Aleurites: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is the source of tung oil and a phorbol diester (PHORBOL ESTERS).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.ArchivesPiperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Organotherapy: Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Multi-Ingredient Cold, Flu, and Allergy Medications: A broad category of multi-ingredient preparations that are marketed for the relief of upper respiratory symptoms resulting from the COMMON COLD; ALLERGIES; or HUMAN INFLUENZA. While the majority of these medications are available as OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS some of them contain ingredients that require them to be sold as PRESCRIPTION DRUGS or as BEHIND-THE COUNTER DRUGS.Patient Medication Knowledge: Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)LondonAluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.New HampshireClimatotherapy: Relocating a patient to a CLIMATE more suitable for health or for management of a health condition.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.

Molecular analysis of a bifunctional fatty acid conjugase/desaturase from tung. Implications for the evolution of plant fatty acid diversity. (1/10)

The seed oil derived from the tung (Aleurites fordii Hemsl.) tree contains approximately 80% alpha-eleostearic acid (18:3delta(9cis,11trans,13trans)), an unusual conjugated fatty acid that imparts industrially important drying qualities to tung oil. Here, we describe the cloning and functional analysis of two closely related Delta(12) oleate desaturase-like enzymes that constitute consecutive steps in the biosynthetic pathway of eleostearic acid. Polymerase chain reaction screening of a tung seed cDNA library using degenerate oligonucleotide primers resulted in identification of two desaturases, FAD2 and FADX, that shared 73% amino acid identity. Both enzymes were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 2) cells, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that FADX was expressed exclusively within developing tung seeds. Expression of the cDNAs encoding these enzymes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that FAD2 converted oleic acid (18:1delta(9cis)) into linoleic acid (18:2delta(9cis,12cis)) and that FADX converted linoleic acid into alpha-eleostearic acid. Additional characterization revealed that FADX exhibited remarkable enzymatic plasticity, capable of generating a variety of alternative conjugated and delta(12)-desaturated fatty acid products in yeast cells cultured in the presence of exogenously supplied fatty acid substrates. Unlike other desaturases reported to date, the double bond introduced by FADX during fatty acid desaturation was in the trans, rather than cis, configuration. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that tung FADX is grouped with delta(12) fatty acid desaturases and hydroxylases rather than conjugases, which is consistent with its desaturase activity. Comparison of FADX and other lipid-modifying enzymes (desaturase, hydroxylase, epoxygenase, acetylenase, and conjugase) revealed several amino acid positions near the active site that may be important determinants of enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Novel targeting signals mediate the sorting of different isoforms of the tail-anchored membrane protein cytochrome b5 to either endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria. (2/10)

Tail-anchored membrane proteins are a class of proteins that are targeted posttranslationally to various organelles and integrated by a single segment of hydrophobic amino acids located near the C terminus. Although the localization of tail-anchored proteins in specific subcellular compartments in plant cells is essential for their biological function, the molecular targeting signals responsible for sorting these proteins are not well defined. Here, we describe the biogenesis of four closely related tung (Aleurites fordii) cytochrome b5 isoforms (Cb5-A, -B, -C, and -D), which are small tail-anchored proteins that play an essential role in many cellular processes, including lipid biosynthesis. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that Cb5-A, -B, and -C are targeted exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas Cb5-D is targeted specifically to mitochondrial outer membranes. Comprehensive mutational analyses of ER and mitochondrial Cb5s revealed that their C termini, including transmembrane domains (TMD) and tail regions, contained several unique physicochemical and sequence-specific characteristics that defined organelle-specific targeting motifs. Mitochondrial targeting of Cb5 was mediated by a combination of hydrophilic amino acids along one face of the TMD, an enrichment of branched beta-carbon-containing residues in the medial portion of the TMD, and a dibasic -R-R/K/H-x motif in the C-terminal tail. By contrast, ER targeting of Cb5 depended primarily upon the overall length and hydrophobicity of the TMD, although an -R/H-x-Y/F- motif in the tail was also a targeting determinant. Collectively, the results presented provide significant insight into the early biogenetic events required for entry of tail-anchored proteins into either the ER or mitochondrial targeting pathways.  (+info)

