Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Ilarvirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.Alfamovirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Tymovirus: A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.

Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. (1/80)

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus.  (+info)

Alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs serve as cap donors for tomato spotted wilt virus transcription during coinfection of Nicotiana benthamiana. (2/80)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was shown to use alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs as cap donors in vivo during a mixed infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. By use of nested reverse transcription-PCR, TSWV N and NSs mRNAs provided with capped leader sequences derived from all four AMV RNAs could be cloned and sequenced. The sequence specificity of the putative TSWV endonuclease involved is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of C-terminal mutations of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein on dimer formation and assembly in vitro. (3/80)

The coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) strain 425 assembles to bacilliform or rod-shaped particles in the presence of nucleic acids or to T = 1 empty icosahedral particles in the absence of nucleic acids. To study the determinants of CP assembly, recombinant CPs (rCPs) that contained a (His)(6) region were expressed in Escherichia coli. Wt rCP and a mutant rCP, which lacked the last nine amino acids of the C terminus (amino acids 213-221), assembled to particles that were identical in electron micrographs. However, a mutant rCP, which lacked the last 18 amino acids of the C terminus (amino acids 204-221), did not assemble. Likewise, a mutant with alanine substitutions at W(191), F(197), and P(198) did not assemble. Furthermore rCP with a single alanine substitution at W(191) did not assemble, whereas the rCP, which had an arginine and an alanine substitution at A(196) and F(197), respectively, formed rod-shaped particles. The mutations that prevented assembly prevented dimer formation, which indicates that dimers are the minimal building blocks of particles. Our results indicate that two separate regions in the C terminus of AMV CP are critical for dimer formation and assembly and that changes in key amino acids in one of the regions affect both assembly and particle morphology.  (+info)

A conformational switch at the 3' end of a plant virus RNA regulates viral replication. (4/80)

3' untranslated regions of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs fold into a series of stem-loop structures to which the coat protein binds with high affinity. This binding plays a role in initiation of infection ('genome activation') and has been thought to substitute for a tRNA-like structure that is found at the 3' termini of related plant viruses. We propose the existence of an alternative conformation of the 3' ends of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs, including a pseudoknot. Based on (i) phylogenetic comparisons, (ii) in vivo and in vitro functional analyses of mutants in which the pseudoknot has been disrupted or restored by compensatory mutations, (iii) competition experiments between coat protein and viral replicase, and (iv) investigation of the effect of magnesium, we demonstrate that this pseudoknot is required for replication of alfalfa mosaic virus. This conformation resembles the tRNA-like structure of the related bromo- and cucumo-viruses. A low but specific interaction with yeast CCA-adding enzyme was found. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3' termini of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs could enable the virus to switch from translation to replication and vice versa. The role of coat protein in this modulation and in genome activation is discussed.  (+info)

In vitro transcription by the turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA polymerase: a comparison with the alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus replicases. (5/80)

Recently, we showed that the main determinant in the tRNA-like structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA to initiate minus-strand synthesis in vitro is the 3' ACCA end. By mutational analysis of the 3'-terminal hairpin, we show here that only a non-base-paired ACCA end is functional and that the stability of the wild-type 3'-proximal hairpin is the most favorable, in that it has the lowest DeltaG value and a high transcription efficiency. With a nested set of RNA fragments, we show that the minimum template length is 9 nucleotides and that transcription is improved with increasing the length of the template. The results also suggest that proper base stacking contributes to efficient transcription initiation. Internal initiation is shown to take place on every NPyCPu sequence of a nonstructured template. However, the position of the internal initiation site in the template is important, and competition between the different sites takes place. Internal initiation was also studied with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of brome mosaic virus (BMV) and alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV). The BMV polymerase can start internally on ACCA sequences, though inefficiently. Unexpectedly, the polymerases of both AlMV and BMV can start efficiently on an internal AUGC sequence.  (+info)

The complete nucleotide sequence of apple mosaic virus (ApMV) RNA 1 and RNA 2: ApMV is more closely related to alfalfa mosaic virus than to other ilarviruses. (6/80)

The complete nucleotide sequences of apple mosaic virus RNA 1 and 2 have been characterized. Apple mosaic virus RNA 1 is 3476 nucleotides in length and encodes a single large open reading frame (ORF), whereas apple mosaic virus RNA 2 is 2979 nucleotides in length and also encodes a single ORF. The amino acid sequences encoded by RNA 1 and 2 show similarity to all of the other ilarviruses for which sequence data are available, but both are more closely related to alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) than to other ilarviruses. Points of similarity include the absence of ORF 2b, present on the RNA 2 of all previously characterized ilarviruses. The close relationship to AMV also occurs in the movement protein, encoded by RNA 3, but not with the coat protein. These data suggest that the present taxonomy should be revised, and that AMV should be considered an aphid-transmissible ilarvirus.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral RNA replication, encapsidation, and movement. (7/80)

Coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) binds as a dimer to the 3' termini of the three genomic RNAs and is required for initiation of infection, asymmetric plus-strand RNA accumulation, virion formation, and spread of the virus in plants. A mutational analysis of the multiple functions of AMV CP was made. Mutations that interfered with CP dimer formation in the two-hybrid system had little effect on the initiation of infection or plus-strand RNA accumulation but interfered with virion formation and reduced or abolished cell-to-cell movement of the virus in plants. Six of the 7 basic amino acids in the N-terminal arm of CP (positions 5, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 25) could be deleted or mutated into alanine without affecting any step of the replication cycle except systemic movement in plants. Mutation of Arg-17 interfered with initiation of infection (as previously shown by others) and cell-to-cell movement of the virus but not with plus-strand RNA accumulation or virion formation. The results indicate that in addition to the RNA-binding domain, different domains of AMV CP are involved in initiation of infection, plus-strand RNA accumulation, virion formation, cell-to-cell movement, and systemic spread of the virus.  (+info)

RNAs 1 and 2 of Alfalfa mosaic virus, expressed in transgenic plants, start to replicate only after infection of the plants with RNA 3. (8/80)

RNAs 1 and 2 of the tripartite genome of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) encode the two viral replicase subunits. Full-length DNA copies of RNAs 1 and 2 were used to transform tobacco plants (R12 lines). None of the transgenic lines showed resistance to AMV infection. In healthy R12 plants, the transcripts of the viral cDNAs were copied by the transgenic viral replicase into minus-strand RNAs but subsequent steps in replication were blocked. When the R12 plants were inoculated with AMV RNA 3, this block was lifted and the transgenic RNAs 1 and 2 were amplified by the transgenic replicase together with RNA 3. The transgenic expression of RNAs 1 and 2 largely circumvented the role of coat protein (CP) in the inoculum that is required for infection of nontransgenic plants. The results for the first time demonstrate the role of CP in AMV plus-strand RNA synthesis at the whole plant level.  (+info)

AMV infects over 600 plant species in 70 families (experimental and natural hosts). Some hosts: potato (Solanum tuberosum), pea (Pisum sativum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bluebeard (Caryopteris incana), ... Symptoms vary from wilting, white flecks, malformation like dwarfing, ringspots, mottles, mosaics to necrosis depending on the virus strain, host variety, stage of growth at infection and environmental conditions. Signs of infection can persist or disappear quickly. The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies). Inclusions of Alfalfa mosaic virus In vitro AMV has a longevity of 1-4 days (sometimes much longer). Temperature and light are the environmental factors that have the greatest influence on the multiplication and movement of AMV in the plant and thus indirectly on the symptoms. Under low temperature the appearance of necrosis for example is less ...
