The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.

Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. (1/80)

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus.  (+info)

Alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs serve as cap donors for tomato spotted wilt virus transcription during coinfection of Nicotiana benthamiana. (2/80)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was shown to use alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs as cap donors in vivo during a mixed infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. By use of nested reverse transcription-PCR, TSWV N and NSs mRNAs provided with capped leader sequences derived from all four AMV RNAs could be cloned and sequenced. The sequence specificity of the putative TSWV endonuclease involved is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of C-terminal mutations of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein on dimer formation and assembly in vitro. (3/80)

The coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) strain 425 assembles to bacilliform or rod-shaped particles in the presence of nucleic acids or to T = 1 empty icosahedral particles in the absence of nucleic acids. To study the determinants of CP assembly, recombinant CPs (rCPs) that contained a (His)(6) region were expressed in Escherichia coli. Wt rCP and a mutant rCP, which lacked the last nine amino acids of the C terminus (amino acids 213-221), assembled to particles that were identical in electron micrographs. However, a mutant rCP, which lacked the last 18 amino acids of the C terminus (amino acids 204-221), did not assemble. Likewise, a mutant with alanine substitutions at W(191), F(197), and P(198) did not assemble. Furthermore rCP with a single alanine substitution at W(191) did not assemble, whereas the rCP, which had an arginine and an alanine substitution at A(196) and F(197), respectively, formed rod-shaped particles. The mutations that prevented assembly prevented dimer formation, which indicates that dimers are the minimal building blocks of particles. Our results indicate that two separate regions in the C terminus of AMV CP are critical for dimer formation and assembly and that changes in key amino acids in one of the regions affect both assembly and particle morphology.  (+info)

A conformational switch at the 3' end of a plant virus RNA regulates viral replication. (4/80)

3' untranslated regions of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs fold into a series of stem-loop structures to which the coat protein binds with high affinity. This binding plays a role in initiation of infection ('genome activation') and has been thought to substitute for a tRNA-like structure that is found at the 3' termini of related plant viruses. We propose the existence of an alternative conformation of the 3' ends of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs, including a pseudoknot. Based on (i) phylogenetic comparisons, (ii) in vivo and in vitro functional analyses of mutants in which the pseudoknot has been disrupted or restored by compensatory mutations, (iii) competition experiments between coat protein and viral replicase, and (iv) investigation of the effect of magnesium, we demonstrate that this pseudoknot is required for replication of alfalfa mosaic virus. This conformation resembles the tRNA-like structure of the related bromo- and cucumo-viruses. A low but specific interaction with yeast CCA-adding enzyme was found. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3' termini of alfamo- and ilar-virus RNAs could enable the virus to switch from translation to replication and vice versa. The role of coat protein in this modulation and in genome activation is discussed.  (+info)

In vitro transcription by the turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA polymerase: a comparison with the alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus replicases. (5/80)

Recently, we showed that the main determinant in the tRNA-like structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA to initiate minus-strand synthesis in vitro is the 3' ACCA end. By mutational analysis of the 3'-terminal hairpin, we show here that only a non-base-paired ACCA end is functional and that the stability of the wild-type 3'-proximal hairpin is the most favorable, in that it has the lowest DeltaG value and a high transcription efficiency. With a nested set of RNA fragments, we show that the minimum template length is 9 nucleotides and that transcription is improved with increasing the length of the template. The results also suggest that proper base stacking contributes to efficient transcription initiation. Internal initiation is shown to take place on every NPyCPu sequence of a nonstructured template. However, the position of the internal initiation site in the template is important, and competition between the different sites takes place. Internal initiation was also studied with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of brome mosaic virus (BMV) and alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV). The BMV polymerase can start internally on ACCA sequences, though inefficiently. Unexpectedly, the polymerases of both AlMV and BMV can start efficiently on an internal AUGC sequence.  (+info)

The complete nucleotide sequence of apple mosaic virus (ApMV) RNA 1 and RNA 2: ApMV is more closely related to alfalfa mosaic virus than to other ilarviruses. (6/80)

The complete nucleotide sequences of apple mosaic virus RNA 1 and 2 have been characterized. Apple mosaic virus RNA 1 is 3476 nucleotides in length and encodes a single large open reading frame (ORF), whereas apple mosaic virus RNA 2 is 2979 nucleotides in length and also encodes a single ORF. The amino acid sequences encoded by RNA 1 and 2 show similarity to all of the other ilarviruses for which sequence data are available, but both are more closely related to alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) than to other ilarviruses. Points of similarity include the absence of ORF 2b, present on the RNA 2 of all previously characterized ilarviruses. The close relationship to AMV also occurs in the movement protein, encoded by RNA 3, but not with the coat protein. These data suggest that the present taxonomy should be revised, and that AMV should be considered an aphid-transmissible ilarvirus.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral RNA replication, encapsidation, and movement. (7/80)

Coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) binds as a dimer to the 3' termini of the three genomic RNAs and is required for initiation of infection, asymmetric plus-strand RNA accumulation, virion formation, and spread of the virus in plants. A mutational analysis of the multiple functions of AMV CP was made. Mutations that interfered with CP dimer formation in the two-hybrid system had little effect on the initiation of infection or plus-strand RNA accumulation but interfered with virion formation and reduced or abolished cell-to-cell movement of the virus in plants. Six of the 7 basic amino acids in the N-terminal arm of CP (positions 5, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 25) could be deleted or mutated into alanine without affecting any step of the replication cycle except systemic movement in plants. Mutation of Arg-17 interfered with initiation of infection (as previously shown by others) and cell-to-cell movement of the virus but not with plus-strand RNA accumulation or virion formation. The results indicate that in addition to the RNA-binding domain, different domains of AMV CP are involved in initiation of infection, plus-strand RNA accumulation, virion formation, cell-to-cell movement, and systemic spread of the virus.  (+info)

RNAs 1 and 2 of Alfalfa mosaic virus, expressed in transgenic plants, start to replicate only after infection of the plants with RNA 3. (8/80)

