Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Fadrozole: A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.Hypoaldosteronism: A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.18-Hydroxycorticosterone: 11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 2: An orphan nuclear receptor that is found at high levels in BRAIN tissue. The protein is believed to play a role in development and maintenance of NEURONS, particularly dopaminergic neurons.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

Aldosterone excretion rate and blood pressure in essential hypertension are related to polymorphic differences in the aldosterone synthase gene CYP11B2. (1/218)

Significant correlation of body sodium and potassium with blood pressure (BP) may suggest a role for aldosterone in essential hypertension. In patients with this disease, the ratio of plasma renin to plasma aldosterone may be lower than in control subjects and plasma aldosterone levels may be more sensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Because essential hypertension is partly genetic, it is possible that altered control of aldosterone synthase gene expression or translation may be responsible. We compared the frequency of 2 linked polymorphisms, one in the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site and the other an intronic conversion (IC), in groups of hypertensive and normotensive subjects. In a larger population, the relationship of aldosterone excretion rate to these polymorphisms was also evaluated. In 138 hypertensive subjects, there was a highly significant excess of TT homozygosity (SF-1) over CC homozygosity compared with a group of individually matched normotensive control subjects. The T allele was significantly more frequent than the C allele in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. Similarly, there was a highly significant relative excess of the conversion allele over the "wild-type" allele and of conversion homozygosity over wild-type homozygosity in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. In 486 subjects sampled from the North Glasgow Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) population, SF-1 and IC genotypes were compared with tetrahydroaldosterone excretion rate. Subjects with the SF-1 genotypes TT or TC had significantly higher excretion rates than those with the CC genotype. The T allele was associated with higher excretion rates than the C allele. However, no significant differences were found in excretion rate between subjects of different IC genotype. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate may be a useful intermediate phenotype linking these genotypes to raised BP. However, no causal relationship has yet been established, and it is possible that the polymorphisms may be in linkage with other causative mutations.  (+info)

Lack of association between a polymorphism of the aldosterone synthase gene and left ventricular structure. (2/218)

BACKGROUND: Cardiac growth and function may be modulated in part by trophic effects of neurohormones. Specifically, aldosterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of cardiac myocytes and the accumulation of cardiac extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, a variant of the aldosterone synthase gene (a cytosine/thymidine exchange at position -344 in the transcriptional regulatory region) has been associated with enlargement and disturbed filling of the left ventricle (LV) in a small sample of young white adults. The aim of the present study was to reinvestigate the implications of aldosterone synthase -344C/T allele status for serum aldosterone levels, blood pressure, and LV structure and function in large population-based samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individuals who participated in the echocardiographic substudy of the third MONICA (MONitoring trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) survey (n=1445) or in the second follow-up of the first MONICA survey (n=562) were studied by standardized anthropometric, echocardiographic, and biochemical measurements as well as genotyping for aldosterone synthase -344C/T allele status. In both surveys, the distribution of sex, age, arterial blood pressure, and body mass index was homogeneous in the aldosterone synthase genotype groups. Echocardiographic LV wall thicknesses, dimensions, and mass indexes were not significantly associated with a specific aldosterone synthase genotype. Likewise, no association was detectable with echocardiographic measures of LV systolic or diastolic function. Data were consistent in both samples and not materially different in subgroups defined by age, sex, or intake of antihypertensive medication. Finally, no significant association was observed for aldosterone synthase allele status and serum aldosterone levels in the group of 562 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The data are not in favor of a significant contribution of the C/T exchange at position -344 in the aldosterone synthase transcriptional regulatory region to the variability of serum aldosterone levels, blood pressure, or cardiac size or function as found in 2 white population-based samples.  (+info)

Changes in the glomerulosa cell phenotype during adrenal regeneration in rats. (3/218)

In situ hybridization was used to examine cellular differentiation during rat adrenal regeneration, defining zona glomerulosa [cytochrome P-450 aldosterone synthase (P-450aldo) mRNA positive], zona fasciculata [cytochrome P-450 11beta-hydroxylase (P-45011beta) mRNA positive], or zona intermedia [negative for both but 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) mRNA positive]. After unilateral adrenal enucleation with contralateral adrenalectomy (ULE/ULA), the expression of all mRNA was reduced at 2 days. From 5 to 10 days, P-45011beta and 3beta-HSD mRNA increased while P-450aldo remained low; at 20 days, all mRNA were increased. From 2 to 10 days, cells adjacent to the capsule showed intermedia cell differentiation; by 20 days, the subcapsular glomerulosa cells reappeared. This suggests that after enucleation the glomerulosa dedifferentiates to zona intermedia. The experiment was repeated in rats where the postenucleation ACTH rise was prevented. Rats underwent ULE with sham ULA (ULE/SULA) or ULE/SULA with ACTH treatment. Adrenals from ULE/SULA rats expressed increased P-450aldo mRNA at 10 days and reduced P-45011beta mRNA and adrenal weight at 30 days. ACTH treatment reversed the pattern toward that seen in ULE/ULA. These findings show that the enucleation-induced dedifferentitation of the glomerulosa cell may result in part from elevated plasma ACTH and that prevention of dedifferentiation may result in impaired regeneration.  (+info)

Genotype-phenotype relationships for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in a normal population. (4/218)

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation by influencing salt-water homeostasis and vascular tone. The purpose of the present study was to search for associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms on 3 major candidate genes of this system with the plasma concentrations of the corresponding renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components considered as quantitative phenotypes. Genotyping was performed in 114 normotensive subjects for different variants of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene (C-532T, G-6A, M235T), the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene [4656(CT)(2/3)], the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), and the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) gene (A1166C) by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO) or enzymatic digestion of polymerase chain reaction products. Plasma levels of AGT, ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone, and immunoreactive active renin were measured according to standard techniques. Platelet binding sites for Ang II were analyzed by the binding of radioiodinated Ang II to purified platelets. B(max) and K(D) values of the Ang II binding sites on platelets of each individual were calculated to examine a possible relationship between these parameters and the AT1R genotype. A highly significant association of the ACE 4656(CT)(2/3) variant with plasma ACE levels was observed (P<0.0001). ANOVA showed a significant effect of the AGT C-532T polymorphism on AGT plasma levels (P=0.017), but no significant effect was detectable with the other AGT polymorphisms tested, such as the G-6A or the M235T. A significant effect association was also found between the C-344T polymorphism of the CYP11B2 gene and plasma aldosterone levels, with the T allele associated with higher levels (P=0.02). No genotype effect of the AT1R A1166C polymorphism was detected either on the B(max) or the K(D) value of the Ang II receptors on platelets.  (+info)

Modulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by adrenodoxin mutants with different electron transport efficiencies. (5/218)

Aldosterone biosynthesis is highly regulated on different levels by hormones, potassium, lipid composition of the membrane and the molecular structure of its gene. Here, the influence of the electron transport efficiency from adrenodoxin (Adx) to CYP11B1 on the activities of bovine CYP11B1 has been investigated using a liposomal reconstitution system with truncated mutants of Adx. It could be clearly demonstrated that Adx mutants Adx 4-114 and Adx 4-108, possessing enhanced electron transfer abilities, produce increases in corticosterone and aldosterone biosynthesis. Based on the Vmax values of corticosterone and aldosterone formation, Adx 4-108 and Adx 4-114 enhance corticosterone synthesis 1.3-fold and aldosterone formation threefold and twofold, respectively. The production of 18-hydroxycorticosterone was changed only slightly in these Adx mutants. The effect of Adx 1-108 on the product patterns of bovine CYP11B1, human CYP11B1 and human CYP11B2 was confirmed in COS-1 cells by cotransfection of CYP11B- and Adx-containing expression vectors. It could be shown that Adx 1-108 enhances the formation of aldosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and by human CYP11B2, and stimulates the production of corticosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 also.  (+info)

Joint effects of an aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphism and classic risk factors on risk of myocardial infarction. (6/218)

BACKGROUND: The -344C allele of a 2-allele (C or T) polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is associated with increased left ventricular size and mass and with decreased baroreflex sensitivity, known risk factors for morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that this polymorphism was a risk factor for MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a nested case-control design to investigate the relationships between this polymorphism and the risk of nonfatal MI in 141 cases and 270 matched controls from the Helsinki Heart Study, a coronary primary prevention trial in dyslipidemic, middle-aged men. There was a nonsignificant trend of increasing risk of MI with number of copies of the -344C allele. However, this allele was associated in a gene dosage-dependent manner with markedly increased MI risk conferred by classic risk factors. Whereas smoking conferred a relative risk of MI of 2.50 (P=0.0001) compared with nonsmokers in the entire study population, the relative risk increased to 4.67 in -344CC homozygous smokers (relative to nonsmokers with the same genotype, P=0.003) and decreased to 1.09 in -344TT homozygotes relative to nonsmokers with this genotype. Similar joint effects were noted with genotype and decreased HDL cholesterol level as combined risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and dyslipidemia are more potent risk factors for nonfatal MI in males who have the -344C allele of CYP11B2.  (+info)

Baroreflex sensitivity and variants of the renin angiotensin system genes. (7/218)

