Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Ethyl EthersEthersEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Inhalant Abuse: Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.

Anaesthesia for injection of bleeding oesophageal varices. (1/19)

Patients with haemorrhage from oesophageal varices associated with portal hypertension are poor risks for anaesthesia and surgery. One method of controlling such haemorrhage is injection of the oesophageal varices (sclero-therapy) via an oesophagoscope. Careful preoperative preparation and use of the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in combination with the anaesthetic technique of intermittent Althesin and suxamethonium with artificial ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen enables sclerotherapy to be carried out successfully.  (+info)

Recovery and simulated driving after intravenous anesthesia with thiopental, methohexital, propanidid, or alphadione. (2/19)

Recovery from anesthesia was assessed in a double-bind manner in 40 healthy volunteer students after intravenous anesthesia with thiopental (6.0 mg/kg), methohexital (2.0 mg/kg), propanidid (6.6 mg/kg), or alphadione (Althesin), 85 mul/kg using a driving simulator 2,4, 6, and 8 hours after injection of the drugs. Clinical recovery was faster after propanidid and methohexital than after thiopental or alphadione. Driving performances remained significantly (P less than 0.05) worse than in a control group for 6 hours after thiopental and for 8 hours after methohexital, and reaction times 8 hours after thiopental remained worse than in the control subjects. After alphadione driving skills were impaired at 6 hours only. Propanidid produced no impairment in driving skills at any time during the experiment. It is concluded that after the doses used in this study patients should not drive or operate machinery for at least 2 hours after propanidid and for at least 8 hours after alphadione. After methohexital and thiopental patients should probably not drive for 24 hours because of the severity of the disturbances at 8 hours.  (+info)

Evidence that central 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B/C receptors regulate 5-HT cell firing in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the anaesthetised rat. (3/19)

1. Systemic administration of phenethylamine-derived, 5-hydroxytryptamine(2) (5-HT(2)) receptor agonists inhibits the firing of midbrain 5-HT neurones, but the 5-HT receptors involved are poorly defined, and the contribution of peripheral mechanisms is uncertain. This study addresses these issues using extracellular recordings of 5-HT neurones in the dorsal raphe nucleus of anaesthetised rats. 2. The 5-HT(2) receptor agonists DOI ((+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride) and DOB ((+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine hydrobromide), caused a dose-related (10-100 micro g kg(-1) i.v.) inhibition of 5-HT neuronal activity, with the highest dose reducing firing rates by >80%. 3. Pretreatment with the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1) i.v.) completely blocked the action of DOI. The 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100,907 (0.2 mg kg(-1) i.v.) blocked the action of both DOI and DOB. In comparison, the 5-HT(2B/C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.v.) caused a small, but statistically significant, shift to the right in the dose response to DOI and DOB. 4. Pretreatment with the peripherally acting 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist BW 501C67 (0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v.) had no effect on the DOI-induced inhibition of 5-HT cell firing, but completely blocked the DOI-induced rise in mean arterial blood pressure. 5. These data indicate that the inhibition of 5-HT cell firing induced by systemic administration of DOI and DOB is mediated predominantly by the 5-HT(2A) receptor-subtype, but that 5-HT(2B/C) receptors also play a minor role. Moreover, central and not peripheral mechanisms are involved. Given evidence that 5-HT(2) receptors are not located on 5-HT neurones, postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms are implicated.  (+info)

The effect of ketamine and saffan on the beta-endorphin and ACTH response to hemorrhage in the minipig. (4/19)

The endocrine response is an important component of the physiological response to blood loss. There is some variability in reported levels of certain hormones during hemorrhage such as the stress hormone adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Therefore, the effect of two anesthetic agents, ketamine and saffan, on ACTH and beta-endorphin levels during hemorrhage was assessed in 12 minipigs. The animals were divided into two groups, group I saffan and group II ketamine (n=6). Pigs were subjected to a continuous fixed volume hemorrhage under one of the above anesthetics while spontaneously breathing. Blood pressure and heart rate responses were recorded together with beta-endorphin and ACTH levels both before and at 10, 20, 30, 40 min after the onset of bleeding. ACTH levels were higher in the ketamine-anesthetized pigs and rose significantly faster with falling blood pressure than ACTH measured in pigs under saffan anesthesia. In contrast, the hemorrhage induced beta-endorphin increase was not significantly different between the two anesthetic groups. These results indicate that choice of anesthetic agent is important when investigating the hormone response to hemorrhage and may account for the variable hormone levels in the published literature to date.  (+info)