RNAs 1 and 2 of the tripartite genome of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) encode the two viral replicase subunits. Full-length DNA copies of RNAs 1 and 2 were used to transform tobacco plants (R12 lines). None of the transgenic lines showed resistance to AMV infection. In healthy R12 plants, the transcripts of the viral cDNAs were copied by the transgenic viral replicase into minus-strand RNAs but subsequent steps in replication were blocked. When the R12 plants were inoculated with AMV RNA 3, this block was lifted and the transgenic RNAs 1 and 2 were amplified by the transgenic replicase together with RNA 3. The transgenic expression of RNAs 1 and 2 largely circumvented the role of coat protein (CP) in the inoculum that is required for infection of nontransgenic plants. The results for the first time demonstrate the role of CP in AMV plus-strand RNA synthesis at the whole plant level.  (+info)

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a plant-infecting virus that belongs to the family Bromoviridae and the genus Alfamovirus. It has a tripartite, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The virus is transmitted by various mechanical means, including sap transfer, as well as through seed and vegetative propagation. Insects such as aphids can also transmit the virus in a nonpersistent manner.

AMV infects a wide range of plant species, including many important agricultural crops like alfalfa, tobacco, tomatoes, beans, beets, and various ornamental plants. The virus causes a mosaic pattern of light and dark green areas on the leaves, along with other symptoms such as leaf curl, stunting, and reduced yield. There are no known treatments to cure infected plants, and control measures typically focus on preventing the spread of the virus through the use of disease-free seed and planting material, as well as controlling insect vectors.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

'Medicago sativa' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as alfalfa. In a medical context, alfalfa is often considered a herbal supplement and its medicinal properties include being a source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as kidney problems, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol levels. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of alfalfa for these uses is not conclusively established by scientific research and its use may have potential risks or interactions with certain medications. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ilarvirus" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or in virology. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. Ilarviruses are actually a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, and they primarily infect plants. They are not associated with human or animal diseases. If you have any other questions or if there's a specific concept related to virology or medicine that you'd like me to clarify, please let me know!

Alfamovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Bunyavirales. These viruses are primarily infectors of plants and are transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The genus contains around 26 species, including important plant pathogens such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

The genome of alfamoviruses is composed of three positive-sense single-stranded RNA segments, each encoding a single protein. The three genomic segments are named RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3. RNA1 encodes the replicase protein, RNA2 encodes the movement protein, and RNA3 encodes the coat protein and a subgenomic RNA that encodes the viral membrane protein.

Alfamoviruses are important pathogens in agriculture, causing significant economic losses in various crops worldwide. They can cause a range of symptoms in infected plants, including mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. Control measures for alfamovirus infections include the use of resistant plant varieties, cultural practices, and chemical control of aphid vectors.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Plant viral movement proteins (MPs) are specialized proteins encoded by plant viruses that play a crucial role in the infection process. These proteins are responsible for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus, allowing it to spread throughout the infected plant. MPs facilitate the transport of viral genetic material from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells, often through plasmodesmata, which are specialized channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells.

Movement proteins can increase the size exclusion limit (SEL) of plasmodesmata, creating a larger pore through which viral RNA or DNA can pass. They also form complexes with viral nucleic acids and other MPs to create movement protein-viral RNA/DNA complexes that are transported between cells. The precise mechanisms by which MPs function vary among different virus families, but their role in facilitating the spread of plant viruses is well established.

It's important to note that understanding the structure and function of plant viral movement proteins can provide valuable insights into plant-virus interactions and contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling plant virus diseases.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

A protoplast is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions, but rather it is a term commonly used in cell biology and botany. A protoplast refers to a plant or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed, leaving only the plasma membrane and the cytoplasmic contents, including organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, and other cellular structures.

Protoplasts can be created through enzymatic or mechanical means to isolate the intracellular components for various research purposes, such as studying membrane transport, gene transfer, or cell fusion. In some cases, protoplasts may be used in medical research, particularly in areas related to plant pathology and genetic engineering of plants for medical applications.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Bromovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Picornavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, primarily aphids. They infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. The genus Bromovirus includes several important plant pathogens, including Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as it's primarily known for its impact on plants rather than humans or animals. However, I will provide the botanical definition for your interest.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, including tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, and many ornamental plants. The virus is named after its initial discovery in tobacco plants, which exhibit symptoms such as mosaic patterns of light and dark green on the leaves, leaf curling, and stunted growth. TMV is highly contagious and can be spread through mechanical means, such as touching infected plants or using contaminated tools. It's also one of the most well-studied viruses due to its impact on agriculture and its historical significance in early virology research.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

A cucumovirus is a type of plant virus that belongs to the family Bromoviridae and the genus Cucumovirus. These viruses have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome and are transmitted by various means, including mechanical inoculation, seed transmission, and insect vectors such as aphids.

Cucumoviruses infect a wide range of plants, causing symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield. The type species of the genus Cucumovirus is cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which is one of the most widespread and economically important plant viruses worldwide. Other important cucumoviruses include tomato aspermy virus (TAV) and peanut stunt virus (PSV).

Cucumoviruses have a tripartite genome, meaning that the RNA genome is divided into three segments, each of which encodes one or more viral proteins. The coat protein of cucumoviruses plays an important role in virus transmission by insect vectors and in the induction of symptoms in infected plants.

Preventing the spread of cucumoviruses involves using good hygiene practices, such as cleaning tools and equipment, removing infected plants, and using resistant plant varieties when available. There are no known treatments for plants infected with cucumoviruses, so prevention is key to managing these viruses in agricultural settings.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

A caulimovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects plants. It is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus, which means that its genetic material is composed of a pair of DNA strands. Caulimoviruses are named after the type species of the group, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV).

Caulimoviruses are unique among dsDNA viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate, using a reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA copies of their genome. This is similar to the way that retroviruses, which infect animals, replicate.

Caulimoviruses are relatively large viruses, with genomes ranging in size from about 7 to 8 kilobases (kb). They have a complex structure, with several proteins encoded by their genome that are involved in various aspects of the virus's replication and assembly.

