Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)
A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
An adrenergic neuron-blocking drug similar in effects to GUANETHIDINE. It is also noteworthy in being a substrate for a polymorphic cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Persons with certain isoforms of this enzyme are unable to properly metabolize this and many other clinically important drugs. They are commonly referred to as having a debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase polymorphism.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
The period during a surgical operation.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
Excision of the uterus.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
The period following a surgical operation.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Behavioral and physiological effects of remifentanil and alfentanil in healthy volunteers. (1/235)

BACKGROUND: The subjective and psychomotor effects of remifentanil have not been evaluated. Accordingly, the authors used mood inventories and psychomotor tests to characterize the effects of remifentanil in healthy, non-drug-abusing volunteers. Alfentanil was used as a comparator drug. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in which they received an infusion of saline, remifentanil, or alfentanil for 120 min. The age- and weight-adjusted infusions (determined with STANPUMP, a computer modeling software package) were given to achieve three predicted constant plasma levels for 40 min each of remifentanil (0.75, 1.5, and 3 ng/ml) and alfentanil (16, 32, and 64 ng/ml). Mood forms and psychomotor tests were completed, and miosis was assessed, during and after the infusions. In addition, analgesia was tested at each dose level using a cold-pressor test. RESULTS: Remifentanil had prototypic micro-like opioid subjective effects, impaired psychomotor performance, and produced analgesia. Alfentanil at the dose range tested had more mild effects on these measures, and the analgesia data indicated that a 40:1 potency ratio, rather than the 20:1 ratio we used, may exist between remifentanil and alfentanil. A psychomotor test administered 60 min after the remifentanil infusion was discontinued showed that the volunteers were still impaired, although they reported feeling no drug effects. CONCLUSIONS: The notion that the pharmacodynamic effects of remifentanil are extremely short-lived after the drug is no longer administered must be questioned given our findings that psychomotor effects were still apparent 1 h after the infusion was discontinued.  (+info)

Balanced pre-emptive analgesia: does it work? A double-blind, controlled study in bilaterally symmetrical oral surgery. (2/235)

We studied 32 patients undergoing bilateral symmetrical lower third molar surgery under general anaesthesia to determine if the combined effects of pre-emptive local anaesthetic block using 0.5% bupivacaine, together with i.v. tenoxicam and alfentanil had any benefits over postoperative administration. Patients acted as their own controls and were allocated randomly to have surgery start on one side, the second side always being the pre-emptive side. Difference in pain intensity between the two sides was determined using visual analogue scales completed by each individual at 6 h, and at 1, 3 and 6 days after operation. A long-form McGill pain questionnaire was also used to assess difference in pain intensity between the two sides on the morning after surgery. There was no significant difference in pain intensity at any time after surgery. Our findings indicate that the combined use of pre-emptive analgesia from 0.5% bupivacaine, tenoxicam and alfentanil did not reduce postoperative pain intensity in patients undergoing molar exodontia.  (+info)

Recirculatory and compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling of alfentanil in pigs: the influence of cardiac output. (3/235)

BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is likely to influence the pharmacokinetics of anesthetic drugs and should be accounted for in pharmacokinetic models. The influence of CO on the pharmacokinetic parameters of alfentanil in pigs was evaluated using compartmental and recirculatory models. METHODS: Twenty-four premedicated pigs were evaluated during halothane (0.6-2%) anesthesia. They were assigned randomly to one of three groups. One group served as control. In the other groups, the baseline CO was decreased or increased by 40% by pharmacologic intervention (propranolol or dobutamine). Boluses of alfentanil (2 mg) and indocyanine green (25 mg) were injected into the right atrium. Blood samples were taken for 150 min from the right atrium and aortic root. Arterial concentration-time curves of indocyanine green and alfentanil were analyzed using compartmental models (two-stage and mixed-effects approach) and a recirculatory model, which can describe lung uptake and early distribution. RESULTS: The CO of individual pigs varied from 1.33 to 6.44 l/min. Three-compartmental modeling showed that CO is a determinant of the central compartment volume (V1, r2 = 0.54), fast peripheral compartment volume (V2, r2 = 0.29), steady state distribution volume (Vss, r2 = 0.29), fast distribution clearance (Cl12, r2 = 0.39), and elimination clearance (Cl10, r2 = 0.51). Recirculatory modeling showed that CO is a determinant of total distribution volume (r2 = 0.48), elimination clearance (r2 = 0.54), and some distribution clearances. The pulmonary distribution volume was independent of CO. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac output markedly influences the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in pigs. Therefore, accounting for CO enhances the predictive value of pharmacokinetic models of alfentanil.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (4/235)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (5/235)

We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone.  (+info)

Women emerge from general anesthesia with propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide faster than men. (6/235)

BACKGROUND: Recovery from general anesthesia is governed by pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors. Gender has not previously been recognized as a factor influencing the time to emergence from general anesthesia. METHODS: This multicenter study was originally designed to measure the effects of the bispectral index on intraoperative anesthetic management and patient recovery. We compared the wake-up and recovery times of 274 adults after propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to have the titration of propofol performed with or without the use of bispectral index monitoring. Specific guidelines were given for the titration of drugs. The aim in all cases was to provide a safe anesthetic with the fastest possible recovery. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in propofol dose, time to eye opening, and response to verbal command when the anesthetic was titrated using the bispectral index. Unexpectedly, gender proved to be a highly significant independent predictor for recovery time. Women woke significantly faster than men: the time from end of anesthesia to eye opening was 7.05 versus 11.22 min, P < 0.05, and response to verbal command was 8.12 versus 11.67 min, P < 0.05. These differences were significant at all four study sites and in each treatment group. Men consistently had prolonged recovery times compared to women, P < 0.001. There was no difference in the dose of anesthetic used between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be an important variable in recovery from general anesthesia. These findings may explain the increased reported incidence of awareness in women (three times more frequent) and support the need to include gender as a variable in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of anesthetic drugs.  (+info)

Bone marrow harvesting using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) cream, local anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil. (7/235)

Bone marrow harvesting (BMH) was performed on 40 consecutive allogeneic or autologous donors using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics), local anaesthesia (LA) and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil (PCA-A). The effect of alkalinizing the LA solution on reducing pain during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA was also investigated. EMLA 10 g with occlusive dressing was applied to the harvest sites at least 60 min before BMH. The PCA device was programmed to deliver an intravenous loading dose of 15 microg/kg alfentanil, followed by a background alfentanil infusion of 0.05 microg/kg/min. Demand dose was 4 microg/kg and lockout time was 3 min. Donors were randomized to receive either alkalinized (n = 19) or non-alkalinized (n=21) LA solution (lignocaine 1% with 1:100000 adrenaline). While post-operative nausea and vomiting were the only side-effects, all donors in both groups reported satisfactory pain scores during LA infiltration and satisfactory overall intra-operative comfort scores. They completed BMH using either regimen successfully, found this technique acceptable and would recommend this form of anaesthesia to others. Alkalinizing the LA solution did not significantly improve the pain scores during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA. In conclusion, BMH can be performed safely using EMLA, LA and PCA-A without major complications.  (+info)

Determination of the potency of remifentanil compared with alfentanil using ventilatory depression as the measure of opioid effect. (8/235)

BACKGROUND: Remifentanil is a new opioid with properties similar to other mu-specific agonists. To establish its pharmacologic profile relative to other known opioids, it is important to determine its potency. This study investigated the relative potency of remifentanil compared with alfentanil. METHODS: Thirty young healthy males were administered double-blind remifentanil or alfentanil intravenously for 180 min using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Depression of ventilation was assessed by the minute ventilatory response to 7.5% CO2 administered via a "bag in the box" system. The target concentration of the study drug was adjusted to obtain 40-70% depression of baseline minute ventilation. Multiple blood samples were obtained during and following the infusion. The concentration-effect relationship of each drug was modeled, and the concentration needed to provide a 50% depression of ventilation (EC50) was determined. RESULTS: Only 11 subjects in each drug group completed the study; however, there were sufficient data in 28 volunteers to model their EC50 values. The EC50 (mean and 95% confidence interval) for depression of minute ventilation with remifentanil was 1.17 (0.85-1.49) ng/ml and the EC50 for alfentanil was 49.4 (32.4-66.5) ng/ml. CONCLUSION: Based on depression of the minute ventilatory response to 7.5% CO2, remifentanil is approximately 40 (26-65) times more potent than alfentanil when remifentanil and alfentanil whole-blood concentrations are compared. As alfentanil is usually measured as a plasma concentration, remifentanil is approximately 70 (41-104) times more potent than alfentanil when remifentanil whole-blood concentration is compared with alfentanil plasma concentration. This information should be used when performing comparative studies between remifentanil and other opioids.  (+info)

Effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascular responses to induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in the ...
The effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure during anaesthesia were investigated in 50 consecutive patients in a double-blind controlled trial. Both drugs produced a significant reduction in intraocular pressure (p less than 0.01)
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To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
The effects of alfentanil on the midazolam dose-response curve for hypnosis was studied with response to the verbal command as an end point in 95 patients. The analgesic effect of alfentanil was studied by measuring the threshold for pain caused by pressure on the trapezius muscle with the use of a dolorimeter in 21 patients. The study was randomized, double-blind, and performed on the unpremedicated patients with ASA physical status I or II. Alfentanil was found to reduce the midazolam ED50 value for the induction of anesthesia in a dose-dependent fashion ...
Separate control serum is available with the same components. Target concentrations are listed in the table below.. Because of the size of this program we offer you the possibility to participate in a part of the program. You have the option to subscribe for the total program, only samples I and II, or only samples III, IV and V.. ...
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e.g. Intubating dose for opioid should use a volume between V1 (very small) and VDss (very large) - VDpe is ideal as it will allow a target concentration to be selected for the time at which intubation will occur relative to drug ...
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Nitrous Oxide is a sweet-smelling, non-irritating, colorless gas which you can breathe.. Nitrous Oxide has been the primary means of sedation in dentistry for many years. Nitrous oxide is safe, the patient receives 50-70% oxygen with no less than 30% nitrous oxide.. The patient is able to breathe on their own and remain in control of all bodily functions.. The patient may experience mild amnesia and may fall asleep, not remembering all of what happened during their appointment.. ...
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The global market for robotics-the use of computer-controlled robots to do manual tasks-is growing far faster than expected. In 2014, BCG projected that the market would reach $67 billion by 2025.
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None of this is really new, but I just looked out of the window, saw a cab equipped with an electronic billboard displaying the Celtics-Wizards score (116-108) and thought this had to be included. So these mobile electronic billboards (pictured on the left) are made by Adapt Media and have been around since early 2001. The service is called Ad Runner, uses embedded GPS, ad server, and wireless web technologies to enable electronic taxi-top billboards to receive and display messages based on the exact time and a cabs exact location (m-pulse ...
For an automated manufacturing system having a number of modules with numerous alternative capabilities, a computer-controlled system provides for configuration-specific reprioritization of jobs. The computer-controlled system includes at least one system controller for planning and scheduling utilization of selected module capabilities in the production of jobs having not less than one work unit. Module capabilities include the relative costs of the module capabilities.
In an amazing but slightly weird world first, scientists have formed a feedback loop between common, baking and brewing yeast, ...
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Why Do People Push Placebo Buttons? Placebo buttons are buttons that actually do nothing except give the user an... ...computer-controlled traffic signals make the walk buttons at pedestrian crossings on heavily trafficked str... ...olete. By the late 1980s, most (but not all) walk ... http://www.neatorama.com/2010/02/09/why-do-people-push-placebo-buttons/ ...
From The Sea-Bird Journal, Issue #5, August 1995 New methods and World-class metrology tighten the link between ocean measurements and primary physical standards. Perfected after four years of research, super-low-gradient computer-controlled baths are
Author: Rundshagen, Ingrid et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Title: Median nerve evoked responses and explicit memory during recovery from isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia
Success in designing user interfaces for complex computer systems will, in large part, determine the success of the systems as a whole. Information from within the field of human-computer interaction is presented and applied within the domain of computer-controlled audio systems. This includes the design of visual and tactile displays, alternative input devices and input mappings, stimulus response compatibility, customization, and intelligent interfaces. The presentation will focus on...
Population-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approaches have been successfully applied in various stages of drug development over the last few decades. The development of antibody-based...
[100 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sufentanil (API) Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Sufentanil (API) in Global market, especially in...
The advantages of this system are obvious: reductions in traffic, pollution, noise, accidents, and road expansion. The founders have even come up with a way to build the system without disturbing everyday life aboveground. They plan to use an underground, computer-controlled pipe jacking system to precisely drive the pipes into place. Displaced earth is automatically returned to the surface by way of the pipes. The pipe jacking system and small diameter of the pipes allows CargoCap to be implemented near existing infrastructure, and the system can easily be expanded to meet increases in demand ...
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This project investigates the phenomenon of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Opioid analgesics, in addition to their therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects, under some conditions produce pro-nociceptive effects. This phenomenon of pain or pain sensitivity being increased by prior opioid administration is called opioid-induced hyperalgesia. It is thought to be relevant both to pain management complications and to complications of opioid dependence and its treatment. This study investigated the time-course of opioid-induced hyperalgesia development in healthy normal volunteers (N=12 completers), using a series of acute alfentanil administrations (15 mg/kg mg intramuscular (IM) per day) spaced at 3-4 day intervals, with testing for pain tolerance using the cold pressor test (CPT), and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (MQST) each administered repeatedly over time within each testing day. The goal was to determine the time course of OIH development following acute opioid administration, and to ...
Intubation and mechanical ventilation are majors component of intensive care for premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and is associated with physiologic, biochemical, and clinical responses indicating pain and stress in prematures. Although morphine is one of the most used drugs for premedication and for sedation and analgesia during mechanical ventilation in the treatment of RDS its pharmacological profile precludes several limitations mostly due to its much delayed onset of action what makes the drug not suitable as premedication and due to its prolonged duration of action mainly in prematures. Unlike morphine, remifentanil has an unique pharmacokinetic properties with a rapid onset of action and, a fast decrease in plasma concentration after interruption of administration due to a context-sensitive half-time of 3.2 minutes. So, it could be the ideal opioid for neonates who are especially sensitive to respiratory depression by ...