Absence of coronary artery calcification and all-cause mortality. (5/19)

 (+info)

Anaesthetic suppression of transmitter actions in neocortex. (6/19)

1. The effects of general anaesthetics were investigated on neuronal sensitivities to transmitter substances, which were determined by iontophoretic applications of acetylcholine, glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) during intracellular recording in in vitro slice preparations of neocortex (guinea-pig). 2. In most of the 65 neurones studied, perfusion of isoflurane (0.5-2.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)) or Althesin (25-200 microM) and, in some cases, halothane (0.5-2 MAC), markedly reduced the depolarizing responses and associated membrane conductance changes evoked by dendritic applications of acetylcholine, glutamate, NMDA and GABA. 3. The order of depression was acetylcholine greater than glutamate or NMDA much greater than GABA. This selectivity could also be assessed from the EC50 for the isoflurane-induced depression of the just-maximal responses to acetylcholine, which was 0.9 MAC compared with an EC50 = 1.9 MAC for the suppression of glutamate responses. The selectivity was less pronounced in the case of the actions of Althesin, where the EC50s were 75 microM for the depression of acetylcholine responses and 90 microM for the depression of glutamate responses. 4. The hyperpolarizing responses observed when GABA was applied near the perikaryon in 7 neurones, were slightly reduced (approximately 15%) in 4, and unchanged in 3 neurones during anaesthetic application. 5. The pronounced depression of the responsiveness to the putative arousal transmitters and an observed blockade of acetylcholine-induced potentiation of glutamate actions suggest that anaesthetics produce unconsciousness, at least in part, by interfering with subsynaptic mechanisms of neocortical activation.  (+info)

Facilitation of synaptic transmission by general anaesthetics. (7/19)

1. The actions of five structurally different intravenous and inhalation anaesthetics (alphaxalone/alphadolone, halothane, ketamine, methohexitone, and pentobarbitone) have been studied on synaptic transmission through the cuneate nucleus of the dorsal column-lemniscal afferent pathway in the decerebrate cat. 2. Synaptic input and output were estimated from antidromic and orthodromic potentials, which were evoked by either afferent volleys from the periphery or micro-electrode excitation of the presynaptic fibre terminals in the cuneate and recorded at forelimb nerves and the medial lemniscus. 3. Each of the anaesthetic agents potentiated the efficiency of synaptic transmission, as shown by the elevation of input-output curves constructed from the integrals of the potentials evoked by varying intensities of either peripheral or cuneate stimulation. 4. The excitability of the afferent terminals, as measured at the peripheral nerves by the antidromic responses to micro-electrode stimulation, was depressed by the anaesthetics. Post-synaptic excitability, which was assessed from the direct lemniscal response to intra-nuclear stimulation, did not appear to change. 5. Hypotensive states (mean arterial levels less than 60 torr) produced depolarization of presynaptic terminals and depression of synaptic efficiency and transmission; these changes opposed the primary effects of the general anaesthetics. 6. It is concluded that anaesthetics do not depress activity at all synapses of the central nervous system. Their facilitatory action on cuneate transmission is attributed to an enhanced release of excitatory transmitter; the underlying mechanism may be hyperpolarization of the primary afferent terminals, secondary to an increase in K+ conductance.  (+info)

Effects of saffan on cardiopulmonary function in healthy cats. (8/19)

The effects of saffan on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in eight healthy adult cats. Measured values were cardiac output by thermodilution, heart rate by electrocardiogram, arterial blood gases, respiratory rate and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures by arterial catheterization. Calculated values included cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance. Statistical analysis employed paired t-tests comparing pre saffan anesthetic induction and post saffan anesthetic parameters over a 120 minute time sequence. Thirty min after saffan induction, significant depression in cardiac output was evident while stroke volume was significantly depressed at 45 and 60 min, systolic blood pressure at 15 min and respiratory rate at 5, 10 and 15 min. No significant changes occurred in cardiac index, heart rate, arterial blood gases, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure or systemic vascular resistance. It was concluded that saffan causes significant depression of cardiopulmonary function in normal adult cats.  (+info)