ID JX857635; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 302 BP. XX AC JX857635; XX DT 18-NOV-2012 (Rel. 114, Created) DT 18-NOV-2012 (Rel. 114, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Alfalfa mosaic virus isolate LZ1 coat protein gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Alfalfa mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Bromoviridae; Alfamovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-302 RA Zhaohui W., Keqin H.; RT "Identification of viral pathogens inducing Medicago sativa mosaic disease RT in Zhangye Gansu"; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-302 RA Zhaohui W., Keqin H.; RT ; RL Submitted (22-SEP-2012) to the INSDC. RL Central Laboratory of Technical Center, Gansu Exit-Entry Inspection and RL Quarantine Bureau, No. 2168, Nanhe Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730010, China XX DR MD5; 6cbfd4060891d7958346d37c49178c70. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..302 FT /organism="Alfalfa mosaic virus" FT /host="Medicago sativa" FT /isolate="LZ1" FT /mol_type="genomic RNA" FT /country="China" FT ...
Citation: Shah, D.A., Dillard, H.R., Mazumdar-Leighton, S., Gonsalves, D., Nault, B.A. 2006. Incidence, spacial patterns and association among viruses in snap beans and alfalfa in New York. Plant Disease 90:203-210. Interpretive Summary: In recent years, symptoms induced by viruses have been associated with yield losses on a wide scale in processing snap bean in the Midwest and Northeast US. Epidemics caused by viruses have coincided with the recent introduction of the soybean aphid, raising the question of how important aphid-transmitted viruses may be in causing the disease and yield reduction in snap bean. We surveyed commercial snap bean fields in New York for the aphis-transmitted viruses Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CYVV) and the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV)/Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) complex in 2002 and 2003, using ELISA. Since alfalfa is a possible source of these viruses, we included snap bean fields that were either adjacent to or remote from alfalfa. ...
Diseases caused by aphid-transmitted viruses such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have increased in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Midwestern United States. Plants immediately surrounding agricultural fields may serve as primary virus inocula for aphids to acquire and transmit to bean crops.
Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 4, Page 506-514, April 2012. | Plant health
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Aphid mummy (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on a bean leaf. The aphid was parasitized by an aphid wasp which laid its egg inside the live aphid. The newly hatched wasp larvae used the aphid body contents for food, eventually killing the aphid. This insect transmits alfalfa mosaic virus (rhabdovirus) and pea enation mosaic (isometric) virus. Magnification: x5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image F017/4055
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a perennial herb that is indigenous to the Middle East. Because of its deep root system, Alfalfa is better able to absorb minerals from the soil than other plants. Therefore, Alfalfa is a rich source of vitamins and minerals, as well as Chlorophyll. NOW® Alfalfa Leaf Caps contain only Organic Alfalfa, so its free of pesticide and herbicide residues.
Alfalfa Healthy and Delicious Traditionally used for its nutritive properties and as a general tonic to help maintain wellbeing. As a nutritive food herb, Alfalfa is a beneficial addition to a healthy diet Alfalfa EACH CAPSULE CONTAINS Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) herb powder 450mg DOSAGE Take two capsules with a meal thr
Здравсвуйте пользователи форума, вчера пользователь под ником Olechkalype просила меня выложить супермодные новинки Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты в 2014, а так же сотовые бренда Intuos Pro Special Ed., так вот наконецто нашла время для этого, админы прошу не удалять, а перенести в соответствующий раздел, если я ошиблась например Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты ))) всех обнимаю ...
pyroglutamyl-tyrosyl-prolinamide: from alfalfa; RN given refers to (D)-tyrosyl isomer; RN for cpd without isomeric designation not avail 10/92
Пожалуй, самым разочаровывающим итогом 2013 года стало сползание в экономический застой. На протяжении года снижались как темпы роста промышленности, так и ВВП. Если в начале года еще казалось, что экономика вот-вот разгонится и из состояния «технической рецессии» войдет в фазу роста, то уже весной тональность заявлений финансовых властей смен ...
우리나라 잎담배에 발생하고 있는 바이러스의 종류와 감염상을 조사하기 위하여 전주지방에서 Burley종 (Burley-21) 20개체, 부천연초시험장 포장에시 황색종(Hicks) 20개체를 병징별로 채집하여 혈청학적인 방법에 의해 실시했다. 검정대상 바이러스는 Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Potato virus X(PVX) 및 Potato virus Y(PVY)등 5종으로 TMV, AMV, CMV는 한천내확산법으로 PVX, PVY는 미량침강법으로 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 공시이병개체중에서 TMV, CMV, AMV, P X 및 PVY 등 5종의 바이러스가 검출되었다. 2. 조사된 40개체중 각 바이러스의 감염율은 AMV |TEX|$67.5\%$|/TEX|, CMV |TEX|$60.0\%$|/TEX|, TMV|TEX|$47.5\%$|/TEX|PVY|TEX|$17.5\%$|/TEX|, PVX|TEX|$10.0\%$|/TEX|의 순이었다. 3. Burley종에서는 TMV감염율이 |TEX|$15.0\%$|/TEX|로 황색종의 |TEX|$80.0\%$|/TEX|보다 현저히 낮았다. 4.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:677-685...Johji Ozeki,1 Masayoshi Hashimoto,1 Ken Komatsu,1 Kensaku Maejima,1 Misako Himeno,1 Hiroko Senshu,1 Takeshi Kawanishi,1 Satoshi Kagiwada,2 Yasuyuki Yamaji,1 and Shigetou Namba1...
While we certainly do not equate the seriousness of Zika with agricultural problems, the Zika virus can serve as a reminder about aspects of the many plant-infecting viruses, from alfalfa mosaic to zucchini yellow mosaic, that affect vegetables.. ...
Ermmm... teringat plak KakNgah masa mula2 consume Alfalfa nih... semuanya gara-gara nak menyusukan anak kecil KakNgah, Alhamdulillah... sangat2 membantu. Tapi apa yang buat KakNgah lagi berpuas hati apabila masalah keputihan KakNgah dapat di atasi dengan Alfalfa Complex, sebenarnya KakNgah pun tak tahu Alfalfa Complex dapat membantu dalam masalah keputihan. Selepas join member baru KakNgah tahu…
Bevan, M.W.; Mason, S.E.; Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is an Ilarvirus systemically infecting almond trees and other Prunus species and spreading through pollen, among other means. We have studied strategies based on coat protein (cp) gene to block PDV replication in host plant cells. A Portuguese isolate of PDV was obtained from infected almond leaves and used to produce the cDNA of the cp gene. Various constructs were prepared based on this sequence, aiming for the transgenic expression of the original or modified PDV coat protein (cpPDVSense and cpPDVMutated) or for the expression of cpPDV RNA (cpPDVAntisense and cpPDVwithout start codon). All constructs were tested in a PDV host model, Nicotiana benthamiana, and extensive molecular characterization and controlled infections were performed on transformants and their progenies. Transgenic plants expressing the coat protein RNA were able to block the proliferation of a PDV isolate sharing only 91% homology with the isolate used for cpPDV cloning, as evaluated by DAS-ELISA on newly
Description Frontier Natural Products, Organic Powdered Alfalfa Leaf, 16 oz (453 g) Alfalfa is a well-known fodder crop with high nutrition value for many types of livestock. Alfalfa leaf makes a pleasant tasting, tonifying tea and blends well with other herbs.Frontier Natural Products, Organic Powdered Alfalfa Leaf, 16 oz (453 g) The Plant: Alfalfa is a long-lived perennial with a deep and extensive root system. The plants are 3 to 4 feet high and the leaves have three lobes. The whole plant is harvested just as its pale purple flowers are opening. It grows in a wide range of conditions. As a nitrogen-fixing plant with an extensive root system, alfalfa helps restore and nourish poor soils. Alfalfa seeds are small and yellow-tan and are a popular sprouting seed.Frontier Natural Products, Organic Powdered Alfalfa Leaf, 16 oz (453 g) Constituents of Note: Alfalfa, an important animal food, is a highly studied crop. Alfalfa is about 15% protein. It contains many vitamins (including A,C,D,K and B) and
... Alfalfa has a powerful reputation as a healing herb. It is a healthy and nutritious source of chlorophyll, beta carotene, calcium, and the vitamins D, E and K. Alfalfa has laxative, diuretic and antiseptic effects.
