microtubule-based axonemal cores. Although these organelles have been known to biologists for centuries, only in the last five years has it been recognized that cilia are crucial for mammalian embryonic development as well as for the function of multiple adult organs (Pan et al., 2005). Many potential ciliary proteins have been identified in various species in recent years using biochemical, comparative genomic and proteomic methods. Nevertheless, the spectrum of factors required for the formation and/or function of cilia, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cilia biogenesis, have yet to be fully revealed.. Two multiprotein complexes, the intraflagellar transport (IFT, complex A and B) complexes, are present in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002). The IFT complexes move within the flagella, suggesting that they are likely to be involved in the transportation of molecules inside the ...
The phylogenetic position of Phytophthora infestans relative to two other stramenopiles is shown in the following tree, which was constructed using the derived protein sequences of the mitochondrial nad4L genes. The bootstrap support (in percentage) clearly indicates that Phytophthora is not a member of the eufungi. However, the position of deeply rooted species within the stramenopiles proved tenuous and would best be examined in conjunction with the analysis of much longer protein sequences. Reference: Chesnick JM, Tuxbury K, Coleman A, Burger G and Lang BF (1996 ...
RNA-seq of life stages of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans reveals dynamic changes in metabolic, signal transduction, and pathogenesis genes and a major role for calcium signaling in development. 2017. BMC ...
Despite the importance of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in the global sulphur cycle and climate regulation, the biological pathways underpinning its synthesis in marine phytoplankton remain poorly understood. The intracellular concentration of DMSP increases with increased salinity, increased light intensity and nitrogen starvation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. We used these conditions to investigate DMSP synthesis at the cellular level via analysis of enzyme activity, gene expression and proteome comparison. The activity of the key sulphur assimilatory enzyme, adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate reductase was not coordinated with increasing intracellular DMSP concentration. Under all three treatments coordination in the expression of sulphur assimilation genes was limited to increases in sulphite reductase transcripts. Similarly, proteomic 2D gel analysis only revealed an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase following increases in DMSP concentration. Our findings suggest that increased
The invasive sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has emerged repeatedly since its first detection in the 1990s in the United States and Europe. This paper will explore recent research by several groups published in the review by Grünwald et al. (Grünwald, N.J.; Garbelotto, M.; Goss, E.M.; Heungens, K.; Prospero, S. 2012. Emergence of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Trends in Microbiology. 20: 131-138.), documenting the patterns observed and mechanisms inferred to explain these patterns. Briefly, four distinct clonal lineages are currently recognized, NA1, NA2, EU1, and EU2 named consecutively after the continent of origin on which they were first found, North America (NA) and Europe (EU). While the three clonal lineages NA1, NA2, and EU1 are found in Canada and the United States, Europe, to date, has the EU1 and EU2 clonal lineage. Detailed phylogeographic analysis has documented that the introduction of the NA1, NA2, and EU1 clonal lineages originated from ...
Pathogenic bacteria, such as multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which are not susceptible to most conventional antibiotics, are causing increased concern in healthcare institutions worldwide. The discovery of novel antibacterial compounds for biomedical exploitation is one avenue that is being pursued to combat these problematic bacteria. Marine eukaryotic microalgae are known to produce numerous useful products but have attracted little attention in the search for novel antibiotic compounds. Cell lysates of the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, have been reported to display antibacterial activity in vitro, but the compounds responsible have not been fully identified. In this paper, using column chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we report the isolation of an antibacterial fatty acid. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed it to be the polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). ...
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species. Our growth studies indicate that solanidine, the nonglycosylated precursor of the potato SGAs a-chaconine and a-solanine, has a greater physiological impact than its glycosylated forms. All of these compounds were incorporated into the mycelium, but only solanidine could strongly inhibit the growth of P. infestans in liquid culture. Genes encoding several ...
en] Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution curves showed a positive relationship between the apparent yield of photosynthetic linear electron transport and the number of active proton-pumping sites in mitochondria. Although no significant alterations of the quantitative relationships between major photosynthetic complexes were found in the mutants, 77 K fluorescence spectra showed a preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) compared with wild type, which was indicative of a shift toward state 2. This effect was correlated with high levels of phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides, indicating the preferential association of light-harvesting complex II with PSI. The transition to state 1 occurred in untreated wild-type cells exposed to PSI light or in 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated cells exposed ...