Caulimoviruses infect a wide range of plant hosts, including many important crops such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, and pepper. They can cause serious diseases in these plants, leading to significant economic losses. There are no known caulimovirus infections of humans or other animals.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Comovirus" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. Comoviruses are actually a genus of viruses that belong to the family Secoviridae and order Picornavirales. These viruses typically infect plants and can cause various diseases in them. They are not known to infect humans or animals.

If you have any concerns about a specific medical term or condition, I would be happy to help if I can. Please provide me with more details so I can better assist you.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

3' Untranslated Regions (3' UTRs) are segments of messenger RNA (mRNA) that do not code for proteins. They are located after the last exon, which contains the coding sequence for a protein, and before the poly-A tail in eukaryotic mRNAs.

The 3' UTR plays several important roles in regulating gene expression, including:

1. Stability of mRNA: The 3' UTR contains sequences that can bind to proteins that either stabilize or destabilize the mRNA, thereby controlling its half-life and abundance.
2. Localization of mRNA: Some 3' UTRs contain sequences that direct the localization of the mRNA to specific cellular compartments, such as the synapse in neurons.
3. Translation efficiency: The 3' UTR can also contain regulatory elements that affect the translation efficiency of the mRNA into protein. For example, microRNAs (miRNAs) can bind to complementary sequences in the 3' UTR and inhibit translation or promote degradation of the mRNA.
4. Alternative polyadenylation: The 3' UTR can also contain multiple alternative polyadenylation sites, which can lead to different lengths of the 3' UTR and affect gene expression.

Overall, the 3' UTR plays a critical role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and mutations or variations in the 3' UTR can contribute to human diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Peptide chain initiation in translational terms refers to the process by which the synthesis of a protein begins on a ribosome. This is the first step in translation, where the small ribosomal subunit binds to an mRNA molecule at the start codon (usually AUG), bringing with it the initiator tRNA charged with a specific amino acid (often N-formylmethionine in prokaryotes or methionine in eukaryotes). The large ribosomal subunit then joins this complex, forming a functional initiation complex. This marks the beginning of the elongation phase, where subsequent amino acids are added to the growing peptide chain until termination is reached.

Tymoviruses are plant-infecting viruses that belong to the family Tymoviridae. These viruses have single, positive-stranded RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, particularly beetles. The name "tymovirus" comes from the type species of this group, Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV).

Tymoviruses cause a variety of symptoms in plants, including mosaic patterns, yellowing, and stunting. They have a wide host range and can infect many different plant species. The virions (virus particles) of tymoviruses are icosahedral in shape and measure about 30 nanometers in diameter.

Tymoviruses are important pathogens of crops and ornamental plants, and they can cause significant economic losses. There are currently no effective treatments for plant diseases caused by tymoviruses, so prevention through the use of resistant plant varieties and integrated pest management strategies is essential for controlling these diseases.

A potyvirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Potyviridae and the genus Potyvirus. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by various means, including mechanical transmission by insects, contact between plants, and contaminated seeds. Potyviruses are responsible for causing a number of important plant diseases, including those that affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and tobacco. The virions (virus particles) of potyviruses are non-enveloped and flexuous rod-shaped, measuring about 680-900 nanometers in length. Some examples of potyviruses include Potato virus Y, Tobacco etch virus, and Peanut mottle virus.

Potexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Alphaflexiviridae. These are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of plants, causing various diseases such as mosaic, necrosis, and stunting. The name "Potexvirus" is derived from the type species potato virus X (PVX). The virions are flexuous rods, non-enveloped, and about 12-13 nm in diameter and 470-580 nm in length. The genome is approximately 6.4 kb in size and encodes five open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes the replicase protein, while the other four ORFs encode the triple gene block proteins involved in viral movement, a coat protein, and a small cysteine-rich protein of unknown function. Potexviruses are transmitted by mechanical contact or contaminated tools and seeds.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a type of plant virus that can cause symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield in various host plants. A satellite of CMV refers to a small, independent RNA molecule that can associate with the viral genome and affect its replication and symptom expression.

The satellite RNA of CMV is known as Satellite Cucumber Mosaic Virus (SCMV). It is a subviral agent that depends on the helper virus (CMV) for its replication, encapsidation, and movement within the host plant. SCMV can modulate the symptoms caused by CMV in infected plants, either attenuating or exacerbating them depending on the strain of SCMV and the host plant.

SCMV is a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes a single protein, which functions as a coat protein for its own encapsidation. It can also affect the accumulation and symptom expression of CMV, making it an important factor to consider in the study of CMV epidemiology and pathogenesis.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "peas" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Peas are a type of legume that is commonly consumed as a vegetable. They are rich in nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin K. If you have any questions about the health benefits or potential risks of consuming peas, I would be happy to try to help with that.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

... coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop Viral diseases of potato ICTVdB ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ... Victoria, Springer, 356 p. Media related to Alfalfa mosaic virus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Alfalfa mosaic virus at ... Jaspars E.M.J.; Bos L. (1980). "Alfalfa mosaic virus". AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Hyo Won Jung; Hye Jin Jung; Wan Soo ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein binding (CPB) RNA is an RNA element which is found in the 3′ UTR of the genome. AMV ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop Neeleman L, Linthorst HJ, Bol JF (January 2004). "Efficient translation of ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Vlot AC, Bol JF (October 2003). "The 5′ untranslated region of alfalfa ... The Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop represents a putative stem-loop structure found in the 5′ UTR in RNA 1 of ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Bromoviridae, All stub ... This family is required for negative strand RNA synthesis in the alfalfa mosaic virus and may also be involved in positive ...
... carrot thin leaf virus; celery mosaic virus; and alfalfa mosaic virus. In 2015, a novel Poison Hemlock Virus Y (PHVY) was ... The virus was shown serologically to be related to potyviruses. Conium plants are poisonous to a variety of animals including ... The plants serve as a host for several viruses, bacteria, and insects, including the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae; the ... Nury, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Gibbs, Adrian J.; Mohammadi, Musa (March 2020). "Poison hemlock virus Y (PHVY), a novel ...
"Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus". WISCONSIN FIELD CROPS PATHOLOGY. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Maroof, Saghai; A, M.; ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA (1983). "Enhancement by Soybean mosaic virus of Bean pod mottle virus Titer in Doubly Infected Soybean ... Latent infection has been reported in several hosts." p. 355-390 ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Soybean mosaic virus ...
... by alfalfa mosaic virus in Queensland". Australasian Plant Pathology. 26 (2): 115. doi:10.1071/AP97017. S2CID 28064036. v t e ( ...
... for the isolation of other viruses such as cucumber mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, tobacco necrosis, jaundice of silkworms ... with ... "For his outstanding contributions to the chemistry of viruses beginning with the isolation of tobacco virus and its ... their identification as distinct nucleoproteins; and for distinguished research on the influence virus with subsequent ...
"The m6A RNA Demethylase ALKBH9B Plays a Critical Role for Vascular Movement of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in Arabidopsis". Frontiers ... French endive necrotic mosaic virus (FENMV) of Potyvirus, and blackberry virus Y (BlVY) of Brambyvirus. AlkB has since been ... among these the AlkB domain is embedded in P1 proteases of endive necrotic mosaic virus (ENMV) of genus Potyvirus, ... Experimental results show that AlkB domains from plant viruses have RNA demethylase activity in vitro. AlkB homologs from ...
"Induction by Salicylic Acid of Pathogenesis-related Proteins or Resistance to Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Infection in Various Plant ... In 1979, salicylates were found to be involved in induced defenses of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus. In 1987, salicylic ...
"Induction by Salicylic Acid of Pathogenesis-related Proteins and Resistance to Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Infection in Various Plant ... induced by compatible and incompatible interactions of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in Capsicum chinense L3 plants". ...
"Induction by Salicylic Acid of Pathogenesis-related Proteins and Resistance to Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Infection in Various Plant ... plants and Arabidopsis with salicylic acid resulted in higher resistance of infection by the alfalfa and tobacco mosaic viruses ... In an experiment using virus-induced gene silencing of two calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in a wild tobacco ( ... Many biotic stresses affect photosynthesis, as chewing insects reduce leaf area and virus infections reduce the rate of ...
These particles looked nothing like the known spherical species of the alfalfa mosaic virus, so they discovered a new isolate ... the southern bean mosaic virus, the tomato bushy stunt virus, and the tobacco necrosis virus. All three of the viruses had a ... After taking electron micrographs of the bromegrass mosaic virus and the yellow turnip mosaic virus under light shadowing and ... In 1958, Kaesberg and colleagues discovered a mosaic virus found in alfalfa creates three macromolecules after infecting a ...
... these symptoms are very similar to those caused by alfalfa mosaic virus). Plants showing no symptoms of PMTV tend to produce ... "Potato Tuber Viruses: Mop-top Management" (PDF). Mallik I, Gudmestad NC (2014-10-10). "First Report of Potato mop top virus ... Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted through the vector Spongospora subterranea that affects ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Potato mop-top virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method (All articles with dead ...
The viruses that usually produce these symptoms in potato are "alfalfa mosaic virus" (AMV), potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), ... However, potato virus X (PVX), potato virus Y (PVY), and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are the most important viruses worldwide ... Potato leaf mosaic symptoms can be caused by different viruses individually or in combination. Some of them are potato virus X ... The virus is not spread or transmitted mechanically. In plant pathology, "mosaic" is a symptom, characteristic of many viruses ...
It has also been affected by alfalfa mosaic virus in Africa and some cases of anthracnose in West Africa and there are reports ... In rat-feeding tests, round-leaf cassia was found to have equal nutritive value to alfalfa which is another more common forage ... "Alfalfa The Queen of Forage Crops". Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 18 November 2013 from http://www2.ca.uky. ...
23S methyl RNA motif 6C RNA Actino-pnp RNA motif AdoCbl riboswitch Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa ... Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element Bovine leukaemia virus RNA packaging signal Citrus tristeza virus ... Hepatitis C virus 3'X element Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis E virus cis-reactive element HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3 ... Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) primer binding site (PBS) RtT RNA Rubella virus 3′ cis-acting element S-element SerC leader Simian ...
... maize streak virus MeSH B04.715.464.040 - alfamovirus MeSH B04.715.464.040.050 - alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH B04.715.464.080 - ... vesicular stomatitis-indiana virus MeSH B04.820.464.040 - alfamovirus MeSH B04.820.464.040.050 - alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... alfalfa mosaic virus MeSH B04.715.081.080 - bromovirus MeSH B04.715.081.180 - cucumovirus MeSH B04.715.081.400 - ilarvirus MeSH ...
... a video consisting of anime clips arranged to a song Alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus of the family Bromoviridae Anterior ... medullary velum, a part of the structure of the brain Avian myeloblastosis virus, a virus of the genus Alpharetrovirus AMV, the ...