A computer-controlled reproduction device is described for recreating a 3-dimensional image representative of a subject image in a permanent medium such as a sheet of transparent plastic. Digital signals representative of the subject image are stored in the memory of the computer and used by the computer to control a machine tool for drilling a plurality of holes in the plastic sheet representative of the subject image. The machine tool contains a drill bit which is tapered over the length of its travel into the plastic sheet so the deeper the penetration into the sheet, the larger the diameter of the entrance hole in the sheet. The depth of each hole is controlled by the computer to correspond to the lightness of the subject image at that point.
0022] To carry out blood analysis a blood sample must be taken, which requires the following steps of procedure: [0023] 1. The stop valve 21 between the pressurized bag 20 and the aspiration piston 22 is closed. [0024] 2. A blood sample is manually aspired via the aspiration piston 22 of the infusion set 16. [0025] 3. The stop valve 23 between aspiration piston 22 and septum 24 for blood withdrawal is closed. [0026] 4. An arterial blood sample is withdrawn by means of a one-way syringe (not shown) via the septum 24. (Disadvantages: risk of infection for patient and personnel, risk of injury). [0027] 5. The blood sample is measured in an external analyser or transferred to tubules and sent to a laboratory for analysis. (Disadvantages: increased handling, danger of contamination). [0028] 6. The stop valve 23 is opened and the aspired blood is reinfused into the artery by means of the aspiration piston 22. [0029] 7. The septum 24 is cleaned. [0030] 8. The stop valve 21 is opened and the arterial ...
Evening,. Im in the planning phase of migrating my off site replication cores to Azure from our data center and Im curious if anybody has any real world experience with seeding they would like to share.. Whether we add new cores with initial base images or replicate existing cores with base images and lots of incrementals there will be a lot of data to send to Azure so we are wondering about replication speeds/time of replicating versus shipping drives.. There is obviously a ton of variables and I know our experience will not exactly match anybody else but Im curious what speeds people are seeing when replicating base images. For example, 3tbs of data behind a 100mbs fiber link. Are we talking hours or days or weeks for that to replicate to Azure.. And how has the experience been with sending drives? What type of turn around are you seeing once Microsoft receives the drive? I have one client in particular that cant seem to figure out their UPS and there server shuts down dirty every couple ...
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The tool tip in some common user agents disappears after a short period of time (approximately 5 seconds). This can cause difficulty accessing title attribute content for those users who can use a mouse but have fine motor skill impairment, and may result in difficulties for users who need more time to read the tool tip. ...
LR parsing is a popular parsing strategy for variants of Context-Free Grammar (CFG). It has also been used for mildly context-sensitive formalisms, such as Tree-Adjoining Grammar. In this paper, we present the first LR-style parsing algorithm for Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS), a mildly context-sensitive extension of CFG which has received considerable attention in the last years in the context of natural language processing.
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between Allfen CX and remifentanil. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
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www.MOLUNA.de Emergent Computation [4172523] - Emergent Computation emphasizes the interrelationship of the different classes of languages studied in mathematical linguistics (regular, context-free, context-sensitive, and type 0) with aspects to the biochemistry of DNA, RNA, and proteins. In addition, aspects of sequential machines such as parity checking and semi-groups are extended to the study of the
Fentanyl Panpharma is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Fentanyl Panpharma is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Uncover what kind of drug Fentanyl is. We cover the legal and illegal uses, chemistry, and side effects of Fentanyl. Learn more about the dangers of Fentanyl.
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Spierdijk J, van Kleef J, Nauta J, Stanley TH, de Lange S (1980). "Alfentanil: a new narcotic induction agent". Anesthesiology ... Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA (1981). "Alfentanil (R39209)-a particularly short acting intravenous narcotic analgesic in rats". ... Fentanyl was followed by sufentanil (1974), alfentanil (1976), carfentanil (1976), and lofentanil (1980). Janssen and his team ...
Total intravenous anesthesia with methohexital-alfentanil or propofol-alfentanil in hypogastric laparotomy. Clinical aspects ...
The effects of brifentanil are very similar to those of alfentanil, with strong but short lasting analgesia and sedation, and ... The risk of respiratory depression is especially high with potent fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil and brifentanil, and ... Brifentanil is most similar to highly potent, short-acting fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil. ...
"Influence of CYP3A5 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cytochrome P4503A probes alfentanil and ...
At lower doses, it antagonizes the analgesic effects of alfentanil and substitutes for naloxone in morphine-treated monkeys; ...
Alfentanil, Remifentanil. It results in a generalised increase in skeletal muscle tone. The mechanism is thought to be via ...
The following opioids have short onset and duration of action and are frequently used during general anesthesia: Alfentanil ...
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Alfentanil. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; freely soluble in ethanol, water, methanol; degrades upon contact with air and ...
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"Delta-opioid ligands reverse alfentanil-induced respiratory depression but not antinociception". The Journal of Pharmacology ... stimulated respiratory function and blocked the respiratory depressant effect of the potent μ-opioid agonist alfentanil, ...
It is increasingly incorrect to call Papaver somniferum the opium poppy, as many varieties do not produce a significant amount of opium. At least one produces no latex at all. That variety, therefore, also cannot be used to create codeine and other drugs from other alkaloids present in Papaver somniferum latex. This breeding has been done for two purposes. The first is to produce ornamental varieties that cannot be used for home or small-scale opium production, such as one called Danish Flag. Danish Flag and other examples of these cultivars are widely available for consumer purchase, unlike varieties that produce opium. The second is to produce cultivars that can only be used to produce other alkaloids. These are grown commercially for the pharmaceutical industry, as are varieties that are bred for high opium production. Varieties that produce large amounts of opium have been bred for the pharmaceutical industry and are not available for consumers to purchase as seed. The rapidly decreasing ...
Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H.; Anderson, David J.; Faltynek, Connie; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K.; Rueter, Lynne E.; Curzon, Peter; Buckley, Michael J.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Kempf-Grote, Anita; Meyer, Michael D. (2007). "A-366833: A novel nicotinonitrile-substituted 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in animal models". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (8): 1253-1262. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.010. PMID 17854775 ...
... (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It acts as a competitive, reversible, and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[5][6][9] and as a low affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.[1][2][10] A pilot study of indantadol for chronic cough was initiated in October 2009 and in April 2010 it failed to achieve significant efficacy in neuropathic pain in phase IIb clinical trials.[7][8][11][12] ...
