Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Anesthesia Recovery Period
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
An adrenergic neuron-blocking drug similar in effects to GUANETHIDINE. It is also noteworthy in being a substrate for a polymorphic cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Persons with certain isoforms of this enzyme are unable to properly metabolize this and many other clinically important drugs. They are commonly referred to as having a debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase polymorphism.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
Receptors, Opioid, mu
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
Body Fluid Compartments
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
Drug Administration Schedule
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Body Temperature Regulation
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Drug Therapy, Combination
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Area Under Curve
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Rats, Inbred Strains
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Coronary Artery Bypass
Behavioral and physiological effects of remifentanil and alfentanil in healthy volunteers. (1/235)BACKGROUND: The subjective and psychomotor effects of remifentanil have not been evaluated. Accordingly, the authors used mood inventories and psychomotor tests to characterize the effects of remifentanil in healthy, non-drug-abusing volunteers. Alfentanil was used as a comparator drug. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in which they received an infusion of saline, remifentanil, or alfentanil for 120 min. The age- and weight-adjusted infusions (determined with STANPUMP, a computer modeling software package) were given to achieve three predicted constant plasma levels for 40 min each of remifentanil (0.75, 1.5, and 3 ng/ml) and alfentanil (16, 32, and 64 ng/ml). Mood forms and psychomotor tests were completed, and miosis was assessed, during and after the infusions. In addition, analgesia was tested at each dose level using a cold-pressor test. RESULTS: Remifentanil had prototypic micro-like opioid subjective effects, impaired psychomotor performance, and produced analgesia. Alfentanil at the dose range tested had more mild effects on these measures, and the analgesia data indicated that a 40:1 potency ratio, rather than the 20:1 ratio we used, may exist between remifentanil and alfentanil. A psychomotor test administered 60 min after the remifentanil infusion was discontinued showed that the volunteers were still impaired, although they reported feeling no drug effects. CONCLUSIONS: The notion that the pharmacodynamic effects of remifentanil are extremely short-lived after the drug is no longer administered must be questioned given our findings that psychomotor effects were still apparent 1 h after the infusion was discontinued. (+info)
Balanced pre-emptive analgesia: does it work? A double-blind, controlled study in bilaterally symmetrical oral surgery. (2/235)We studied 32 patients undergoing bilateral symmetrical lower third molar surgery under general anaesthesia to determine if the combined effects of pre-emptive local anaesthetic block using 0.5% bupivacaine, together with i.v. tenoxicam and alfentanil had any benefits over postoperative administration. Patients acted as their own controls and were allocated randomly to have surgery start on one side, the second side always being the pre-emptive side. Difference in pain intensity between the two sides was determined using visual analogue scales completed by each individual at 6 h, and at 1, 3 and 6 days after operation. A long-form McGill pain questionnaire was also used to assess difference in pain intensity between the two sides on the morning after surgery. There was no significant difference in pain intensity at any time after surgery. Our findings indicate that the combined use of pre-emptive analgesia from 0.5% bupivacaine, tenoxicam and alfentanil did not reduce postoperative pain intensity in patients undergoing molar exodontia. (+info)
Recirculatory and compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling of alfentanil in pigs: the influence of cardiac output. (3/235)BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is likely to influence the pharmacokinetics of anesthetic drugs and should be accounted for in pharmacokinetic models. The influence of CO on the pharmacokinetic parameters of alfentanil in pigs was evaluated using compartmental and recirculatory models. METHODS: Twenty-four premedicated pigs were evaluated during halothane (0.6-2%) anesthesia. They were assigned randomly to one of three groups. One group served as control. In the other groups, the baseline CO was decreased or increased by 40% by pharmacologic intervention (propranolol or dobutamine). Boluses of alfentanil (2 mg) and indocyanine green (25 mg) were injected into the right atrium. Blood samples were taken for 150 min from the right atrium and aortic root. Arterial concentration-time curves of indocyanine green and alfentanil were analyzed using compartmental models (two-stage and mixed-effects approach) and a recirculatory model, which can describe lung uptake and early distribution. RESULTS: The CO of individual pigs varied from 1.33 to 6.44 l/min. Three-compartmental modeling showed that CO is a determinant of the central compartment volume (V1, r2 = 0.54), fast peripheral compartment volume (V2, r2 = 0.29), steady state distribution volume (Vss, r2 = 0.29), fast distribution clearance (Cl12, r2 = 0.39), and elimination clearance (Cl10, r2 = 0.51). Recirculatory modeling showed that CO is a determinant of total distribution volume (r2 = 0.48), elimination clearance (r2 = 0.54), and some distribution clearances. The pulmonary distribution volume was independent of CO. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac output markedly influences the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in pigs. Therefore, accounting for CO enhances the predictive value of pharmacokinetic models of alfentanil. (+info)
Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (4/235)We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental. (+info)
Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (5/235)We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone. (+info)
Women emerge from general anesthesia with propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide faster than men. (6/235)BACKGROUND: Recovery from general anesthesia is governed by pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors. Gender has not previously been recognized as a factor influencing the time to emergence from general anesthesia. METHODS: This multicenter study was originally designed to measure the effects of the bispectral index on intraoperative anesthetic management and patient recovery. We compared the wake-up and recovery times of 274 adults after propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to have the titration of propofol performed with or without the use of bispectral index monitoring. Specific guidelines were given for the titration of drugs. The aim in all cases was to provide a safe anesthetic with the fastest possible recovery. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in propofol dose, time to eye opening, and response to verbal command when the anesthetic was titrated using the bispectral index. Unexpectedly, gender proved to be a highly significant independent predictor for recovery time. Women woke significantly faster than men: the time from end of anesthesia to eye opening was 7.05 versus 11.22 min, P < 0.05, and response to verbal command was 8.12 versus 11.67 min, P < 0.05. These differences were significant at all four study sites and in each treatment group. Men consistently had prolonged recovery times compared to women, P < 0.001. There was no difference in the dose of anesthetic used between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be an important variable in recovery from general anesthesia. These findings may explain the increased reported incidence of awareness in women (three times more frequent) and support the need to include gender as a variable in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of anesthetic drugs. (+info)