OBJECTIVES: Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) modifies cardiovascular autonomic regulation, we studied the possible associations between baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and polymorphism in the RAS genes. BACKGROUND: Wide intersubject variability in BRS is not well explained by cardiovascular risk factors or life style, suggesting a genetic component responsible for the variation of BRS. METHODS: Baroreflex sensitivity as measured from the overshoot phase of the Valsalva maneuver and genetic polymorphisms were examined in a random sample of 161 women and 154 men aged 41 to 61 years and then in an independent random cohort of 29 men and 37 women aged 36 to 37 years. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), M235T variants of angiotensinogen (AGT) and two diallelic polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), one in the promoter (-344C/T) and the other in the second intron, were identified by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In the older population, BRS differed significantly across CYP11B2 genotype groups in women (10.1 +/- 4.5, 8.7 +/- 3.8 and 7.1 +/- 3.2 ms x mm Hg(-1) in genotypes -344TT, CT and CC, respectively, p = 0.003 and 11.1 +/- 4.4, 8.9 +/- 4.1 and 7.5 +/- 3.4 ms x mm Hg(-1) in intron 2 genotypes 1/1, 1/2 and 2/2, respectively, p = 0.002), but not in men. No comparable associations were found for BRS with the I/D polymorphism of ACE or the M235T variant of AGT. In the younger population, BRS was even more strongly related to the CYP11B2 promoter genotype (p = 0.0003). The association was statistically significant both in men (p = 0.015) and in women (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic polymorphisms in the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene is associated with interindividual variation in BRS.  (+info)

Ontogeny of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and cytochrome P450(c11) in the sheep adrenal gland. (8/218)

In the present study we investigated the ontogeny of the expression of the type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT(1)R mRNA) and the zonal localization of AT(1)R immunoreactivity (AT(1)R-ir) and cytochrome P450(c11) (CYP11B-ir) in the sheep adrenal gland. In the adult sheep and in the fetus from as early as 90 days gestation, intense AT(1)R-ir was observed predominantly in the zona glomerulosa and to a lesser extent in the zona fasciculata, and it was not detectable in the adrenal medulla. AT(1)R mRNA decreased 4-fold between 105 days and 120 days, whereas AT(1)R mRNA levels remained relatively constant between 120 days and the newborn period. In contrast, both in the adult sheep and in the fetal sheep from as early as 90 days gestation, intense CYP11B-ir was consistently detected throughout the adrenal cortex and in steroidogenic cells that surround the central adrenal vein. In conclusion, we speculate that the presence of AT(1)R in the zona fasciculata, and the higher levels of expression of AT(1)R at around 100 days gestation, may suggest that suppression of CYP17 is mediated via AT(1)R at this time. The abundant expression of AT(1)R-ir and CYP11B-ir in the zona glomerulosa of the fetal sheep adrenal gland would also suggest that lack of angiotensin II stimulation of aldosterone secretion is not due to an absence of AT(1)R or CYP11B in the zona glomerulosa.  (+info)

*Hypoaldosteronism

Aldosterone synthase deficiency Secondary Aldosterone deficiency Secondary adrenal insufficiency Diseases of the pituitary or ... Isolated hypoaldosteronism is the condition of having lowered aldosterone without corresponding changes in cortisol. (The two ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoaldosteronism refers to decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone. ... Aldosterone deficiency should be treated with a mineralocorticoid (such as fludrocortisone), as well as possibly a ...

*Aldosterone synthase

Aldosterone is synthesized by following the metabolism of progesterone. In the potential case where aldosterone synthase is not ... Deficient aldosterone synthase activity results in impaired biosynthesis of aldosterone while corticosterone in the zona ... Aldosterone synthase converts 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, to 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and finally to aldosterone ... Aldosterone synthase is encoded on chromosome 8q22 by the CYP11B2 gene. The gene contains 9 exons and spans roughly 7000 base ...

*CAMK1

2002). "Calmodulin-dependent kinase I regulates adrenal cell expression of aldosterone synthase". Endocrinology. 143 (9): 3651- ... Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ... "Nitric oxide synthase regulatory sites. Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/ ...

*Aldosterone

... but aldosterone synthase is also able to perform an 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona ... Note: aldosterone synthase is absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. Aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by several ... The last parts are mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone ... It selectively stimulates secretion of aldosterone. The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm. Aldosterone is the ...

*Steroid 11β-hydroxylase

Hampf M, Dao NT, Hoan NT, Bernhardt R (September 2001). "Unequal crossing-over between aldosterone synthase and 11beta- ... "Effects of 18-hydroxylated steroids on corticosteroid production by human aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase". J. Clin ... "Hereditary hypertension caused by chimaeric gene duplications and ectopic expression of aldosterone synthase". Nat Genet. 2 (1 ...

*Corticosterone

... is converted to aldosterone by aldosterone synthase, found only in the mitochondria of glomerulosa cells. ... Steroidogenesis Deoxycorticosterone Aldosterone 11-Deoxycortisol 11-Deoxycorticosterone Cortisol R.A. Hill; H.L.J. Makin; D.N. ... Corticosterone is the precursor molecule to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, one of the major homeostatic modulators of ... potencies in humans and is important mainly as an intermediate in the steroidogenic pathway from pregnenolone to aldosterone. ...

*Familial hyperaldosteronism

The CYP11B2 gene provides instructions for making another enzyme called aldosterone synthase, which helps produce aldosterone. ... too much aldosterone synthase is produced. This overproduction causes the adrenal glands to make excess aldosterone, which ... produce too much of the hormone aldosterone. Excess aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain more salt than normal, which in ... The abnormal ion flow results in the activation of biochemical processes (pathways) that lead to increased aldosterone ...

*Adrenal gland

... by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase. Aldosterone plays an important role in the long-term regulation of blood ... "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) cDNA variant". Biochem ... In the kidneys, aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts by increasing the reabsorption of ... Aldosterone is responsible for the reabsorption of about 2% of filtered glomerular filtration rates. Sodium retention is also a ...

*Zona glomerulosa

The enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2) acts in this location The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the ... Zhou, M.Y.; Gomez-Sanchez, C.E. (1993). "Cloning and Expression of a Rat Cytochrome P-450 11β-Hydroxylase/Aldosterone Synthase ... the 2 major regulators of aldosterone production. Aldosterone regulates the body's concentration of electrolytes, primarily ... Ye, P.; Mariniello, B.; Mantero, F.; Shibata, H.; Rainey, W. E (2007). "G-protein-coupled receptors in aldosterone-producing ...

*Corticosteroid

... but aldosterone synthase is also able to perform an 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona ... The last part is mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). ... and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5). (Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are ... Mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone are primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance by modulating ...

*18-Hydroxycorticosterone

It serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of aldosterone by the enzyme aldosterone synthase in the zona glomerulosa:. ...

*11-Deoxycorticosterone

Corticosterone is then converted to aldosterone by aldosterone synthase. Most of the DOC is secreted by the zona fasciculata of ... DOC has about 1/20 of the sodium retaining power of aldosterone, and is said to be as little as one per cent of aldosterone at ... DOC is a precursor molecule for the production of aldosterone. The major pathway for aldosterone production is in the adrenal ... Since DOC has about 1/5 the potassium excreting power of aldosterone, it probably must have aldosterone's help if the serum ...

*Ethyl caffeate

"Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of Aldosterone Synthase from Chinese Herbs Using Pharmacophore Modeling, Molecular Docking, ... molecular dynamics simulation studies also indicate that ethyl caffeate is a potential inhibitor of the aldosterone synthase ( ... CYP11B2), a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which plays a significant role for the regulation of blood pressure ...

*Osilodrostat

It specifically acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and at higher dosages of 11β- ...

*Adrenal cortex

... by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2). Aldosterone is largely responsible for the long-term ... is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2). ... "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) cDNA variant". Biochem. ... Aldosterone is largely responsible for the long-term regulation of blood pressure. Aldosterone effects on the distal convoluted ...

*Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome

Hyperaldosteronism Pseudohyperaldosteronism Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism Aldosterone and aldosterone synthase Maria ... In serum both aldosterone and renin levels are low[citation needed] This disorder presents similarly to hyperaldosteronism, ... The treatment for AME is based on the blood pressure control with Aldosterone antagonist like Spironalactone which also ... The inactivating mutation leads to elevated local concentrations of cortisol in the aldosterone sensitive tissues like the ...

*Steroidogenesis inhibitor

Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitors such as metyrapone, mitotane, and osilodrostat prevent the production of the potent ... Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibitors prevent the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) into farnesyl ... Jürg Müller (6 December 2012). Regulation of Aldosterone Biosynthesis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 39-. ISBN 978-3- ... and aldosterone from the less potent corticosteroids 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol and are used in the diagnosis ...

*Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism

Aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone synthase ... The last part is either mediated by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). ... It selectively stimulates secretion of aldosterone. The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm. Control of aldosterone ... Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme involved in the generation of aldosterone. It is ...

*Metabotropic glutamate receptor

... downregulating aldosterone synthase, CYP11B1, and the production of adrenal steroids (i.e. aldosterone and cortisol). The first ...

*Mitotane

... aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) to a lesser extent. In addition, mitotane has ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... aldosterone synthase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.099 - aromatase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.200 - cholesterol 7 alpha- ... aldosterone MeSH D12.776.827.275.700.500 - tacrolimus binding protein 1a MeSH D12.776.828.075.350.275 - filgrastim MeSH D12.776 ...

*Secondary hypertension

... the Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive, which is normally not. GRA appears to be the ... Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone, that ... Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L (2008). "[Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals ... DOC has blood-pressure raising effects similar to aldosterone, and abnormally high levels result in hypokalemic hypertension. ...

*Steroidogenic enzyme

... aldosterone synthase) - mineralocorticoid synthesis 21-Hydroxylase - corticosteroid synthesis Cytochrome P450 (CYP1, 2, 3) - ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aldosterone synthase MeSH D08.244.453.915.099 --- aromatase MeSH D08.244.453.915.200 --- cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 --- spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 --- spermine synthase MeSH ... aldosterone synthase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.099 --- aromatase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.200 --- cholesterol 7 ... aldosterone synthase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.099 --- aromatase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.200 --- cholesterol 7 alpha- ...