The National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance is an alliance between the growers, North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference, genetic suppliers and university segments of the alfalfa and alfalfa seed industry.
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Alfalfa is a rich source of various amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Alfalfa is used in the treatment of gout, arthritis, peptic ulcer, liver disorders and certain cancers due to its natural anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties
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Angela Brett -- Appetite is just one of the many A-words on the all-encompassing lists of what alfalfa might possibly improve. Apparently there is one documented case of alfalfa overdose which resulted in mild anaemia and leucopenia ...
Buy Homeocan Alfalfa Tonic with Ginseng It is a natural source of essential nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and minerals restore physical & mental well being
No. Your height and body type depend on genetics. If your parents arent tall, chances are you wont be either. There are always exceptions to the rule, but eating certain foods, exercising, stetching, etc. wont make you any taller. Wrong!! I grew 1 inch taller through stretching and hanging on a bar! Its hard work but it can be done. Alfalfa wont make you taller
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Relationship Between Saponin Content in Alfalfa and Aphid Development - Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica
The legume alfalfa has been used throughout history as a dietary and medicinal aid. It may help lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and people...
Alfalfa terbukti mempunyai pelbagai kesan dan khasiat yang menakjubkan.Apakah itu Alfalfa?Alfalfa merupakan raja segala tumbuhan dan raja segala herba. Ia
Save 50% Lindberg - Alfalfa Leaf Tablets 500 mg 500 Tablets Alfalfa Leaf Tablets 500 mg Made With Organic Alfalfa Supports Colon Health and Regularity* Alfalfa Leaf Tablets are made with young, freshly harvested organic alfalfa grown in the United States. Alfalfa plants send their roots deep into the ground, absorbing important trace minerals and nutrients. Its been traditionally used to support optimal joint and colon health, as well as helping to maintain regular bowel movements.* Vegetarian. Vegetarian Tablets.
By Dan Martens, University of Minnesota Extension. FOLEY, Minn. (06/04/15) - A few very small alfalfa weevil larva have been found is some fields. Sometimes we see alfalfa weevil larva, armyworms, or cutworms chewing off new growth. With a cool spring, alfalfa weevil are further behind and may not limit regrowth much this year; but could be a problem later in the second crop. Remember, there are problems with spraying routinely when insects are not present at threshold levels. Its bad for the bank account, bad for resistance reasons, and bad for the environment.. For all alfalfa insects it is important to consider the pre-harvest window for insecticides. If close to harvest, it could be better to harvest a little earlier if the weather allows and then watch the next crop. Spraying earlier or later in the day can reduce risk to foraging bees and other pollinators. Even when alfalfa isnt blooming, clovers or other plants mixed in the field can be. Here are some scouting notes.. ALFALFA WEEVIL. ...
Fall dormancy is a determinant factor of alfalfa yield in northern climate but selection for that trait is often done to the detriment of freezing tolerance. Selection for low dormancy in the field is a tedious process that depends on unpredictable fall conditions allowing the identification of less dormant genotypes. Here we describe two screening methods entirely performed indoor for the selection for low dormancy in alfalfa without negative impact of freezing tolerance. One method is for semi-dormant cultivars and includes successive freezing stress to simultaneously improve freezing tolerance and the other is for winterhardy dormant cultivars. In both approaches, alfalfa is exposed to a critical photoperiod during four weeks that allows to discriminate between dormant and less-dormant genotypes. These approaches can be used to generate recurrently selected populations that are progressively less dormant.. ...
130 tons Hay: Alfalfa available for purchase immediately near Utica, Minnesota, USA Recurring 350 large square bales of alfalfa harvested very mature. It was in the Root River Water Shed Program so the first it was cut was July 1, of 2010. It is grassy and stemmy alfalfa. The protein tested at 13%. Each bale is approximatly 3x3x7, weighing 700-800 lbs. interested buyers can email me at [email protected] No Rain, Stored Indoors, Tests available 13% moisture, 13% protein.
To accelerate alfalfa research and cultivar development, scientists at the Noble Research Institute developed the Alfalfa Breeders Toolbox, a web-based portal to allow alfalfa breeders and researchers share data.
Our stone mosaics, glass mosaics, ceramic mosaics, wood mosaics, steel mosaics and custom mosaics have been designed using constant feedback from clients. Our development team is also capable of customizing any image of your choice into the perfect feature wall with the customizable mosaics.
Schwabe German Alfalfa Tonic eliminates symptoms of fatigue and leads to an increase in appetite while stomach complaints are improved simultaneously. Wholesome nutrition for the entire family
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A carboxy-terminal peptide of the poliovirus replicase protein (p63) was chemically synthesized, coupled to bovine serum albumin carrier, and injected into rabbits. The resulting antisera reacted with six virus-specific proteins from HeLa cells infected with poliovirus: NCVP 0b, NCVP 1b, NCVP 2, a protein of about 60,000 daltons, p63, and NCVP 6b. The identity of the 60,000-dalton protein is not known, but the other results were consistent with previous experimental approaches which demonstrated that p63 and the other four polypeptides have common coding sequences. An amino-terminal peptide of p63 failed to elicit an immune response in rabbits. Antibodies raised against the p63 carboxy-terminal peptide inhibited poliovirus replicase and polyuridylic acid polymerase activities in vitro, providing strong support for earlier suggestions that these activities are a property of a single virus-specific polypeptide. ...
Read "Structural characterization of Tobacco etch virus coat protein mutants, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
For nearly 1,500 years, cultures all over the world have been using alfalfa as a herbal remedy for many illnesses. The herb is believed to have originated from the Middle East where the Arabs referred to it as "the father of all foods" as they knew it was useful in a variety of forms. Physicians in early Chinese cultures used young alfalfa leaves in the treatment of digestive and kidney disorders. It was also believed to be useful in arthritis patients. Although the herb originated in the Middle East, it appeared in the thirteen colonies in 1736 and was used by the English and Americans to treat upset stomach ...
Alfalfa Blotch Leafminer by Bryan Jensen, Integrated Pest Management Program University of Wisconsin - Madison Introduction The alfalfa blotc
The alfalfa plant are rich in minerals and nutrients, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, and carotene (useful against both heart disease and cancer) and are also rich in protein, vitamins A, E and K.. Thought to be helpful in dealing effectively with possible excess uric acid. Alfalfa is useful in the treatment of urinary tract infections, and kidney, bladder and prostrate disorders. High in antioxidants it alkalises and detoxifies the body, especially the liver. Promotes pituitary gland function and contains an anti-fungus agent.. ...
A modified Berlese funnel system was developed to extract alfalfa weevil larvae (Hypera postica) from quadrats 30.5 cm on a side. Data from this system were with simultaneous data from a hand sorting extraction system. In most instances, the modified Berlese system was as efficient as the hand sorting method and the number of man hours required to process samples by hand was far greater than that required by the Berlese system.
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
A virus survey was conducted during the spring and autumn of 2001 and 2002 to determine the presence, prevalence and distribution in Spain of the viruses that are most commonly found infecting lettuce and Brassica worldwide. Crop plants showing virus symptoms from the principal lettuce and Brassica-growing regions of Spain, and some samples of the annual and perennial flora nearby, were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using specific commercial antibodies against the following viruses: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV), Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Samples were also tested with a Potyvirus genus antibody. Virus incidence was much lower in spring than in autumn, especially in 2001. In spring 2002, CMV and LMV were the most prevalent viruses in lettuce, while CaMV ...