Polyadenylate tails are observed in several RNA viruses, including Influenza A, Coronavirus, Alfalfa mosaic virus, and Duck ... "Inhibition of host poly(A)-binding protein by virus ~ ViralZone". viralzone.expasy.org. Edmonds, Mary; Abrams, Richard (April ... Tail of Influenza A Virus mRNA Is Synthesized by Reiterative Copying of a U Track in the Virion RNA Template". Journal of ... Tail of Duck Hepatitis a Virus Type 1 in Viral Replication and Regulation of IRES-Mediated Translation". Frontiers in ...
... and the aphid can be a vector of alfalfa mosaic virus, lucerne transient streak virus and lucerne Australian latent virus in ... as well as cucumber mosaic virus, bean yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in other crops. "Blue Aphid, ... ISBN 978-0-12-158861-8. Barlow, Vonny M. (24 April 2013). "Blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji". Alfalfa & Forage ... It is mainly a pest of plants in the family Leguminosae including alfalfa, pea, lentil and cowpea. Its host range in North ...
... because the RRA contains a promoter sequence derived from the plant pathogen figwort mosaic virus. The USDA granted the ... Alfalfa hay is a widely used protein and fiber source for meat rabbits. In poultry diets, dehydrated alfalfa and alfalfa leaf ... "Commodity Fact Sheet Alfalfa Information compiled by the California Alfalfa and Forage Association" (PDF). Alfalfa.ucdavis.edu ... Alfalfa seed production requires the presence of pollinators when the fields of alfalfa are in bloom. Alfalfa pollination is ...
... virus 1 Alfalfa enamovirus 1 Alfalfa leaf curl virus Alfalfa mosaic virus Alfalfa virus S Algerian watermelon mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Yam chlorotic necrosis virus Yam latent virus Yam mild mosaic virus Yam mosaic virus Yam virus X Yambean mosaic ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ... mosaic necrosis virus Bean common mosaic virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus Bean golden mosaic virus Bean golden yellow mosaic virus ...
... alfalfa, broadbean or sweet pea mostly in temperate regions. Symptoms include chlorotic, translucent or necrotic lesions, ... Pea enation mosaic virus 1 is an Enamovirus Pea enation mosaic virus 2 is an Umbravirus They are spread by green- or pea aphids ... Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is really two plant pathogenic viruses. The two RNAs of the disease are now categorised as two ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Pea enation mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method Archived 2013-03-30 at the ...
... alfalfa (Medicago sativa), vetch (Vicia sativa), lupine (Lupinus luteus), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), fenugreek ( ... Plant Viruses Online - Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Bean yellow mosaic virus Family ... Bean yellow mosaic virus is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other ... A mosaic disease, believed to be bean yellow mosaic virus, was first reported in the early 1900s infecting garden peas (Pisum ...
... peanut stunt virus, subterranean clover stunt virus, bean common mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus ... The aphid is the vector of a number of plant viruses including groundnut rosette virus, peanut mottle virus, ... It may move back to alfalfa later in the year. In Belarus, lupine is an important host plant and in Ukraine, Acacia is most ... The eggs hatch in early spring and the first larvae are known as fundatrix (stem mothers) and feed at first on alfalfa. These ...
Alfalfa enamovirus 1 Birdsfoot trefoil enamovirus 1 Citrus vein enation virus Grapevine enamovirus 1 Pea enation mosaic virus 1 ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2023. Retrieved 10 August 2023. ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ...
... virus Blackberry virus S Citrus sudden death-associated virus Grapevine asteroid mosaic associated virus Grapevine Syrah virus ... The genus contains the following species: Alfalfa virus F Bermuda grass etched-line ... 1 Maize rayado fino virus Nectarine marafivirus M Oat blue dwarf virus Olive latent virus 3 Peach marafivirus D Viruses in ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is ...
Alfalfa virus S Arachis pintoi virus Blackberry virus E Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus Senna yellow mosaic virus Vanilla ... Acarallexivirus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Shallot virus X ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non- ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021. ...
Soybean dwarf virus, Abaca mosaic virus, Alfalfa mosaic virus, Beet mosaic virus, Tobacco vein-banding virus, Tobacco ringspot ... virus, Bean yellow mosaic virus, Mungbean mosaic virus, Peanut mottle virus, Peanut stripe poty virus, and Peanut mosaic virus ... In China, the most important virus vectored by the soybean aphid is Soybean mosaic virus, which can cause yield loss and ... In addition to Soybean mosaic virus, the soybean aphid is capable of transmitting Soybean stunt virus, ...
Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus Cytorhabdovirus nymphaeae Cytorhabdovirus orchidaceae Cytorhabdovirus oryzae; Rice stripe mosaic ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2023. Retrieved 14 September 2023. ... Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop Viral diseases of potato ICTVdB ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ... Victoria, Springer, 356 p. Media related to Alfalfa mosaic virus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Alfalfa mosaic virus at ... Jaspars E.M.J.; Bos L. (1980). "Alfalfa mosaic virus". AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Hyo Won Jung; Hye Jin Jung; Wan Soo ...
... and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, ... Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus J Gen Virol. 1997 Aug:78 ( Pt 8 ... alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that ... Electron microscopy and immunogold analysis confirmed the presence of both MP and virus particles in the tubules induced by AMV ...
When alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) happens to occur in potatoes, it usually causes leaf mottling and blotching. Now, researchers ... A tuber-damaging strain of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus A discovered. on January 22, 2017. ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA. Determination of the sequence homology between the four RNA species and a comparison with the four ... Sequence homology at the 3-termini of the four RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus (English) ... Sequence homology at the 3-termini of the four RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus. scientific article ... Properties of solubilized RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from alfalfa mosaic virus-infected and healthy tobacco plants ...
In addition, avoid planting garbanzo beans adjacent to alfalfa fields, a significant host and source of alfalfa mosaic virus. ... Garbanzo beans hit hard by Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in California in 2015 ... This disease is vectored by aphids (pea, cowpea, and green peach) with alfalfa the common host of the virus. One usually wont ... It is not cost effective to spray the aphids for virus control; instead, planting date is important to avoid aphid flights. The ...
Jones, R., Real Ferreiro, D., Vincent, S. J., Gajda, B. E., & Coutts, B. A. (2012). First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Infecting Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton var. albomarginata and ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Infecting Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton var. albomarginata and ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Infecting Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton var. albomarginata and ...