*Glutamic acid

... downregulating aldosterone synthase, CYP11B1, and the production of adrenal steroids (i.e. aldosterone and cortisol). Glutamate ...

*Johann Bauersachs

Aldosterone and Mineralocorticoid Receptor), supported by the European Union. Bauersachs is a member of the editorial boards of ... antagonist Eplerenone and a novel enhancer of endothelial NO synthase. The importance of the MR for early healing and ... Impairment of endothelial progenitor cell function and vascularization capacity by aldosterone in mice and humans. Eur Heart J ... 2013-005326-38 HFA Heart Failure Association of the ESC DGIM ESAC Deutschland Aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor ( ...
This is the first report of the effects of pharmacologic inhibition of aldosterone synthase in healthy human subjects. Results obtained with the ASI LCI699 indicate that the hormonal and renal effects of blocking the aldosterone pathway in healthy animals translate to humans. In healthy volunteers, once-daily oral dosing with LCI699 0.5 mg selectively reduced plasma and urinary aldosterone, which was associated with natriuresis and an increase in PRA. LCI699 prolonged survival in a rat disease model induced by ectopic overexpression of human renin and angiotensinogen, and was more effective than the MRA eplerenone in preventing cardiac and renal damage. These results support the therapeutic potential of inhibiting aldosterone synthase in diseases characterized by excessive aldosterone production.. Characterization of LCI699 was performed using in vitro assays and in vivo models in the rat and monkey. LCI699 showed distinct differences between species; it was at least 200-fold less potent in ...
We found that aldosterone production inhibition by FAD286 or ADX protected rats from Ang II-induced inflammatory and fibrotic organ damage. The present data also demonstrated that the main source of cardiac aldosterone in the dTGR model is the adrenal gland. These results show the first description of protection via aldosterone synthase inhibition in vivo. We found previously that MR blockade protects against Ang II-induced organ damage. The MR antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone also reduced mortality and ameliorated renal and cardiac damage in dTGR rats.9,10 Rocha et al15 showed that MR blockade prevents Ang II/salt-induced vascular inflammation in the rat heart. One explanation for this effect might be the interaction between the Ang II receptor and MR. Xiao et al16 demonstrated the aldosterone-potentiated, Ang II-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We showed that aldosterone potentiated Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 ...
This study clearly shows an association of genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of CYP11B2 with the progression of renal dysfunction. Unexpectedly, the impact of the CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism was strikingly observed only in female patients, with no effect at all in males. The effect of this gene polymorphism was independent of other clinical risk factors including urinary protein excretion, hypertension, and no ACEI/ARB treatment.. We could not completely exclude the possibility that the CYP11B2 polymorphism affected renal survival partly via an effect on the blood pressure, because, although the differences were not statistically significant, patients with the CC genotype of the CYP11B2 polymorphism consistently tended to have higher blood pressures and a higher incidence of hypertension. However, this tendency for a higher blood pressure in the CC genotype was also observed in men, in whom no effect of the genetic polymorphism was detected. Moreover, the allele frequencies were no ...
Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
This study was conducted to assess the relationship between aldosterone synthase CYP1A1 MspI gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk using meta-analysis.The search was conducted in PubMed and China Biological Medicine Database disc on October 1, 2015, and eligible reports were recruited and synthesized using meta-analysis method.
See related article, pp 564-571. Gomez-Sanchez et al1 published 2 crucial articles in 2005.1,2 One established that aldosterone could be synthesized in vivo in the rat brain.1 The other demonstrated that intracerebroventricular infusion of trilostane, to inhibit of aldosterone and corticosterone synthesis in the brains of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, reversed salt-induced hypertension. These carefully performed studies raised the possibility that in addition to circulating aldosterone, aldosterone synthesized locally in the brain could play a physiological role in the regulation of blood pressure. Subsequently, Huang et al3 and Gomez-Sanchez et al4 used a more selective inhibitor of aldosterone synthase, FAD286,5 and reported attenuation or reversal of salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Those articles provided additional support for the hypothesis that salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is, in part, dependent on elevated expression of aldosterone synthase ...
The application of aromatase inhibitors to postmenopausal breast cancer patients increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which is believed to be caused by the abnormally high concentrations of aldosterone as a consequence of the estrogen
... Prof. dr. Zoran Valić Department of Physiology University of Split School of Medicine  1) 2) two adrenal glands, at the superior poles of the two kidneys (about 4g) medulla - central 20% (functionally related to the sympathetics - epinephrine & norepinephrine) cortex - 80% (corticosteroids - synthesized from the steroid cholesterol; similar chemical formulas) Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Androgens     androgens of only slight importance, although extreme quantities can be secreted - masculinizing effects MC - affect electrolytes (minerals) of the extracellular fluids (Na+ and K+) GC - increase BGC, but protein and fat also more than 30 steroids have been isolated two important: aldosterone and cortisol, Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones  adrenal cortex has three distinct layers: 1) 2) 3) zona glomerulosa - thin layer underneath capsule, 15% of cortex, aldosterone synthase (angiotensin II and K+) zona fasciculata - 75% of ...
Introduction. Essential hypertension (EH) is a multifactorial disease triggered by several genetic and multiple environmental factors in conjunct. Epidemiological studies have suggested that genetic variants, including those of the genes for angiotensinogen (AGT)1, renin (REN)2, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)3, angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1)4,5, and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)6 increase the risk for EH. However, the influence of polymorphic forms of these genes has shown conflicting results in different populations7,8. This scenario might be reflecting the variable impact of the genetic background of populations and the interaction of environmental factors, which, in turn, might be modulating this molecular background. Recent literature data have shown that unfavorable genotype/allele alone might indicate a minor or nonsignificant association with EH. However, the co-occurrence of different unfavorable genotypes and clinical risk factors can increase the risk of hypertension. ...
Genetic factors account for 30% to 50% of interindividual variability in BP.55,56 Hypertension is most likely a polygenetic disorder with each of the genes contributing modestly to BP. It is possible that menopause might provide the environmental trigger for the expression of certain genetic susceptibilities. Polymorphisms affecting a number of pathways involved in hypertension have been studied. While this is not an exhaustive review of the literature on genetics and hypertension, a few pertinent studies are reviewed.. Sex-specific determinants of genetic susceptibility that are distinct from sex hormone-mediated attenuation of sex-common determinants have been found.57 Several investigators have reported sex specific associations between human hypertension and polymorphisms of components of the RAS,58,59 aldosterone synthase,60 and NO synthase,61 although not in all populations studied.62 A study evaluating the relationship between the extremes of BP with 35 loci that have physiological roles ...
Referenzen: 1. Bezzina, C. R., A. O. Verkerk, A. Busjahn, A. Jeron, J. Erdmann, T. T. Koopmann, Z. A. Bhuiyan, R. Wilders, M. M. Mannens, H. L. Tan, F. C. Luft, H. Schunkert, and A. A. Wilde. 2003. A common polymorphism in KCNH2 (HERG) hastens cardiac repolarization. Cardiovasc.Res. 59:27-36. 2. Broeckel, U., C. Hengstenberg, B. Mayer, S. Holmer, L. J. Martin, A. G. Comuzzie, J. Blangero, P. Nurnberg, A. Reis, G. A. Riegger, H. J. Jacob, and H. Schunkert. 2002. A comprehensive linkage analysis for myocardial infarction and its related risk factors. Nat.Genet. 30:210-214. 3. Hengstenberg, C., S. R. Holmer, B. Mayer, H. Lowel, S. Engel, H. W. Hense, G. A. Riegger, and H. Schunkert. 2000. Evaluation of the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphism in patients with myocardial infarction. Hypertension 35:704-709. 4. Holmer, S. R., C. Hengstenberg, H. G. Kraft, B. Mayer, M. Poll, S. Kurzinger, M. Fischer, H. Lowel, G. Klein, G. A. Riegger, and H. Schunkert. 2003. Association of polymorphisms of ...
Referenzen: 1. Bezzina, C. R., A. O. Verkerk, A. Busjahn, A. Jeron, J. Erdmann, T. T. Koopmann, Z. A. Bhuiyan, R. Wilders, M. M. Mannens, H. L. Tan, F. C. Luft, H. Schunkert, and A. A. Wilde. 2003. A common polymorphism in KCNH2 (HERG) hastens cardiac repolarization. Cardiovasc.Res. 59:27-36. 2. Broeckel, U., C. Hengstenberg, B. Mayer, S. Holmer, L. J. Martin, A. G. Comuzzie, J. Blangero, P. Nurnberg, A. Reis, G. A. Riegger, H. J. Jacob, and H. Schunkert. 2002. A comprehensive linkage analysis for myocardial infarction and its related risk factors. Nat.Genet. 30:210-214. 3. Hengstenberg, C., S. R. Holmer, B. Mayer, H. Lowel, S. Engel, H. W. Hense, G. A. Riegger, and H. Schunkert. 2000. Evaluation of the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphism in patients with myocardial infarction. Hypertension 35:704-709. 4. Holmer, S. R., C. Hengstenberg, H. G. Kraft, B. Mayer, M. Poll, S. Kurzinger, M. Fischer, H. Lowel, G. Klein, G. A. Riegger, and H. Schunkert. 2003. Association of polymorphisms of ...
The effects of retinoids on adrenal aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) expression and aldosterone secretion are still unknown. We therefore examined the effects of nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR) pan-agonist PA024 on CYP11B2 expression, aldosterone secretion and blood pressure, to elucidate its potential as a novel anti-hypertensive drug. We demonstrated that PA024 significantly suppressed angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CYP11B2 mRNA expression, promoter activity and aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Human CYP11B2 promoter functional analyses using its deletion and point mutants indicated that the suppression of CYP11B2 promoter activity by PA024 was in the region from -1521 (full length) to -106 including the NBRE-1 and the Ad5 elements, and the Ad5 element may be mainly involved in the PA024-mediated suppression. PA024 also significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced mRNA expression of transcription factors NURR1 and NGFIB that bind to and activate the Ad5 element. ...
Circulating aldosterone levels are increased in human pregnancy. Inadequately low aldosterone levels as present in preeclampsia, a life-threatening disease for both mother and child, are discussed to be involved in its pathogenesis or severity. Moreover, inactivating polymorphisms in the aldosterone synthase gene have been detected in preeclamptic women. Here, we used aldosterone synthase-deficient (AS(-/-)) mice to test whether the absence of aldosterone is sufficient to impair pregnancy or even to cause preeclampsia. AS(-/-) and AS(+/+) females were mated with AS(+/+) and AS(-/-) males, respectively, always generating AS(+/-) offspring. With maternal aldosterone deficiency in AS(-/-) mice, systolic blood pressure was low before and further reduced during pregnancy with no increase in proteinuria. Yet, AS(-/-) had smaller litters due to loss of fetuses as indicated by a high number of necrotic placentas with massive lymphocyte infiltrations at gestational day 18. Surviving fetuses and their ...
The major findings of the present study are as follows: (1) AT1A-KO mice with MI had cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, and collagen gene expression, along with increased cardiac expression of the CYP11B2 gene and elevated cardiac aldosterone levels. (2) Spironolactone administration inhibited LV remodeling and resulted in almost normalized LV geometry, as well as reversing altered cardiac gene expressions (ANP, BNP, type I and type III collagens) in AT1A-KO MI mice. These results suggest that aldosterone is produced via an Ang II-independent mechanism in hearts with MI and that it promotes cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and subsequent heart failure after MI.. Several regulators are known to stimulate aldosterone synthesis in the adrenal cortex, including Ang II, corticotropin, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and/or K+. Among these, Ang II is the primary physiological regulator because it is well known that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by ACE inhibitors or Ang II receptor ...