Abel, P. P., Nelson, R. S., De, B., Hoffmann, N., Rogers, S. G., Fraley, R. T., and Beachy, R. N. 1986. Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232:738-743. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Marin, S. R. R., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Oliveira, T. G., and Moraes, T. G. 2005. Detection and partial characterization of a carlavirus causing stem necrosis of soybean in Brazil. Fitopatol. Bras. 30:191-194.. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Valentin, N., Benato, L. C., Marin, S. R. R., Binneck, E., Oliveira, T. G., Belintani, P., Guerzoni, R. A., Nunes, J., Hoffmann, L., Nora, P. S., Nepomuceno, A. L., Meyer, M. C., and Almeida, L. A. 2003. Necrose da haste da soja. Embrapa Soja: Londrina, PR, Brazil. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2009. First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Nat. Biotechnol. 27:1086-1088.. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2010. Proposta de ...
Under conditions of low ionic strength and a pH ranging between about 3.7 and 5.0,solutions of purified coat proteins of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) form sphericalmultishell structures in the absence of viral RNA. The outer surfaces of the shells in thesestructures are negatively charged, whereas the inner surfaces are positively charged due to a disordered cationic N-terminal domain of the capsid protein, the arginine-rich RNA-binding motif that protrudes into the interior. We show that the main forces stabilizing these .... ...
Source: University of Missouri Extension Scout alfalfa now for alfalfa weevils, says a University of Missouri Extension entomologist, as weevil larvae defoliate plants and reduce the quality and quantity of hay. Wayne Bailey says growers in southern Missouri counties should begin scouting fields weekly now and continue through first harvest, says Wayne Bailey. Growers in central and northern counties need to be on the lookout by mid-April. Eggs are hatching in southern and central Missouri fields where alfalfa is growing. Scout early and often, Bailey . . .
Alfalfa growers are encouraged to check the Alfalfa Weevil Fact Sheet prepared by Dr. Julie Soroka (AAFC-Saskatoon) and additional information can be accessed by reviewing the Alfalfa Weevil Page extracted from the "Field crop and forage pests and their natural enemies in western Canada - Identification and management field guide" (Philip et al. 2015). That guide is available in both a free English-enhanced or French-enhanced version. ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus Viruses in Alfamovirus have ... the type species Alfalfa mosaic virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: mosaics. ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription, using the ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
"Induction by Salicylic Acid of Pathogenesis-related Proteins and Resistance to Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Infection in Various Plant ...
... for the isolation of other viruses such as cucumber mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, tobacco necrosis, jaundice of silkworms ... with ... "For his outstanding contributions to the chemistry of viruses beginning with the isolation of tobacco virus and its ... their identification as distinct nucleoproteins; and for distinguished research on the influence virus with subsequent ...
It has also been affected by alfalfa mosaic virus in Africa and some cases of anthracnose in West Africa and there are reports ... In rat-feeding tests, round-leaf cassia was found to have equal nutritive value to alfalfa which is another more common forage ... "Alfalfa The Queen of Forage Crops". Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 18 November 2013 from ...
23S methyl RNA motif 6C RNA Actino-pnp RNA motif AdoCbl riboswitch Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa ... Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element Bovine leukaemia virus RNA packaging signal Citrus tristeza virus ... Hepatitis C virus 3'X element Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis E virus cis-reactive element HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3 ... Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) primer binding site (PBS) RtT RNA Rubella virus 3' cis-acting element S-element SerC leader Simian ...
... maize streak virus MeSH B04.715.464.040 --- alfamovirus MeSH B04.715.464.040.050 --- alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH B04.715.464.080 ... vesicular stomatitis-indiana virus MeSH B04.820.464.040 --- alfamovirus MeSH B04.820.464.040.050 --- alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ... alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH B04.715.081.080 --- bromovirus MeSH B04.715.081.180 --- cucumovirus MeSH B04.715.081.400 --- ...
... a British advertising agency Alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus of the family Bromoviridae All Mobile Video, a sound stage ...
... and the aphid can be a vector of alfalfa mosaic virus, lucerne transient streak virus and lucerne Australian latent virus in ... as well as cucumber mosaic virus, bean yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in other crops. "Blue Aphid, ... ISBN 978-0-12-158861-8. Barlow, Vonny M. (24 April 2013). "Blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji". Alfalfa & Forage ... The blue alfalfa aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi), also known as bluegreen aphid, is an aphid in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus Genus: Anulavirus Amazon lily mild mottle virus Pelargonium zonate spot virus Genus: Bromovirus Broad bean ... virus Apple mosaic virus Asparagus virus 2 Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus Blueberry shock virus Citrus leaf rugose virus ... mottle virus Brome mosaic virus Cassia yellow blotch virus Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus Melandrium yellow fleck virus Spring ... necrotic ringspot virus Spinach latent virus Strawberry necrotic shock virus Tobacco streak virus Tulare apple mosaic virus ...
"Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus". WISCONSIN FIELD CROPS PATHOLOGY. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Maroof, Saghai; A, M.; ... Soybean crinkle leaf virus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Soybean mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA (1983). "Enhancement by Soybean mosaic virus of Bean pod mottle virus Titer in Doubly Infected Soybean ...
... (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ... Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop ICTVdB Management (2006). " ... Jaspars E.M.J.; Bos L. (1980). "Alfalfa mosaic virus". AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Hyo Won Jung; Hye Jin Jung; Wan Soo ... Freeman A.; Aftab M. (2006). "Temperature pulse viruses: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV)". Agriculture Notes: 1-3. Spangenberg G. ( ...
... these symptoms are very similar to those caused by alfalfa mosaic virus). Interestingly, plants showing no symptoms of PMTV ... Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted through the vector Spongospora subterranea that affects ... By taking control of the cell's cellular machinery, the virus can replicate. The virus then moves onto more potato cells and ... doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2381-7 ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Potato mop-top virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein binding (CPB) RNA is an RNA element which is found in the 3' UTR of the genome. AMV ... Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop Neeleman, L; Linthorst HJ; Bol JF (2004). "Efficient translation of alfamovirus ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA at Rfam. ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Vlot, AC; Bol JF (2003). "The 5′ Untranslated Region of Alfalfa Mosaic ... The Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop represents a putative stem-loop structure found in the 5' UTR in RNA 1 of ... This family is required for negative strand RNA synthesis in the alfalfa mosaic virus and may also be involved in positive ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop at Rfam. ... alfalfa mosaic virus. RNA 1 is responsible for encoding the ...
Phytoplasma, virus and viruslike diseases[edit]. Virus and viruslike diseases. Alfalfa mosaic Alfalfa mosaic virus ... Peach rosette mosaic virus decline Peach rosette mosaic virus Petunia asteroid mosaic Petunia asteroid mosaic virus ... Tobacco mosaic Tobacco mosaic virus Tobacco necrosis Tobacco necrosis virus Tobacco ringspot virus decline Tobacco ringspot ... Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus Grapevine chrome mosaic Grapevine chrome mosaic virus Grapevine red blotch Grapevine red ...
It is spread by green or pea aphids and affects legumes as pea, alfalfa, broadbean or sweet pea mostly in temperate regions. ... Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a plant pathogenic virus. The two RNAs of the disease are now categorised as two separate, ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Pea enation mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method. ... Powell, CA; Zoeten GA (July 1977). "Replication of pea enation mosaic virus RNA in isolated pea nuclei". Proceedings of the ...
3 reptarenavirus Alfalfa cryptic virus 1 Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus Algerian watermelon mosaic virus ... virus Yaba monkey tumor virus Yam mild mosaic virus Yam mosaic virus Yam spherical virus Yam virus X Yambean mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ... mosaic necrosis virus Bean common mosaic virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus Bean golden mosaic virus Bean golden yellow mosaic virus ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus Beet mosaic virus Cassava mosaic virus (in the begomovirus genus) Cowpea mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic ... virus Panicum mosaic satellite virus Plum pox virus (in the potyvirus genus) Squash mosaic virus Tobacco mosaic virus (in the ... Mosaic viruses are plant viruses that cause the leaves to have a speckled appearance. Mosaic virus is not a taxon. Species ... Mosaic Viruses at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Mosaic Virus Diseases of Vine Crops" at ...