... is a terpenoid indole alkaloid from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Kratom. In mice, it is orally active and has analgesic effects.[2] 7-Hydroxymitragynine is an agonist at the μ-opioid receptor[3] with a potency, calculated using pD (2) values, that is 30-fold higher than that of mitragynine and 17-fold higher than that of morphine, respectively.[4] As a partial agonist at this receptor[5] it causes significantly milder side effects than morphine,[6] like constipation, development of tolerance and withdrawal syndrome upon abstinence.[2] In murine models, the extracted alkaloids of the Kratom plant are shown to cause an insignificant amount of drug induced respiratory depression, unlike full μ-opioid agonists.[7] The O-acetyl ester (Acetoxy), 7-acetoxymitragynine has also been reported and found to be a weak μ-opioid agonist.[8] ...
... (INN), or benorylate, is an ester-linked codrug of aspirin with paracetamol. It is used as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic medication. In the treatment of childhood fever, it has been shown to be inferior to paracetamol and aspirin taken separately. In addition, because it is converted to aspirin, benorylate is not recommended in children due to concerns about Reye syndrome.[1] ...
Tamura T, Ogawa J, Taniguchi T, Waki I (January 1990). "[Preferential action of eptazocine, a novel analgesic, with opioid receptors in isolated guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens preparations]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica (in Japanese). 95 (1): 41-6. doi:10.1254/fpj.95.1_41. PMID 2154395 ...
... is one of a number of indole alkaloids found in the tree Picralima nitida, commonly known as akuamma. As with some other alkaloids from this plant such as akuammine, pericine has been shown to bind to mu opioid receptors in vitro, and has an IC50 of 0.6 μmol, within the range of a weak analgesic.[1] It may also have convulsant effects.[2] Pericine has been prepared in the laboratory by total synthesis.[3][4] ...
The VIGOR (Vioxx GI Outcomes Research) study, conducted by Bombardier, et al., which compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of rofecoxib and naproxen, had indicated a significant 4-fold increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) in rofecoxib patients when compared with naproxen patients (0.4% vs 0.1%, RR 0.25) over the 12-month span of the study. The elevated risk began during the second month on rofecoxib. There was no significant difference in the mortality from cardiovascular events between the two groups, nor was there any significant difference in the rate of myocardial infarction between the rofecoxib and naproxen treatment groups in patients without high cardiovascular risk. The difference in overall risk was by the patients at higher risk of heart attack, i.e. those meeting the criteria for low-dose aspirin prophylaxis of secondary cardiovascular events (previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, or coronary ...
Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH and larger surface area of the small intestine causes aspirin to be absorbed more slowly there, as more of it is ionised. Owing to the formation of concretions, aspirin is absorbed much more slowly during overdose, and plasma concentrations can continue to rise for up to 24 hours after ingestion.[152][153][154] About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is concentration-dependent. Saturation of binding sites leads to more free salicylate and increased toxicity. The volume of distribution is 0.1-0.2 L/kg. Acidosis increases the volume of distribution because of enhancement of tissue penetration of salicylates.[154] As much as 80% of therapeutic doses of salicylic acid is ...
Side effects of fentanyl analogs are similar to those of fentanyl itself, which include itching, nausea and potentially serious respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening. Fentanyl analogs have killed hundreds of people throughout Europe and the former Soviet republics since the most recent resurgence in use began in Estonia in the early 2000s, and novel derivatives continue to appear.[5] Life-threatening adverse reactions caused by furanylfentanyl use have been observed in Sweden[6] and Canada.[7] At least seven deaths in Cook County, Illinois, have been linked to furanylfentanyl in 2016, with additional deaths in suburban Chicago in 2017.[8][9][10] ...
... (trade name Nimelan), also known as N-allylnormorphine dinicotinate, dinicotinoylnalorphine, or niconalorphine, is a semisynthetic, mixed opioid agonist-antagonist which is described as a narcotic antagonist but may produce limited analgesia and sedation at higher doses in opioid naive patients (with limited euphoria and dependence liability).[1][2] It is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of nalorphine, and is therefore the nalorphine analogue of nicomorphine (which is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine). As nalorphine dinicotinate is only regulated at the Rx (prescription required) drug, it would be legal to possess with a valid prescription should a patient manage to acquire it.[citation needed] ...
InChI=1S/C18H21NO3.BrH/c1-19(2)8-7-18-11-4-6-14(21)17(18)22-16-13(20)5-3-10(15(16)18)9-12(11)19;/h3-6,11-12,14,17,21H,7-9H2,1-2H3;1H/t11-,12+,14-,17-,18-;/m0./ ...
... (R-15,497), also known as cyclogemine, is a non-selective opioid antagonist of the benzomorphan class.[1][2][3] It may have partial agonist properties at some of the opioid receptors, such as at the kappa receptor (as it induces dysphoric effects in humans), but seems to be generally antagonistic in its actions.[4] ...
The effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure during anaesthesia were investigated in 50 consecutive patients ... Previous Document: Alfentanil supplemented anaesthesia for short procedures. A double-blind study of alfentanil used wi.... ... Alfentanil. Clinical Trials as Topic. Double-Blind Method. Female. Fentanyl / analogs & derivatives*, pharmacology*. ... 0/Adjuvants, Anesthesia; 437-38-7/Fentanyl; 71195-58-9/Alfentanil From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ...
Effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascular responses to induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in ...
ALFENTANIL INJECTION. This product information is intended only for residents of the United States. ...
Alfentanil HCl Injection contains alfentanil, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, Alfentanil HCl Injection ... Alfentanil Hydrochloride (UNII: 11S92G0TIW) (Alfentanil - UNII:1N74HM2BS7) Alfentanil. 500 ug in 1 mL. ... Alfentanil HCl Injection is contraindicated in patients with: *Hypersensitivity to alfentanil (e.g., anaphylaxis) [see Adverse ... 2.3 Discontinuation of Alfentanil HCl Injection Alfentanil HCl Injection infusions should be discontinued at least 10 to 15 ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between alfentanil and methohexital. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Alfentanil may reduce the dosage of methohexital needed to induce anesthesia. Your breathing should be closely monitored and ...
Detailed drug Information for alfentanil Intravenous. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects ... Proper Use of alfentanil. A nurse or other trained health professional will give you alfentanil in a hospital. alfentanil is ... alfentanil (Intravenous route). al-FEN-ta-nil. Intravenous route(Solution) Alfentanil HCl injection exposes users to risks of ... The use of alcohol or other medicines that affect the CNS with alfentanil may worsen the side effects of alfentanil, such as ...
Alfentanil is highly protein bound which should result in less transfer to breastmilk than other opiates; however, because ... amounts of alfentanil ingested by the neonate are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed ... it is best to provide pain control with a nonnarcotic analgesic and limit maternal intake of alfentanil to a few days with ... there is no published experience with repeated doses of intravenous alfentanil during established lactation, other agents may ...
More information is available on alfentanil including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine ... Active ingredient: alfentanil. The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): alfentanil. You can select a ...
Active Comparator: propofol + alfentanil Patients from the Propofol / Alfentanil group will receive in addition:. *A loading ... Comparison of Propofol/Alfentanil With Propofol/Ketamine (KET-001). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Sedation will be started by 10-15 mcg/kg Alfentanil and 0.4 mg/kg Propofol, or by 0.2-0.3 mg/kg Ketamine and 0.4 mg/kg Propofol ... Alfentanil. Propofol. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anesthetics ...
