A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
An analog of desoxycorticosterone which is substituted by a hydroxyl group at the C-18 position.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A synthetic pregnadiene compound with anti-aldosterone activity.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Tetrazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a 1,3,5-triazole ring with an additional nitrogen atom, often used in pharmaceuticals as bioisosteres for carboxylic acid groups due to their isoelectronic nature and similar hydrogen bonding capabilities.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (1/2815)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (2/2815)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Aldosterone excretion rate and blood pressure in essential hypertension are related to polymorphic differences in the aldosterone synthase gene CYP11B2. (3/2815)

Significant correlation of body sodium and potassium with blood pressure (BP) may suggest a role for aldosterone in essential hypertension. In patients with this disease, the ratio of plasma renin to plasma aldosterone may be lower than in control subjects and plasma aldosterone levels may be more sensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Because essential hypertension is partly genetic, it is possible that altered control of aldosterone synthase gene expression or translation may be responsible. We compared the frequency of 2 linked polymorphisms, one in the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site and the other an intronic conversion (IC), in groups of hypertensive and normotensive subjects. In a larger population, the relationship of aldosterone excretion rate to these polymorphisms was also evaluated. In 138 hypertensive subjects, there was a highly significant excess of TT homozygosity (SF-1) over CC homozygosity compared with a group of individually matched normotensive control subjects. The T allele was significantly more frequent than the C allele in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. Similarly, there was a highly significant relative excess of the conversion allele over the "wild-type" allele and of conversion homozygosity over wild-type homozygosity in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. In 486 subjects sampled from the North Glasgow Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) population, SF-1 and IC genotypes were compared with tetrahydroaldosterone excretion rate. Subjects with the SF-1 genotypes TT or TC had significantly higher excretion rates than those with the CC genotype. The T allele was associated with higher excretion rates than the C allele. However, no significant differences were found in excretion rate between subjects of different IC genotype. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate may be a useful intermediate phenotype linking these genotypes to raised BP. However, no causal relationship has yet been established, and it is possible that the polymorphisms may be in linkage with other causative mutations.  (+info)

Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration. (4/2815)

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

Epithelial sodium channel regulated by aldosterone-induced protein sgk. (5/2815)

Sodium homeostasis in terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates is controlled by the corticosteroid hormones, principally aldosterone, which stimulate electrogenic Na+ absorption in tight epithelia. Although aldosterone is known to increase apical membrane Na+ permeability in target cells through changes in gene transcription, the mechanistic basis of this effect remains poorly understood. The predominant early effect of aldosterone is to increase the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), although ENaC mRNA and protein levels do not change initially. Rather, the open probability and/or number of channels in the apical membrane are greatly increased by unknown modulators. To identify hormone-stimulated gene products that modulate ENaC activity, a subtracted cDNA library was generated from A6 cells, a stable cell line of renal distal nephron origin, and the effect of candidates on ENaC activity was tested in a coexpression assay. We report here the identification of sgk (serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase), a member of the serine-threonine kinase family, as an aldosterone-induced regulator of ENaC activity. sgk mRNA and protein were strongly and rapidly hormone stimulated both in A6 cells and in rat kidney. Furthermore, sgk stimulated ENaC activity approximately 7-fold when they were coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. These data suggest that sgk plays a central role in aldosterone regulation of Na+ absorption and thus in the control of extracellular fluid volume, blood pressure, and sodium homeostasis.  (+info)

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (6/2815)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

Aldosterone, not estradiol, is the physiological agonist for rapid increases in cAMP in vascular smooth muscle cells. (7/2815)