Bone marrow harvesting using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) cream, local anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil. (7/235)Bone marrow harvesting (BMH) was performed on 40 consecutive allogeneic or autologous donors using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics), local anaesthesia (LA) and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil (PCA-A). The effect of alkalinizing the LA solution on reducing pain during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA was also investigated. EMLA 10 g with occlusive dressing was applied to the harvest sites at least 60 min before BMH. The PCA device was programmed to deliver an intravenous loading dose of 15 microg/kg alfentanil, followed by a background alfentanil infusion of 0.05 microg/kg/min. Demand dose was 4 microg/kg and lockout time was 3 min. Donors were randomized to receive either alkalinized (n = 19) or non-alkalinized (n=21) LA solution (lignocaine 1% with 1:100000 adrenaline). While post-operative nausea and vomiting were the only side-effects, all donors in both groups reported satisfactory pain scores during LA infiltration and satisfactory overall intra-operative comfort scores. They completed BMH using either regimen successfully, found this technique acceptable and would recommend this form of anaesthesia to others. Alkalinizing the LA solution did not significantly improve the pain scores during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA. In conclusion, BMH can be performed safely using EMLA, LA and PCA-A without major complications. (+info)
Determination of the potency of remifentanil compared with alfentanil using ventilatory depression as the measure of opioid effect. (8/235)BACKGROUND: Remifentanil is a new opioid with properties similar to other mu-specific agonists. To establish its pharmacologic profile relative to other known opioids, it is important to determine its potency. This study investigated the relative potency of remifentanil compared with alfentanil. METHODS: Thirty young healthy males were administered double-blind remifentanil or alfentanil intravenously for 180 min using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Depression of ventilation was assessed by the minute ventilatory response to 7.5% CO2 administered via a "bag in the box" system. The target concentration of the study drug was adjusted to obtain 40-70% depression of baseline minute ventilation. Multiple blood samples were obtained during and following the infusion. The concentration-effect relationship of each drug was modeled, and the concentration needed to provide a 50% depression of ventilation (EC50) was determined. RESULTS: Only 11 subjects in each drug group completed the study; however, there were sufficient data in 28 volunteers to model their EC50 values. The EC50 (mean and 95% confidence interval) for depression of minute ventilation with remifentanil was 1.17 (0.85-1.49) ng/ml and the EC50 for alfentanil was 49.4 (32.4-66.5) ng/ml. CONCLUSION: Based on depression of the minute ventilatory response to 7.5% CO2, remifentanil is approximately 40 (26-65) times more potent than alfentanil when remifentanil and alfentanil whole-blood concentrations are compared. As alfentanil is usually measured as a plasma concentration, remifentanil is approximately 70 (41-104) times more potent than alfentanil when remifentanil whole-blood concentration is compared with alfentanil plasma concentration. This information should be used when performing comparative studies between remifentanil and other opioids. (+info)
Leicester Research Archive: Effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascular responses to induction of anaesthesia...
Effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascular responses to induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in the ...
Comparison of effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure. A double-blind controlled trial.
The effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on intra-ocular pressure during anaesthesia were investigated in 50 consecutive patients in a double-blind controlled trial. Both drugs produced a significant reduction in intraocular pressure (p less than 0.01)
ALFENTANIL PHARMACOKINETICS:INTRAVASCULAR SPACE AND CARDIAC OUTPUT | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
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Recurrent Respiratory Depression after Alfentanil Administration | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
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Recall after total intravenous anaesthesia due to an equipment misuse | SpringerLink
To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
Midazolam | The Chopra Library
The effects of alfentanil on the midazolam dose-response curve for hypnosis was studied with response to the verbal command as an end point in 95 patients. The analgesic effect of alfentanil was studied by measuring the threshold for pain caused by pressure on the trapezius muscle with the use of a dolorimeter in 21 patients. The study was randomized, double-blind, and performed on the unpremedicated patients with ASA physical status I or II. Alfentanil was found to reduce the midazolam ED50 value for the induction of anesthesia in a dose-dependent fashion ...
KKGT - Psychotherapeutic drugs
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Preemptive Analgesic Effect Of Ketamine In Children With Lower Abdominal Surgery
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Pharmacokinetics · Part One
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nitrous oxide anesthesia | CV Dental Care
Nitrous Oxide is a sweet-smelling, non-irritating, colorless gas which you can breathe.. Nitrous Oxide has been the primary means of sedation in dentistry for many years. Nitrous oxide is safe, the patient receives 50-70% oxygen with no less than 30% nitrous oxide.. The patient is able to breathe on their own and remain in control of all bodily functions.. The patient may experience mild amnesia and may fall asleep, not remembering all of what happened during their appointment.. ...
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Summary of Features
obtain context-sensitive help Finally, because it is a part of the SAS System, you can use SAS/INSIGHT software to explore results from any SAS procedure. Conversely, you can use any SAS procedure to analyze results from SAS/INSIGHT software. ...
Six ways to gain a robotics advantage
The global market for robotics-the use of computer-controlled robots to do manual tasks-is growing far faster than expected. In 2014, BCG projected that the market would reach $67 billion by 2025.
OOCYTE ASPIRATION NEEDLE - weLLgo Medical Products GmbH
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Advertising Lab: Context-Sensitive Taxi Advertising
None of this is really new, but I just looked out of the window, saw a cab equipped with an electronic billboard displaying the Celtics-Wizards score (116-108) and thought this had to be included. So these mobile electronic billboards (pictured on the left) are made by Adapt Media and have been around since early 2001. The service is called Ad Runner, uses embedded GPS, ad server, and wireless web technologies to enable electronic taxi-top billboards to receive and display messages based on the exact time and a cabs exact location (m-pulse ...
Patent US20040225394 - Predictive and preemptive planning and scheduling for different jop ... - Google Patents
For an automated manufacturing system having a number of modules with numerous alternative capabilities, a computer-controlled system provides for configuration-specific reprioritization of jobs. The computer-controlled system includes at least one system controller for planning and scheduling utilization of selected module capabilities in the production of jobs having not less than one work unit. Module capabilities include the relative costs of the module capabilities.