Algal Protein Expression | Thermo Fisher Scientific - USAlgal Protein Expression | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

GeneArt Algae protein expression kits for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Synechococcus elongatus; genetic modification and ... Our most recent GeneArt products for algae are optimized for high levels of protein expression with dual protein tags for ... Vectors optimized for protein expression Invitrogen GeneArt vectors facilitate rapid directional cloning of synthetic genes or ... The GeneArt Cryopreservation Kit for Algae can be used to preserve algal strains and clones for storage at -80°C for years, ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-expression/algal-protein-expression.html

Algal Proteins Market Competition by Company, Countries, Application, Chlorella, Spirulina 2018 | Expert HeraldAlgal Proteins Market Competition by Company, Countries, Application, Chlorella, Spirulina 2018 | Expert Herald

Algal Proteins Market, Algal Proteins Industry, Algal Proteins Market Analysis, Algal Proteins Industry Analysis, Algal ... The Algal Proteins Market analysis of market situations, growth drivers, key players etc. is provided for global and regional ... The Algal Proteins market report includes in-depth profiles of following key players in the market like The Nutrex Hawaii, ... In short, in this report, the global Algal Proteins market is valued at USD XX million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD XX ...
more infohttps://expertherald.com/algal-proteins-market-competition-by-company-countries-application-chlorella-spirulina-2018/

What do plants and algal cells need to produce proteins?What do plants and algal cells need to produce proteins?

... Where do plants and again cells get this supple from? THANKS!!! ...
more infohttps://www.jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1480166146

Phys.org - oxygen radicalsPhys.org - oxygen radicals

Green hydrogen production using algal proteins. We are increasingly thinking about hydrogen as a successor of crude oil-for ... As any human biology text will tell you, enzymes in the stomach and intestine break down proteins that are locked into almost ... Aging in part is the result of oxidative damage to proteins caused by free radicals, a byproduct of interaction of our bodies ... The proteins amino acid building blocks are then transported to the bodys ... ...
more infohttps://phys.org/tags/oxygen+radicals/

MEDLINE Data Changes - 2011. NLM Technical Bulletin. 2010 Nov-DecMEDLINE Data Changes - 2011. NLM Technical Bulletin. 2010 Nov-Dec

Algal Proteins Algal DNA Algal RNA *Livestock and Pets are now separate descriptors treed under Animals, Domestic. Note that ... Treed under Eukaryota and coordinated as appropriate with DNA; RNA; or Proteins:. Phaeophyta ET: Algae, Brown Chrysophyta ET: ... Treed under Plants and coordinated as appropriate with Plant DNA; Plant RNA; or Plant Proteins:. Chlorophyta. ET: Algae, Green ...
more infohttps://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/nd10/nd10_medline_data_changes_2011.html

Males evolved from the dominant isogametic mating type.  - PubMed - NCBIMales evolved from the dominant isogametic mating type. - PubMed - NCBI

Algal Proteins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Research Materials. *NBRP resources - National ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174904?dopt=Abstract

Microorganisms found in salt flats could offer new path to green hydrogen fuelMicroorganisms found in salt flats could offer new path to green hydrogen fuel

Phys.org) -A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of ... Algal protein gives boost to electrochemical water splitting. December 19, 2011 Photosynthesis is considered the Holy Grail ... Phys.org) -A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of ... Proton pumps are proteins that typically straddle a cellular membrane and transfer protons from inside the cell to the ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2013-07-microorganisms-salt-flats-path-green.html

A. Jonathan Shaw, Professor of Biology and Curator of Bryophytes, Duke HerbariumA. Jonathan Shaw, Professor of Biology and Curator of Bryophytes, Duke Herbarium

Adenosine Kinase • Algal Proteins • Alleles • Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis • Antarctic Regions • Arabidopsis ...
more infohttp://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/Herbarium/brophytes/shaw

Identification of putative voltage-dependent Ca2+-permeable channels involved in cryptogein-induced Ca2+ transients and defense...Identification of putative voltage-dependent Ca2+-permeable channels involved in cryptogein-induced Ca2+ transients and defense...