Benefits and side effects of different vegetable oil vectors on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and P2X7 cell death receptor activation. (3/10)

PURPOSE: Ocular side effects in patients using eye drops may be due to intolerance to the vector used in eye drops. Castor oil is the commonly used lipophilic vector but has been shown to be cytotoxic. Effects on cells of four oils (olive, camelina, Aleurites moluccana, maize) were compared with those of castor oil in human conjunctival cells. METHODS: Human conjunctival cells were incubated with the oils for 15 minutes. After a 24-hour recovery period, cells were tested for viability, proliferation, apoptosis (P2X7 cell death receptor and caspase 3 activation), intracellular redox potential, and reactive oxygen species production. Fatty acid incorporation in cell membranes was also analyzed. In vivo ocular irritation was assessed using the Draize test. RESULTS: Compared to the four other oils, castor oil was shown to induce significant necrosis and P2X7 cell death receptor and caspase 3 activation and to enhance intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Aleurites moluccana and camelina oils were not cytotoxic and increased cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid content. None of the five tested oils showed any in vivo ocular irritation. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that castor oil exerts cytotoxic effects on conjunctival cells. This cytotoxicity could explain the side effects observed in some patients using eye drops containing castor oil as a vehicle. The lack of cytotoxic effects observed with the four other oils, Aleurites, camelina, maize, and olive, suggest that they could be chosen to replace castor oil in ophthalmic formulations.  (+info)

Tool use by wild New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides at natural foraging sites. (4/10)


The ecological significance of tool use in New Caledonian crows. (5/10)


The N termini of Brassica and tung omega-3 fatty acid desaturases mediate proteasome-dependent protein degradation in plant cells. (6/10)

The regulation of fatty acid desaturase activity in plants is important for determining the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of cellular membranes, which is often rapidly adjusted in plant cells in response to temperature change. Recent studies have demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized omega-3 desaturases (Fad3s) are regulated extensively at the post-transcriptional level by both temperature-dependent changes in translational efficiency, as well as modulation of protein half-life. While the N-terminal sequences of Fad3 proteins were shown to contain information that mediates their rapid, proteasome-dependent protein turnover in both plant and yeast cells, it is currently unknown whether these sequences alone are sufficient to direct protein degradation. In this report, we fused the N-terminal sequences of two different Fad3 proteins to an ER-localized fluorescent protein reporter, consisting of the green fluorescent protein and the ER integral membrane protein cytochrome b5, and then measured (via microscopy) the degradation of the resulting fusion proteins in plant suspension-cultured cells relative to a second, co-expressed fluorescent reporter protein. Overall, the results demonstrate that the N-termini of both Fad3 proteins are sufficient for conferring rapid, proteasome-dependent degradation to an ER-bound marker protein.  (+info)

Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli. (7/10)


Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and wound healing features in animal models treated with a semisolid herbal medicine based on Aleurites moluccana L. Willd. Euforbiaceae standardized leaf extract: semisolid herbal. (8/10)


  • or in home gardens in densely settled urban areas and monocultural rural agricultural areas, Pacific Islanders have selected for incorporation into their agroforestry systems a wide range of tree and tree-like species that meet their particular en vironmental and cultural needs. (
  • De bonen van de wonderboom (Ricinus communis) leveren wonderolie en het uiterst giftige ricine. (
  • Chitosan was modified with lauroyl chloride to prepare a solid support for the application of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of flavonoids from the medicinal plant Aleurites moluccana . (
  • Flora of China Page 265 石栗属 shi li shu Aleurites J. R. Forster & G. Forster, Char. (
  • Vertegenwoordigers van deze familie in droge gebieden hebben een soortgelijke ontwikkeling ondergaan als de cactusfamilie: ze zijn succulent (slaan water op) en hebben doornen. (
  • Aleurites Molaccana (Kukui Nut Oil), Rubus Idaeus (Raspberry Seed Oil), Natural Fragrance, Calophyllum Inophyllum (Tamanu Oil). (
  • It has come to the attention of the Medicines Control Council that there is an increase in the usage of the seeds (nuts) of Aleurites moluccanus (L) Wiild, also known as Indian Walnut, Neuz de la India, Candleberry or Kemiri. (