... characteristics of narcotic-induced rigidity during induction of anesthesia with alfentanil (175 micrograms/kg) in 10 patients ... Physiology of alfentanil-induced rigidity Anesthesiology. 1986 Apr;64(4):440-6. doi: 10.1097/00000542-198604000-00005. ... Manual ventilation was extremely difficult during alfentanil-induced rigidity. Arterial oxygen tension decreased more rapidly ... Marked rigidity was observed in all muscle groups in all patients receiving alfentanil and in none receiving thiopental. ...
... alfentanil explanation free. What is alfentanil? Meaning of alfentanil medical term. What does alfentanil mean? ... Looking for online definition of alfentanil in the Medical Dictionary? ... alfentanil. Also found in: Wikipedia. alfentanil. [al-fen´tah-nil] an opioid analgesic of rapid onset and short duration ... alfentanil. A narcotic-type pain-killing drug. A brand name is Rapifen.. alfentanil. an opioid analgesic; a derivative of ...
High dose alfentanil was used as sole induction agent resulting in minimal haemodynamic change and a successful maternal and ... Alfentanil (Alfenta). Remifentanil (Ultiva). Obstetric anaesthesia. Molecular mechanisms. Chloroform anaesthesia. Consciousness ... High dose alfentanil as sole anaesthetic induction agent for caesarean section in a patient with severe ischaemic heart disease ...
Alfentanil (al-FEN-ta-nil). Used during surgery to control pain and keep you asleep.. Brand Name(s): Alfentanil Novaplus. There ... You should not receive it if you had an allergic reaction to alfentanil.. How to Use This Medicine: Injectable. *Your doctor ... Some medicines can affect how alfentanil works. Tell your doctor if you are using any of the following: *Carbamazepine, ...
To maintain analgesia at a constant level (tail compression test), alfentanil use wa ... The time course of the development of acute tolerance to alfentanil was characterized in rat experiments using various ... With the use of the alfentanil infusion regimen designed to rapidly achieve and maintain the constant alfentanil plasma ... Alfentanil / administration & dosage*, pharmacology. Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage*, pharmacology. Animals. Drug ...
The objectives of this investigation were to characterize the disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in 14 tissues in the rat, ... Hemodynamic responses to alfentanil in halothane-anesthetized dogs.Anesth. Analg. 65:765-770 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Pulmonary kinetics of fentanyl and alfentanil in surgical patients.Br. J. Anaesth. 61:425-434 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... fentanyl alfentanil physiological models regional blood flow tissue distribution tissue diffusion rats humans ...
Alfentanil (Definition) Alfentanil is a drug that increases narcotic effects which is a kind of pain medication. ...Read more ... Alfenta allergy: Alfenta (Alfentanil) is a narcotic medication that can be used both for pain & keeping patients asleep during ...
Is it safe to take alfentanil while pregnant? The answer is no. Its not safe to take any opioid during pregnancy. However, if ... Is Alfentanil Harmful to Your Baby? Common Side Effects. Using alfentanil can be harmful to your baby. The Centers for Disease ... Alternatives to Taking Alfentanil While Pregnant. Sometimes when women are taking alfentanil or another opioid and they become ... Babies Born Addicted to Alfentanil. NAS refers to a situation in which a baby is exposed to opioids like alfentanil while in ...
Alfentanil and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis - Suspected Cause - Reports of Side Effects ... Alfentanil Dosage: unk Start date: 1996-04-25 Dipidolor Dosage: unk Start date: 1996-04-26 End date: 1996-04-28 Hetastarch IN ... Possible Alfentanil side effects in 61 year old male. Reported by a consumer/non-health professional from Germany on 2011-11-28 ... Possible Alfentanil side effects in 61 year old male. Reported by a consumer/non-health professional from Germany on 2011-11-28 ...
Alfentanil is a pharmaceutical synthetic opioid sold as Alfenta and Rapifen for pain relief and anesthesia. ... Alfentanil HCl. 1.0 mg/mL (as free base) in Methanol , Certified Reference Material. ...
ERYTHROMYCIN TREATMENT INHIBITS ALFENTANIL METABOLISM R R Bartkowski, M.D., Ph.D.; G E Larijani, PharM. D.; M E Goldberg, M.D. ... ERYTHROMYCIN TREATMENT INHIBITS ALFENTANIL METABOLISM You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... ERYTHROMYCIN TREATMENT INHIBITS ALFENTANIL METABOLISM. Anesthesiology 9 1988, Vol.69, A590. doi: ... R R Bartkowski, G E Larijani, M E Goldberg, T F BOerner; ERYTHROMYCIN TREATMENT INHIBITS ALFENTANIL METABOLISM. Anesthesiology ...
Comparison of intravenous alfentanil, fentanyl and epidural lidocaine for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Ma Zui Xue Za ... Alfentanil analgesia/sedation for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a comparison with general and epidural anesthesia. ... Comparative studies of the postoperative phase following opioid analgesia using fentanyl and alfentanil within the scope of ... Comparative studies on the postoperative phase following opioid analgesia with fentanyl and alfentanil for extracorporal shock ...
Get up-to-date information on Alfentanil side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... ALFENTANIL/AMPRENAVIR*ALFENTANIL/APREPITANT*ALFENTANIL/ATAZANAVIR*ALFENTANIL/BOCEPREVIR*ALFENTANIL/BUPRENORPHINE*ALFENTANIL/ ... ALFENTANIL/COBICISTAT*ALFENTANIL/CONIVAPTAN*ALFENTANIL/CRIZOTINIB*ALFENTANIL/DILTIAZEM*ALFENTANIL/ENZALUTAMIDE*ALFENTANIL/ ... ALFENTANIL/ISOCARBOXAZID*ALFENTANIL/ITRACONAZOLE*ALFENTANIL/KETOCONAZOLE*ALFENTANIL/LINEZOLID*ALFENTANIL/LOPINAVIR*ALFENTANIL/ ...
Conclusion : Combining alfentanil at a Ce for alfentanil of 70-100 ng/ml with propofol at 200 ng/ml is a safe and effective ... If the Ce for alfentanil was adequate, it was kept constant. Otherwise, it was increased in 5 ng/ml increments with each needle ... Results : Forty-eight per cent of patients reported being comfortable at a Ce for alfentanil of 70-75 ng/ml. Only 5% of ... This retrospective study determined the appropriate effect-site concentration (Ce) for alfentanil, in combination with a ...
Intracranial Pressure Increases during Alfentanil-induced Rigidity James L. Benthuysen, M.D.; Nguyen D. Kien, Ph.D.; Darcy D. ... Intracranial Pressure Increases during Alfentanil-induced Rigidity You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected ... Intracranial Pressure Increases during Alfentanil-induced Rigidity. Anesthesiology 3 1988, Vol.68, 438-440. doi: ... James L. Benthuysen, Nguyen D. Kien, Darcy D. Quam; Intracranial Pressure Increases during Alfentanil-induced Rigidity. ...