Computer-controlled cyborg yeast - ExtremeTech
In an amazing but slightly weird world first, scientists have formed a feedback loop between common, baking and brewing yeast, ...
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Why Do People Push Placebo Buttons? Placebo buttons are buttons that actually do nothing except give the user an... ...computer-controlled traffic signals make the walk buttons at pedestrian crossings on heavily trafficked str... ...olete. By the late 1980s, most (but not all) walk ... http://www.neatorama.com/2010/02/09/why-do-people-push-placebo-buttons/ ...
Innovative Calibration System Yields Unprecedented Accuracy | Sea-Bird Scientific
From The Sea-Bird Journal, Issue #5, August 1995 New methods and World-class metrology tighten the link between ocean measurements and primary physical standards. Perfected after four years of research, super-low-gradient computer-controlled baths are
A computer-controlled sequencing initiates each functional phase in chronological order. But a manual control can override automatic operation at any time. Large contact switches assist in recognizing of the bed or patient transporter and monitors for the correct height and position of the bed or patient transporter and the operating table top. After the transfer to the operating table top the Transmaquet automatically retracts to its home position.. ...
Median nerve evoked responses and explicit memory during recovery from isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia :: MPG.PuRe
Author: Rundshagen, Ingrid et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Title: Median nerve evoked responses and explicit memory during recovery from isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia
AES E-Library » Interface Design for Computer-Controlled Audio Systems
Success in designing user interfaces for complex computer systems will, in large part, determine the success of the systems as a whole. Information from within the field of human-computer interaction is presented and applied within the domain of computer-controlled audio systems. This includes the design of visual and tactile displays, alternative input devices and input mappings, stimulus response compatibility, customization, and intelligent interfaces. The presentation will focus on...
Remifentanil | Abuse, Side Effects, Detox, Withdrawal and Treatment
An easy to read guide about remifentanil abuse, addiction, and treatment options. Get help for remifentanil addiction today at Nova.
Application of Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Approaches in the Design of Translational Strategies for Development...
Population-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approaches have been successfully applied in various stages of drug development over the last few decades. The development of antibody-based...
Global Sufentanil (API) Market Professional Survey Report 2017 : ReportsnReports
[100 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sufentanil (API) Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Sufentanil (API) in Global market, especially in...
The cogturner: May 2008
The advantages of this system are obvious: reductions in traffic, pollution, noise, accidents, and road expansion. The founders have even come up with a way to build the system without disturbing everyday life aboveground. They plan to use an underground, computer-controlled pipe jacking system to precisely drive the pipes into place. Displaced earth is automatically returned to the surface by way of the pipes. The pipe jacking system and small diameter of the pipes allows CargoCap to be implemented near existing infrastructure, and the system can easily be expanded to meet increases in demand ...
I dont use #Fentanyl to get high. It l - narcoticablog
I dont use #Fentanyl to get high. It lets me lets me live without #ChronicPain via The Globe and Mail http://htl.li/XTH030bEay2
Study on the Development of Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH) After Exposure to Alfentanil - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This project investigates the phenomenon of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Opioid analgesics, in addition to their therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects, under some conditions produce pro-nociceptive effects. This phenomenon of pain or pain sensitivity being increased by prior opioid administration is called opioid-induced hyperalgesia. It is thought to be relevant both to pain management complications and to complications of opioid dependence and its treatment. This study investigated the time-course of opioid-induced hyperalgesia development in healthy normal volunteers (N=12 completers), using a series of acute alfentanil administrations (15 mg/kg mg intramuscular (IM) per day) spaced at 3-4 day intervals, with testing for pain tolerance using the cold pressor test (CPT), and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (MQST) each administered repeatedly over time within each testing day. The goal was to determine the time course of OIH development following acute opioid administration, and to ...
Remifentanil Versus Morphine for Sedation of Premature Neonates With Respiratory Distress Syndrome - Full Text View -...
Intubation and mechanical ventilation are majors component of intensive care for premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and is associated with physiologic, biochemical, and clinical responses indicating pain and stress in prematures. Although morphine is one of the most used drugs for premedication and for sedation and analgesia during mechanical ventilation in the treatment of RDS its pharmacological profile precludes several limitations mostly due to its much delayed onset of action what makes the drug not suitable as premedication and due to its prolonged duration of action mainly in prematures. Unlike morphine, remifentanil has an unique pharmacokinetic properties with a rapid onset of action and, a fast decrease in plasma concentration after interruption of administration due to a context-sensitive half-time of 3.2 minutes. So, it could be the ideal opioid for neonates who are especially sensitive to respiratory depression by ...
Patent US4385360 - Computer-controlled reproduction device - Google Patents
A computer-controlled reproduction device is described for recreating a 3-dimensional image representative of a subject image in a permanent medium such as a sheet of transparent plastic. Digital signals representative of the subject image are stored in the memory of the computer and used by the computer to control a machine tool for drilling a plurality of holes in the plastic sheet representative of the subject image. The machine tool contains a drill bit which is tapered over the length of its travel into the plastic sheet so the deeper the penetration into the sheet, the larger the diameter of the entrance hole in the sheet. The depth of each hole is controlled by the computer to correspond to the lightness of the subject image at that point.
DEVICE FOR MEASURING AT LEAST ONE PARAMETER OF AN ARTERIAL BLOOD SAMPLE - Patent application
0022] To carry out blood analysis a blood sample must be taken, which requires the following steps of procedure:  1. The stop valve 21 between the pressurized bag 20 and the aspiration piston 22 is closed.  2. A blood sample is manually aspired via the aspiration piston 22 of the infusion set 16.  3. The stop valve 23 between aspiration piston 22 and septum 24 for blood withdrawal is closed.  4. An arterial blood sample is withdrawn by means of a one-way syringe (not shown) via the septum 24. (Disadvantages: risk of infection for patient and personnel, risk of injury).  5. The blood sample is measured in an external analyser or transferred to tubules and sent to a laboratory for analysis. (Disadvantages: increased handling, danger of contamination).  6. The stop valve 23 is opened and the aspired blood is reinfused into the artery by means of the aspiration piston 22.  7. The septum 24 is cleaned.  8. The stop valve 21 is opened and the arterial ...