0/Algal Proteins; 0/Calcium Channels; 0/DNA Primers; 0/cryptogein protein, Phytophthora cryptogea; 7440-70-2/Calcium ... Algal Proteins / pharmacology*. Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Calcium / physiology*. Calcium Channels / chemistry, drug ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Identification-putative-voltage-dependent-Ca2/15081414.html

iron oxideiron oxide

Algal protein gives boost to solar hydrogen generation. By Damir Beciri. One Comment22 December 2011 ... US used nature as inspiration to optimize the process by developing iron oxide electrodes that are conjugated with a protein ...
more infohttp://www.robaid.com/tag/iron-oxide

Foods | Free Full-Text | Bioactive PeptidesFoods | Free Full-Text | Bioactive Peptides

Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production. Choose your preferred view mode. Please select ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides) ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/6/5/32

Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants | SpringerLinkAgricultural uses of plant biostimulants | SpringerLink

2010), and algal protein (De Lucia and Vecchietti 2012). Several are available as commercial products: e.g. SiaptonR or ... Protein-based products can be divided into two major categories: protein hydrolysates consisting of a mixture of peptides and ... These include the twenty structural amino acids involved in the synthesis of proteins as well as non-protein amino acids which ... and transporters and genes that code for proteins that are regulatory in nature such as transcription factors, protein kinases ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/S11104-014-2131-8

Chlorophyll-binding proteins revisited - a multigenic family of light-harvesting and stress proteins from a brown algal...Chlorophyll-binding proteins revisited - a multigenic family of light-harvesting and stress proteins from a brown algal...

Three-dimensional modeling of two LI818 proteins revealed features common to all LI818 proteins that are likely to interfere ... of phylogenetic trees show an independent origin in different eukaryotic lineages or a green algal origin of LI818 proteins to ... In the light of this finding, we examined the possibility that LI818 proteins may have originated in a chlorophyll c/ ... although an origin of LI818 proteins in a common ancestor of red and green algae cannot be ruled out. ...
more infohttps://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-10-365

Incubated Technologies - Synthetic Genomics, Inc.Incubated Technologies - Synthetic Genomics, Inc.

A recently launched start-up company is developing food proteins and oils from non‐engineered algal strains developed by ... Protein-based therapeutics (biologics) generate over $100 billion per year in sales and are primarily manufactured from ... SGI discovered and classically improved algae strains that ferment sugars into high quality nutritional proteins and oils. ... The world needs alternative and more sustainable vegetarian food protein sources. ...
more infohttps://syntheticgenomics.com/incubated-technologies/

Study links seabird deaths to soap-like foam produced by red-tide algae - ScienceBlog.comStudy links seabird deaths to soap-like foam produced by red-tide algae - ScienceBlog.com

An algal protein produced the slimy foam that fouled the birds feathers. Its effects were similar to those of soap and other ... "The problems we traditionally associate with harmful algal blooms are caused by toxins produced by the algae. In this case, it ... Wave action contributed to the problem by breaking up the cells of dying algae and churning the dissolved protein into the ... "The waves act like a blender, churning up the cells and the protein." ...
more infohttps://scienceblog.com/18771/study-links-seabird-deaths-to-soap-like-foam-produced-by-red-tide-algae/

Study links seabird deaths to soap-like foam produced by red-... (	 In late 2007 hundreds of dead and st...)Study links seabird deaths to soap-like foam produced by red-... ( In late 2007 hundreds of dead and st...)

The problems we traditionally associate with harmful algal blooms are...Although this red tide bloom was nontoxic it was very ... An algal protein produced the slimy foam that fouled the birds feathers. Its effects were similar to those of soap and other ... "The problems we traditionally associate with harmful algal blooms are caused by toxins produced by the algae. In this case, it ... Wave action contributed to the problem by breaking up the cells of dying algae and churning the dissolved protein into the ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Study-links-seabird-deaths-to-soap-like-foam-produced-by-red-tide-algae-7186-1/

New neurons take baby steps in the adult brain ( In experiments with mice scientists fr...)New neurons take baby steps in the adult brain ( In experiments with mice scientists fr...)