We performed a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms and baseline phenotypes to all-cause mortality among individuals with angiographically confirmed coronary atherosclerosis. higher long-term all-cause mortality, actually after correcting for founded cardiovascular risk factors. As a complex, multifactorial disease that is affected by multiple pathophysiologic, genetic, and environmental factors, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) Pdpn is definitely a major health burden worldwide1,2,3. In addition to additional well-recognized risk factors, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease4. The RAAS regulates blood pressure, the sodium and water. Continue Reading. ...
The PNU-74654 (PNU) compound is a non-FDAapproved drug which prevents that Tcf from binding to beta-catenin, acting as a Wnt/beta-catenin antagonist. In NCI-H295 cells,PNU-74654 significantly decreases cell proliferation 96 h after treatment, increases early and late apoptosis, decreases nuclear betacatenin accumulation, impairs CTNNB1/beta-catenin expression and increases betacatenin target genes 48 h after treatment. No effects are observed on HeLa cells. In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreases cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione secretion 24 and 48 h after treatment. Additionally, in NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreases SF1 and CYP21A2 mRNA expression as well as the protein levels of STAR and aldosterone synthase 48 h after treatment. In Y1 cells, PNU-74654 impairs corticosterone secretion 24 h after treatment but does not decrease cell viability[2]. ...
GENETIC RISK ASSESSMENT IN HEART FAILURE: IMPACT OF GENETIC VARIATION OF ALDOSTERONE SYNTHASE PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM - The invention provides methods for (a) reducing mortality associated with heart failure; (b) improving oxygen consumption; (c) treating heart failure; (d) treating hypertension; (e) improving the quality of life in a heart failure patient; (f) inhibiting left ventricular remodeling; (g) reducing hospitalizations related to heart failure; (h) improving exercise tolerance; (j) increasing left ventricular ejection fraction; (Ic) decreasing levels of B-type natriuretic protein; (l) treating renovascular diseases; (m) treating end-stage renal diseases; (n) reducing cardiomegaly; (o) treating diseases resulting from oxidative stress; (p) treating endothelial dysfunctions; (q) treating diseases caused by endothelial dysfunctions; or (r) treating cardiovascular diseases; in a patient in need thereof, wherein the patient has a −344 (T/T) polymorphism or a −344 (C/C) polymorphism in an ...
This compound needs to be synthesised to order. Please email [email protected] if you wish to obtain it, or any other compounds listed on this site.. A full list of 25 novel isoindolinones developed at Imperial can be downloaded from the Files tab above.. JoC code: 4ad. Formula: C17H17NO2. Novel isoindolinone developed via tandem process involving Pd-catalysed Fujiwara−Moritani−aza-Wacker reactions.. 3-Benzyl-substituted-isodolinones are a family of pharmacores of significant interest in therapeutic use. Molecules from this family have previously been patented by pharamceutical companies for use as glycine transporter (GlyT1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 or CYP11B1) inhibitors.. In addition, many natural products known to have anti-tumour properties comprise a similar substructure, including isoindolobenzazepine alkaloids (e.g., lennoxamine, chileamine) and aristolactam ...
This compound needs to be synthesised to order. Please email [email protected] if you wish to obtain it, or any other compounds listed on this site.. A full list of 25 novel isoindolinones developed at Imperial can be downloaded from the Files tab above.. JoC code: 4da. Formula: C16H15NO. Novel isoindolinone developed via tandem process involving Pd-catalysed Fujiwara−Moritani−aza-Wacker reactions.. 3-Benzyl-substituted-isodolinones are a family of pharmacores of significant interest in therapeutic use. Molecules from this family have previously been patented by pharamceutical companies for use as glycine transporter (GlyT1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 or CYP11B1) inhibitors.. In addition, many natural products known to have anti-tumour properties comprise a similar substructure, including isoindolobenzazepine alkaloids (e.g., lennoxamine, chileamine) and aristolactam ...
... is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands outer cortex. Acting on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron, aldosterone stimulates the kidney to reabsorve sodium and release potassium, increasing blood pressure since sodium makes the body retain fluids. ...
Hello, I just started using progesterone and Ive read that using amounts such as 100-2000 mg actually inhibits aldosterone and Im really scared because
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Historicallv, aldosterone was classified as a steroid hormone synthesized from the. I backbone cholesterol molecule in the. I mitochondria of the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Recent research has shown that it is produced in many extra-adrenal sites, including cardiovascular tissue. Since the adrenals contain only 1 to 2 pg aldosterone but secrete some 70 to 250 ,ig daily, yielding plasma levels of 5 to 100 pg/mL, it follows that their function is rapid aldosterone synthesis rather than storage. Over 85% of aldosterone is metabolized on first pass through the liver. Thus, its rate of degradation is dependent on hepatic blood flow and its extraction by parenchymal cells, each of which may be impaired in congestive heart failure (CHF).. The main stimuli to aldosterone synthesis by the zona glomerulosa cells are:. Angiotensin-II, the most potent stimulus, acts via AT-II type 1 (ATj) receptors; it also promotes growth of the zona glomerulosa.. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), a stress hormone: the ...
Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition where too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands , which can lead to lowered levels of potassium . In hyperaldosteronism, overproduction of aldosterone leads to fluid retention and increased blood pressure, weakness, and, rarely, periods of paralysis. Aldosterone production is regulated partly by corticotropin (secreted by the pituitary gland) and partly through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidneys, controls the activation of the hormone angiotensin, which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce aldosterone. Hyperaldosteronism can be caused by a tumor (usually a noncancerous adenoma) in the adrenal gland (a condition called Conns syndrome), although sometimes both glands are involved and are overactive. Sometimes hyperaldosteronism is a response to certain diseases, such as very high blood pressure (hypertension) or narrowing of one of the arteries to the kidneys. Other causes of ...
The regulation of aldosterone synthesis by the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) cell involves a complex interaction between a wide variety of endogenous stimulatory and inhibitory factors. Angiotensin II (AII), adrenocorticotropic hormone, and potassium ion are the primary secretagogues stimulating aldosterone synthesis (Quinn and Williams, 1988). Atrial natriuretic peptide and decreasing oxygen concentration have been identified as inhibitory factors (Campbell et al., 1985; Raff et al., 1989). Recent investigations in a number of laboratories have indicated the inhibitory effects of NO on the synthesis of various steroid hormones (Adams et al., 1992; Natarajan et al., 1997; Cymeryng et al., 1998). The mechanism of NO inhibition of aldosterone synthesis involves a direct interaction with the cytochrome P450 enzymes required for the multistep conversion of cholesterol into aldosterone (Hanke et al., 1998). The inhibitory effects of NO and the ability of nitric oxide to bind to the cytochrome P450 ...
Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the
Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the
Aldosterone, in doses inappropriate to the salt status, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular injury, including endothelial dysfunction, independent of its hypertensive effects. Acute non-genomic effects of aldosterone acting o
Salimetrics has developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of the steroid hormone aldosterone in saliva. This assay is exclusively available via Salimetrics salivary testing.... (PRWeb October 04, 2012). Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/salivary_aldosterone/salimetrics/prweb9970342.htm ...
Draw upright specimen after the patient is made to sit up for 30 min. Ship refrigerated or frozen. Overnight fasting is preferred ...
Essential hypertension is seen as a contemporary public health challenge not only because of its high prevalence and variable treatment response but also because it represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the regulation of blood pressure, thus making the study of hypertension difficult and complex. Over recent years, with the advent of new molecular technologies, there has been an increasing interest in its genetic component. Alterations in the rate and pattern of adrenal steroid biosynthesis can contribute to blood pressure changes and its heritable component. In humans, mutations in the genes encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), responsible for the final stages of aldosterone and cortisol production respectively, lead to rare monogenic disorders. Both, glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and 11β-hydroxylase deficiency are associated with mineralocorticoid hypertension. More subtle ...
In cirrhosis, the development of ascites and the response to diuretics are determined by the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and renal sodium handling system. We hypothesized that SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) affecting candidate genes in the RAAS and renal sodium handling pathway may influence initial diuretic responsiveness and affect clinical outcome in non-azotaemic cirrhotic patients with moderate ascites. We prospectively recruited 176 patients and 245 controls and determined their genetic polymorphisms for 24 SNPs of ten genes involved in the RAAS and renal sodium handling pathway. In cirrhotic patients with moderate ascites, multivariate analysis showed that diuretic unresponsiveness was predicted by a high basal plasma aldosterone level, by a high aldosterone/renin ratio and by specific risk genotypes of ACE (gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme), CYP11B2 (gene encoding aldosterone synthase) and ADDA (gene encoding α-adducin). This association between ...
It is 10 years since Davis and his associates have shown that decapitation of hypophysectomized dogs does not alter aldosterone secretion nor prevent a marked increase in aldosterone output in response to hemorrhage. Since then it has been popularly assumed that the reninangiotensin system is the primary regulator of aldosterone secretion. This issue is not yet settled satisfactorily, however. Whereas in man and experimental animals aldosterone secretion continues in the complete absence of the pituitary glands, many investigators have found that hypophysectomy or spontaneous hyperpituitarism results in an impaired aldosterone secretion under basal conditions or under various physiological stimuli. ...
R2C2 study has shown that abdominal obesity is associated with a cardiac and vascular remodelling in healthy volunteers. This remodelling is correlated with renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) activation and/or systemic fibrosis. R2C2 II study is designed to confirm the hypothesis that RAAS is associated with an early remodelling and implicated in the transition to cardiac failure in abdominal obesity ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum) to determine the level of one or both of the vasopressor hormones angiotensin I and/or angiotensin II. Angiotensin I, a decapeptide, is produced in the blood by the hydrolization of angiotensinogen (previously produced in the liver) by renin; it is rapidly converted into angiotensin II, an octapeptide, by a circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor that also stimulates the cells of the zona glomerulosa to produce aldosterone.. Entry Terms : "Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A Determination Reagents" , "Angiotensin I/II Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Renal Metabolism, Angiotensin I/II". UMDC code : 19879 ...
Local resource for aldosterone therapy in Casper. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to hormone replacement, chronic aldosterone therapy, aldosterone replacement therapy, HRT therapy, and natural hormone therapy, as well as advice and content on bioidentical hormones.
Local resource for aldosterone therapy in Topeka. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to hormone replacement, chronic aldosterone therapy, aldosterone replacement therapy, HRT therapy, and natural hormone therapy, as well as advice and content on bioidentical hormones.
But sympathetic activity was not increased in the females. That begged the question: What was driving their hypertension? What we observed is that their aldosterone level was sky high, says Belin de Chantemele. While aldosterone also has a positive role in regulating blood pressure, high levels of the steroid hormone are associated with many things that are bad for the cardiovascular system like inflammation and blood vessel stiffness and scarring.. They took a step back and examined the enzyme producing aldosterone, CYP11B2, and found it was also very high in the females. As they began to put the pieces together, they realized that it was leptin that was a direct regulator of the increased aldosterone production by the adrenal gland in the female mice. Since both genders of these mice were hypersensitive to leptin, they were hypertensive but not fat. So they decided to also look at the connection in obese mice, which clearly make more leptin. In the face of high leptin levels, and as with ...