Rapid Recovery VM in Azure - To seed or not to seed! - Forum - Rapid Recovery - Quest Community
Evening,. Im in the planning phase of migrating my off site replication cores to Azure from our data center and Im curious if anybody has any real world experience with seeding they would like to share.. Whether we add new cores with initial base images or replicate existing cores with base images and lots of incrementals there will be a lot of data to send to Azure so we are wondering about replication speeds/time of replicating versus shipping drives.. There is obviously a ton of variables and I know our experience will not exactly match anybody else but Im curious what speeds people are seeing when replicating base images. For example, 3tbs of data behind a 100mbs fiber link. Are we talking hours or days or weeks for that to replicate to Azure.. And how has the experience been with sending drives? What type of turn around are you seeing once Microsoft receives the drive? I have one client in particular that cant seem to figure out their UPS and there server shuts down dirty every couple ...
Buy Quest Software International Rapid Recovery For SQL Server [Commercial - Perpetual Licence With Maintenance (24x7) (3-Years...
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H89: Using the title attribute to provide context-sensitive help | Techniques for WCAG 2.0
The tool tip in some common user agents disappears after a short period of time (approximately 5 seconds). This can cause difficulty accessing title attribute content for those users who can use a mouse but have fine motor skill impairment, and may result in difficulties for users who need more time to read the tool tip. ...
Algorithms | Free Full-Text | LR Parsing for LCFRS
LR parsing is a popular parsing strategy for variants of Context-Free Grammar (CFG). It has also been used for mildly context-sensitive formalisms, such as Tree-Adjoining Grammar. In this paper, we present the first LR-style parsing algorithm for Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS), a mildly context-sensitive extension of CFG which has received considerable attention in the last years in the context of natural language processing.
Allfen CX and remifentanil Drug Interactions - Drugs.com
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between Allfen CX and remifentanil. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
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www.MOLUNA.de Emergent Computation  - Emergent Computation emphasizes the interrelationship of the different classes of languages studied in mathematical linguistics (regular, context-free, context-sensitive, and type 0) with aspects to the biochemistry of DNA, RNA, and proteins. In addition, aspects of sequential machines such as parity checking and semi-groups are extended to the study of the
Fentanyl Panpharma - Drugs.com
Fentanyl Panpharma is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Fentanyl Panpharma is available on the Drugs.com website.
Pengaruh Pemberian Petidin Dan Fentanyl Sebagai Premedikasi Anestesi Terhadap Perubahan Tekanan Darah Di RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono...
Pengaruh Pemberian Petidin Dan Fentanyl Sebagai Premedikasi Anestesi Terhadap Perubahan Tekanan Darah Di RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo
Comment on How does Dr. Rizk achieve such a rapid recovery after rhinoplasty?
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fl.formal languages - Mistake in Wikipedia CSG example? - Theoretical Computer Science Stack Exchange
So they appeal to the canonical form of context-sensitive grammar rules: αAβ → αγβ, implying that whole grammar is context-sensitive. What Im confused about is rule #3, which seems to be not fitting scheme αAβ → αγβ. I consider terminal $c$ here as part of $\alpha$, variable $B$ as $A$ in scheme, $\beta$ is empty. This implies that $cB$ can not produce $WB$, as $c$ should be saved on same place ($cB\rightarrow c\dots$).. Did I missed something or this grammar was really placed here mistakenly (as it is not real context-sensitive)?. ...
1. St. Louis, Missouri - Chicago Tribune
The spray plaza at night. The plaza features 102 nozzles that shoot water into the air in an enormous variety of computer-controlled patterns. At night the water jets are illuminated in all the colors of the rainbow by computer-controlled LED lighting.
What Kind of Drug is Fentanyl | What Is Fentanyl | Expomed
Uncover what kind of drug Fentanyl is. We cover the legal and illegal uses, chemistry, and side effects of Fentanyl. Learn more about the dangers of Fentanyl.
With Biological Abstracts, you can easily discover the critical journal coverage you need to prepare research projects, grant proposals and follow trends in the life sciences. Explore relevant disciplines from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Use specialized indexing to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results
MerCruiser Tow Sports Inboards are built and designed to give you the perfect pulling power with just the right amount of torque. With SmartCraft technology, you get unmatched peace of mind with Engine Guardian, along with optimum fuel economy and performance thanks to the computer-controlled multiport fuel injection system ...
Pharmaceutical Intermediates Powder Ocfentanil Acetylfentanyl Fentanyl Hcl Trefentanil Sufentanil - WANKE BIO-TECH CO., LIMITED...
1. Hot sale products: 10.Products list: * Fentanyl products: 2,5-Dimethylfentanyl 3-Allylfentanyl 3-Methylbutyrfentanyl p-fluoroisobutyrfentanyl p-chloroisobutyrfentanyl Cyclopentylfentanyl Furanylethylfentanyl Methoxyacetylfentanyl Thenylfentanyl...
Fentanyl Laced Drugs | Georgia Drug Detox
Fentanyl-laced drugs is one of the biggest issues in the US today. Learn how to tell if drugs are laced with fentanyl with this helpful guide.
Fentanyl - just another reason to legalise drugs | Regator
From: The Adam Smith Institute Blog-- Reports from the US of the chaos, and deaths, that the fentanyl epidemic is causing. Small-scale ..
... has a pKa of approximately 6.5, which leads to a very high proportion of the drug being uncharged at physiologic pH ... Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, ... While alfentanil tends to cause fewer cardiovascular complications than other similar drugs such as fentanyl and remifentanil, ... Discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1976, alfentanil is classified as a Schedule II drug in the United States. Side effects ...
Misuse of Drugs Act (Singapore)
... alfentanil, sufentanil, carfentanil, etc.) GHB Ketamine Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and other lysergides MDMA (ecstasy) ...