Alfalfa mosaic. Genus Alfamovirus; Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) Angular mosaic. Genus Carlavirus; Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV ... Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) Bean severe mosaic. Genus Comovirus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Quail pea mosaic virus ... Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) Bean dwarf mosaic Genus Begomovirus; Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) Bean golden mosaic Genus ... Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) Bean mild mosaic Genus Carmovirus; Bean mild mosaic virus (BMMV) Bean necrosis mosaic. ...
The mutation was associated with the presence of a T-DNA insert consisting of the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein gene ... To date only few floral mutations have been identified in plants in the legume family, which includes pea, bean, and alfalfa. ...
Use of thermotherapy to free potato tubers of alfalfa mosaic, potato leaf roll and tomato black ring viruses. Phytopathology. ... 35S-promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus is one of the influential general promoters leading to constitutively high ... being under the expressional control of an enhanced 35S promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). From then on, the ... They consist of radish, wheat, rice, cotton, Brassica napus, floral buds of Arabidopsis, shoot apical node of alfalfa, epicotyl ...
1990) The absence of a m7G cap on beta-globin mRNA and alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 increases the amounts of initiation factor 4F ... RT was performed with 1 unit of avian myoblastosis virus (AMV) reverse transcriptase (Promega) at 42°C for 2 min, 50°C for 30 ... 2017) The IRES5UTR of the dicistrovirus cricket paralysis virus is a type III IRES containing an essential pseudoknot ...
Alfamo: from alfalfa mosaic virus.. Anula: from Latin "anular" for the concentric symptom associated with infection by this ... Type species Alfalfa mosaic virus. Distinguishing features. Alfamoviruses are transmitted in a non-persistent manner by at ... The CP is required for activation of replication, but may be substituted with CP from alfalfa mosaic virus (genus Alfamovirus). ... Bromo: from Brome mosaic, also, from Bromus (host of Brome mosaic virus). ...
066 Alfalfa mosaic virus - resistance. 9 - very high. 2007 Research Institute for Fodder Plants Ltd. Co. (4). ... alfalfa Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada official name 2 Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds ...
The biggest problem with lavender is the alfalfa mosaic virus. It can be in many commercially grown plants. It weakens the ... Aphids usually spread the virus so watch for aphids on your plant and mitigate the problem as soon as they are observed. Once ... the plant is infected with this virus, it is very to eliminate. ... This virus presents itself as distorted splotches in a mosaic ...
... alfalfa in 1 trial and the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in 6 trials while the Tobacco etch virus (TEV) was modified in 1 trial. ... The combined use of Agrobacterium and plant virus vectors results in a large number of recombinant RNA virus particles entering ... The non-replicating system is based on a disabled cowpea mosaic virus RNA-2, and high-level expression may be achieved using ... These recombinant RNA viruses epigenetically produce high levels of recombinant proteins in a few days, and then decline. The ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was suspected of to be involved in this disease. Forty plant samples from symptomatic eggplants ... Molecular Characterization of the Alfalfa mosaic virus Infecting Solanum melongena in Egypt and the Control of Its Deleterious ... Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is one of the economically damageable Tobamovirus infecting the tomato in Egypt that has caused ... Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) is a deadly plant virus that results in crop-yield losses with serious economic consequences ...
It is also an alterative host of some mosaic virus affecting potato, tomatoes, and alfalfa. Additionally, it can harbor ... This is an important consideration as you make the transition from winter produce to alfalfa, spring melons and summer cotton ... being applied to fall melons for virus management and in winter vegetables for aphid management. Although the development of ...
... including alfalfa mosaic virus, potato virus y, pepper mottle virus, tobacco etch virus, and cucumber mosaic virus. Tomato ... PEPPER -- MOSAIC VIRUSES Cause: Several viruses transmitted by aphids, ... Many of these viruses overwinter in perennial legumes such as alfalfa and various clovers. Several common weeds are hosts of ... PEPPER -- COMMON (Tobacco) MOSAIC Cause: A virus spread by aphids and mechanical means. It overwinters on wild perennial hosts ...
Both these mutants were also rescued by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP). To shed light on the movement ... terminally truncated PVX CP lacked a movement function which could be provided in trans by the CPs of other filamentous viruses ... Complementation of movement-deficient potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP) mutants, namely PVX.CP-Xho lacking the 18 C- ... Tenllado F., Bol J. F. 2000; Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral ...
AIMV alfalfa mosaic virus, ArMV arabis mosaic virus, BNYVV beet necrotic yellow vein virus, BYDV bailey yellow dwarf virus, ... PVY potato virus Y, RSV rice stripe virus, SMV soybean mosaic virus, TEV tobacco etch virus, TMV tobacco mosaic virus, TRV ... BYMV bean yellow mosaic virus, CMV cucumber mosaic virus, MDMV maize dwarf mosaic virus, PLRV potato leafroll virus, PRSV ... against tobacco mosaic virus, pea early browning virus, cucumber mosaic virus, potato viruses X and Y, and cymbidium ringspot ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). CP. PsbP. Balasubramaniam et al. (2014) Sugarcane mosaic virus. HC-Pro. Ferredoxin. Cheng et al. ( ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). PsbP. Cytoplasm. Balasubramaniam et al. (2014) Cucumber mosaic virus Y strain. ChlI mRNA. Cytoplasm ... tobacco etch virus (Gadh and Hari, 1986), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) (Kitajima and Costa, 1973), maize draft mosaic virus ( ... Potato virus X. Plastocyanin. Chloroplast. Qiao et al. (2009) Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV). PsbO. Chloroplast membrane. ...
... and the results showed that they were alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The complete sequences of the ... To identify the causes of mosaic symptoms in the leaves of C. chinense, sRNA deep sequencing technology with RT-PCR was used to ... The contigs were compared and annotated with the virus database in NCBI, ... identify pathogens causing mosaic symptoms in Taigu, Shanxi, and the resulting viral sequence was analyzed using bioinformatics ...
D27.720.280.165.55 Alfalfa mosaic virus B4.820.464.40.50 Alfamovirus B4.820.464.40 Alkane 1-Monooxygenase D8.811.682.690. ... J1.576.655.968 Tobacco Mosaic Virus B4.820.464.725.800 Tobacco Use F1.145.928 F1.145.958 Tobacco Use Cessation F1.145.928.968 ... Mosaic Viruses B4.820.464 Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal A8.663.542.145.750.500 A8.675.542.145.750.500 A11.671.501.145.750.500 ... E5.481.500.550 Plum Pox Virus B4.820.464.600.600 Post-Exposure Prophylaxis N2.421.143.827.733 Posterior Horn Cells A8.186. ...