Aldosteronism is a syndrome caused by excessive and inappropriate aldosterone production and is the most common form of endocrine hypertension.
Exposure to renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockade (i.e. RAASB) may have a protective effect in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI), according to new research presented at the National Kidney Foundations 2015 Spring Clinical Meetings.
View Notes - Ch52 salt and water balance and nitrogen excretionVRE from LS 2 at UCLA. Figure 52.15 Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Helps Regulate GFR Figure 52.15 Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone
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One in 20 cases of hypertension is caused by small nodules on the adrenal gland and can be cured by surgically removing the nodules if they are identified early enough, research published in Nature Genetics has found.1. Adrenal tumours are recognised as a rare cause of hypertension (fewer than 1% of cases), but now researchers have found that smaller, benign tumours, or nodules, called adrenal aldosterone producing adenomas, not visible using traditional CT scans, can also cause hypertension. The researchers, from the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, and the Czech Republic, estimate that these nodules … ...
Autori: Pojoga L, Gautier S, Blanc H, Guyene TT, Poirier O, Cambien F, Benetos A. Editorial: Am J Hypertens, 11, p.856-860, 1998.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: aldosterone, hypertension, genetics. ...
The role of dopamine in the enhanced renal sensitivity to aldosterone (ALDO) seen in rats on a high potassium (high K+ ) diet Journal Articles ...
Tomashefsky, C. Steven, "Cumulative effects of aldosterone administration on three inbred strains of mice." (1967). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 1504 ...
Aldactone (spironolactone) is used to diagnose or treat a condition in which you have too much aldosterone in your body. Includes Aldactone side effects, interactions .... ...
Synonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone. 3 synonyms for cortisol: Cortef, hydrocortisone, Hydrocortone. What are synonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone?
The purpose of this study is to see if individuals with HIV-infection, particularly those with increased belly fat, have abnormalities in the renin angiotensin aldosterone axis. Renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone are hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, and they may also have effects on sugar metabolism and cardiovascular health. There is some evidence that individuals with HIV-associated abdominal fat accumulation may have increased aldosterone, which may contribute to abnormalities in sugar metabolism and increased cardiovascular disease seen in HIV. The purpose of this study is the measure renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone activity, as well as other hormonal axes, in people with and without HIV infection, and with and without increased belly fat. The investigators hypothesize that aldosterone will be increased in HIV-infected individuals compared to those without HIV-infection, and that aldosterone will be further increased in HIV-infected individuals with increased ...
In the present study, the effects of hyperaldosteronism on myocardial injury in the setting of a high-salt diet were examined. There were three major findings of the present study. First, the data indicate that aldosterone/salt treatment induces leukocyte infiltration and injury of coronary arteries with associated ischemic and necrotic lesions of the adjacent myocardium. Second, we have identified the myocardial expression and progressive upregulation of the proinflammatory molecules osteopontin, MCP-1, and COX-2 in response to aldosterone/salt treatment. Third, the expression of proinflammatory molecules was diminished and vascular and cardiac pathology abrogated by treatment with the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone, implicating a role for mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation in aldosterone/salt-induced myocardial injury. Although vascular inflammation seems to be the initial effect induced by aldosterone/salt treatment with the elevated myocardial expression of inflammatory ...
The captopril suppression test (CST) is a non-invasive medical test that measures plasma levels of aldosterone. Aldosterone production is suppressed by captopril through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. CST results are used to assist in the diagnososis of primary aldosteronism (Conn Syndrome). Contrast with captopril challenge test used to diagnose renal artery stenosis Agharazii M, Douville P, Grose JH, Lebel M (June 2001). "Captopril suppression versus salt loading in confirming primary aldosteronism". Hypertension. 37 (6): 1440-3. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.37.6.1440. PMID 11408392 ...
Approximately 1-2% of individuals with primary hypertension have primary hyperaldosteronism characterized by hypokalemia (low potassium) and low direct renin. Because serum aldosterone concentrations vary due to dietary sodium intake and body position, some physicians prefer measurement of 24-hour urine concentrations for aldosterone ...
It is widely accepted that angiotensin II, ACTH and potassium are the major factors controlling the release of aldosterone. Conflicting results have been reported about the role of serotonin,...
A condition caused by the overproduction of aldosterone. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant hypertension and hypokalemia ...
For jimmylegs...re: zinc (btw, thanks for the recommendation. It *does* make some things more erm...climatic. ) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17616752 Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):H2361-6. Epub 2007 Jul 6. Zinc dyshomeostasis in rats with aldosteronism. Response to spironolactone. Thomas M, ...
Regulation of low-voltage activated T-type Ca2+ channel activity by kinases and heterotrimeric G-proteins and their roles in physiological responses.. ...
Aldosterone, the mineral hormone Aldosterone is a mineral corticoid that is made in the part of the adrenal glands called the cortex. It is the major hormone controlling mineral and salt levels, especially sodium and potassium, and consequently, fluid balance within our bloodstream. It goes up when we are under stress. When it is high,…
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Angiotensin II (AII) and K+ raise the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [(Ca2+]i) and stimulate aldosterone production in isolated bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. The mechanisms leading to an elevation of [Ca2+]i were analysed with the fluorescent Ca2+ probe quin 2. (1) Whereas [Ca2+]i rose transiently and returned to basal values within 5 min in response to AII, the effect of K+ was sustained for at least 15 min. (2) AII released Ca2+ from intracellular stores, whereas the [Ca2+]i response to K+ depended solely on extracellular [Ca2+]. (3) When added after K+ stimulation, AII provoked a dramatic decrease in [Ca2+]i to below the resting value. The role of [Ca2+]i in stimulating steroidogenesis was determined by manipulating the concentration of this cation. (4) In a cell superfusion system, the aldosterone response to AII is biphasic. Suppressing the transient [Ca2+]i elevation triggered by AII resulted in the disappearance of the initial secretory peak, but the final production rate was ...
The present study demonstrates that in the TG (mREN2)27 rat model, local adrenal renin, and not circulating renin of renal origin, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of mineralocorticoid biosynthesis and secretion in response to salt restriction. The major finding of the present study is that the adrenal renin-angiotensin system regulates mineralocorticoid production through the AT1-angiotensin II receptor subtype. Our experiments also show that the mouse transgene and not the endogenous renin is involved in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis in the adrenals of TG rats.. The hypertensive rat strain TG (mREN2)27 is transgenic for murine Ren-2d gene, providing an excellent tool for the investigation of the function of renin-angiotensin systems in specific tissues. The transgene, in fact, is overexpressed particularly in extrarenal tissues, such as in the zona glomerulosa and fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.4 Since plasma steroid levels and urinary steroid concentrations markedly ...
Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysisEffects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysisAA10730093 ...
A benign Neoplasm of the Adrenal Cortex. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical Adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain Lipids. Depending on the Cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce Aldosterone; Hydrocortisone; Dehydroepiandrosterone; and/or Androstenedione ...
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The UBR (University of Brighton Repository) is a central institutional repository that records the work of the Universitys researchers. It is an open access, organic resource and is freely available via the web to researchers worldwide.
Adrenal venous blood was collected from hypophysectomized and sham-hypophysectomized dogs 6 days postoperatively. 17-Hydroxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-desoxy-17-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone were isolated by paper chromatography. Histological examination of the sellar and suprasellar regions of the hypophysectomized dogs demonstrated the absence of pituitary tissue. The adrenal glands of the hypophysectomized dogs showed cortical atrophy which did not involve the zona glomerulosa. The rate of secretion of aldosterone by the hypophysectomized dogs was found to be approximately 66% of that of the control, sham hypophysectomized, dogs. The rates of secretion of 17-hydroxycorticosterone, corticosterone and 11-desoxy-17-hydroxycorticosterone were found to be approximately 10% of that of the controls. The ability of the hypophysectomized dog to remain in electrolyte balance appears to be due in large measure to the continued secretion of aldosterone.. ...
Mochel, J. and Fink, M. (2012), Response to letter from Atkins et al. Capturing the dynamics of systemic Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) peptides heightens the understanding of the effect of benazepril in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 35: 516-518. doi: 10.1111/jvp.12017 ...
Article: Improved prognosis following renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients undergoing concomitant aortic and mitral valve ...
I recently had my aldosterone and renin checked. The results were: Aldosterone 17.2, Renin 0.1, Aldosterone/Renin Ratio 172.0. For years Ive had low potassium and taking a potassium prescription whic...
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, constitutes a major public health burden that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide and contributes to about 9 million deaths annually. Hereditary factors are thought to contribute to up to 50% of interindividual blood pressure variability. Blood pressure in the general population approximately shows a normal distribution and is thought to be a polygenic trait. In rare cases, early-onset hypertension or hypotension are inherited as Mendelian traits. The identification of the underlying Mendelian genes and variants has contributed to our understanding of the physiology of blood pressure regulation, emphasizing renal salt handling and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system as players in the determination of blood pressure ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Schwartz on aldosterone plasma renin act ratio: Sodium regulation is complex and not directly related to any single hormone. Mineralocorticoids like Fludrocortisone can increase sodium a bit and do cause sodium retention of sodium, but the sodium level is mostly regulated by a hormone called adh (vasopressin).
Aldosterone mineralocorticoid hormone, produced by the adrenal gland. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (black), oxygen (red). - Stock Image F011/3801
Seven single gene mutations are known to cause hypertension; this article guides clinicians through identification of the relatively uncommon defects, associated laboratory findings, and treatments.
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production ...
One important mechanism linking obesity and hypertension is increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). It has been assumed that increases in SNA translate dire...
Refer to the Additional Technical Information for Endocrine Society recommendations for patient preparation, specimen collection, medications for hypertension control during confirmatory testing for primary aldosteronism, and factors that may lead to false-positive or false-negative aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas and adrenocortical cells. AU - Monticone, Silvia. AU - Hattangady, Namita G.. AU - Nishimoto, Koshiro. AU - Mantero, Franco. AU - Rubin, Beatrice. AU - Cicala, Maria Verena. AU - Pezzani, Raffaele. AU - Auchus, Richard J.. AU - Ghayee, Hans K.. AU - Shibata, Hirotaka. AU - Kurihara, Isao. AU - Williams, Tracy A.. AU - Giri, Judith G.. AU - Bollag, Roni J.. AU - Edwards, Michael A.. AU - Isales, Carlos M.. AU - Rainey, William E.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Context: Primary aldosteronism is a heterogeneous disease that includes both sporadic and familial forms. A point mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is responsible for familial hyperaldosteronism type III. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 also occur in sporadic aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). Objective: The objective of the study was to define the effect of the KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression and aldosterone production using APA tissue and human ...