History of general anesthesia
Spierdijk J, van Kleef J, Nauta J, Stanley TH, de Lange S (1980). "Alfentanil: a new narcotic induction agent". Anesthesiology ... Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA (1981). "Alfentanil (R39209)-a particularly short acting intravenous narcotic analgesic in rats". ... Fentanyl was followed by sufentanil (1974), alfentanil (1976), carfentanil (1976), and lofentanil (1980). Janssen and his team ...
Spierdijk J, van Kleef J, Nauta J, Stanley TH, de Lange S (1980). "Alfentanil: a new narcotic induction agent". Anesthesiology ... Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA (1981). "Alfentanil (R39209)-a particularly short acting intravenous narcotic analgesic in rats". ...
... has very similar effects to alfentanil, much like those of fentanyl itself but more potent and shorter lasting. ... In comparative studies, trefentanil was slightly more potent and shorter acting than alfentanil as an analgesic, but induced ... The risk of respiratory depression is especially high with potent fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil and trefentanil, and ... Trefentanil is most similar to short-acting fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil. ...
"Effects of temazepam premedication on cognitive recovery following alfentanil-propofol anaesthesia". Br J Anaesth. 63 (1): 68- ...
Su YF, McNutt RW, Chang KJ (Dec 1998). "Delta-opioid ligands reverse alfentanil-induced respiratory depression but not ... stimulated respiratory function and blocked the respiratory depressant effect of the potent μ-opioid agonist alfentanil, ...
Total intravenous anesthesia with methohexital-alfentanil or propofol-alfentanil in hypogastric laparotomy. Clinical aspects ...
1], T. D., Minto, C. F., Hermann, D. J., Barr, J., Muir, K. T., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Remifentanil versus alfentanil: ...
Outcomes Research Consortium
Kurz A, Go JC, Sessler DI, Kaer K, Larson M, Bjorksten AR (1995). "Alfentanil slightly increases the sweating threshold and ...
The effects of brifentanil are very similar to those of alfentanil, with strong but short lasting analgesia and sedation, and ... The risk of respiratory depression is especially high with potent fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil and brifentanil, and ... Brifentanil is most similar to highly potent, short-acting fentanyl analogues such as alfentanil. ...
... and alfentanil in dogs". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 281 (1): 226-32. PMID 9103501. Patel SS, Spencer CM (Sep 1996). "Remifentanil ... a common side effect of other fast-acting synthetic phenylpiperidine narcotics such as fentanyl and alfentanil) and intense ...
... alfentanil, and nitrous oxide anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 97 (1): 82-9. doi:10.1097/00000542-200207000-00012. PMID 12131107. ...
van Leeuwen L, Deen L, Helmers JH (August 1981). "A comparison of alfentanil and fentanyl in short operations with special ... Meperidine is a fully synthetic opioid, and other members of the phenylpiperidine family like alfentanil and sufentanil are ... Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid in the phenylpiperidine family, which includes sufentanil, alfentanil, remifentanil, and ...
"Influence of CYP3A5 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cytochrome P4503A probes alfentanil and ...
At lower doses, it antagonizes the analgesic effects of alfentanil and substitutes for naloxone in morphine-treated monkeys; ...
... lofentanil and alfentanil in the rat: analgesia and other in vivo effects". European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 5 (5): 313-21 ...
Alfentanil, Remifentanil. It results in a generalised increase in skeletal muscle tone. The mechanism is thought to be via ...
The following opioids have short onset and duration of action and are frequently used during general anesthesia: Alfentanil ...
... remifentanil and alfentanil) appear to be efficacious and safe. In the United States, obstetric anesthesiology is a sub- ...
... alphacetylmethadol alphameprodine alphamethadol alphamethylfentanyl alphamethylthiofentanyl alphaprodine alfentanil ...
List of opioids
IC-26 Isoaminile Lefetamine R-4066 Structures 3-Allylfentanyl 3-Methylfentanyl 3-Methylthiofentanyl 4-Phenylfentanyl Alfentanil ...
List of drugs: Al
... redirects to alfentanil alfentanil (INN) alferminogene tadenovec (USAN, INN) Alferon alfetamine (INN) alfimeprase (USAN) ...
Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
Alfentanil (N-[1-[2-(4-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)ethyl]-4-(methoxymethyl)-4-piperidyl]propionanilide) ...
Cyclobenzaprine Gabapentin Meprobamate Metaxalone Methocarbamol Orphenadrine Phenibut Pregabalin Tizanidine Opioids Alfentanil ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... alfentanil MeSH D03.383.621.265.900 - sufentanil MeSH D03.383.621.270 - flecainide MeSH D03.383.621.280 - fluspirilene MeSH ...
ATC code N01
N01AF02 Hexobarbital N01AF03 Thiopental QN01AF90 Thiamylal N01AG01 Narcobarbital N01AH01 Fentanyl N01AH02 Alfentanil N01AH03 ...
Alphamethylfentanyl Alfentanil Sufentanil Remifentanil Carfentanyl Ohmefentanyl Benzimidazoles opioids are also known as ...
Misuse of Drugs Act 1977
Acetorphine Acetylmethadol Alfentanil Allylprodine Alphacetylmethadol (i.e. levacetylmethadol) Alphameprodine Alphamethadol ...
Alfentanil (IV) Adenosine (IV) Ketamine (IV) Glycine antagonist Venlafaxine Gabapentin (may also be helpful in cold and dynamic ... Alfentanil (IV) Ketamine (IV) Methylprednisone (intrathecal) Adenosine Glycine antagonist Desipramine Venlafaxine Pregabalin ...
Morphine (Injection Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic
This medicine may be habit-forming. If you or your child feel that the medicine is not working as well, do not use more than your prescribed dose. Call your doctor for instructions. Using narcotics for a long time can cause severe constipation. To prevent this, your doctor may direct you or your child to take laxatives, drink a lot of fluids, or increase the amount of fiber in the diet. Be sure to follow the directions carefully, because continuing constipation can lead to more serious problems. Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur when you or your child get up suddenly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help lessen this problem. Also, lying down for a while may relieve the dizziness or lightheadedness. This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, confused, or disoriented. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert. Before having any kind of surgery ...
The safety and efficacy of alfentanil-based induction in bronchoscopy sedation: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial<...