Algal protein in worm neurons allows remote control of behavior by light. 7. Picking apart how neurons learn. 8. Researchers ... and to make them glow with a green protein to ease their identification in the adult brain. Ge measured the electrical output ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news/New-neurons-take-baby-steps-in-the-adult-brain-1852-1/

Hydrogen | PearltreesHydrogen | Pearltrees

Genetic modification gives major boost to algal hydrogen production. Self-contained prototype brings artificial photosynthesis ... Algal protein provides more efficient way to split water and produce hydrogen. Alternative tech could lead to cheaper fuel ... Genetic modification gives major boost to algal hydrogen production. Hydrogen has the potential to be a clean and sustainable ...
more infohttp://www.pearltrees.com/phbree/hydrogen/id2905609

Kajikawa M[au] - PubMed - NCBIKajikawa M[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Algal Protein Kinase, Triacylglycerol Accumulation Regulator 1, Modulates Cell Viability and Gametogenesis in Carbon/Nitrogen- ... A rice PHD-finger protein OsTITANIA, is a growth regulator that functions through elevating expression of transporter genes for ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Kajikawa+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Enlightening cancer cellsEnlightening cancer cells

Small algal protein domains serve as synthetic light sensors in human cells. First application ... ... Small algal protein domains serve as synthetic light sensors in human cells. First application of optogenetics to cancer ... the dimerization step and subsequently cell signaling can now be turned on and off by light as the algal proteins sense light ... Medical Xpress)-Every living cells surface has a protein-embedded membrane thats covered in polysaccharide chains - a literal ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-07-enlightening-cancer-cells.html

Medical Xpress - light sensorsMedical Xpress - light sensors

Small algal protein domains serve as synthetic light sensors in human cells. First application ... ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/light+sensors/
  • Some microalgal sources present a protein content higher than conventional animal or plant sources, e.g. the protein content of Spirulina paltensis is 65% higher than that of dried skimmed milk (36%), soy flour (37%), chicken (24%), fish (24%), beef (22%) and peanuts (26%) (Moorhead et al. (uliege.be)
  • The present invention provides the method and means for an efficient isolation of membrane-bound proteins from biological samples, e.g. in samples from raw or processed plant material, preferably defatted plant seed meal such as canola m. (sumobrain.com)
  • Geranium viscosissimum displayed a capability to digest and absorb the 14C-labeled algal protein placed on the sticky trichomes that the plant possesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are macromolecules with a complex chemical structure, and this complexity is the basis of their multiple physiological, morphological, and technological uses. (uliege.be)
  • 1 The search for new protein sources to supplement the existing conventional sources in order to fill the so called "protein gap" has been the route of inspiration for many scientists for years. (uliege.be)
  • Despite the high protein content and the presence of other valuable substances in microalgal biomass, microalgae mass production is still at its embryonic level. (uliege.be)
  • 2009), in addition to its high protein content, there is still much to be done in terms of algacultural implementation in order to make this foodstuff available at an affordable cost. (uliege.be)
  • 5 In this review, emphasis will be placed on some of the microalgae species that are currently being industrially produced and/or those that present a relatively high protein content. (uliege.be)
  • The world needs alternative and more sustainable vegetarian food protein sources. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • 3 Microalgae have been identified as one of the most reliable sources of protein and were a source of interest to the majority of those involved in agricultural and food domains during the second half of the twentieth century. (uliege.be)
  • Phys.org) -A protein found in the membranes of ancient microorganisms that live in desert salt flats could offer a new way of using sunlight to generate environmentally friendly hydrogen fuel, according to a new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory. (phys.org)
  • There is therefore a need for the mass production of microalgae to be boosted by public and private institutions in order to avoid protein shortages. (uliege.be)
  • In this review article, the global potential for the use of microalgae and the protein content of a number of microalgae is examined with a brief description of the microalgae species. (uliege.be)
  • As any human biology text will tell you, enzymes in the stomach and intestine break down proteins that are locked into almost every bite we eat. (phys.org)
  • The Algal Proteins market report provides this market data from 2013 to 2025. (expertherald.com)
  • For example, new algal proteins identified in our sequence data are being used to investigate how the mammalian brain works. (rdmag.com)
  • Three-dimensional modeling of two LI818 proteins revealed features common to all LI818 proteins that are likely to interfere with their capacity to bind chlorophyll b and lutein, but may enable binding of chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Manufacturing cost structure of the Algal Proteins is analyzed with Manufacturing Cost , Raw Materials cost, Labour Cost etc. which will help buyer for deep understand current status of the Algal Proteins market. (expertherald.com)