Althesin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by GlaxoSmithKline, Althesin indications, usages and related health products lists
Boeryd, B; Lundin, P; and Norrby, K, "Tumour growth after intravenous, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection of syngeneic monodispersed tumour-cell suspension." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 1706 ...
Looking for online definition of althesin in the Medical Dictionary? althesin explanation free. What is althesin? Meaning of althesin medical term. What does althesin mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of body posture on cardiopulmonary function in horses during five hours of constant-dose halothane anesthesia. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Kelly, A. B.. AU - Hodgson, D. S.. AU - Grandy, J. L.. AU - Woliner, M. J.. AU - Willits, N.. PY - 1990/3/23. Y1 - 1990/3/23. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025266649&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025266649&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2301808. AN - SCOPUS:0025266649. VL - 51. SP - 11. EP - 16. JO - American Journal of Veterinary Research. JF - American Journal of Veterinary Research. SN - 0002-9645. IS - 1. ER - ...
Intravenous anaesthetics 1.Thiopentone- agent of choice for neurosurgery - c/i in hypovolemia & shock - truth serum 2-Propofol- preferred agent for day care surgery - intravenous anaesthetic agent of choice in malignant hyperthermia - iv anaesthetic of choice for intubation 3-Etomidate- agent of choice for cardiovascular surgeries 4-Ketamine- dissociative anaesthesia -c/i in head injury , space occupying lesions - c/i hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases - iv anaesthetic of choice in pt with shock and hypovolemia - iv anaesthetic of choice in asthmatic ...
The main goal of the pectus multicenter outcomes study is to document the utility of PEx repair in improving health and quality of life and to test the prevailing belief that the two predominant surgical procedures currently in use for PEx repair are essentially equivalent in terms of long-term outcomes.. We believe the uncertainty about the impact of PEx on cardiopulmonary function is due to part to the fact that the previous studies have not measured the physiological parameters mostly likely affected by the defect. A protocol to test this was developed. Thus, we propose to use these measures as well as conventional output of progressive exercise test to examine cardiopulmonary function before and after surgical repair of PEx within the context of the original study. ...
In order to provide the best care possible, C-O2 partners with the C-era and C-endo clinics to offer complete and comprehensive care.. ...
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the neurosteroid anaesthetic, alfaxalone, in neonatal foals after a single intravenous (IV) injection of alfaxalone following premedication with butorphanol tartrate. STUDY DESIGN Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS Five clinically healthy Australian Stock Horse foals of mean ± SD age of 12 ± 3 days and weighing 67.3 ± 12.4 kg. METHODS Foals were premedicated with butorphanol (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV) and anaesthesia was induced 10 minutes later by IV injection with alfaxalone 3 mg kg(-1) . Cardiorespiratory variables (pulse rate, respiratory rate, direct arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases) and clinical signs of anaesthetic depth were evaluated throughout anaesthesia. Venous blood samples were collected at strategic time points and alfaxalone plasma concentrations were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and analysed by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. RESULTS The harmonic, mean ±
The binding affinities of two steroid anaesthetics, alphaxalone (Alfx) and alphadolone acetate (Alfd), for testosterone-oestradiol-binding globulin (TeBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG)...
The hemodynamic effects of alfaxalone and propofol on the cardiovascular system during anesthetic maintenance in experimental medicine were investigated in pigs.
The major finding of the present study is that the inhibition of spontaneous firing of 5-HT cells in the rat DRN induced by systemic administration of risperidone is associated with, and probably caused by, increased 5-HT output within the DRN.. Based on the high affinity of risperidone for 5-HT2A receptors and less, but still relatively high, affinity for D2 receptors as shown with both ex vivo (Leysen et al., 1992; Schotte et al., 1996) and in vivo (Matsubara et al., 1993; Sumiyoshi et al., 1994) methods, the doses of risperidone used in the present study were selected to yield a high 5-HT2A receptor occupancy throughout the major part of the dose spectrum and a gradually increasing D2 receptor occupancy. Consequently, both antagonism of 5-HT2A and D2 receptors by risperidone could, theoretically, underlie the observed inhibition of 5-HT cell firing in the DRN. However, this explanation seems less likely since both the highly selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100,907 (Palfreyman et al., ...