... between alfentanil requirements for analgesic and nonanalgesic (sedative and miotic) effects. The effects of alfentanil were ... The within-patient alfentanil dose-analgesic response curves were primarily quantal in nature: a precipitous decrease in pain ... When the analgesic effect of alfentanil was presented as the collective response of a group of individuals, the quantal nature ... Spontaneous postoperative pain was completely relieved in all patients with cumulative doses of alfentanil ranging from 6 to 8 ...
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alfentanil in P-Glycoprotein-Competent and P-Glycoprotein-Deficient Mice: P- ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alfentanil in P-Glycoprotein-Competent and P-Glycoprotein-Deficient Mice: P- ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alfentanil in P-Glycoprotein-Competent and P-Glycoprotein-Deficient Mice: P- ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Alfentanil in P-Glycoprotein-Competent and P-Glycoprotein-Deficient Mice: P- ...
Group A patients received alfentanil 10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> 90 seconds before clamp placement and group B patients ... We compared two of these methods, namely alfentanil bolus (Group A) and nerve block of the scalp (Group B). ,br,Method : Twenty ... We compared two of these methods, namely alfentanil bolus (Group A) and nerve block of the scalp (Group B). ,br,Method : Twenty ... Group A patients received alfentanil 10 mg kg,sup,-1,/sup, 90 seconds before clamp placement and group B patients received a ...
... propofol/alfentanil). The primary outcome, reflecting effectiveness of sedation, is the total dose of propofol. Secondary ... Alfentanil reduces the required hypnotic dose of propofol by 20-50% at fairly low doses according to the literature [5]. A 15% ... For every step up of propofol TCI, additional esketamine 50 μg/kg or alfentanil 1 μg/kg is added. Maximum dosage is 500 μg/kg ... Total dosage of propofol, alfentanil, and esketamine and the time of the total procedure and length of time between the end of ...
Alfentanil caused a transient increase in blood pressure and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Following alfentanil all cats ... Alfentanil caused a transient increase in blood pressure and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Following alfentanil all cats ... Alfentanil caused a transient increase in blood pressure and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Following alfentanil all cats ... Alfentanil caused a transient increase in blood pressure and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Following alfentanil all cats ...
Ang, S.,Cheong, K.F.,Ng, T.I. (1999). Alfentanil Co-induction for laryngeal mask insertion. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 27 ( ...
  • Alfenta (Alfentanil) is a narcotic medication that can be used both for pain & keeping patients asleep during surgery . (healthtap.com)
  • Alfentanil is a pharmaceutical synthetic opioid sold as Alfenta and Rapifen for pain relief and anesthesia. (cerilliant.com)
  • ALFENTANIL (Alfenta®) helps to induce and maintain anesthesia and sedation during and after surgery or other procedures. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • Alfentanil, which is sold under the brand name Alfenta, belongs to a group of medicines called opioid analgesics - medications that relieve or prevent pain. (rxight.com)
  • Alfentanil may reduce the dosage of methohexital needed to induce anesthesia. (drugs.com)
  • Nine women in the early postpartum period were given intravenous alfentanil 50 mcg initially and then 10 mcg as needed during tubal ligation surgery under general anesthesia. (nih.gov)
  • The authors investigated the hemodynamic, metabolic, electroencephalographic (EEG), and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of narcotic-induced rigidity during induction of anesthesia with alfentanil (175 micrograms/kg) in 10 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Patient State Index: titration of delivery and recovery from propofol, alfentanil , and nitrous oxide anesthesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bispectral index monitoring allows faster emergence and improved recovery from propofol, alfentanil , and nitrous oxide anesthesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alfentanil is used for anesthesia and pain relief during surgery. (rxwiki.com)
  • Induction of anesthesia is accomplished by using high doses of opioid (usually fentanyl or alfentanil) to maximize cardiovascular stability. (medscape.com)
  • Khsoro-Zamiri H, Shabani M. Effect of Intravenous Alfentanil on Hemodynamic Changes in Anesthesia for Electroconvulsive Therapy, Zahedan J Res Med Sci. (zjrms.com)
  • The first group, was gaiven Alfentanil 10 m g/kg and for second group Remifentanil 0.5 m g/kg was injected prior to the induction of anesthesia. (ac.ir)
  • We have noted that tracheal intubation can be accomplished in many patients after induction of anesthesia with propofol and alfentanil without the simultaneous use of muscle relaxants. (elsevier.com)
  • All patients receiving alfentanil had significant decreases in heart rate and arterial blood pressure after induction of anesthesia compared with preinduction values. (elsevier.com)
  • Scheller, MS , Zornow, MH & Saidman, LJ 1992, ' Tracheal intubation without the use of muscle relaxants: A technique using propofol and varying doses of alfentanil ', Anesthesia and analgesia , vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 788-793. (elsevier.com)
  • these include the addition of lignocaine to propofol, the application of propofol at a different temperature or dilution, along with the adjuvant use of lignocaine, alfentanil , remifentanil, ondansetron, ephedrine, thiopentone ketamine or paracetamol prior to injection (4-12). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Remifentanil, a short acting opioid, is a good alternative to alfentanil for outpatient surgery. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • We aimed to compare the effects of the alfentanil and remifentanil on haemodynamic variables, postoperative recovery and complication incidence during desflurane used at gynaecologic laparoscopic procedures. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • The bispectral index (BIS) and a sedation score were used to determine and compare the effect of propofol in the presence of fentanyl, alfentanil, remifentanil and sufentanil. (elsevier.com)
  • Seventy-five non-premedicated patients were assigned randomly into five groups (15 in each) to receive fentanyl, alfentanil, remifentanil, sufentanil or placebo. (elsevier.com)
  • This clinical trial compared the effects of two rapid-onset narcotics, Alfentanil and Remifentanil, on the hemodynamic responses to the induction and tracheal intubation in elderly patients. (ac.ir)
  • The first group was infused with Alfentanil 1 m g/kg/min and Remifentanil 0.1 m g/kg/min was used for the second group. (ac.ir)
  • According to the resukts of this study Remifentanil could prevent hemodynamic variation induced by laryngoscopy and treacheal intubation more than Alfentanil. (ac.ir)
  • Many drugs have been shown to be effective in modifying these hemodynamic responses, including fentanyl , sufentanil , alfentanil and remifentanil . (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of fentanyl , sufentanil , alfentanil and remifentanil on blunting cardiovascular changes during laryngoscopy and intubation in children . (bvsalud.org)
  • 4) Inpatients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, can ketamine, propofol, etomidate, dexmedetomidine, alfentanil and remifentanil be safely administered? (nih.gov)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ALFENTANIL HCl INJECTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for ALFENTANIL HCl INJECTION. (nih.gov)
  • Alfentanil HCl injection exposes users to risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. (nih.gov)
  • Alfentanil HCl Injection should be administered only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids. (nih.gov)
  • Doses of Alfentanil HCl Injection vary depending on circumstances (see dosing chart, 2.2 . (nih.gov)
  • Reduce the dose of Alfentanil HCl Injection when administered with CNS depressants. (nih.gov)
  • Discontinue Alfentanil HCl Injection if serotonin syndrome is suspected. (nih.gov)
  • Avoid use with Alfentanil HCl Injection because they may reduce analgesic effect of Alfentanil HCl Injection or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Alfentanil injection is given together with other medicines to relieve pain during surgery. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of alfentanil injection in children 12 years of age and older. (drugs.com)