D27.720.280.165.55 Alfalfa mosaic virus B4.820.464.40.50 Alfamovirus B4.820.464.40 Alkane 1-Monooxygenase D8.811.682.690. ... J1.576.655.968 Tobacco Mosaic Virus B4.820.464.725.800 Tobacco Use F1.145.928 F1.145.958 Tobacco Use Cessation F1.145.928.968 ... Mosaic Viruses B4.820.464 Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal A8.663.542.145.750.500 A8.675.542.145.750.500 A11.671.501.145.750.500 ... E5.481.500.550 Plum Pox Virus B4.820.464.600.600 Post-Exposure Prophylaxis N2.421.143.827.733 Posterior Horn Cells A8.186. ...
... and Potato virus Y (PVY) commonly co-i... ... of soybean with Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus ... Wang Y, Gaba V, Yang J, Palukaitis P, Gal-On A (2002). Characterization of synergy between Cucumber mosaic virus and ... Cytopathological Characterization of Tobacco on Co-infection with Tomato zonate spot virus and Potato virus Y Qi Fang†, Jiahong ... Abstract: Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) commonly co-infect the same plant under natural conditions. ...
... the potato virus Y (PVY) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). More rarely the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is also transmitted by ... cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and potato virus Y (PVY) which is a serious threat to peppers. On those ... The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are transmitted by means of the non-persistent mode by several aphids ... The most economically important is potato virus Y (PVY), known under the name mosaic, crinkle or mottling. It is non-persistent ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus * Ascochyta blight of chickpea * Ascochyta blight of lentil * Ascochyta leaf and pod spot of faba bean ... Temperate pulse viruses: bean yellow mosaic virus * Temperate pulse viruses: pea seed-borne mosaic virus ...
Biodiversity of Italian and French strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus and differentaition by RT-PCR-RFLP 1-gen-1999 Parrella, G.; ... Biodiversity of Italian and French strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus and their differentiation by RT-PCR-RFLP. 1-gen-1999 ... Biodiversity of Italian and French strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus and their differentiation by RT-PCR-RFLP.. ... Biodiversity of Italian and French strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus and differentaition by RT-PCR-RFLP. ...
... alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression ... The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), ... Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP TMGMV CP ... Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene ...
Chemical methods to take care of the mosaic virus and more ... like alfalfa) and perennial herbaceous and woody ornamentals, ... Controlling mosaic viruses in plants, Chemically, Organically, Symptoms, and causes, Prevention, ... Below we learn Mosaic virus control, how to treat the mosaic virus, mosaic virus symptoms, mosaic virus in houseplants, which ... Controlling Mosaic Viruses in plants. What is a mosaic virus?. The mosaic virus is very diverse, with thousands of distinct ...
DNA extraction from alfalfa seeds and real-time PCR based event-specific detection methods for genetically modified alfalfa ... if sequences encoding the promoter of the figwort mosaic virus (P-FMV), the terminator of the nopaline synthase gene from ... DNA extraction from alfalfa seeds and real-time PCR based event-specific detection methods for genetically modified alfalfa ... In this part of ISO 21569 the DNA extraction method was validated using ground alfalfa seeds and the PCR methods using DNA ...
  • The contigs were compared and annotated with the virus database in NCBI, and the results showed that they were alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (lzu.edu.cn)
  • Biodiversity of populations of cucumber mosaic virus in Italy before and after virus outbreaks in 1988. (uniba.it)
  • Aphids are often responsible for transmitting the Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), one of the most frequent forms of mosaic viruses. (agrifarming.in)
  • Infected plants with cucumber mosaic virus are short and stunted, and they often display "shoestring syndrome," a deformity in which the leaf veins originate as long, thin strips rather than at the leaf margins. (agrifarming.in)
  • however, tomatoes resistant to the tobacco mosaic virus can also have some resistance to the cucumber mosaic virus. (agrifarming.in)
  • Both these mutants were also rescued by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Identification and study of tobacco mosaic virus movement function by complementation tests. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Artichoke Italian Latent Virus enters the shoot apical meristem of tobacco before the plant recovers from disease symptoms. (uniba.it)
  • cultivating tobacco strains resistant to the virus is the most effective method for preventing its spread. (agrifarming.in)
  • The tobacco mosaic virus causes mottled and yellowed leaves and twisted or malformed new shoots in infected plants. (agrifarming.in)
  • The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Primary structure of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein (strain S). (wikidata.org)
  • The mutation was associated with the presence of a T-DNA insert consisting of the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein gene in antisense orientation and the nptII selectable marker gene. (usda.gov)
  • Complementation of movement-deficient potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP) mutants, namely PVX.CP-Xho lacking the 18 C-terminal amino acid residues and PVX.ΔCP lacking the entire CP gene, was studied by transient co-expression with heterologous proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Different degrees of resistance against insects, viruses, fungi and bacteria have been reached with various crop species. (bats.ch)
  • AMV is a very variable plant virus and several strains with minor differences exist (strain Q, strain S, strain 425, strain AlMV-B, strain AlMV- S,...). Distinction is based on different symptoms in one or two chosen hosts and also on, for example, differential physico-chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mosaic virus is very diverse, with thousands of distinct viruses and hundreds of distinct strains. (agrifarming.in)
  • Beet yellows closterovirus HSP70-like protein mediates the cell-to-cell movement of a potexvirus transport-deficient mutant and a hordeivirus-based chimeric virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen that can lead to necrosis and yellow mosaics on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) commonly co-infect the same plant under natural conditions. (chinbullbotany.com)
  • Several viruses transmitted by aphids can infect potato . (inrae.fr)
  • The most economically important is potato virus Y (PVY), known under the name mosaic, crinkle or mottling. (inrae.fr)
  • However, alates from other species not always dependent on potato can also transmit the virus. (inrae.fr)
  • The potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) is also prominent. (inrae.fr)
  • Other species like the foxglove aphid ( Aulacorthum solani ) and potato aphid ( Macrosiphum euphorbiae ) can also transmit this virus, but less effectively. (inrae.fr)
  • This disease is vectored by aphids (pea, cowpea, and green peach) with alfalfa the common host of the virus. (ucanr.edu)
  • To date only few floral mutations have been identified in plants in the legume family, which includes pea, bean, and alfalfa. (usda.gov)