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Practical imaging constraints restrict the number of wavelengths that can be measured in a single Biolumines- cence Tomography imaging session, but it is unclear which set of measurement wavelengths is optimal, in the sense of providing the most information about the bioluminescent source. Mutual Information was used to integrate knowledge of the type of bioluminescent source likely to be present, the optical properties of tissue and physics of light propagation, and the noise characteristics of the imaging system, in order to quantify the information contained in measurements at different sets of wavelengths. The approach was applied to a two-dimensional sim- ulation of Bioluminescence Tomography imaging of a mouse, and the results indicate that different wavelengths and sets of wavelengths contain different amounts of information. When imaging at a single wavelength, 580nm was found to be optimal, and when imaging at two wavelengths, 570nm and 580nm were found to be optimal. Examination of the ...
Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) initially have their condition diagnosed and medically stabilized by a neurologist, who then refers the patient to our surgeons. The surgeon first arranges for the patient to have a computed tomography (CT) scan to look for a potential thymoma as MG has about a 25 percent chance of being associated with a thymoma. Based on the findings of this test and other factors, we work with the patient to determine the most appropriate surgical course of treatment.. Our divisions physicians are highly skilled in performing transcervical thymectomy and video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), two minimally invasive procedures for thymus removal. We also perform standard open (i.e. transsternal) procedures. Recently, robotic-assisted minimally invasive thymectomy has been introduced as an additional option for selected patients. We have an excellent track record with all techniques in terms of patient outcomes.. Following surgery, the patients neurologist will provide ...
Assessment of anaesthetic depth is vital for safe anaesthesia, and has traditionally been based on clinical signs including eye position, ocular and palpebral reflexes, changes in heart and respiratory rate, muscle tone and response to noxious stimuli (Guedel 1927, Gillespie 1943, Hall and others 2001). During inhalant anaesthesia, the eye is ventromedially rotated during light or moderate planes of anaesthesia, and is central during inadequate or excessively deep planes of anaesthesia (Guedel 1927, Hall and others 2001). The aim of this study was to determine the eye position of cats anaesthetised with alfaxalone (AFX) or propofol (PRO) to a sufficient depth to perform orotracheal intubation.. The study was approved by the University of Bristol Ethics Committee, and informed, written, owner consent was obtained. Healthy cats (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1) presented for routine neutering were enrolled in the study. Cats were randomly allocated to receive either AFX or ...
Dogs are often placed under general anesthesia for diagnostic and surgical procedures. Aside from the well-known risks of anesthesia, such as heart or lung depression, anesthetic agents can also suppress immune function. This poorly understood phenomenon is especially important in dogs that may already suffer from immune compromise, such as those with critical illness or cancer. The role of commonly used anesthetic agents, such as ketamine and propofol, on immune function in patients with cancer is being investigated in laboratory animals and humans, with ketamine increasing the spread of cancer to the lungs in rats compared to propofol. Unfortunately, there is no current research in dogs comparing these two anesthetic agents. Additionally, a newer anesthetic agent, alfaxalone, is gaining popularity for use in both healthy and critically ill dogs, but there is no research available on the effects of alfaxalone on immune function in dogs. Given the lack of information of the immune effects of these three
Döbeli, Alexandra. Apgar score of dog puppies deliverd by cesarean section using alfaxalone or propofol for anesthesia induction. 2013, University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty. ...
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) proposes the placement of 5[alpha]-pregnan-3[alpha]-ol-11,20-dione (alfaxalone) including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into Schedule IV of the Controlled...
Phaxan™ is an intravenous general anaesthetic and sedative containing alphaxalone as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Alphaxalone is a neuroactive steroid anaesthetic. It is a pregnanedione with no endocrine hormonal activity. This water-insoluble drug was initially formulated using CremophorEL and marketed as Althesin® from 1972 to 1984. It was found to be a safe and versatile intravenous anaesthetic used in clinical practice in anaesthesia and intensive care in many countries until it was withdrawn from clinical practice because of hypersensitivity to the CremophorEL.. Many subsequent attempts to make an aqueous formulations of neuroactive steroids suitable for human use have failed. Drawbridge Pharmaceuticals proprietary and patented formulation, Phaxan™, is a solution of alphaxalone 10mg/ml dissolved in 13% SBECD (7- sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin); a molecule with a lipophilic cavity that enables drug dispersal in water for human use. The use of SBECD as the excipient preserves ...