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced gene regulation in the endocrine tissues and vascular wall is achieved through the interaction of specific receptor proteins and promoters of target genes. In addition to these delayed steroid actions, rapid effects of steroids have been reported in various tissues that were clearly incompatible with the classic theory of genomic steroid action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because high doses of 17beta-estradiol have been shown to modulate intracellular cAMP levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, steroid-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein was investigated in porcine coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone induces a approximately 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in intracellular cAMP levels (EC50 approximately 0.01 to 0.1 nmol/L) within 1 minute, whereas 17beta-estradiol and hydrocortisone act only at supraphysiological concentrations (10 micromol/L). Aldosterone-induced changes in intracellular cAMP are calcium dependent; they are not blocked by inhibitors of mineralocorticoid receptors, transcription, or protein synthesis. In addition, aldosterone induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein with potential transcriptional importance. CONCLUSIONS: A nongenomic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by aldosterone is consistent with the data that aldosterone, not estrogen, is the physiological stimulus for cAMP.  (+info)

Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. (8/2815)

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Aldosterone synthase is a steroidogenic enzyme that is primarily responsible for the production of the hormone aldosterone in the adrenal gland. It is encoded by the CYP11B2 gene and is located within the mitochondria of the zona glomerulosa cells in the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone synthase catalyzes two key reactions in the biosynthesis of aldosterone: the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. These reactions involve the sequential addition of hydroxyl groups at the C18 position of the steroid molecule, which is a critical step in the synthesis of aldosterone.

Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and water in the distal nephron of the kidney, while promoting the excretion of potassium. Disorders of aldosterone synthase can lead to conditions such as primary hyperaldosteronism, which is characterized by excessive production of aldosterone and can result in hypertension and hypokalemia.

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are a class of medications that block the action of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by binding to mineralocorticoid receptors in the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and brain.

When aldosterone binds to these receptors, it promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion, which can lead to an increase in blood volume and blood pressure. MRAs work by blocking the binding of aldosterone to its receptors, thereby preventing these effects.

MRAs are primarily used to treat heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. By reducing sodium retention and increasing potassium excretion, MRAs can help lower blood pressure, reduce fluid buildup in the body, and improve heart function. Examples of MRAs include spironolactone and eplerenone.

Medical Definition:

Mineralocorticoid Receptors (MRs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are activated by the binding of mineralocorticoid hormones, such as aldosterone. These receptors are expressed in various tissues and cells, including the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and brain.

When activated, MRs regulate gene expression related to sodium and potassium homeostasis, water balance, and electrolyte transport. This is primarily achieved through the regulation of ion channels and transporters in the distal nephron of the kidney, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion.

Abnormalities in mineralocorticoid receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary aldosteronism.

Spironolactone is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by blocking the action of aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate sodium and potassium balance in your body. This results in increased urine production (diuresis) and decreased salt and fluid retention.

Spironolactone is primarily used to treat edema (fluid buildup) associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease. It's also prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and primary hyperaldosteronism, a condition where the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone.

Furthermore, spironolactone is used off-label to treat conditions such as acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

It's important to note that spironolactone can cause increased potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia) and should be used with caution in patients with kidney impairment or those taking other medications that affect potassium balance. Regular monitoring of electrolyte levels, including potassium and sodium, is essential during spironolactone therapy.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

Mineralocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that primarily regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. The most important mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which is produced by the adrenal gland in response to signals from the renin-angiotensin system. Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) and water into the bloodstream, while promoting the excretion of potassium ions (K+) and hydrogen ions (H+) into the urine. This helps maintain blood pressure and volume, as well as ensuring a proper balance of electrolytes in the body. Other mineralocorticoids include cortisol and corticosterone, which have weak mineralocorticoid activity and play a more significant role as glucocorticoids, regulating metabolism and immune response.

Zona glomerulosa is a region of the adrenal gland, specifically the outer portion of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for producing mineralocorticoids, with the principal one being aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body by increasing the reabsorption of sodium ions and water in the distal nephron of the kidney while promoting the excretion of potassium ions. This process assists in maintaining blood pressure and volume within normal ranges. The zona glomerulosa's function is primarily under the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase is a crucial enzyme involved in the steroidogenesis pathway, specifically in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone, which are vital hormones produced by the adrenal glands. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP11B1 gene in humans.