Angiotensin II effects on cyclic AMP production and steroid output were studied in a sensitive preparation of isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. With increasing concentrations of angiotensin II logarithmic dose-response curves for aldosterone and cyclic AMP production were similar. The minimum effective dose (0.2nm) for stimulation of aldosterone production also significantly (P,0.001) increased cyclic AMP output. For both aldosterone and cyclic AMP production, the peptide hormone concentration eliciting maximal response (0.2μm) and the ED50 (median effective dose) values (1nm) were the same; this is consistent with cyclic AMP acting as an intracellular mediator for angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone production by glomerulosa cells. The angiotensin II antagonist [Sar1,Ala8]angiotensin II inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated corticosterone and aldosterone production in these cells. An equimolar concentration of antagonist halved the response to 20nm-angiotensin II, and complete inhibition ...
definition of APA, what does APA mean?, meaning of APA, Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma, APA stands for Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma
The biologic actions of the cardiac peptide hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) of vasorelaxation, diuresis and natriuresis, suppression of aldosterone, vasopressin release, and thirst are the opposite of those of the renin angiotensin system. This close relationship is further strengthened by the complementary localization of their receptors in the brain, adrenal gland, vasculature, and kidney. In many physiologic situations including postural changes, volume expansion, water immersion, high altitude, and lower body negative pressure, the plasma levels of ANP and angiotensin II change inversely. In congestive heart failure, renin and aldosterone levels may initially be suppressed by high levels of ANP. Similarly the low renin levels associated with increasing age and with elderly hypertensive patients, may be the result of the elevation of plasma ANP that occurs with aging. ANP may thus be the endogenous antagonist of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. These two opposing systems ...
Aims Accurate serum aldosterone determination is critical to the screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, the localisation of aldosterone producing tumours, and the investigation of other disorders of the renin-angiotensin system. Mass spectrometry offers a means to overcome problems with method-dependent bias between competitive immunoassays for aldosterone. The authors have developed a simple, sensitive and precise liquid-liquid extraction aldosterone method for the ABSCIEX API-5000 liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. ...
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors prevent the progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and we studied how that benefit varies by the type of diabetes and baseline urinary albumin. We pooled data from 49 randomized controlled trials in a meta-analysis using the ratio of endpoint urinary albumin levels in those treated compared to those untreated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in both fixed- and random-effects models. The urinary albumin excretion for treated microalbuminuric patients with Type 1 diabetes was on average 60% lower at the end of the trial compared with patients not treated with renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system inhibitors using the fixed-effects model and 67% lower using the random-effects model. There was no significant effect of treatment in patients with normal albumin excretion. For normoalbuminuric patients with Type 2 diabetes, urinary albumin excretion was on average 12% lower after treatment using the fixed-effects
Steroids are polycyclic chemical compound that is often used by the athletes and body builders to gain advantage in the field. The use of anabolic steroids is banned in most of the countries as they are illegal. The intake of these steroids can be done orally or through injection which could produce testosterone.. Anabolic steroid is mainly used to increase muscle mass and in sports performance as it is allowed to intake only after the prescription of a medical practitioner.. Types of steroids. The human body has two different types of steroids such as corticosteroids and anabolic steroids. The adrenal gland that is found above the kidney produces corticosteroids; these hormones also produce aldosterone which regulates the sodium in our body. The anabolic steroids are prescribed only if some hormone is not generated properly. The androgenic steroids are considered illegal as they can improve the appearance and athletic performance. Using this steroid can increase the mass of the body due to the ...
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. ...
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. ...
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. ...
1. The relationships between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sodium and potassium balance and systolic blood pressure were studied during development of moderate (160-180 mmHg; clip i.d. 0.25 mm) and severe (200-230 mmHg; clip i.d. 0.20 mm) renal hypertension in rats with an undisturbed contralateral kidney.. 2. In severely hypertensive rats renin activity in the peripheral plasma increased from day 9, by which time the systolic blood pressure was elevated to 160-180 mmHg. The rate of total corticosteroid and aldosterone production in vitro increased from day 14 and plasma renin substrate concentration increased from day 24. In moderately hypertensive rats, none of these changes occurred.. 3. During the first 10 days after the application of 0.25 and 0.20 mm clips, sodium and potassium retention/g gain in body weight were higher than in sham-operated controls. During the next 10 days, the positive balance stabilized in animals with a 0.25 mm clip whereas, in animals with a 0.20 mm ...
This study provides preliminary evidence that a polymorphism in the AGT gene is independently associated with cerebral VR in white elderly persons. Homozygous carriers of the CC genotype of the rs699 SNPs have lower cerebral CO2 VR compared with the other genotypes.. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that renin angiotensin system genes are also involved in cerebral VR. Previous evidence suggests a genetic role of this system in brain health and diseases such as stroke, depression, and cognitive impairment.26,27 This study adds evidence that this system may also be involved in VR, which is linked with aging outcomes such as stroke2 and dementia.28. CO2-dependent VR is mediated in part by the endothelium and is related to changes in nitric oxide.29,30 Changes in end-tidal CO2 are associated with fast changes in pH, which modulate the effect of nitric oxide synthase leading to changes in nitric oxide production.31 In addition, ATP-dependent K+ channel activation may ...
It is well known that primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension, and also that aldosterone-producing adenoma and bilateral are the most common forms of PA.
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MCRA) are part of standard medical therapy for heart failure (HF). The clinical efficacy of MCRA in patients with systolic HF has been proven by randomized clinical trials. The efficacy of this drug group in patients with chronic HF with preserved left ventricular systolic function and the advent and practical introductions of safer new-generation MCRA remain to be answered.
http://youtu.be/iAZmLkSCmY0 GIMA AMEZIA SARI G1F011016 DESKRIPSI Renin adalah enzim dengan protein kecil yang dilepaskan oleh ginjal bila tekanan arteri turun sangat rendah. Pengeluaran renin dapat disebabkan aktivasi saraf simpatis (pengaktifannya melalui β1-adrenoceptor) (Guyton dan Hall,1997). Angiotensin adalah hormone petida yang berasal dari protein angiotensinogen. Angiotensinogen di ubah menjadi angiotensin 1 dengan katalisis renin. Selanjutnya angiotensin…
JOURNAL OF THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM. Years 2000-2015. Print ISSN 1470-3203. Reprint. Back volumes and back issues available from Periodicals Service Company (PSC).
Kidney damage is a common consequence of arterial hypertension, but is also a cause of atherogenesis. Dysfunction and/or harm of the endothelium in glomeruli and tubular interstitium damage the function of these structures and translates into dynamic changes of filtration fraction, with progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate, expansion of extracellular fluid volume, abnormal ion balance, and hypoxia, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease. Considering the key role played by endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension have critically reviewed available knowledge on the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury ...
Home » Aldosterone. Aldosterone (Science: endocrinology, hormone) a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, that controls salt and water balance in the kidney. Abnormally high levels of this hormone cause sodium retention, high blood pressure, heart rhythum irregularities and possibly paralysis a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance.Aldosterone is a hormone that is involved in regulating sodium and potassium concentration in the body, and is excreted by the adrenal gland. It promotes the re-absorption of sodium back into the body and removes excess potassium. ...
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscle. May play an important role in regulating renal hemodynamics, intestinal epithelial transport, adrenal aldosterone secretion, and uterine function.
Pudney, J., Sweet, P. R., Vinson, G. P. and Whitehouse, B. J. (1981), Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. Anat. Rec., 201: 537-551. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092010310 ...
Many medicines may change the results of this test. Be sure to tell your doctor about all the nonprescription and prescription medicines you take. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines for 2 weeks before the test. These include hormones (such as progesterone and estrogens), corticosteroids, diuretics, and many medicines used to treat high blood pressure, especially spironolactone (Aldactone), eplerenone (Inspra), and beta-blockers.. The amount of aldosterone in blood changes depending on whether you are standing up or lying down. If initial results show a problem, repeat tests may be done in different positions and under different conditions, such as not eating before the test or eating foods that contain a specific amount of salt. Your doctor may ask you to have your blood drawn at a certain time because aldosterone levels are highest in the early morning.. Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the ...
Ror2, a developmentally regulated kinase, promotes tumor growth potential in renal cell carcinoma. Expression of developmentally regulated endothelial cell locus 1 was induced by tumor-derived factors including VEGF. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that most bacteria were fully internalized when flashing occurred, suggesting that actin flashing does not represent phagocytosis. Electrolyte composition of rete testis fluid and cauda epididymal plasma and spermatozoa from rats following gossypol treatment. Phenotyping of VIGS-mediated gene silencing in rice using a vector derived from a DNA virus.. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed, brighter mass in the right masseter muscle with numerous rounded areas of signal hypointensity. Adjuvants play an important role in the formulation of effective and appropriate vaccines. Serotonin system gene polymorphisms are associated with impulsivity in a context dependent manner.. Some reasons for variation are organisational, but ...
Join us for the APS Aldosterone and ENaC in Health and Disease: The Kidney and Beyond conference. This in-depth, four-day conference is the ninth in a series on the topic of aldosterone and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Weve scheduled a four-day program of cutting-edge basic, clinical and translational research presented by top scientists in the field. Topic areas include:. ...
Ghose and colleagues (1) showed that long-term medical management (5 to 17 years) is a reasonable option for aldosterone-producing adenomas diagnosed by standard biochemistry and computed tomography in terms of blood pressure control and normalization of serum potassium levels in patients who decline or are unfit for surgery. However, I have concerns about the diagnostic accuracy in their cohort of patients. The use of computed tomography alone without adrenal venous sampling is often inadequate in differentiating between aldosterone-producing adenomas and adrenocortical hyperplasia (2, 3), the two major causes of primary hyperaldosteronism. In a series of hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, computed tomography alone had a low specificity (58%) and a positive predictive value of only 72% (4). With the additional use of adrenal venous sampling, a significant proportion of patients was found to have nonfunctional adrenal masses with coexisting adrenal hyperplasia (4) ...
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Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitor Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Induced Organ Damage | CirculationAldosterone Synthase Inhibitor Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Induced Organ Damage | Circulation