  • Some chloroplast proteins, including translation initiation factor [eIF(iso)4E] and 75 DEAD-box RNA helicase RH8, help viruses fulfill their infection cycle in plants. (ppjonline.org)
  • Below we learn Mosaic virus control, how to treat the mosaic virus, mosaic virus symptoms, mosaic virus in houseplants, which plants get affected by the mosaic virus, and organic and chemical prevention methods for the mosaic virus. (agrifarming.in)
  • The mosaic virus acts as a parasite, breaking down the genetic material of plants, gardens, and crops. (agrifarming.in)
  • If the mosaic virus is not contained and treated quickly once it infects a plant, it can spread to other plants and ruin the crop for everyone. (agrifarming.in)
  • A variety of different mosaic viruses, including the following, are known to be harmful to plants that are grown in vegetable gardens: The Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and the Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) are the two most common forms of mosaic viruses that can infect beans of any variety. (agrifarming.in)
  • You should not keep the seeds from infected plants since the BCMV virus can potentially be passed on via the seeds themselves. (agrifarming.in)
  • Weeds, infected plants, infected seeds, and even certain insects can all serve as sources for the transmission of mosaic viruses. (agrifarming.in)
  • Insects that feed on perennial weeds are a significant source of the Mosaic virus transmission, which survives the winter on these plants. (agrifarming.in)
  • The garden should be planted with virus-resistant plants. (agrifarming.in)
  • Therefore, chloroplasts play central roles in replicating several plant virus species and biosynthesis of most plant hormones, making chloroplast factors crucial for plant defense response. (ppjonline.org)
  • It is non-persistent virus transmitted by different species of aphids. (inrae.fr)
  • Plant viruses are responsible for worldwide production losses of numerous economically important crops. (ppjonline.org)
  • Transmission of the virus occurs mainly by some aphids (plant lice), by seeds or by pollen to the seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • One usually won't see aphids in garbanzos, as after they land and feed (and introduce the virus) they either die or leave, due to the acidic exudate of the garbanzos that deters them. (ucanr.edu)
  • Insects like aphids and leafhoppers are responsible for spreading mosaic viruses. (agrifarming.in)
  • It has been proved that in the important forage grass alfalfa, the infection by AMV leads to a decrease of Cu, Fe, Mn, P and Zn quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, knowledge of molecular mechanisms and functions underlying these chloroplast host factors during the virus infection is still scarce and remains largely unknown. (ppjonline.org)
  • When alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) happens to occur in potatoes, it usually causes leaf mottling and blotching. (potatonewstoday.com)
  • Viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and thus are a threat to sustainable and productive agriculture. (ppjonline.org)
  • To identify the causes of mosaic symptoms in the leaves of C. chinense , sRNA deep sequencing technology with RT-PCR was used to identify pathogens causing mosaic symptoms in Taigu, Shanxi, and the resulting viral sequence was analyzed using bioinformatics. (lzu.edu.cn)
  • Depending on the virus and the plant, they can cause many symptoms. (agrifarming.in)
  • AMV is a multipartite virus and is composed of four particles (three bacilliform and one spheroidal) with a diameter of 18 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscopy and immunogold analysis confirmed the presence of both MP and virus particles in the tubules induced by AMV and BMV. (nih.gov)
  • A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. (diva-portal.org)
  • Virus particles can also be transmitted to a plant via contaminated soil, seeds, pots, and containers. (agrifarming.in)
  • Virus replication occurs on cytoplasmic membranes via full length minus (−) strand synthesis and subsequent plus (+) strand synthesis. (ictv.global)
  • Infected alfalfa was also not seen to be harmful for domestic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzhanova D. V. , Dolja V. V. 2000 Capsid proteins of a closterovirus: mutation analysis of the function in virus movement. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These viruses have small genomes that encode a limited number of proteins. (ppjonline.org)
  • Recently researchers have reported that chloroplast proteins are crucial for replicating (+)ss plant RNA viruses. (ppjonline.org)
  • In contrast, other chloroplast proteins such as PAP2.1, PSaC, and ATPsyn-α play active roles in plant defense against viruses. (ppjonline.org)
  • Our review briefly summarizes the latest knowledge regarding the possible role of chloroplast in plant virus replication, emphasizing chloroplast-related proteins. (ppjonline.org)
  • We have highlighted current advances regarding chloroplast-related proteins' role in replicating plant (+)ss RNA viruses. (ppjonline.org)
  • In 1931 Weimer J.L. was the first to report AMV in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). (wikipedia.org)
  • First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Infecting Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton var. (edu.au)
  • Garbanzo field with alfalfa mosaic virus, May 2015, Yolo County. (ucanr.edu)
  • The most common plant RNA viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses [(+)ss RNA viruses]. (ppjonline.org)
  • The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementation between Two Tospoviruses Facilitates the Systemic Movement of a Plant Virus Silencing Suppressor in an Otherwise Restrictive Host. (chinbullbotany.com)
  • In addition, avoid planting garbanzo beans adjacent to alfalfa fields, a significant host and source of alfalfa mosaic virus. (ucanr.edu)
  • This is an important consideration as you make the transition from winter produce to alfalfa, spring melons and summer cotton where many of the same insecticide products are available in all these commodities. (arizona.edu)
  • If these alates are highly abundant, they can play an important role as vectors of the viruses and therefore in the development of the disease. (inrae.fr)
  • Effect similar to disease attenuation with non-pathogenic viruses. (bats.ch)
  • The green peach aphid ( Myzus persicae ) remains the main vector of this virus followed by the buckthorn aphid ( Aphis nasturtii ). (inrae.fr)
  • This mosquito transmits multiple viruses to humans in the United States and around the world, including dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data also indicated that the C-terminally truncated PVX CP lacked a movement function which could be provided in trans by the CPs of other filamentous viruses, whereas another movement determinant specified by some region outside the most C-terminal part of the PVX CP could not be complemented either by potyvirus or closterovirus CPs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The viruses depend on their host's machinery for the replication of their RNA genome, assembly, movement, and attraction to the vectors for dispersal. (ppjonline.org)
  • The most frequent methods for detecting mosaic viruses are described here. (agrifarming.in)
  • Hundreds of millions of people worldwide will become infected with one of these viruses each year. (bvsalud.org)
  • A comparison of myrobalan latent virus with other nepoviruses. (uniba.it)
  • A comparison of two isolates of grapevine virus A. (uniba.it)