  • However, elderly patients may be more sensitive to the effects of alfentanil injection than younger adults, and are more likely to have age-related kidney or lung problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving alfentanil injection. (drugs.com)
  • What is alfentanil injection? (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • The UK SPC for alfentanil 500micgram/mL solution for injection has been updated to include information for use in paediatrics, following the outcome of an EU paediatric work-sharing procedure for alfentanil that was published earlier this year. (palliativedrugs.com)
  • A prospective, randomized, patient-blinded comparison of the safety and efficacy of conscious sedation by propofol/alfentanil with propofol/ketamine in patients undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will be randomly assigned prior to the procedure to receive sedation by either propofol/alfentanil (PA group) or propofol/ketamine (PK group), using either the sealed envelope method or by computer randomization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sedation will be started by 10-15 mcg/kg Alfentanil and 0.4 mg/kg Propofol, or by 0.2-0.3 mg/kg Ketamine and 0.4 mg/kg Propofol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This retrospective study determined the appropriate effect-site concentration (Ce) for alfentanil, in combination with a constant propofol infusion, for optimal pain control during sedation for closed rhizotomies. (journals.co.za)
  • Alfentanil for procedural sedation in the emergency department. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sedation with propofol during ERCP: is the combination with esketamine more effective and safer than with alfentanil? (biomedcentral.com)
  • group A receives propofol/alfentanil sedation during ERCP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, because there is no published experience with repeated doses of intravenous alfentanil during established lactation, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal ketanserin administration at doses of 0.63 and 2.5 mg/kg prevented the alfentanil-induced increase in electromyographic activity compared with animals pretreated with saline. (scripps.edu)
  • Chlordiazepoxide at doses up to 10 mg/kg failed to significantly influence the rigidity produced by alfentanil. (scripps.edu)
  • Many people have normal activity of liver enzymes responsible for processing alfentanil, and thus experience therapeutic value with minimal side effects on standard doses. (rxight.com)
  • The time course of the development of acute tolerance to alfentanil was characterized in rat experiments using various algorithms of continuous infusion of the drug. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alfentanil is for infusion into a vein. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • Practical aspects of alfentanil infusion. (baratos.online)
  • The controller adjusted the alfentanil infusion rate to maintain the mean arterial blood pressure near the set-point (70 mmHg) while minimizing the Cp Alf toward the set-point plasma alfentanil concentration (Cp Alfref) (100 ng/ml). (asahq.org)
  • The alfentanil infusion was closed-loop controlled for a mean (SD) of 98.9 (1.5)% of presurgery time and 95.5 (4.3)% of surgery time. (asahq.org)
  • Marked rigidity was observed in all muscle groups in all patients receiving alfentanil and in none receiving thiopental. (nih.gov)
  • Manual ventilation was extremely difficult during alfentanil-induced rigidity. (nih.gov)
  • Systemic pretreatment with ketanserin, a relatively specific type-2 serotonin receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the muscle rigidity produced in rats by the potent short-acting opiate agonist alfentanil. (scripps.edu)
  • Despite the absence of rigidity, animals that received ketanserin (greater than 0.31 mg/kg i.p.) followed by alfentanil were motionless, flaccid, and less responsive to external stimuli than were animals receiving alfentanil alone. (scripps.edu)
  • High dose alfentanil was used as sole induction agent resulting in minimal haemodynamic change and a successful maternal and fetal outcome. (general-anaesthesia.com)
  • Alfentanil dose-response relationships for relief of postoperative pain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this study was to characterize within-patient alfentanil dose-response curves for the relief of spontaneous postoperative pain and to test the closeness of relationships 1) between pain intensity and alfentanil analgesic requirements, and 2) between alfentanil requirements for analgesic and nonanalgesic (sedative and miotic) effects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The increase in alfentanil concentrations can increase the risk for serious CNS depression and respiratory depression, particularly when mifepristone is added after a stable dose of alfentanil is achieved. (baratos.online)
  • consider increasing the dose of alfentanil if necessary. (baratos.online)
  • What is the smallest dose of alfentanil that minimises neuro-hormonal stress response in infants undergoing cardiac surgery? (isrctn.com)
  • Patients will be given one of three alfentanil dose regimens by random allocation. (isrctn.com)
  • No muscle relaxants were given to patients in groups II-V. Airway management was performed by one of the authors who was blinded as to the dose of alfentanil administered. (elsevier.com)
  • In patients given alfentanil, the incidence of persistent coughing or movement after intubation of the trachea was most frequent with the 30-μg/kg dose of alfentanil. (elsevier.com)
  • alfentanil is a topic covered in the Davis's Drug Guide . (drugguide.com)
  • Davis's Drug Guide - OLD - USE 2.0 , www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51865/all/alfentanil. (drugguide.com)
  • The objectives of this investigation were to characterize the disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in 14 tissues in the rat, and to create physiological pharmacokinetic models for these opioids that would be scalable to man. (springer.com)
  • From these models, the extraction ratios of the opioids in the various tissues could be calculated, confirming the generally lower extraction of alfentanil as compared to fentanyl. (springer.com)
  • Despite the restrictions, opioids like alfentanil can be and often are diverted from medical use and abused. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • The best option is to talk with your healthcare provider if you're using opioids like alfentanil and you become pregnant. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • There are indirect risks to a mother and her unborn baby when the use of opioids like alfentanil is involved. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • NAS refers to a situation in which a baby is exposed to opioids like alfentanil while in the womb. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Rxight ® pharmacogenetic testing is designed to evaluate your unique reactions to alfentanil and other opioids and thus help avoid these adverse, potentially life-threatening side effects and allergic reactions. (rxight.com)
  • The disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in the heart and brain and of fentanyl in the lungs could be described by perfusion-limited 1-compartment models. (springer.com)
  • The parametric models were finally scaled to describe the disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in humans. (springer.com)
  • Comparative tissue concentration profiles of fentanyl and alfentanil in humans predicted from tissue/blood partition data obtained in rats. (springer.com)
  • Tissue distribution of fentanyl and alfentanil in the rat cannot be described by a blood flow limited model. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure during anaesthesia were investigated in 50 consecutive patients in a double-blind controlled trial. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was designed to evaluate airway and intubating conditions after administration of propofol and alfentanil in 75 ASA physical status I or II outpatients with Mallampati class I airways undergoing various surgical procedures. (elsevier.com)
  • however, average cumulative alfentanil dosage was not reported. (nih.gov)
  • 1] Using the highest measured alfentanil level in this study, an exclusively breastfed infant would receive an alfentanil dosage of 0.2 mcg/kg daily. (nih.gov)
  • A reduced dosage of alfentanil may be necessary if use together is not avoidable. (baratos.online)
  • CONCLUSION Alfentanil is superior to lignocaine in blunting the pressor response to endotracheal intubation. (ul.ac.za)
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of intravenous alfentanil on heart rate, mean arterial pressure, seizure duration, respiratory arrest, and recovery after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (zjrms.com)