... alfalfa (Medicago sativa), vetch (Vicia sativa), lupine (Lupinus luteus), Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), Fenugreek ( ... Plant Viruses Online - Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Bean yellow mosaic virus Family ... Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other ... This virus makes two kinds of viral inclusions, laminiated aggregates and a nuclear inclusion. "Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV ...
Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA. *Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "" ... Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus. *Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element ...
... peanut stunt virus, subterranean clover stunt virus, bean common mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus ... The aphid is the vector of a number of plant viruses including groundnut rosette virus, peanut mottle virus, ... It may move back to alfalfa later in the year. In Belarus, lupine is an important host plant and in Ukraine, Acacia is most ... The eggs hatch in early spring and the first larvae are known as fundatrix (stem mothers) and feed at first on alfalfa. These ...
Soybean dwarf virus, Abaca mosaic virus, Alfalfa mosaic virus, Beet mosaic virus, Tobacco vein-banding virus, Tobacco ringspot ... virus, Bean yellow mosaic virus, Mungbean mosaic virus, Peanut mottle virus, Peanut stripe poty virus, and Peanut mosaic virus ... In China, the most important virus vectored by the soybean aphid is Soybean mosaic virus, which can cause yield loss and ... In addition to Soybean mosaic virus, the soybean aphid is capable of transmitting Soybean stunt virus, ...
... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ... Alfalfa leaf curl virus Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus French bean severe leaf curl virus Plantago lanceolata latent ... virus Bean calico mosaic virus Bean chlorosis virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus Bean golden mosaic virus Bean golden yellow mosaic ... mosaic virus Rose leaf curl virus Senecio yellow mosaic virus Sida golden mosaic Braco virus Sida golden mosaic Buckup virus ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus Genus: Anulavirus Amazon lily mild mottle virus Pelargonium zonate spot virus Genus: Bromovirus Broad bean ... mosaic virus Wild tomato mosaic virus Wisteria vein mosaic virus Yam mild mosaic virus Yam mosaic virus Yambean mosaic virus ... virus X Lily virus X Malva mosaic virus Mint virus X Narcissus mosaic virus Nerine virus X Opuntia virus X Papaya mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red ...
Viruses[edit]. Papaya, potatoes, and squash have been engineered to resist viral pathogens such as cucumber mosaic virus which ... Alfalfa. Animal feed[162]. US. 2005. Approval withdrawn in 2007[163] and then re-approved in 2011[164]. ... Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that ... The viruses are watermelon, cucumber and zucchini/courgette yellow mosaic. Squash was the second GM crop to be approved by US ...
"African cassava mosaic virus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database", version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia ... Spotted alfalfa aphid being attacked by a parasitic wasp, Trioxys complanatus. The effects of loss of biodiversity are ... Reports from Burundi and Angola warn of a threat to food security caused by the African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMD).[24] ACMD ... Suitable farming strategies include polyculture, crop rotation, mosaics of small scattered fields and uncultivated land. ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5 UTR stem-loop. References[edit]. *^ ICTVdB Management (2006). "Alfalfa mosaic virus". In: ICTVdB- ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ... Freeman A.; Aftab M. (2006). "Temperature pulse viruses: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV)". Agriculture Notes: 1-3.. ... "Alfalfa mosaic virus". AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses.. *^ Hyo Won Jung; Hye Jin Jung; Wan Soo Yun; Hye Ja Kim; Young ll ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein binding (CPB) RNA is an RNA element which is found in the 3 UTR of the genome. AMV ... Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5 UTR stem-loop Neeleman, L; Linthorst HJ; Bol JF (2004). "Efficient translation of alfamovirus ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA at Rfam. ...
First report of the infection of alfalfa mosaic virus in Salvia sclarea in Hungary. ... Similar symptoms caused by alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) infections were reported earlier affecting clary sage in Italy and ... basilicum strongly suggested the infection with alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV).. For molecular characterization, RT-PCR primers ... The presence of the virus in Salvia sclarea was confirmed by Northern blot using the cloned PCR product as a probe. Based on ...
... Ll. Martínez-Priego , M. C. Córdoba , C. Jordá , Virology Group ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus in Lavandula officinalis. August 2004 , Volume 88 , Number 8. Pages 908.3 - 908.3. Authors ... for the presence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). ELISA results were verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ... Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a typical source of AMV. However, because the nurseries where L. officinalis is grown are not ...
Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of virus particles (virions) of the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). ... Alfalfa mosaic virus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of virus particles (virions) of the alfalfa mosaic virus ... The virus is transmitted by several species of aphids, and also, in alfalfa plants, by pollen into the seeds. Magnification: ... It was first identified in 1931 in the alfalfa plant (Medicago sativa), an important forage crop for livestock. This virus also ...
... such as Alfalfa mosaic virus(AMV), cause significant reductions in the productivity and vegetative persistence of white clover ... LB - left border of T-DNA region; P35S2 - enhanced Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter; AMV CP - Alfalfa mosaic virus CP gene ... McLaughlin MR (1991) A greenhouse method for aphid inoculation of alfalfa mosaic virus in white clover by co-culture of virus, ... Crill P, Hanson EW, Hagedorn DJ (1971) Resistance and tolerance to alfalfa mosaic virus in alfalfa. Phytopathol 61:369-371 ...
... H. A. Hobbs , Department of Crop ... 200 soybean fields from 25 counties were surveyed for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV). AMV and SbDV ... Only one virus, Soybean mosaic virus, has been reported from soybean in North Dakota (4). In July and August of 2010, ... For sequence-based virus detection, total RNA was extracted from all field samples using a Qiagen RNeasy Plant Mini Kit ( ...
... and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing ... These data suggest that the 3 NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. ... long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3 non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to ...
Differentiation Study between Alfalfa Mosaic Virus and Red Clover Mottle Virus Affecting Broad Bean by Biological and Molecular ... Alfalfa Mosaic Virus. The amino acid sequence corresponding to 550 bp fragment was compared with Alfalfa mosaic virus, the sole ... of Alfalfa mosaic virus Egyptian isolate (AMV-Eg, GQ923686), Alfalfa mosaic virus of Leiden strain 425 (AMVTc-2, AAA46289), ... Squash mosaic virus (SqMV-R, BAB62139), Squash mosaic virus isolate CH 99/211 (SqMV-P1, ABZ89551), Squash mosaic virus of RdRp ...
This HVR1 sequence was cloned into the open reading frame of a plant virus, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (ALMV) coat protein (CP). The ... Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants infected with recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus for development ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major etiologic agent of blood transfusion-associated and sporadic non-A non-B hepatitis ... Key Words: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), transgenic tobacco plants (P12), consensus HCV HVR1 epitope (R9), and chimeric ALMV-RNA4.. ...
... Note Number: AG1206. Published: August 2006. Updated: September 2010. ... Table1: Percentage of pulse crops infected with alfalfa mosaic virus in south eastern Australia and within crop virus incidence ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was first identified infecting lucerne in the USA, and is now distributed worldwide. The main source ... Temperate Pulse Viruses: Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) ... Temperate Pulse Viruses: Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) * Temperate ...
... and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) are tripartite positive-strand RNA plant viruses that encode functionally similar ... Although the two viruses are phylogenetically closely related, they infect a very different range of natural hosts. The coat ... The chimeric viruses exhibited basic competence for encapsidation and replication in P12 protoplasts and for a low level of ... The chimeric viruses were tested for heterologous encapsidation, replication in protoplasts from plants transformed with AMV ...
Bol, J. F. Alfalfa mosaic virus: coat protein-dependent initiation of infection. Mol. Plant Pathol. 4, 1-8 (2003).. Tromas, N ... Van Vloten-Doting, L. & Jaspars, E. M. Uncoating of Alfalfa mosaic virus by its own RNA. Virology 48, 699-708 (1972).. [-] ... Van Dun, C. M., Van Vloten-Doting, L. & Bol, J. F. Expression of Alfalfa mosaic virus cDNA1 and 2 in transgenic tobacco plants ... Van Rossum, C. M. A., García, M. L. & Bol, J. F. Accumulation of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs 1 and 2 requires the encoded ...