Aldosterone concentrations depend on the activity of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). We tested the hypothesis that reducing ... aldosterone after ADX and reduction of aldosterone due to pharmacological intervention with the aldosterone synthase inhibitor ... the key enzyme in the production of aldosterone is the aldosterone synthase or CYP11B2. CYP11B2 was isolated in 1992 by ... 2 The key enzyme in aldosterone production is aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). CYP11B2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/111/23/3087

Aldosterone synthase inhibition: cardiorenal protection in animal disease models and translation of hormonal effects to human...Aldosterone synthase inhibition: cardiorenal protection in animal disease models and translation of hormonal effects to human...

Pharmacodynamic effects of aldosterone synthase inhibition: single-dose phase. Plasma and urinary aldosterone. Single doses of ... Pharmacodynamic effects of aldosterone synthase inhibition: multiple-dose phase. Plasma and urinary aldosterone. Compared with ... Selective inhibition of aldosterone synthase appears to be a promising approach to treat diseases associated with aldosterone ... In the first 12 h after dosing, LCI699 effectively inhibited the activity of aldosterone synthase and plasma aldosterone was ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-014-0340-9

Fadrozole | CAS#102676-31-3 | MedKoo BiosciencesFadrozole | CAS#102676-31-3 | MedKoo Biosciences

Can the dextroenantiomer of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole be useful for clinical investigation of aldosterone-synthase ... discordant enantioselectivity versus reduction of plasma aldosterone. Endocrinology. 2008 Jan;149(1):28-31. Epub 2007 Sep 20. ...
more infohttp://www.medkoo.com/products/5469

Aldosterone Synthase
      - CYP11B2
     Summary Report | CureHunterAldosterone Synthase - CYP11B2 Summary Report | CureHunter

... is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE. ... Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of ... Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2). Subscribe to New Research on Aldosterone Synthase A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that ... 06/01/2006 - "Previous studies have shown that the aldosterone synthase promoter polymorphism -344T/C influences aldosterone ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD019405-Aldosterone-Synthase-CYP11B2.do

Aldosterone synthase - WikipediaAldosterone synthase - Wikipedia

Aldosterone is synthesized by following the metabolism of progesterone. In the potential case where aldosterone synthase is not ... Deficient aldosterone synthase activity results in impaired biosynthesis of aldosterone while corticosterone in the zona ... Aldosterone synthase converts 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, to 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and finally to aldosterone ... Aldosterone synthase is encoded on chromosome 8q22 by the CYP11B2 gene. The gene contains 9 exons and spans roughly 7000 base ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldosterone_synthase

Angion Biomedica Exclusively In-licenses Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors from ElexoPharm GmbH Complementing its Ongoing Program...Angion Biomedica Exclusively In-licenses Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors from ElexoPharm GmbH Complementing its Ongoing Program...

in-licenses aldosterone synthase inhibitors from ElexoPharm GmbH, complementing its ongoing program in chronic kidney disease ... target aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the generation of aldosterone. Reducing aldosterone ... Angion Biomedica Exclusively In-licenses Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors from ElexoPharm GmbH Complementing its Ongoing Program ... ElexoPharm obtained its aldosterone synthase inhibitors from the lab of Professor Rolf Hartmann, a world-renowned expert in ...
more infohttps://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20170622005116/en/Angion-Biomedica-Exclusively-In-licenses-Aldosterone-Synthase-Inhibitors

aldosterone synthase - oialdosterone synthase - oi

Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in cardiovascular and renal diseases 529 Relation between aldosterone synthase polymorphism and ... SP285ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENE (ACE), ALDOSTERONE SYNTHASE GENE (CYP11B2) AND ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE GENE ( ... An aldosterone synthase gene variant is associated with improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction in dilated ... Angiotensin II-aldosterone interaction in human coronary microarteries involves GPR30, EGFR, and endothelial NO synthase ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110810104333478

Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or Cytochrome P450C18 or Steroid 18 Hydroxylase...Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or Cytochrome P450C18 or Steroid 18 Hydroxylase...

Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or Cytochrome P450C18 or Steroid 18 Hydroxylase ... Inhibition of aldosterone synthase is used as a medical treatment for hypertension, heart failure, and renal disorders. ... It also reviews key players involved in Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or ... The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape for Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3413188/Cytochrome-P450-11B2-Mitochondrial-Aldosterone-Synthase-or-Cytochrome-P450Aldo-or-Cytochrome-P450C18.html

Human aldosterone synthase and 11[beta]-hydroxylase: studies on the relationship of structure and function and their clinical...Human aldosterone synthase and 11[beta]-hydroxylase: studies on the relationship of structure and function and their clinical...