Source: Pharmarket sales statistics 1-12/2019. Orion is a significant player also in the Scandinavian generics market.. According to IQVIA pharmaceutical sales statistics, in Europe total sales of the most common intravenous anaesthetics and intensive care sedatives (propofol, midazolam, remifentanil and dexmedetomidine) in the 12-month period ending in September 2019 were up by 4% at EUR 595 (570) million. The active ingredient in Orions Dexdor® intensive care sedative is dexmedetomidine. The total sales of dexmedetomidine wasEUR 72 (69) million in Europe, according to IQVIA pharmaceutical sales statistics... Published on 23 October 2019. Finland is the most important individual market for Orion, generating about one-third of the Groups net sales. According to Pharmarket statistics (1-9/2019), the total sales of Orions human pharmaceuticals, including both medicinal and non-medicinal products, was behind market trend. The growth in the Finnish pharmaceuticals market has mostly been ...
General anaesthetic can make the pain of operations worse for patients recovering after surgery by activating the bodys "mustard receptors", researchers have found. Many of the drugs that send surgical patients to sleep are known to make them more sensitive to pain when they wake up. Scientists now believe they have discovered the reason for the side effect. The findings may help researchers develop new anaesthetics that are kinder to recovering patients. General anaesthetics all suppress the central nervous system to cause unconsciousness and paralysis. But they can also activate "pain-sensing" cells in the peripheral nervous system, leading to post-operative discomfort. The new research focused on two of these pain receptors, TRPV1 and TRPA1, which often appear together and also react to irritants such as the chilli chemical capsaicin and mustard. Study leader Dr Gerard Ahern, from Georgetown University Medical Centre in Washington DC, said: "Plants produce chemicals such as capsaicin, ...
How is Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) abbreviated? D-M stands for Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination). D-M is defined as Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) very rarely.
Looking for online definition of methohexital in the Medical Dictionary? methohexital explanation free. What is methohexital? Meaning of methohexital medical term. What does methohexital mean?
Methohexital - Get up-to-date information on Methohexital side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Methohexital
A Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus from women. It is a major surgery that requires general anaesthetics, multiple days in hospital and weeks of rest and recovery.
... alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- tetrahydrocortisone MeSH D04.808.745.620 --- pregnanetriol MeSH ...
Alfadolone was not included in the mixture, as its hypnotic effects were quite weak. An aqueous form of Alfaxan was released in ... Most of these efforts were aimed at making alfaxalone more water-soluble. In 1971, a combination of alfaxalone and alfadolone ... Alfaxalone was marketed in 1971 in combination with alfadolone acetate under the brand name Althesin for human use and Saffan ... Alfaxalone is mostly excreted in the urine, though some is excreted in the bile as well. Alfaxalone, also known as 11-oxo-3α,5α ...
It is composed of a 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone and alfadolone, two neurosteroids. Alfaxolone/alfadolone is short-duration, ... alfaxalone and alfadolone of which the former is the primary anasethetic agent. Alfadolone acts to increase the solubility of ... Alfaxolone/alfadolone is short-acting, rapid onset anaesthetic which has been used for out-patient surgery. It does not have ... Alfaxolone/alfadolone has been re-branded as "Saffan" and is available for use in veterinary anaesthesia. Dechêne, JP (March ...
... alfadolone (INN) alfaprostol (INN) alfaxalone (INN) Alfenta (Taylor) redirects to alfentanil alfentanil (INN) alferminogene ... mixture of fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine Allegra (Sanofi-Aventis), also known as fexofenadine Aller-Chlor Allercon Tablet ...
... mixture, or chloroform and alcohol to make A.C.E. mixture. In the 21st century, ether is rarely used. The use of flammable ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... A mixture of alcohol and ether, one part of diethyl ether and three parts of ethanol, was known as "Spirit of ether", Hoffman's ... For the same reason it is also used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines. In ...
Mixtures with air of the gas 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane are not flammable at atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... 212 °F). However, mixtures with high concentrations of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature can be ignited.[23] Contact ... and a methodology for the separation of ternary mixtures". Green Chemistry. 7 (4): 210. doi:10.1039/B412697A.. ...
Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... Racemic mixture. SMILES. * [Na+].O=C1NC(=S)/N=C(/[O-])C1(C(C)CCC)CC ...
An anaesthesia machine allows composing a mixture of oxygen, anaesthetics and ambient air, delivering it to the patient and ...
Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... ACE mixture. *Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology. *History of general anesthesia ...
... and vecuronium mixtures designed for potential use in anesthesia and patient transport". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 8 (4 ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... this formulation was withdrawn from the market and subsequently reformulated as an emulsion of a soya oil/propofol mixture in ... increased in August 2009 due to the Los Angeles County coroner's conclusion that music icon Michael Jackson died from a mixture ...
Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.[9] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[9] ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... Crude acetone is hydrogenated in the liquid phase over Raney nickel or a mixture of copper and chromium oxide to give isopropyl ... Indirect hydration reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. This process can use low-quality ...
An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H12O.[1] A mixture of amyl alcohols (also called amyl alcohol) can be ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... using the reduction of a mixture of trimethyl acetic acid and trimethylacetyl chloride with sodium amalgam. It is a solid that ...
Ethylene is separated from the resulting mixture by repeated compression and distillation.[13] In Europe and Asia, ethylene is ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
It may be mixed 1 part paraldehyde with 9 parts saline or, alternatively, with an equal mixture of peanut or olive oil. ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... Wankhede, N N; Wankhede, D S; Lande, M K; Arbad, B R (March 2006). "Densities and ultrasonic velocities of bina ry mixtures of ...
The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil. ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
... testosterone ester mixtures (Deposterona, Omnadren, Sustanon, Testoviron Depot)) ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
Mixtures with air of the gas 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane are not flammable at atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... 212 °F). However, mixtures with high concentrations of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature can be ignited.[23] Contact ... and a methodology for the separation of ternary mixtures". Green Chemistry. 7 (4): 210. doi:10.1039/B412697A.. ...
Alfadolone was not included in the mixture, as its hypnotic effects were quite weak. An aqueous form of Alfaxan was released in ... Most of these efforts were aimed at making alfaxalone more water-soluble. In 1971, a combination of alfaxalone and alfadolone ... Alfaxalone was marketed in 1971 in combination with alfadolone acetate under the brand name Althesin for human use and Saffan ... Alfaxalone is mostly excreted in the urine, though some is excreted in the bile as well. Alfaxalone, also known as 11-oxo-3α,5α ...
It is composed of a 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone and alfadolone, two neurosteroids. Alfaxolone/alfadolone is short-duration, ... alfaxalone and alfadolone of which the former is the primary anasethetic agent. Alfadolone acts to increase the solubility of ... Alfaxolone/alfadolone is short-acting, rapid onset anaesthetic which has been used for out-patient surgery. It does not have ... Alfaxolone/alfadolone has been re-branded as "Saffan" and is available for use in veterinary anaesthesia. Dechêne, JP (March ...
Alfadolone was not included in the mixture, as its hypnotic effects were quite weak.[25] An aqueous form of Alfaxan was ... "Alfaxalone". Drugs.com.. *^ a b c d e f Rezende, Marlis (June 2015). "Reintroduced Anesthetic Alfaxalone" (PDF). Clinicians ... Alfaxalone was marketed in 1971 in combination with alfadolone acetate under the brand name Althesin for human use and Saffan ... In 1971, a combination of alfaxalone and alfadolone acetate was released as the anesthetics Althesin (for human use) and Saffan ...
... including the steroid mixture of alfaxalone and alfadolone and the sedatives xylazine and droperidol. Eventually, Glen changed ... alfadolone, and other agents. They subsequently spent 2 years searching for an alternative surfactant formulation suitable for ... a series of experiments implicating Cremophor EL as responsible for the anaphylactoid reactions associated with alfaxalone, ...
ALFAXALONE ALFADOLONE MIXTURE. APROCARB. PROPOXUR. CHOLERA VACCINE. CHOLERA VACCINES. CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES. CREATINE ...
Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture/chemistry , Anesthetics/chemistry , Animals , Pregnanediones/chemistry , Pregnanolone/analogs & ...
... alphadolone acetate,GR-2/1574,Mixture with alfaxalone,Alfadolone Acetate, Mixture with alfaxalone ... Alfadolone Acetate,(3alpha,5alpha)-21-(Acetyloxy)-3-hydroxypregnane-11,20-dione,3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-11,20-dione ... Therap-Cat: Combination with alfaxalone as anesthetic (intravenous).. Therap-Cat-Vet: Combination with alfaxalone as anesthetic ...
Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture/chemistry , Anesthetics/chemistry , Animals , Pregnanediones/chemistry , Pregnanolone/analogs & ... Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture / Anesthetics / Animals Language: English Journal: Indian J Med Sci Year: 1993 Type: Article ...
It is composed of a 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone and alfadolone, two neurosteroids. Alternatively, there has been an especially ...
Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture D4.808.745.558.50 D4.210.500.745.558.50 Algestone D4.808.745.745.654.829.25 D4.210.500.745. ...
9 mg alfaxalone and 3 mg alfadolone acetate/ml, Schering-Plough Animal Health, Welwyn Garden City, U.K.). An intra-venous ... PBS at a pressure of 25 cm of this mixture. Due to the increased viscosity of this mixture, compared with paraformaldehyde, a ... Insufflation of the bronchial tree was performed using tracheal instillation of a 1 : 3 mixture of OCT embedding matrix (Cell ...
... alfadolone, alfaprostol, alfaxalone, alfentanil, alfuzosin, algestone acetonide, algestone acetophenide, alibendol, aliconazole ... mixtures of any of the foregoing and mixtures with other lipids such as cholesterol. The use of phospholipids predominantly (e. ... The mixture was sonicated for 30 s and analysed by MALDI-MS (ACH-matrix), giving a M+H peak at 1300, expected at 1294-and a M+ ... The mixture was sonicated for 30 s and analysed by MALDI-MS, giving a M+H peak at 668 corresponding to structure from a). [0425 ...
... mixture, or chloroform and alcohol to make A.C.E. mixture. In the 21st century, ether is rarely used. The use of flammable ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... A mixture of alcohol and ether, one part of diethyl ether and three parts of ethanol, was known as "Spirit of ether", Hoffmans ... For the same reason it is also used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines. In ...
The mixture of fentanyl and heroin is known as "magic" or "the bomb", among other names, on the street.[55] ... Press Release by the Chicago Police Department Police report about a death linked to heroin/fentanyl mixture August 24, 2006 ... and often the resulting mixture may be far too strong and, therefore, very dangerous. ...
... as a diastereomeric mixture, which was treated with sodium azide (NaN3) in trichloroacetic acid to yield the azide (V). The ... in acetonitrile to provide the target compound as a diastereomeric mixture.[5] ...
Ethylene is separated from the resulting mixture by repeated compression and distillation.[13] In Europe and Asia, ethylene is ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
... was originally formulated as a racemic mixture,[39] but the R form is substantially more active than its enantiomer.[ ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
A culture of Ralstonia eutropha (composed of a strain tolerant to electricity) is kept within the H2O and CO2 mixture. ... Alfadolone * Alfaxalone * 3α-Androstanediol * Androstenol * Androsterone * Cholesterol * DHDOC * 3α-DHP ... Two methods are practiced industrially, hydroformylation is more common and generates a mixture of isobutyraldehydes, which are ... The culture of Ralstonia eutropha then converts formic acid from the mixture into isobutanol. ...
Zevzikovas, A; Kiliuviene G; Ivanauskas L; Dirse V. (2002). "Analysis of benzodiazepine derivative mixture by gas-liquid ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.[7] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[7] ... Alfadolone. * Alfaxalone. * Anabolic steroids. * 3α-Androstanediol. * Androstenol. * Androsterone. * Cholesterol. * DHDOC. * 3α ... Crude acetone is hydrogenated in the liquid phase over Raney nickel or a mixture of copper and chromium oxide to give isopropyl ... The indirect process reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. Subsequent hydrolysis of these ...
Propene can be separated by fractional distillation from hydrocarbon mixtures obtained from cracking and other refining ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Cholesterol. *DHDOC. *3α-DHP ...
Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ... ACE mixture. *Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology. *History of general anesthesia ...
It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral ... Alfadolone * Alfaxalone * 3α-Androstanediol * Androsterone * Cholesterol * DHDOC * 5α-DHP * Etiocholanolone ...
The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil. ... Alfadolone. *Alfaxalone. *3α-Androstanediol. *Androstenol. *Androsterone. *Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids. *Cholesterol ...
  • The most common side effect is respiratory depression: in addition to apnea, the most prevalent, alfaxalone can also decrease the respiratory rate, minute volume, and oxygen saturation in the blood in cats and dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two methods are practiced industrially, hydroformylation is more common and generates a mixture of isobutyraldehydes , which are hydrogenated to the alcohols and then separated. (worldheritage.org)