Epitope mapping with seventy-one overlapping octapeptides representing the whole sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat ... Partial Epitope Mapping of Alfalfa mosaic Virus and the Effect of Coat Protein Gene Mutation on Aphid Transmission. ... Massumi, H., Jones, P., Hague, N. Partial Epitope Mapping of Alfalfa mosaic Virus and the Effect of Coat Protein Gene Mutation ... Massumi, H., Jones, P., Hague, N. (2005). Partial Epitope Mapping of Alfalfa mosaic Virus and the Effect of Coat Protein Gene ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). Pathogen. Present. (OMAF 2004). Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Pathogen. Present. (Atlantic Potato ... Potato virus Y (PVY) and several other viruses contribute to mosaic disease in S. tuberosum in Canada, which can reduce yield ... Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is another important virus that infects S. tuberosum in Canada and can reduce the quality of ... Genomic variability in Potato virus M and the development of RT-PCR and RFLP procedures for the detection of this virus in seed ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus. Pathogen Aphis craccivora. Herbivore Aphis gossypii. Herbivore Bemisia tabaci. Herbivore ...
alfalfa mosaic virus. Plants. Ilarvirus. tobacco streak virus. Plants. Bromovirus. brome mosaic virus. Plants. ... Viral Diseases - Virus Names - Virus Families - Virus Hosts - Viruses By Genome Type Big Picture Book of Viruses - FAQ - Submit ... Group I: dsDNA Viruses *Group II: The ssDNA Viruses *Group III: dsRNA Viruses *Group IV: (+)sense RNA Viruses *Group V: (-) ... Nudaurelia capensis b-like viruses. Nudaurelia capensis b virus. Invertebrates. Nudaurelia capensis w-like viruses. Nudaurelia ...
Cofolding Organizes Alfalfa Mosaic Virus RNA and Coat Protein for Replication. By Laura M. Guogas, David J. Filman, James M. ... In a plant virus, a protein can bind to RNA to stabilize an unusual structure that is required for replication and contains a ...
3′-UTR mediated translation of the Alfalfa mosaic virus genome The non-polyadenylated Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, genus ... The Panicum mosaic virus-like Translation Enhancer (PTE) was first identified in Panicum mosaic virus (PMV, genus Panicovirus, ... Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV; genus Poacevirus, family ... Chen S.-C., Olsthoorn R. C. (2010). In vitro and in vivo studies of the RNA conformational switch in Alfalfa mosaic virus. J. ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). Seedborne. 2. Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV). Seedborne. 2. ...
Cofolding organizes alfalfa mosaic virus RNA and coat protein for replication.. Guogas LM, Filman DJ, Hogle JM, Gehrke L. ... Catching a virus in the act of RNA release: a novel poliovirus uncoating intermediate characterized by cryo-electron microscopy ... The crystal structure of an unusual processivity factor, herpes simplex virus UL42, bound to the C terminus of its cognate ... Molecular tectonic model of virus structural transitions: the putative cell entry states of poliovirus. ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus. Broad bean wilt virus 1. Beet western yellows virus. Cauliflower mosaic virus. Cucumber mosaic virus. ... Lettuce mosaic virus. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus. Turnip mosaic virus. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Virus reservoirs. ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV), Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV ...
  • Nucleic acid sequence analysis of smallest and biggest bands revealed of 100 and 95% sequence identity with other Red Clover Mottle Virus (RCMV) and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) isolates, respectively. (
  • The race of the isolates was determined by inoculation of Saranac (susceptible to races 1 and 2) and WAPH-1 (resistant to race 1) alfalfa varieties. (
  • For example, 51 percent were race 2 in a field never used for alfalfa production and 27 percent of isolates were race 2 from a field used for pea production, while 43 percent of all isolates from fields with a history of alfalfa production were race 2. (
  • Of eight alfalfa cultivars evaluated for resistance to both races in a recent study, all except those selected for R2 resistance were susceptible to R2 isolates (5). (
  • Race 2 isolates may represent a widespread risk to alfalfa cultivars with resistance only to race 1. (
  • Nucleotide sequence comparisons of turnip yellow mosaic isolates from Australia and Europe. (
  • Zablocki O, Pietersen G . (2014) Characterization of a novel citrus tristeza virus genotype within three cross-protecting source GFMS12 sub-isolates in South Africa by means of Illumina sequencing . (
  • Scott KA, Hlela Q, Zablocki ODJ , Read DA , Van Vuuren SP, Pietersen G . (2013) Genotype composition of populations of Citrus tristeza virus grapefruit cross-protecting GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates . (
  • They also transmit such diseases as the tomato spotted wilt virus, causing millions of dollars in damage to U.S. agricultural crops each year. (
  • But it was not to be, as problems ranging from excessive rainfall to a severe outbreak of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) have dashed hopes for a banner 2005. (
  • The article focuses on the U.S. tobacco growers in relation to their preparation of overcoming the problem of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), one of the plant diseases. (
  • Cover crops may hold back tomato spotted wilt virus. (
  • The article focuses on the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-sponsored research at the University of Georgia campus in Tifton which considers the use of a cover crop system to improve soil and to prevent tomato spotted wilt virus. (
  • We transformed tobacco with the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nucleocapsid gene from the Hawaiian L isolate in order to obtain TSWV resistant breeding lines. (
  • The article focuses on Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that hurts many crops in Georgia. (
  • The article reports on the research conducted by the North Carolina State University on tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and its effect on tomato production. (
  • It reports that the University of Georgia Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Index and the Fungal Disease Index both have proven themselves to be invaluable tools for peanut producers in the lower Southeast. (
  • According to plant pathologist Austin Hagan, long standing peanut production is the reason for the high incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern part of the Peanut Belt. (
  • The article focuses on the multi-pronged strategy that tomato growers need to consider to battle tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). (
  • Only larval thrips that acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), or adults derived from such larvae, transmit the virus. (
  • It has been proved that in the important forage grass alfalfa, the infection by AMV leads to a decrease of Cu, Fe, Mn, P and Zn quantities. (
  • All of the reactions of test plants, especially those of O. basilicum strongly suggested the infection with alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). (
  • However, because the nurseries where L. officinalis is grown are not in the vicinity of alfalfa fields, we suggest the source of the infection originated in the propagation material. (
  • Encapsidation of the viral genome is an essential step in the life cycle of many plant viruses because efficient virus infection and spreading require production of virions. (
  • Symptoms on the infected plant depend greatly on the strain of virus, host variety, stage of growth at infection and environmental conditions. (
  • Susceptibility of Arabidopsis Ecotypes to Infection by Iris yellow spot virus . (
  • The multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI) is the number of virus genomes of a given virus species that infect individual cells. (
  • Since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, a fundamental parameter determining their within-host population dynamics/genetics is the multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI), defined as the number of genomes of a given virus species that infects a cell. (
  • 1991. Natural infection of broad bean by bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in Saudi Arabia. (
  • Local context drives infection of grasses by vector-borne generalist viruses. (
  • Phloem transport of plant viruses is an essential step in the setting-up of a complete infection of a host plant. (
  • After an initial replication step in the first cells, viruses spread from cell-to-cell through mesophyll cells, until they reach the vasculature where they rapidly move to distant sites in order to establish the infection of the whole plant. (
  • The result of this arm race leads to a complete resistance of the plant, if the virus cannot overcome the plant defenses, or to a systemic infection, eventually ending with the host death, if the viral counter defenses are efficient enough to bypass the plant protection system. (
  • Virus transport in phloem tissues encompasses translocation from mesophyll cells to sieve elements (SE) via the successive crossings of the bundle sheath (BS), vascular parenchyma cells (VP), and companion cells (CC). Once in SE, the virus is transported with the phloem sap to distant locations, then it exits from SE to initiate new infection sites and to disseminate efficiently throughout the whole plant (Figure 1 ). (