... resulting in lack of aldosterone. Structure-function studies have identified aldosterone synthase residues specifically ... Human aldosterone synthase and 11[beta]-hydroxylase: studies on the relationship of structure and function and their clinical ... Fisher, Angela (1999) Human aldosterone synthase and 11[beta]-hydroxylase: studies on the relationship of structure and ... This thesis presents new studies on the relationship between structure and function of aldosterone synthase and 11-hydroxylase ...
more infohttp://theses.gla.ac.uk/839/

Angiotensin II Regulation of Aldosterone SynthaseAngiotensin II Regulation of Aldosterone Synthase

The major goal of our study was to define the Ang II-induced mechanisms regulating the expression of aldosterone synthase ( ... Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major physiological regulator of aldosterone production acting acutely to stimulate aldosterone ... Aldosterone is principally synthesized in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal by a series of enzymatic reactions leading to the ... represent important mechanisms to increase the adrenal capacity to produce aldosterone. ...
more infohttps://augusta.openrepository.com/handle/10675.2/552894

Relationship Between Aldosterone Synthase CYP1A1 MspI Gene Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk.Relationship Between Aldosterone Synthase CYP1A1 MspI Gene Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk.

This study was conducted to assess the relationship between aldosterone synthase CYP1A1 MspI gene polymorphism and prostate ... Relationship Between Aldosterone Synthase CYP1A1 MspI Gene Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk. This study was conducted to ... assess the relationship between aldosterone synthase CYP1A1 MspI gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk using meta-analysis ...
more infohttp://onctoday.com/recent-abstracts/prostate-cancer/genomic-tests/9593-relationship-between-aldosterone-synthase-cyp1a1-mspi-gene-polymorphism-and-prostate-cancer-risk.html

Stereoselective synthesis of 5-substituted pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-3-ones. Access to aldosterone synthase inhibitors and chiral...Stereoselective synthesis of 5-substituted pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-3-ones. Access to aldosterone synthase inhibitors and chiral...

In particular, annulated chiral pyrrolidines with alpha stereogenic centers have aldostereone synthase inhibition activity. In ...
more infohttp://dr.library.brocku.ca/handle/10464/3043

Aldosterone synthase, polymorphism of its CYP11B2 gene in arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases associated with it ...Aldosterone synthase, polymorphism of its CYP11B2 gene in arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases associated with it ...

... arterial hypertension; associated cardiovascular diseases; aldosterone; aldosterone synthase levels; aldosterone synthase gene ... Association of polymorphisms in angiotensin and aldosterone synthase genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with ... 344C/T aldosterone synthase gene variant: A meta-analysis. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2015 Dec;16(4): 858-71. doi: ...
more infohttp://hypertension.zaslavsky.com.ua/article/view/109541/0

A note on the inhibition of steroid 11β-hydroxylase, aldosterone synthase and aromatase by a series of coumarin derivatives |...A note on the inhibition of steroid 11β-hydroxylase, aldosterone synthase and aromatase by a series of coumarin derivatives |...

... aldosterone synthase and aromatase enzymes and the electronic structure of a.. ... A note on the inhibition of steroid 11β-hydroxylase, aldosterone synthase and aromatase by a series of coumarin derivatives. ... The relationships between the inhibition of steroid 11β-hydroxylase, aldosterone synthase and aromatase enzymes and the ...
more infohttps://www.derpharmachemica.com/abstract/a-note-on-the-inhibition-of-steroid-11hydroxylase-aldosterone-synthase-and-aromatase-by-a-series-of-coumarin-derivatives-13309.html

Physiology Flashcards by Donald Gygi | BrainscapePhysiology Flashcards by Donald Gygi | Brainscape

Upregulation of alpha-1 receptors on arterioles, increases sensitivity to NE and Epi and can bind to aldosterone receptors at ... What enzyme, responsible for aldosterone, is acted on by angiotensin II? Aldosterone synthase ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/physiology-6758896/packs/10751887

miscellaneous Flashcards by Ned Jones | Brainscapemiscellaneous Flashcards by Ned Jones | Brainscape

Aldosterone escape -- why does chronic aldosterone not lead to edema in hyperaldosteronism? ... Stimulates aldosterone synthase 86 Glycyrrhetic acid (active ingredient in licorice) mechanism in adrenal cortex ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/miscellaneous-4950256/packs/7287018

Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Myocardial Infarction | HypertensionMineralocorticoid Receptors in Myocardial Infarction | Hypertension

Studies with aldosterone synthase inhibitors further support the importance of aldosterone in target-organ damage.11 These ... Aldosterone Synthase Inhibition: The Importance of Aldosterone. The studies described put great emphasis on MR stimulation in ... as evidenced by the ability of aldosterone synthase inhibitors, which decrease aldosterone levels but not corticosterone/ ... Aldosterone synthase inhibitor ameliorates angiotensin II-induced organ damage. Circulation. 2005; 111: 3087-3094. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/54/6/1211

Weldon S[au] - PubMed - NCBIWeldon S[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitor FAD286 is Suitable for Lowering Aldosterone Levels in ZDF Rats but not in db/db Mice. ... Impact of Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitor FAD286 on Steroid Hormone Profile in Human Adrenocortical Cells. ... Aldosterone Synthase Inhibition Improves Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats. ... Selectivity of BI 689648, a Novel, Highly Selective Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitor: Comparison with FAD286 and LCI699 in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Weldon+S%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Vascular Inflammation and RemodelingThe Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Vascular Inflammation and Remodeling

Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors. Decreasing aldosterone synthesis at its enzyme step, aldosterone synthase (AS), CYP11B2, is ... Aldosterone synthase inhibitors (ASI) represent the latest therapeutic strategy to decrease aldosterone production [110]. ... J. Ménard, M.-F. Gonzalez, T.-T. Guyene, and A. Bissery, "Investigation of aldosterone-synthase inhibition in rats," Journal of ... W. B. Lea, E. S. Kwak, J. M. Luther et al., "Aldosterone antagonism or synthase inhibition reduces end-organ damage induced by ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2014/689360/

Wisniewski T[au] - PubMed - NCBIWisniewski T[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Imidazopyridyl compounds as aldosterone synthase inhibitors.. Whitehead BR, Lo MM, Ali A, Park MK, Hoyt SB, Xiong Y, Cai J, ... Discovery of indazole aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitors as potential treatments for hypertension. ... Discovery of Spirocyclic Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitors as Potential Treatments for Resistant Hypertension. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Wisniewski+T%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Questions & AnswersQuestions & Answers

Aldosterone synthase deficiency and related disorders. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004. 217:81-87. [Medline]. ... Does aldosterone deficiency cause hyperkalemia (high serum potassium level)?. Does toad venom cause hyperkalemia (high serum ... Weir MR, Rolfe M. Potassium homeostasis and Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Mar. 5 ... Mechanisms of impaired potassium handling with dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade in chronic kidney disease. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/240903-questions-and-answers

Deoxycorticosterone (DOC): Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and PanelsDeoxycorticosterone (DOC): Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels

... of the adrenal gland and is a precursor for the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone (see the image below).{file14055}The ... CAH due to aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) causes a decrease in aldosterone level without affecting cortisol levels. ... In the ZG under the effect of Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), DOC is converted to aldosterone through a process including other ... Table 2. Relative Blood Levels, Production Rates, and Bioactivity of DOC, Aldosterone, and Cortisol (Open Table in a new window ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2088915-overview

Abstract 2132: Impact of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor 1166AC Polymorphism on Development of Heart Failure in Patients Treated...Abstract 2132: Impact of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor 1166AC Polymorphism on Development of Heart Failure in Patients Treated...

... and aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (−344CT). Impact of the polymorphisms on the combined endpoint of death and re-admission due ... Backgrounds: A cross talk between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nerve system could play some ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/120/Suppl_18/S600.2

October 2013 - Volume 31 - Issue 10 - Contributor Index : Journal of HypertensionOctober 2013 - Volume 31 - Issue 10 - Contributor Index : Journal of Hypertension

Aldosterone synthase inhibition for the treatment of hypertension and the derived mechanistic requirements for a new ... Repeating adrenal vein sampling when neither aldosterone/cortisol ratio exceeds peripheral yields a high incidence of ... Repeating adrenal vein sampling when neither aldosterone/cortisol ratio exceeds peripheral yields a high incidence of ... Repeating adrenal vein sampling when neither aldosterone/cortisol ratio exceeds peripheral yields a high incidence of ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/jhypertension/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2013&issue=10000
  • The effects of LCI699 and eplerenone on cardiac and renal sequelae of aldosterone excess were investigated in a double-transgenic rat (dTG rat) model overexpressing human renin and angiotensinogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the dTG rat model, LCI699 dose-dependently blocked increases in aldosterone, prevented development of cardiac and renal functional abnormalities independent of blood pressure changes, and prolonged survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results provide new insights into the cardiac and renal effects of inhibiting aldosterone synthase in experimental models and translation of the hormonal effects to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to eplerenone, LCI699 increased the aldosterone precursor 11-deoxycorticosterone and urinary potassium excretion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro studies with recombinant human enzymes showed LCI699 to be a potent, reversible, competitive inhibitor of aldosterone synthase ( K i = 1.4 ± 0.2 nmol/L in humans) with relative selectivity over 11β-hydroxylase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rat and monkey in vivo models of stimulated aldosterone release predicted human dose- and exposure-response relationships, but overestimated the selectivity of LCI699 in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
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