Hsieh, CH, Lin, TY, Wang, TY, Kuo, CH, Lin, SM, Kuo, HP & Lo, YL 2016, The safety and efficacy of alfentanil-based induction ... Conclusion: Alfentanil 5mg/kg given immediately before propofol infusion cannot be recommended. Further study is required to ... Conclusion: Alfentanil 5mg/kg given immediately before propofol infusion cannot be recommended. Further study is required to ... Conclusion: Alfentanil 5mg/kg given immediately before propofol infusion cannot be recommended. Further study is required to ...
Alfentanil Hydrochloride in: ASHP® Injectable Drug Information™
NIOSH's CBRN Respirator Approval Program | NPPTL | NIOSH | CDC
ALFENTANIL HYDROCHLORIDE : Medicament, preparation prescriptions, order, dose, side effects
ALFENTANIL HYDROCHLORIDE : Medicaments, preparation prescriptions, order, dose, side effects, information, notice, pharma ... ALFENTANIL HYDROCHLORIDE ALFENTANIL HYDROCHLORIDE. (al-fenta-nill) Alfenta. Classifications: narcotic (opiate agonist) ... Alfentanil is a narcotic agonist analgesic with rapid onset and short duration of action. CNS effects appear to be related to ... Small volumes may be given direct IV undiluted or diluted in 5 mL of NS.??Add 20 mL of alfentanil to 230 mL of compatible IV ...
A-Z Drug Index for Prescription and OTC Medications
Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Alfentanil during Middle Ear Surgery | AVESİS
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Apparent pA|sub|2|/sub| analysis on the respiratory depressant effects of alfentanil, etonitazene, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC)...
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Sharing and Collaboration All platforms now provide the ability to share substances, substance data (e.g. Fire Fighting Procedures or Reactivities), protective distance maps, and reference documents. In addition, a public API is now available for third party integration.. To share from your device, select the share icon from the menu or tool bar. Then follow your devices instructions to share the link via an app (e.g. text message) or copy a link of the data to your clipboard. On WebWISER, copy the link from the menu or, in the case of more complex data (e.g. chemical reactivity and protective distance), select the appropriate "Copy Link" button.. Links can be shared from all platforms and opened directly on the iOS and Android platforms. If you dont have WISER installed on your device or are on the Windows platform, links will automatically be opened in WebWISER.. The public API is open, free to use, and is used to provide the sharing features listed above. Have questions? Please contact ...
Table 4 - Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Contaminated Propofol Anesthesia, 1989-2014 - Volume 22, Number 6-June 2016 -...
uk-alfentanil-500-mcg-ml-5-mg-in-10-ml-3216 - hameln pharma
Alfentanil 500 micrograms/ml. solution for injection. (5 mg in 10 ml) Additional information on indications, dosage and method ... Alfentanil 500 micrograms/ml. 1 mg in 2 ml. 10 x 2 ml AMP. ALF1002. 113-1697. 5016386890024. ... Alfentanil 500 micrograms/ml. 25 mg in 50 ml. 1 x 50 ml VIAL. ALF2550UK. 122-4302. 5016386001154. ... Alfentanil 5 mg/ml. 5 mg in 1 ml. 10 x 1 ml AMP. ALF5001. 113-1689. 5016386870033. ...
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Alfentanil Market CAGR, Alfentanil Market Challenges, Alfentanil Market Forecast, Alfentanil Market Growth, Alfentanil Market ... Alfentanil Market Research, Alfentanil Market Revenue, Alfentanil Market Scenario, Alfentanil Market Share, Alfentanil Market ... Size, Alfentanil Market Statistics, Alfentanil Market Traders, Alfentanil Market Trends , Comments. Leave a Reply Cancel reply ... Alfentanil Market Growth, Opportunity, Business Trend, and Future Outlook 2022-2028 Danette Buford , June 24, 2022. ...
Randomized clinical trial of the effect of supplemental opioids in procedural sedation with propofol on serum catecholamines
Patients were randomized to receive either 10 μg/kg alfentanil followed by 1 mg/kg propofol, followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 ... Results: Twenty patients were enrolled; 10 received propofol and 10 received propofol with alfentanil. No clinically ... patients in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = -30%, 95% CI = -70% to 10%). Recall of some part of the procedure was ... patients in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = -10%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -53% to 33%). There was no ...
Cetirizine (Intravenous Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
TEGretol CR Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com
Chapter 893 Section 03 - 2007 Florida Statutes - The Florida Senate
Eluxadoline: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Medications used in Tracheal Intubation: Medications for Rapid Sequence Endotracheal Intubation, Stage 1 - Pretreatment,...
Alfentanil has the fastest onset of action of all the opioids. In 1990, Pathak and colleagues reported that alfentanil 15-30 ... Sufentanil and alfentanil possess a more rapid onset and shorter duration of action than fentanyl, making these agents ... Effects of alfentanil and lidocaine on the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. J Clin Anesth. 1990 ... Sparr reported that when 20 mcg/kg of alfentanil was used as an induction agent, good intubation conditions were met at 45 ...
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Bispectral Index Monitoring Allows Faster Emergence and Improved Recovery from Propofol, Alfentanil, and Nitrous Oxide...
Prediction of movement using BIS electroencephalographic analysis during propofol/alfentanil or isoflurane/alfentanil ... In the BIS group, alfentanil infusions were discontinued, and propofol was adjusted to achieve a BIS in the 60-75 range. This ... It is important to note that the doses of propofol and alfentanil used in this study were well within the recommended ... 18] Because similar amounts of alfentanil were used in the SP and BIS treatment groups, no difference in response rates would ...
Sedative effect of remimazolam combined with alfentanil in colonoscopic polypectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled...
One hundred twenty patients were randomly divided into four groups: alfentanil and propofol (AP) group, alfentanil and ... Remimazolam combined with alfentanil have a non-inferior sedative effect than propofol during the colonoscopic polypectomy. ... Our study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of remimazolam combined with alfentanil in colonoscopic polypectomy. ... Patients in the four groups received alfentanil 10 μg/kg, followed by propofol 2 mg/kg and three dosages of ...