  • We found it impossible to relate visual symptoms in fields to infection by any one of the viruses. (
  • In fact, most snap bean fields surveyed at the bloom stage did not have any symptoms of virus infection. (
  • The presence of alfalfa next to snap beans did not increase the risk of virus infection in the latter. (
  • Late-planted snap beans appeared to be more at risk to virus infection in 2002 for all viruses, but only to BYMV/CYVV in 2003. (
  • Model-adjusted mean incidences of infection by AMV, BYMV/ClYVV and CMV were 41.96, 6.56 and 6.69% respectively, in alfalfa, and 6.66, 6.38 and 17.20% in snap bean. (
  • Virus incidences did not differ between snap bean adjacent to or remote from alfalfa, but incidence of infection by AMV and BYMV/ClYVV was significantly higher in snap bean planted later in the season rather than earlier. (
  • In some years infection by aphid-transmitted viruses can become widespread in snap bean in New York. (
  • Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. (
  • The resistance is similar to natural cross protection, whereby infection with a virus protects a plant from subsequent infection by other strains of the same virus. (
  • Adefovir dipivoxil [9-(2-(bispivaloyloxymethyl)phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (bis-POM PMEA)], an oral prodrug of adefovir (PMEA), is currently in phase III clinical testing for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. (
  • Chlorosis - Abnormal light green or yellow coloration of leaves due to insufficient production of chlorophyll, which may be caused by lack of light, mineral deficiency, infection (particular with viruses), or genetic factors. (
  • This feature differs from the viral infection complex called mosaic. (
  • Viral diseases, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), cause significant reductions in the productivity and vegetative persistence of white clover plants in the field. (
  • Online Resource 2 Summary of Alfalfa mosaic virus strains used for isolation of the AMV CP gene and for viral inoculation experiments. (
  • Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis -acting sequences present in viral mRNAs. (
  • Finally, future research perspectives on the unusual translational strategies of +ssRNA viruses are discussed, including parallelisms between viral and host mRNAs mechanisms of translation, particularly for host mRNAs which are translated under stress conditions. (
  • 2013 ), and in fact the host range of a given virus may be determined by its ability to efficiently translate viral mRNAs using host translation factors, as we have shown recently for a plant virus (Truniger et al. (
  • IMPORTANCE The MOI is the size of the viral population colonizing cells and defines major phenomena in virus evolution, like the intensity of genetic exchange and the size of within-host population bottlenecks. (
  • The catalytic subunit of the viral replicase complexes is a virus-coded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (
  • Another approach to obtain viral RdRps is to purify them from virus-infected cells. (
  • Lent, J. 2016-06-23 00:00:00 Intercellular spread of plant viruses involves passage of the viral genome or virion through a plasmodesma (PD). (
  • While most viruses seem to move systemically as virus particles, some viruses are transported in SE as viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP). (
  • The topic of this review will mainly focus on the host and viral factors that facilitate or restrict virus long-distance movement. (
  • Reassortment of functional modules of coding and regulatory sequence from preexisting viral or cellular sources, perhaps via RNA recombination, may be an important mechanism in RNA virus evolution. (
  • Plants can be genetically engineered for virus resistance by transformation with a viral gene. (
  • The Cornell thrips-resistant tomato lines, with and without the virus resistance genes, will be used by Mutschler-Chu and an interdisciplinary team of eight other scientists from seven other institutions nationwide as part of a new five-year, $3.75 million project to control thrips and TOSPO viruses in tomatoes. (
  • however, other cucurbits (zucchini and yellow squash, muskmelon, pumpkin and winter squash) also have some resistance to viruses, bacteria and selected fungi. (
  • A clear example of this is the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of animal/human viruses, of resistance-breaking variants of plant viruses, or of recombinant genotypes with an enlarged host range. (
  • 1991. Inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber. (
  • One race (race 1) was initially discovered and was used for development of most alfalfa cultivars with Aphanomyces resistance. (
  • Alfalfa varieties with resistance only to race 1 are vulnerable to Aphanomyces root rot in many areas due to the presence of race 2. (
  • Several commercial alfalfa varieties are available that have resistance to both races of Aphanomyces. (
  • A multi-generation analysis of the stability of transgenic virus resistance in doubled-haploid tobacco lines. (
  • A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker directly linked (0.0 cM) with a resistance gene was identified in a snap bean recombinant inbred population (Moncayo x Primo) consisting of 94 F(5:7) recombinant inbred lines that had uniform segregation for disease reaction to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) across three field locations. (
  • AMV is a very variable plant virus and several strains with minor differences exist (strain Q, strain S, strain 425, strain AlMV-B, strain AlMV- S,...). Distinction is based on different symptoms in one or two chosen hosts and also on, for example, differential physico-chemical properties. (
  • These data suggest that the 3′ NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. (
  • AMV is a phytopathogen that can lead to necrosis and yellow mosaics on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. (
  • Transmission of the virus occurs mainly by some aphids (plant lice), by seeds or by pollen to the seed. (
  • The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. (
  • Inoculation of test plants with extracts of diseased clary sage leaves demonstrated the presence of a mechanically transmitted plant virus named isolate Ssc. (
  • Dikova B (2014) Establishment of virus pathogens on the medicinal plant Salvia sclarea . (
  • This plant virus is an alfamovirus, and has an RNA (ribonucleic acid) genome. (
  • The AMV is one of the most biologically variable plant viruses and numerous natural variants having different pathogenicity ( Hajimorad and Francki, 1991 ). (
  • The RCMV is a member of the genus Comovirus , family Secoviridae, which represents nonenveloped plant viruses with icosahedral capsids and bipartite, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. (
  • Using plant-virus based transient expression to produce this unique chimeric antigen will facilitate the development and production of an experimental HCV vaccine. (
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) are tripartite positive-strand RNA plant viruses that encode functionally similar translation products. (
  • Jaspars, E. M. Plant viruses with a multipartite genome. (
  • We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. (
  • A complete listing of weeds as natural reservoirs for plant viruses in the Northeast can be found at . (
  • Roger Hull graduated in Botany from Cambridge University in 1960, and subsequently studied plant virus epidemiology at London University's Wye College, gaining a PhD in 1964. (
  • Plant-produced M2eHBc formed virus-like particles in vivo , as required for its use as a vaccine. (
  • Biochemical features of RdRps for several positive-strand RNA viruses, including poliovirus ( 3 ), flaviviruses ( 12 , 18 , 22 , 23 , 45 ), plant potyviruses ( 16 ), and potexviruses ( 21 ) have been examined in some detail by using purified preparations obtained from heterologous expression systems. (
  • Host Index and Status of Plant Viruses and Virus-Like Disease Agents in Saudi Arabia. (
  • A goal for many forage producers is to plant alfalfa and clover, harvest high yields on an appropriate schedule, and retain stands for many years. (
  • For more than one century, studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. (
  • More recently, studies of plant viruses have also been pioneer in population genomics. (
  • This has broadened current knowledge on the mechanisms that generate genetic diversity and on the evolutionary forces and ecological factors that shape the genetic structure and dynamics of plant virus populations. (
  • In sum, we provide an overview of current understanding on the population genomics of plant viruses at every level of population organization. (
  • Advances in plant virus evolution: translating evolutionary insights into better disease management. (
  • Bujarski J. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives. (
  • The loss, removal or damage of traditional plant labels at any stage of production can result in a mother plant that has no known history, which is especially problematic because of the many viruses, viroids , phytoplasmas and other systemic pathogens that can infect propagative material. (
  • Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites living exclusively in the symplast of their hosts. (
  • Virus accumulation at high levels throughout the whole plant is a necessary condition for virus survival. (