  • Alfentanil, thiopental, and succinylcholine were administered to 50 subjects, and the remaining subjects received normal saline, thiopental, and succinylcholine, in that neither the patient nor the injector was aware of alfentanil or normal saline in A and B coded syringes. (zjrms.com)
  • Bispectral index variations during tracheal suction in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: Effect of an alfentanil bolus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Forty-eight per cent of patients reported being comfortable at a Ce for alfentanil of 70-75 ng/ml. (journals.co.za)
  • Only 5% of patients requested the maximum Ce for alfentanil of 100 ng/ml. (journals.co.za)
  • The effects of alfentanil were studied in 23 patients after elective abdominal surgery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Patients undergoing ERCP, ≥ 18 years old, with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I-III will be randomized after written informed consent to group K (propofol/esketamine) or to group A (propofol/alfentanil). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moderate Monitor patients for bradycardia and hypotension when alfentanil is coadministered with nimodipine. (baratos.online)
  • Monitor for hypertension and ensure ready availability of vasodilators and beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension if alfentanil is administered to patients who have received MAO inhibitors allfentanil 14 days. (baratos.online)
  • Moderate Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when alfentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug, such as solifenacin. (baratos.online)
  • In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as alfentanil. (baratos.online)
  • The use of alfentanil in patients who have received MAOI therapy within 14 days is not recommended. (baratos.online)
  • Nevertheless, alfentanil should be used cautiously in patients with biliary tract disease, or in those who are undergoing surgery of the biliary tract. (baratos.online)
  • Patients not treated on subsequent visits with alfentanil acetonide and potassium channels were classified under a separate treatment group. (pastande.org)
  • Group B - alfentanil 15ug/kg iv 1 minute before intubation and group C patients did not receive any treatment before intubation. (ul.ac.za)
  • Alfentanil probably could be useful to reduce ECT-induced tachycardia and hypertension in high-risk patients without affecting seizure duration and treatment effects of ECT. (zjrms.com)
  • Groups II-V patients (n = 15 each) received alfentanil 30, 40, 50, or 60 μg/kg followed by propofol 2 mg/kg IV. (elsevier.com)
  • In group II (30 μg/kg alfentanil), 5 of 15 patients' tracheas could not be intubated because of poor exposure of the cords or the presence of closed vocal cords. (elsevier.com)
  • Alfentanil grubuna (grup A), alfentanil 15 µg kg-1 bolus, insizyona kadar 1 µg kg dk-1, sonrasında 0.5 µg kg dk-1 hızında verildi. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • In alfentanil group (group A), alfentanil was received 15 µg kg-1 bolus followed by 1 µg kg dk-1 until incision and then continued 0.5 µg kg dk-1. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of dopamine antagonists on alfentanil-induced locomotor activity in horses. (elsevier.com)
  • After induction with propofol, alfentanil, and mivacurium and tracheal intubation, isoflurane was titrated to maintain the Bispectral Index at 55 (+/- 5), and the alfentanil administration was switched from manual to closed-loop control. (asahq.org)
  • After induction, anaesthesia was maintained with propofol-alfentanil infusions using the Bard InfusOR syringe drivers. (springer.com)
  • Arterial blood pressure was measured at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes and pH and blood gas measurements were carried out at 5, 10 and 30 minutes after the alfentanil. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors evaluated a novel model predictive controller for closed-loop administration of alfentanil using mean arterial blood pressure and predicted plasma alfentanil concentration (Cp Alf) as input parameters. (asahq.org)
  • Average values of mean arterial pressure changes, immediately after ETC, were 5.41±1.9 and 32.29±2.7 in alfentanil and placebo groups, respectively. (zjrms.com)
  • Alfentanil significantly reduced heart rate and mean arterial pressure, after electroconvulsive. (zjrms.com)
  • 2019. https://www.drugguide.com/ddo/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51865/all/alfentanil. (drugguide.com)
  • 2019. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51865/all/alfentanil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Michaelis-Menten parameters for the hepatic metabolism of alfentanil were determined by iterative optimization of the entire model. (springer.com)
  • Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme responsible for the metabolism of alfentanil. (baratos.online)
  • Alfentanil can cause respiratory depression and, even during medical procedures, the patient has to be monitored to ensure they don't reach a point of danger. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • As secondary respiratory depression is still under discussion, we investigated the value of alfentanil - a short-term acting opioid - with special interest in its efficacy and side-effects. (eurekamag.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to alfentanil or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • When you are receiving alfentanil, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. (drugs.com)
  • Using alfentanil with any of the following medicines is not recommended. (drugs.com)
  • Using alfentanil with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. (drugs.com)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): alfentanil. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Some medicines can affect how alfentanil works. (limamemorial.org)
  • The results also indicate that the time course of tolerance development does not depend on the type of noxious stimulation (mechanical versus thermal) if the response is organized predominantly supraspinally, and that acute tolerance to the direct effect of alfentanil on motor functions does not mask the rapid development of tolerance to its analgesic effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Time course characteristics of acute tolerance development to continuously infused alfentanil in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Rats that received ketanserin and alfentanil exhibited less rearing and exploratory behavior at the end of the 60-min recording period than did animals that received ketanserin alone. (scripps.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of lignocaine to alfentanil in blunting the pressor response to endotracheal intubation. (ul.ac.za)
  • ALFENTANIL GROUP There was a non significant increase in heart rate 1 minute post intubation (P= 0,7625), and there was no increase 2 and 3 minutes post intubation. (ul.ac.za)
  • Alfentanil is most commonly used as a surgical anesthetic because of its potency and because it starts working quickly. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • ivacaftor may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of alfentanil. (baratos.online)
  • Ved samtidig indgift af erythromycin kan clearance af alfentanil nedsættes signifikant, og muligvis er der øget risiko for forlænget eller forsinket respirationsdepression. (medicin.dk)
  • You should not receive it if you had an allergic reaction to alfentanil. (limamemorial.org)
  • Below is the selection of side effect reports (a.k.a. adverse event reports) related to Alfentanil where reactions include toxic epidermal necrolysis. (druglib.com)
  • However, some people may have differences in one or more of these liver enzymes, leading to dangerously high levels - which can lead to serious adverse reactions - or inadequate levels of alfentanil, which causes it to be ineffective. (rxight.com)
  • A similar assembly of the tissue models for alfentanil revealed non-first-order elimination kinetics that were not apparent in the blood concentration data. (springer.com)
  • Huseyn said : "We've been importing several types of peptide drugs, such as Fentanil, Alfentanil , Sulfentanil and Glatimer acetate, a total of seven types. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is suggested that alfentanil may be a suitable alternative to fentanyl in ophthalmic anaesthesia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alfentanil supplemented anaesthesia for short procedures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. (springer.com)
  • Moderate Concomitant use of alfentanil with other CNS depressants e. (baratos.online)
  • Moderate The plasma concentrations of alfentanil may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. (baratos.online)