Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Aleutian Mink Disease: A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Nova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Mephitidae: The family of omnivorous New World skunks, showing typical warning coloration of patterned black and white and able to eject a malodorous secretion when the animal is startled or in danger.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Myotonia Congenita: Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Prussia: Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Andersen Syndrome: A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.Parvovirinae: A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.Vertebrate Viruses: Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.

Identification of a cell surface protein from Crandell feline kidney cells that specifically binds Aleutian mink disease parvovirus. (1/84)

Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. The acute disease caused by ADV consists of permissive infection of alveolar type II cells that results in interstitial pneumonitis. The permissive infection is experimentally modeled in vitro by infecting Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells with a tissue culture-adapted isolate of ADV, ADV-G. ADV-G VP2 empty virions expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system were analyzed for the ability to bind to the surface of CrFK cells. Radiolabeled VP2 virions bound CrFK cells specifically, while they did not bind either Mus dunni or Spodoptera frugiperda cells, cells which are resistant to ADV infection. The binding to CrFK cells was competitively inhibited by VP2 virions but not by virions of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), another unenveloped virus similar in size to ADV. Furthermore, preincubation of CrFK cells with the VP2 virions blocked infection by ADV-G. The VP2 virions were used in a virus overlay protein binding assay to identify a single protein of approximately 67 kDa, named ABP (for ADV binding protein), that demonstrates specific binding of VP2 virions. Exogenously added VP2 virions were able to competitively inhibit the binding of labeled VP2 virions to ABP, while CCMV virions had no effect. Polyclonal antibodies raised against ABP reacted with ABP on the outer surface of CrFK cells and blocked infection of CrFK cells by ADV-G. In addition, VP2 virion attachment to CrFK cells was blocked when the VP2 virions were preincubated with partially purified ABP. Taken together, these results indicate that ABP is a cellular receptor for ADV.  (+info)

Three-dimensional structure of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus: implications for disease pathogenicity. (2/84)

The three-dimensional structure of expressed VP2 capsids of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus strain G (ADVG-VP2) has been determined to 22 A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. A structure-based sequence alignment of the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) provided a means to construct an atomic model of the ADVG-VP2 capsid. The ADVG-VP2 reconstruction reveals a capsid structure with a mean external radius of 128 A and several surface features similar to those found in human parvovirus B19 (B19), CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), and minute virus of mice (MVM). Dimple-like depressions occur at the icosahedral twofold axes, canyon-like regions encircle the fivefold axes, and spike-like protrusions decorate the threefold axes. These spikes are not present in B19, and they are more prominent in ADV compared to the other parvoviruses owing to the presence of loop insertions which create mounds near the threefold axes. Cylindrical channels along the fivefold axes of CPV, FPV, and MVM, which are surrounded by five symmetry-related beta-ribbons, are closed in ADVG-VP2 and B19. Immunoreactive peptides made from segments of the ADVG-VP2 capsid protein map to residues in the mound structures. In vitro tissue tropism and in vivo pathogenic properties of ADV map to residues at the threefold axes and to the wall of the dimples.  (+info)

Replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo is influenced by residues in the VP2 protein. (3/84)

Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288-296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease.  (+info)

Unusual, high genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus. (4/84)

The genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was examined. Sequences obtained from 35 clinical samples were compared with five published sequences. An unusual, high genetic variability was revealed. Three phylogenetic subgroups of AMDV were identified, and the presence of more than one genotype at some farms was detected.  (+info)

Replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in mink lymph node histocultures. (5/84)

Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV), causes an immune disorder with a persistent infection of lymphoid organs in adult mink. We studied replication of ADV in gel-supported histocultures prepared from adult mink mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Evidence of virus replication in the histocultures was first observed by indirect immunofluorescence 72 h after incubation with virus. Cells resembling lymphocytes and macrophages contained both ADV capsid (VP2) and nonstructural (NS1 and NS2) proteins, and were present in a distribution suggestive of infected cells within germinal centres. ADV replicative form and encapsidated virion DNA were also detected in infected histocultures at time-points after 72 h. In addition, we were able to passage ADV-Utah to a new round of histocultures. These results suggested that the infected cells were actual target cells for ADV replication and that productive ADV-Utah replication, complete with the generation of virus, was occurring in the histocultures. The mink MLN histocultures provide a system to study the replication and molecular pathogenesis of ADV in target tissues.  (+info)

Nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus infection in ranch mink. (6/84)

Severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) infection was observed in adult ranch mink. Brain lesions included severe, locally extensive to coalescing lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis with accompanying gliosis, satellitosis, and mild extension of inflammation into the leptomeninges. ADV was identified in mesenteric lymph node, spleen, brain, and liver of affected mink by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Sequences of the ADV isolate (TH5) revealed 2 unique residues in the region of the viral genome that determines pathogenicity. These findings suggest that certain strains of ADV may preferentially cause disease in the nervous system. ADV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurologic disorders in mink.  (+info)

Spontaneous Aleutian disease in a ferret. (7/84)

A 3-year-old female ferret died five days after admission to a veterinary clinic for treatment of acute dyspnea and posterior paresis. Blood chemistry showed no hypergammaglobulinemia. Histopathological examination revealed mild to severe inflammatory infiltrates, composed mostly of plasma cells, in multiple organs. Lesions were especially severe in the kidneys, where focal segmental membranous glomerulopathy was also present. In the liver, in addition to lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltration in periportal areas, dilatation and proliferation of the bile ducts were seen. On analysis of PCR products, using primers directed against the gene encoding Aleutian disease (AD) viral capsid and formalin-fixed kidney samples, we detected a single band of about 400 bp, specific to the AD virus.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence and polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of Aleutian disease virus in ferrets in Japan. (8/84)

Two ferrets with spontaneous Aleutian disease (AD) were found in Japan. The diagnosis was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of part of the capsid gene specific to AD virus (ADV). The nucleotide sequences (365 bp in length) of the amplified fragments from the 2 ferrets differed by a single nucleotide, producing an amino acid alteration. Compared with other types of ADV, these isolates had 96% sequence similarity to a published ferret ADV (FADV) in contrast to <91% homology to various types of mink ADV (MADV). The phylogenetic tree of ADVs indicates that these 2 isolates and the published FADV belong to the same genetic group and definitely are divergent from MADVs. The predicted amino acid sequence of the hypervariable segment in the capsid gene was conserved among the 3 types of FADV. These results indicated that the 2 isolates found in Japan were new DNA types of FADV and could have been derived from FADV(s). A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to distinguish the ferret types of ADV from the mink types of ADV was developed on the basis of differences in their nucleotide sequences. Digestion of the PCR products with Afal or ScaI provided different cleavage patterns for FADV and MADV. This PCR/RFLP analysis of the ADV capsid gene will be a valuable asset for diagnosis of this virus infection in ferrets.  (+info)

  • Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging American mink in Canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. (
  • The presence of AMDV in so many species across the province has important epidemiological ramifications and could pose a serious health problem for the captive mink, as well as for susceptible wildlife. (
  • The mechanism of virus transmission between wildlife and captive mink and the effects of AMDV exposure on the viability of the susceptible species deserve further investigation. (
  • Information on the prevalence of AMDV in wildlife in Eastern Canada is limited to one report on the feral American mink[ 3 ]. (
  • The primary objective of this study was to survey the prevalence of AMDV in wild furbearing species in Nova Scotia (NS), the largest ranched mink pelt producing province in Canada. (
  • Samples were placed in plastic bags, identified and stored in house freezers (−15°C) before delivery to the laboratory on ice for long-term storage at −80°C. In addition, carcasses of four free-ranging mink from the province of New Brunswick were tested. (
  • Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. (
  • Acute Influenza A virus outbreak in an enzootic infected sow herd: Impact on viral dynamics, genetic and antigenic variability and effect of maternally derived antibodies and vaccination. (
  • Through the virus elicits a strong immune response from the ferret, the antibodies produced in response, don't neutralize the virus. (
  • At times these antibodies, which are produced in huge amounts, form complexes, which get deposited in the tissues and lead to inflammation, which eventually aggravates the disease. (
  • However, as for other common viral infections such as by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is a period of time until the appearance of antibodies after infection, or the so-called window period in which a virus is unidentifiable by existing testing methods. (
  • The tests only show the presence of antibodies to ADV, which indicates only exposure to the disease. (
  • Selected sera originating in women from case-control study carried out in Spain and Colombia found negative and positive for HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 DNA were tested in ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies to purified virus-like particles (VLP). (
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (
  • After the virus enters the host, IBDV causes acute lytic infections and high titers of anti-IBDV antibodies [5, (
  • Although melatonin administration raises serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), the mortality observed in neutralization experiments with the corresponding anticytokine antibodies, suggests that neither TNF-alpha nor IFN-gamma are essential for the protective effect of melatonin on murine VEE virus infection. (
  • Sera from `regular' mink in colonies without overt disease got neither antigens nor antibodies detectable in precipitin testing. (
  • Sera from mink with spontaneously obtained Aleutian disease got a high occurrence of `nuclear' antigens and anti-DNA antibodies detectable in precipitin testing. (
  • Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. (
  • Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1-8 weeks in 21 mink. (
  • A sequence-independent PCR amplification method was used to identify viral nucleic acids in the plasma samples of 25 individuals presenting with symptoms of acute viral infection following high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. (
  • Nearly complete viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of a new parvovirus distinct from known human and animal parvoviruses and of two related TTV-like viruses highly divergent from both the TTV and TTV-like minivirus groups. (
  • The detection of two previously undescribed viral species in a small group of individuals presenting acute viral syndrome with unknown etiology indicates that a rich yield of new human viruses may be readily identifiable using simple methods of sequence-independent nucleic acid amplification and limited sequencing. (
  • The ability to perform amino acid-based similarity searches using the translated products of sequenced amplification products therefore allows the identification of viral sequences more divergent from already known viruses than do methods relying on nucleic acid hybridization. (
  • DNase-SISPA was used here to determine whether known and previously uncharacterized viruses could be identified in the plasma samples of 25 patients suffering from acute viral infection syndrome. (
  • Persistent viral shedding during asymptomatic Aleutian mink disease parvoviral infection in a ferret. (
  • Parvoviruses have small nonenveloped virions (virus particles), and the icosahedral capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids ) is made up of 32 capsomeres (capsid subunits) measuring 18-26 nm (1 nm = 10 −9 metre) in diameter. (
  • The left-end origin of minute virus of mice (MVM), oriL, contains binding sites for the viral initiator nickase, NS1, and parvovirus initiation factor (PIF), a member of the emerging KDWK family of transcription factors. (
  • As in other RCR systems, minute virus of mice (MVM) encodes, in NS1, a site-specific nickase, which recognizes disparate origin sequences present in the two viral termini and is able to nick and resolve these concatemers into unit-length molecules ( 12 , 13 , 15 ). (
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly antiviral drugs to control viral infections in mink. (
  • Among DNA viruses, B19V has a unique feature in the processing of its precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) in that all the viral mRNAs are alternatively processed from a single pre-mRNA. (