  • Massive titer of virions may facilitate virus transmission from one plant to another, whatever the mode of propagation: by seeds or pollen, by graftings, by mechanical wounds, or by vectors. (
  • Viruses are dependent on their hosts to complete their life cycle in the plant, i.e., replication, encapsidation, cell-to-cell movement, and long-distance transport. (
  • A wide range of intermediate situations between plant immunity and death can be encountered, which highlights the complexity of interactions that may take place between the virus and the plant. (
  • Virus entry into plant cells, mostly epidermal, and mesophyll, is followed by virion disassembly and genome translation/replication in inoculated tissues. (
  • Many of the residues that the TMV read-through domain and the segmented plant viruses have in common are also conserved in a read-through domain found in the nonstructural polyprotein of the animal alphaviruses Sindbis and Middelburg. (
  • In 2002, there was a positive association between AMV and CMV in the tendency to find both viruses in the same snap bean plant. (
  • which indicate the prevalence of these plant viruses in animals. (
  • ChiSCV ORF 1 was 15-24% similar in amino acid sequence to the replicase of the multi-segmented plant viruses of the Nanoviridae family but only 12-17% similar to the replicases of circoviruses and geminiviruses. (
  • and (iii) one randomly selected leaflet from 10 plants with virus-like symptoms from either the lower or upper part of the plant. (
  • II Plant Viruses and Silencing Pathways (reviewed by Csorba et al. (
  • Plant viruses are among the simplest of plant pathogens. (
  • A growing number of plant virus genomes have been molecularly defined and cloned as cDNA. (
  • This virus is similar to the majority of plant viruses in that it has a single-stranded RNA genome. (
  • To study the role of virus genes in disease development and to devise and test strategies for the control of plant viruses, we transferred individual AMV genes into plant genomes. (
  • While we certainly do not equate the seriousness of Zika with agricultural problems, the Zika virus can serve as a reminder about aspects of the many plant-infecting viruses, from alfalfa mosaic to zucchini yellow mosaic, that affect vegetables. (
  • Comparative Plant Virology provides a complete overview of our current knowledge of plant viruses, including background information on plant viruses and up-to-date aspects of virus biology and control. (
  • Reaction of physalis spp to plant viruses xii. (
  • In addition to destroying the look of a lawn, the plant can also be toxic to cattle and hosts damaging phytopathogens like the alfalfa mosaic and pea mottle viruses. (
  • The virology diagnostics team at Fera utilises a range of tests, including ELISA, and molecular methods such as PCR and next generation sequencing, to both detect and identify a range of plant affecting viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas. (
  • Accurate plant virus diagnosis is integral to effective crop management. (
  • Fera's virus diagnosis team can work with you to select the correct diagnostics package for your plant sample. (
  • ELISA is a tried and tested technique which can provide accurate, cost-effective diagnosis for a range of known viruses across many plant hosts. (
  • ELISA is widely used for initial screening tests, and this method may be supported with further testing by TaqMan® or PCR to provide species confirmation when detecting and identifying viruses within plant samples. (
  • The plant virology team at Fera are leading the world in the application of NGS-informed plant virus diagnosis. (
  • In spring 2002, CMV and LMV were the most prevalent viruses in lettuce, while CaMV was the most important virus present in Brassica crops grown in Navarra, followed by CMV and BWYV. (
  • Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. (
  • AMV is a multipartite virus and is composed of 4 particles (3 bacilliform and 1 spheroidal) with a diameter of 18 nm. (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of virus particles (virions) of the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). (
  • The MOI is usually one genome per cell when cells are infected from virus particles moving long distances in the vasculature, whereas it is much higher during subsequent cell-to-cell movement in mesophyll. (
  • Nonviruliferous adults can ingest virus particles while feeding on TSWV-infected plants, but such adult thrips have not been shown to transmit TSWV. (
  • In this study, we have investigated the role of PDLPs in intercellular transport of another tubule-forming virus, cowpea mosaic virus. (
  • Plasmodesmata-located proteins (PDLPs) localised in the PD have been shown to contribute to tubule formation in cauliflower mosaic virus and grapevine fanleaf virus infections. (
  • In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5' untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. (
  • Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. (
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (
  • The MOI was very low in primary infections from virus circulating within the vasculature, generally leading to primary foci founded by a single genome. (
  • The genome of Nanoviridae viruses consists of 6 to 8 circular (+) ssDNA about 1kb in size. (
  • Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified Alfalfa mosaic virus resistant white clover (Trifolium repens L. (
  • Previous in vitro experiments have shown that HIV-1 recombinant viruses expressing either a K65R or a K70E mutation in reverse transcriptase (RT) have reduced sensitivity to PMEA and that the K70E mutant also has impaired replication capacity in vitro . (
  • The edible AIDS vaccine with the HIV glycoprotein gp120 gene has been condemned as dangerous by a number of AIDS virologists [7-because the gp120 gene and gene product can undermine our immune system and generate new viruses and bacteria that cause diseases. (
  • This homology suggests the existence of a common ancestral gene for these 2 apparently unrelated viruses. (
  • The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5'-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. (
  • The goal of our research is to determine the roles of virus genes in virus replication and in disease development with the expectation that the results will lead to novel approaches for virus control. (
  • In addition, these RdRp preparations can efficiently recognize the related Tomato bushy stunt virus promoter sequences, including the minus- and plus-strand initiation promoters. (
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was first identified infecting lucerne in the USA, and is now distributed worldwide. (
  • The main source of this virus is lucerne, but it has a wide host range which includes the temperate pulses (chickpeas, faba beans, field peas and lentils) as well as pasture legumes and perennial weeds. (
  • Since we do not feel that seed transmission plays a role in the spread of viruses infecting cucurbits in New York, we need to look elsewhere for the virus source. (
  • Insecticide applications are not effective for PVY control because transmission of this stylet-borne virus occurs before the insecticide can act against the vector. (
  • Because A. glycines is a vector for both viruses (1,2), the distribution, incidence, and agronomic impact of AMV and SbDV could be affected in years when A. glycines infestations are high. (
  • Virus incidence was much lower in spring than in autumn, especially in 2001. (
  • This last step is referred to as systemic transport, or long-distance movement, and involves virus crossings through several cellular barriers: bundle sheath, vascular parenchyma, and companion cells for virus loading into sieve elements (SE). (
  • The enzymes may be expressed constitutively at low levels but are dramatically enhanced by numerous abiotic agents (ethylene, salicylic acid, salt solutions, ozone, UV light) and by biotic factors (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids , fungal cell wall components, and oligosaccharides). (
  • Woodiness is the general term given to the effects of several different diseases, including the passionfruit woodiness virus and the alfalfa mosaic virus. (
  • Movement of zucchini yellow mosaic virus ( ZYMV) in susceptible and resistant cucumber cultivars. (
  • Another clue to a potential problem with Aphanomyces is stunting and poor nodulation of an alfalfa cultivar that is highly resistant to Phytophthora . (
  • Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa can best be managed by avoiding slowly-drained soils and by using Aphanomyces-resistant alfalfa varieties. (
  • Alfalfa varieties rated highly resistant (HR) or resistant (R) to Aphanomyces root rot should be planted where slowly-drained soils occur and where Aphanomyces may be a problem (6, 8). (
  • AMV was reported by the American Phytopathological Society Virus Working Group (2007 to 2008) to be widely prevalent in North Dakota, but we found no peer-reviewed reports of verified AMV identification on any crop in the state. (
  • Worldwide, this crop is known to be naturally infected by about 44 viruses ( Cockbain, 1983 ), which cause considerable yield losses. (
  • In recent years, the virus has damaged as much as half of the state's crop, and most growers routinely prepare for. (
  • Weeds help predict severity of crop virus. (
  • This ensures your crop management strategy is fit for purpose and able to address any potential viruses within your crop, mitigating the potential economic risk to your harvest. (