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Motofen, (difenoxin-hcl-atropine) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
Chapter 782 - 2021 Florida Statutes - The Florida Senate
PropofolSufentanil and alfentanilAgonistAnestheticAnesthesiaDosesRemimazolam2022RespiratoryConcentrationsInfusionPatientsEffectsSolutionDataSufentanilMidazolamRemifentanilOpioidSedationPropofolAnesthesiaDrugsMorphineIntravenous alfentanilAcetyl fentanylAdverseAnalgesiaInjectionMetabolismBenzhydrocodoneInfantsDosageDosePotentPatient
- Background: Alfentanil in combination with propofol produces a synergistic sedative effect in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FB). (elsevier.com)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the proper induction regimen of alfentanil in propofol target-controlled infusion for FB sedation. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusion: Alfentanil 5mg/kg given immediately before propofol infusion cannot be recommended. (elsevier.com)
- The hypothesis was that there is no difference in the change in serum catecholamines between PS using propofol with or without supplemental alfentanil. (nih.gov)
- Patients were randomized to receive either 10 μg/kg alfentanil followed by 1 mg/kg propofol, followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 minutes as needed, or propofol only, dosed in similar fashion without supplemental alfentanil. (nih.gov)
- 10 received propofol and 10 received propofol with alfentanil. (nih.gov)
- Three hundred two patients receiving a propofol-alfentanil-nitrous oxide anesthetic were studied at four institutions. (asahq.org)
- The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy profiles of the remimazolam and propofol when combined with alfentanil for sedation during ERCP procedures. (bvsalud.org)
- INTERVENTIONS: Patients scheduled for ERCP were randomly assigned to be sedated with either a combination of remimazolam-alfentanil or propofol-alfentanil. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSION: During elective ERCP, patients administered with remimazolam showed fewer respiratory depression events under deep sedation with hemodynamic advantages over propofol when administered in combination with alfentanil. (bvsalud.org)
- Methods: All patients were randomly divided into two groups: RB combined with the alfentanil group (research group) and propofol combined with the alfentanil group (control group). (bvsalud.org)
- After full oxygen inhalation and electrocardiographic monitoring, the research group was given 10 µg/Kg alfentanil + RB 0.2 mg/kg intravenously, and the control group was given 10 µg/Kg alfentanil + propofol 1.5 mg/kg. (bvsalud.org)
Sufentanil and alfentanil1
- During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) there was a fall in BN plasma concentrations, observations similar to reports on fentanyl, sufentanil and alfentanil. (who.int)
- Alfentanil is a narcotic agonist analgesic with rapid onset and short duration of action. (medpill.info)
- Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Background: We aimed to compare the effects of controlled hypotension with dexmedetomidine or alfentanil on hemodynamic parameters, surgeon satisfaction and bleeding in surgical field under N2O-free low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. (inonu.edu.tr)
- Patients were randomly assigned to receive traditional opioid-based anesthesia (Group C) with alfentanil, or opioid-reduced anesthesia (a moderate-opioid group (Group MO) and low-opioid group (Group LO) with esketamine and alfentanil). (medscape.com)
- For anesthesia induction, the three groups received 20, 20, 10 µg/kg alfentanil respectively and Group LO received an additional 0.2 mg/kg esketamine. (medscape.com)
- For maintenance of anesthesia, the patients in Group C received 40 µg/kg/h alfentanil, and those in Group MO and Group LO received 0.5 mg/kg/h esketamine. (medscape.com)
- Alfentanil was supplemented in repeated doses of 20 micrograms/kg. (fluoridealert.org)
- Background: The efficacy and adverse reactions of remimazolam besylate (RB) in combination with alfentanil in patients with painless gastroscopy remain unclear. (bvsalud.org)
- Alfentanil Market: Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2022-2028.We are regularly tracking the direct effect of COVID-19 on the market, along with the indirect influence of associated industries. (themarketpublicist.com)
- enhancement or prolongation of postoperative respiratory depression also may result from concomitant administration of any of these agents with alfentanil. (medpill.info)
- Alfentanil is available in concentrations of 500 mcg/mL. (medpill.info)
- Note: Alfentanil may be diluted to concentrations of 25 80 mcg/mL. (medpill.info)
- The animal was deeply anaesthetised with an infusion of ketamine, medetomidine, midazolam and alfentanil. (cam.ac.uk)
- Objective: The aim of the study is to observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of RB in combination with alfentanil in patients with painless gastroscopy RB. (bvsalud.org)
- Monitor for S&S of increased sympathetic stimulation (arrhythmias) and evidence of depressed postoperative analgesia (tachycardia, pain, pupillary dilation, spontaneous muscle movement) if a narcotic antagonist has been administered to overcome residual effects of alfentanil. (medpill.info)
- Add 20 mL of alfentanil to 230 mL of compatible IV solution to yield 40 mcg/mL. (medpill.info)
- The Alfentanil represents an integrated system of various switches and servers used for facilitating the communication of data between server and switch nodes. (themarketpublicist.com)
- Alfentanil has a rapid onset of action and appropriate pharmacokinetic properties in continuous infusion [ 12 ], and it has a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting than fentanyl or sufentanil [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil were also analyzed from 2010 to 2017, the most recent year reported. (nih.gov)
- Comparison between epidural fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil, lofentanil and alfentanil in the rat: analgesia and other in vivo effects. (wikidoc.org)
- In this study, we developed a simple dilute-and-shoot method that provides a fast 3.5-min analysis of fentanyl and related compounds (norfentanyl, acetyl fentanyl, alfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, carfentanil, remifentanil, and sufentanil) in human urine by LC-MS/MS using a Raptor Biphenyl column. (chromatographyonline.com)
- The effects of midazolam, droperidol, fentanyl, and alfentanil on phagocytosis and killing of bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro. (nih.gov)
- Patient-controlled sedation for ERCP: a randomized double-blind comparison of alfentanil and remifentanil. (helsinki.fi)
- Induction of anesthesia is accomplished by using high doses of opioid (usually fentanyl or alfentanil) to maximize cardiovascular stability. (medscape.com)
- We conducted a prospective, clinical trial to evaluate the hemodynamic and sedative effects of short acting opioid alfentanil, administered during the early postoperative period in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. (ispub.com)