  • The construction of the PVX vector required the new plasmid to be amplified in E. coli before inoculating plants, which would be necessary to construct a plant virus vectored viral genes for a vaccine for these two viruses. (
  • When the eukaryotic expression vectors are derived from viruses, certain viral sequences might be recognized as promoter elements. (
  • Defective particles are naturally occurring virus mutants that lack one or more genes required for viral replication. (
  • Depending on the viral strain and host genotype and immune status, non-Aleutian mink may clear the AD virus, become inapparent carriers, or develop progressive disease similar to that seen in Aleutian mink. (
  • In conclusion, the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of melatonin suggest that this indole must be considered as an additional therapeutic alternative to fight viral diseases. (
  • Methods for treating cancer, viral diseases, respiratory. (
  • Methods for treating cancer, viral diseases, respiratory and immune regulatory diseases, inflammations, infections and infestations by administering an acetylated mannan derivative, such as acemannan derived from aloe, are described. (
  • rabbits - against myxomatosis, pasteurellosis and Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease, and also at the request of the authorized body of the country to which the importation (transfer) takes place, against other infectious diseases. (
  • Demonstration of non-degraded Aleutian disease virus (ADV) proteins in lung tissue from experimentally infected mink kits. (
  • They are utilized to investigate genes in cell cultures of the proteins which are encoded by those genes via mass production method or manipulated as probable vectors to examine genes in the cells of patients for diagnosis and treatment of several genetic diseases and cancers. (
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (
  • All IFNs identified in vertebrates are secreted proteins, with IFN-α being secreted from virus-infected white blood cells. (
  • The diseases associated with M proteins are listed in Table 104-1. (
  • In particular, it relates to Adeno-associated virus vectors with modified capsid proteins and materials and methods for their preparation and use. (
  • How dysregulation of the immune system results in immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, chronic infections, and lymphoproliferative diseases and what strategies might be valuable for therapeutic or vaccine development related to these conditions as well as cancer are important topics of interest, as is the behavior of the meta-organism. (
  • Some infections do not result in visible infection, while some manifest with visible effects, such as fifth disease (erythema infectiosum), which can give children a 'slapped-cheek' appearance. (
  • These bacteria are also common in several other infectious conditions in mink, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and pleuritis. (
  • Chronic Infectious Neuropathie Agents (China) and Other Slow Virus Infections. (
  • Reviews of infections with other "slow" viruses (Aleutian mink disease virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) emphasize a potential importance of immune and autoimmune reactions in the pathogenesis of some chronic nervous system disorders. (
  • Since EHV-1 is a DNA virus, this type of PCR is rarely used to detect lytic infections but more likely for detecting and quantifying latent EHV-1 in tissues and whole blood (Borchers et al. (
  • At metaphylactic vaccination because of latently / acute distemper virus infections animal losses are possible. (
  • Use of animals in biomedical research is necessary to expand our ability to curtail infectious diseases, characterize new diseases, combat bioterrorism, and discover new ways to augment or harness the body's immune system. (
  • The Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology (LCIM) conducts clinical and basic science, and epidemiologic research into human immunologic, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. (
  • Our research focuses on emerging infectious diseases in human and animals. (
  • As early as 1926, Berman reported improved resistance to infectious diseases in kittens fed for two years with pineal gland extracts from young bulls. (
  • This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. (
  • The genome of Rabies virus, Borna disease virus and Ebola virus code for the P phosphoprotein and VP35 that can block the antiviral response induced by IFN [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (
  • The genome sizes of dsDNA viruses are usually larger than 10 kb except those in the families Polyomaviridae (5 kb) and Papillomaviridae (7-8 kb). (
  • On the other hand, the genome sizes of ssDNA viruses are smaller than 10 kb. (
  • The genome of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), encodes at least six glycoproteins and they elicit the formation of complement-independent, complement-dependent, and non-neutralizing antibody responses. (
  • The sequence of 91.6% (4397 bp) of the genome of one Aleutian mink disease virus from Cape Breton (NS-CB) was determined. (
  • 27. A method of producing AAV vector comprising a capsid protein with an amino acid insertion, comprising growing a packaging cell and providing the packaging cell with helper virus functions, wherein said packaging cell comprises the polynucleotide of claim 25, the AAV rep gene and a recombinant AAV genome comprising DNA of interest flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats. (
  • Solid signs and open signs represent Aleutian mink disease virus infected and non-infected species, respectively. (