- Patients were randomly assigned to receive traditional opioid-based anesthesia (Group C) with alfentanil, or opioid-reduced anesthesia (a moderate-opioid group (Group MO) and low-opioid group (Group LO) with esketamine and alfentanil). (medscape.com)
- We conducted a randomized prospective double-blind pilot study followed by an open main study to assess the effects of alfentanil infusion on postoperative hemodynamics, sedation and shivering following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (ispub.com)
- Sedation scores during alfentanil infusion were 4.9±0.8. (ispub.com)
- In conclusion, postoperative administration of alfentanil achieved effective sedation, adequate cardiovascular stability, and provided good patient tolerance to ventilation and minimal shivering. (ispub.com)
- Should Propofol and Alfentanil Be Combined in Patient-Controlled Sedation? (scirp.org)
- Efficacy of fentanyl or alfentanil in suppressing reflex sneezing after propofol sedation and periocular injection. (nih.gov)
- azelastine and alfentanil both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
- Objective To compare induction targets, and the haemodynamic and respiratory effects, of propofol, or as an admixture with two different concentrations of alfentanil, delivered via a propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) system. (gla.ac.uk)
- Animals were randomly assigned to receive one of three induction protocols: propofol alone (group 1), a propofol/alfentanil (11.9 mu g mL(-1)) admixture (group 2), or a propofol/alfentanil (23.8 mu g mL(-1)) admixture (group 3), via a TCI system. (gla.ac.uk)
- Conclusions and clinical relevance Induction of anaesthesia with a TCI system can be achieved at lower blood propofol targets when using a propofol/alfentanil admixture compared with using propofol alone. (gla.ac.uk)
- Some hospital trusts in the UK are already reporting concerningly low supplies of oxygen and vital medicines such as propofol and alfentanil.1 In these circumstances, where not everyone can be treated, difficult ethical decisions will have to made. (philpapers.org)
- Nine women in the early postpartum period were given intravenous alfentanil 50 mcg initially and then 10 mcg as needed during tubal ligation surgery under general anesthesia. (nih.gov)
- For anesthesia induction, the three groups received 20, 20, 10 µg/kg alfentanil respectively and Group LO received an additional 0.2 mg/kg esketamine. (medscape.com)
- For maintenance of anesthesia, the patients in Group C received 40 µg/kg/h alfentanil, and those in Group MO and Group LO received 0.5 mg/kg/h esketamine. (medscape.com)
- Anesthesia induction: remimazolam 6 mg/kg/hours was continuously pumped until sleep and slow intravenous injection of alfentanil 20 ug/kg and mivacurium chloride 0.2 mg/kg was given. (bvsalud.org)
- N.B. Alfentanil and fentanyl are different drugs. (westmidspallcare.co.uk)
- Injections include morphine , diamorphine , oxycodone and alfentanil . (stchristophers.org.uk)
- however, because there is no published experience with repeated doses of intravenous alfentanil during established lactation, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
- There are also fentanyl analogs, such as acetyl fentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil, which are like fentanyl in chemical structure. (mccdrugandalcohol.com)
- Below is the selection of side effect reports (a.k.a. adverse event reports) related to Alfentanil death. (druglib.com)
- The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil on postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (hindawi.com)
- Our data showed that the analgesic and adverse effects of oxycodone and alfentanil were similar. (hindawi.com)
- When used epidurally or intravenously during labor or for a short time immediately postpartum, amounts of alfentanil ingested by the neonate are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. (nih.gov)
- A total of 82 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive either oxycodone or alfentanil using intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). (hindawi.com)
- Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients. (nih.gov)
- Alfentanil has a short duration of action which limits its use for breakthrough analgesia. (westmidspallcare.co.uk)
- These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ALFENTANIL HCl INJECTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
- See full prescribing information for ALFENTANIL HCl INJECTION. (nih.gov)
- Alfentanil HCl injection exposes users to risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. (nih.gov)
- Alfentanil HCl Injection should be administered only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids. (nih.gov)
- Doses of Alfentanil HCl Injection vary depending on circumstances (see dosing chart, 2.2 . (nih.gov)
- Reduce the dose of Alfentanil HCl Injection when administered with CNS depressants. (nih.gov)
- Discontinue Alfentanil HCl Injection if serotonin syndrome is suspected. (nih.gov)
- Avoid use with Alfentanil HCl Injection because they may reduce analgesic effect of Alfentanil HCl Injection or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (nih.gov)
- abametapir will increase the level or effect of alfentanil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
- apalutamide will decrease the level or effect of alfentanil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
- 15. Metabolism of alfentanil by cytochrome p4503a (cyp3a) enzymes. (nih.gov)
- benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen, alfentanil. (medscape.com)
- Physiological, plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol responses to nasotracheal intubation were studied in 20 distressed infants of median age 0.3 days (range 0.1-23 days) randomized into groups given pethidine 1 mg/kg (n = 10) or alfentanil 20 micrograms/kg plus suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg (n = 10) before intubation. (omeka.net)
- Hypoxaemia during intubation was found in all 10 infants in the pethidine group and in 7 of 10 infants in the alfentanil-suxamethonium group, its duration being significantly longer in the pethidine group and being associated with the duration of the intubation procedure. (omeka.net)
- however, average cumulative alfentanil dosage was not reported. (nih.gov)
- 1] Using the highest measured alfentanil level in this study, an exclusively breastfed infant would receive an alfentanil dosage of 0.2 mcg/kg daily. (nih.gov)
- One alternative is the combination of glycopyrrolate, alfentanil and suxamethonium described here, although the ideal medication and dosage still remain to be defined. (omeka.net)
- The study design consisted of an initial randomized double-blind pilot study to define the optimal bolus dose of alfentanil. (ispub.com)
- In comparative studies, trefentanil was slightly more potent and shorter acting than alfentanil as an analgesic, but induced significantly more severe respiratory depression. (buyrcbathsalts.com)
- Blood pressure increased, but not statistically significantly, in all except 2 patients in the alfentanil-suxamethonium group and bradycardia appeared in 1 patient in each group. (omeka.net)