  • B) Phylogenetic trees generated with nonstructural protein (NS) 1 and VP1 of Tusavirus and of the 5 International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses-designated species in the Protoparvovirus genus. (
  • The database is still in its infancy and only the morphological and genomic aspects have been recorded for of all virus families and genera including their type species. (
  • There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1 (Aleutian mink disease virus). (
  • Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. (
  • 0:14 Skip to 0 minutes and 14 seconds In this step we are going to focus on the parvovirus, which are one of the most common causes of disease amongst pets, but also in other species. (
  • Decreased fertility, abortion, and neonatal interstitial pneumonitis may also be associated with AD virus infection in this species. (
  • Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the dissemination of this virus, and their deleterious effects may be diminished by melatonin. (
  • Restricted heterogeneity of the early antibody response to Aleutian disease virus in mink kits. (
  • The claims of the present application are directed to a hepatitis C virus assay method employing treating a hepatitis C virus antigen containing sample with a nonionic surfactant having a hydrophilic/ lipophilic balance of 12-14, and measuring binding of said antigen with a hepatitis C virus antibody. (
  • The two most common tests for AD virus antibody are counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescent antibody tests. (
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is used for screening mink and is rapid, highly specific, and inexpensive (there is a footnote here to contact United Vaccines, 1-608-277-2030) The immunofluorescent antibody test may be more sensitive than counterimmunoelectrophosesis. (
  • Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. (
  • Samples were placed in plastic bags, identified and stored in house freezers (−15°C) before delivery to the laboratory on ice for long-term storage at −80°C. In addition, carcasses of four free-ranging mink from the province of New Brunswick were tested. (
  • Melatonin has been shown to prevent paralysis and death in mice infected with the encephalomyocarditis virus and to decrease viremia. (
  • Melatonin also postpones the onset of the disease produced by Semliki Forest virus inoculation and reduces the mortality of West Nile virus-infected mice stressed by either isolation or dexamethasone injection. (
  • In VEE-infected mice, melatonin postpones the onset of the disease and death for several days and reduces the mortality rate. (
  • Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. (
  • The phylogeny based on single genes or gene families contains ambiguity because horizontal gene transfer (HGT), along with gene duplication and gene capture from hosts, appear to be frequent in large DNA viruses [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • The nucleotide sequences of the SH gene of 45 new mumps virus isolates derived from different parts of Europe, Canada and USA were determined. (
  • Identification of a disease causing gene rarely leads to the invention of a novel therapy. (
  • It was previously reported that there was a cryptic promoter associated with a toxic gene in potato virus Y (PVY) that interrupted cloning work in E. coli [ 8 ]. (
  • Here, we examine the genetic structure and relative expression of MeE3L (native and gene-edited mutant), and determine how MeE3L affects geminivirus South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) DNA accumulation. (
  • Based on these findings, it is suggested that the nematode M. giraffae may not be an unusual parasite of the giraffe and that it does not necessarily cause detrimental liver disease. (
  • Mechanisms allowing persistance of agents for long periods before producing disease are discussed. (
  • 1995). The description of the particle morphology has been tackled first because the shape of a virus is the most important characteristic to identify a virus down to the genus level. (
  • According to the VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 20 ], the dsDNA viruses can be classified into certain families or unassigned genus. (
  • Parvovirus B19 is the type member of the erythrovirus genus, which includes similar simian viruses, all of which propagate best in erythroid progenitor cells. (
  • EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS IN A CAPTIVE HARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA) Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 631-637, 2008- Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. (
  • Reports on the detection of viruses such as the isolation of an avian influenza virus in Norway for the first time, and the second case in Finland of European bat lyssavirus type2 in a Daubenton's bat. (
  • The objective of our study was to determine the socioecologic factors that predict readiness for self-management and transition from pediatric to adult health care services, adherence to taking medications, and health care utilization among adolescents and young adults with chronic kidney disease. (
  • Aleutian Mink Disease" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A strange fact is that two mink, separated by a wire fence of three-quarter inch mesh, fought each other until they died. (
  • Because the viruses require actively dividing cells to replicate, the type of tissue infected varies with the age of the animal. (
  • The cowpox virus (CPV) complement inhibitor, termed inflammation modulatory protein (IMP), blocks immunopathological tissue damage at the site of infection, presumably by inhibiting production of the macrophage chemo attractant factors C3a and C5a. (
  • With the appropriate helper virus, AAVs can replicate in a variety of tissue culture systems. (