The enzyme's primary function is to catalyze the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone through the process of hydroxylation at the 11-beta position of the steroid molecule. Cortisol is a critical glucocorticoid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, while aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone responsible for maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in the CYP11B1 gene can lead to various disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which may result in impaired cortisol and aldosterone production, causing hormonal imbalances and associated symptoms.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide hormone that plays a critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is a crucial regulator of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II has several physiological effects on various organs, including:

1. Vasoconstriction: Angiotensin II causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Aldosterone release: Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, thereby increasing water retention and blood volume.
3. Sympathetic nervous system activation: Angiotensin II activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased heart rate and contractility, further contributing to an increase in blood pressure.
4. Thirst regulation: Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to increase thirst, promoting water intake and helping to maintain intravascular volume.
5. Cell growth and fibrosis: Angiotensin II has been implicated in various pathological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, and fibrosis, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of medications commonly used in clinical practice to target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, respectively. These drugs have been shown to be effective in managing hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Fludrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid hormone, specifically a mineralocorticoid. It is often used to treat conditions associated with low levels of corticosteroids, such as Addison's disease. It works by helping the body retain sodium and lose potassium, which helps to maintain fluid balance and blood pressure.

In medical terms, fludrocortisone is defined as a synthetic mineralocorticoid with glucocorticoid activity used in the treatment of adrenogenital syndrome and Addison's disease, and as an adjunct in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used to treat orthostatic hypotension by helping the body retain sodium and water, thereby increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

It is important to note that fludrocortisone can have significant side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These can include fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and slowed growth in children. As with any medication, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a complex hormonal system that regulates blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, and vascular resistance. It plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

Here's a brief overview of how it works:

1. Renin is an enzyme that is released by the juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys in response to decreased blood pressure or reduced salt delivery to the distal tubules.
2. Renin acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, which is produced by the liver, converting it into angiotensin I.
3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), found in the lungs and other tissues, then converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
4. Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which promotes sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.
5. Additionally, angiotensin II has direct effects on the heart, promoting hypertrophy and remodeling, which can contribute to heart failure.
6. The RAS can be modulated by various medications, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and aldosterone antagonists, which are commonly used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

18-Hydroxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal gland. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which is the major hormone responsible for regulating sodium and potassium balance in the body. 18-Hydroxycorticosterone gets its name from the hydroxyl group (-OH) that is added to the 18th carbon atom of the steroid molecule.

This hormone plays a role in the body's response to stress and helps to regulate various physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and sexual development and reproduction. However, abnormal levels of 18-hydroxycorticosterone have been associated with certain medical conditions, such as primary aldosteronism, which is a condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone.

It's important to note that while 18-hydroxycorticosterone is an important hormone in the body, it is not typically measured in routine clinical testing. Instead, tests for aldosterone and related hormones are more commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions related to the adrenal gland.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

Canrenone, also known as canrenoic acid, is a synthetic steroidal compound that is commonly used as a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. It is a derivative of aldosterone, a hormone that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the body, and works by blocking the action of aldosterone on the distal tubules of the kidney. This leads to increased excretion of sodium and water, which helps to reduce blood volume and lower blood pressure.

Canrenone is often prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. It has also been shown to have anti-androgenic effects and has been used off-label in the treatment of hirsutism and acne.

Like other diuretics, canrenone can cause electrolyte imbalances, particularly low potassium levels (hypokalemia), and may interact with other medications that affect potassium levels. It is important for patients taking canrenone to be monitored regularly for changes in electrolyte levels and kidney function.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. It is primarily found in tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands.

The main function of 11β-HSD2 is to convert active cortisol into inactive cortisone, which helps to prevent excessive mineralocorticoid receptor activation by cortisol. This is important because cortisol can bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, as well as other effects on blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

By converting cortisol to cortisone, 11β-HSD2 helps to protect mineralocorticoid receptors from being overstimulated by cortisol, allowing aldosterone to bind and activate these receptors instead. This is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 11β-HSD2 enzyme can lead to a condition called apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), which is characterized by high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and increased sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. This occurs because cortisol is able to bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors in the absence of 11β-HSD2 activity.

Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) are a type of ion channel found in the epithelial cells that line the surface of many types of tissues, including the airways, kidneys, and colon. These channels play a crucial role in regulating sodium and fluid balance in the body by allowing the passive movement of sodium ions (Na+) from the lumen or outside of the cell to the inside of the cell, following their electrochemical gradient.

ENaC is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, which are encoded by different genes. The channel is normally closed and opens in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in osmolarity. Once open, the channel allows sodium ions to flow through, creating a positive charge that can attract chloride ions (Cl-) and water molecules, leading to fluid absorption.

In the kidneys, ENaC plays an essential role in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, which helps maintain blood pressure and volume. In the airways, ENaC is involved in controlling the hydration of the airway surface liquid, which is necessary for normal mucociliary clearance. Dysregulation of ENaC has been implicated in several diseases, including hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Collecting kidney tubules, also known as collecting ducts, are the final portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. They collect filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules and glomeruli and are responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes back into the bloodstream under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. The collecting ducts then deliver the remaining filtrate to the ureter, which transports it to the bladder for storage until urination.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

A sodium-restricted diet is a meal plan designed to limit the amount of sodium (salt) intake. The recommended daily sodium intake for adults is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg), but for those with certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease, a lower daily sodium limit of 1,500 to 2,000 mg may be recommended.

A sodium-restricted diet typically involves avoiding processed and packaged foods, which are often high in sodium, and limiting the use of salt when cooking or at the table. Fresh fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains are encouraged as they are naturally low in sodium. It is important to read food labels carefully, as some foods may contain hidden sources of sodium.

Adhering to a sodium-restricted diet can help manage blood pressure, reduce fluid retention, and decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian before starting any new diet plan to ensure that it meets individual nutritional needs and medical conditions.

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Dietary sodium is a mineral that is primarily found in table salt (sodium chloride) and many processed foods. It is an essential nutrient for human health, playing a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. However, consuming too much dietary sodium can increase blood pressure and contribute to the development of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems.

The recommended daily intake of dietary sodium is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day for most adults, but the American Heart Association recommends no more than 1,500 mg per day for optimal heart health. It's important to note that many processed and restaurant foods contain high levels of sodium, so it's essential to read food labels and choose fresh, whole foods whenever possible to help limit dietary sodium intake.

Desoxycorticosterone (also known as desoxycorticosterone or DCZ) is a natural steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is a weak glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid, which means it has some effects on blood sugar metabolism and regulates electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Desoxycorticosterone is used as a medication in the form of its synthetic acetate ester, desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA), to treat Addison's disease, a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. DCA helps to replace the missing mineralocorticoid activity and prevent the symptoms of low blood pressure, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances associated with Addison's disease.

It is important to note that desoxycorticosterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have significant side effects if not properly monitored.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Distal kidney tubules are the final segment of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. The nephron is the basic unit of the kidney that filters blood and produces urine. After the filtrate leaves the glomerulus, it enters the proximal tubule where most of the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients occurs.

The filtrate then moves into the loop of Henle, which is divided into a thin and thick descending limb and a thin and thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to establish a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitium, allowing for the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts.

The distal tubule is the last segment of the renal tubule before the filtrate enters the collecting duct. It is a relatively short structure that receives filtrate from the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The distal tubule plays an important role in regulating electrolyte and water balance by actively transporting ions such as sodium, potassium, and chloride.

The distal tubule also contains specialized cells called principal cells and intercalated cells that are responsible for secreting or reabsorbing hydrogen and potassium ions to maintain acid-base balance. Additionally, the distal tubule is a site of action for several hormones, including aldosterone, which stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which promotes water reabsorption in the collecting ducts.

18-Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which is the major hormone responsible for regulating sodium and potassium balance in the body. 18-Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone itself has minimal biological activity, but it is converted to aldosterone by the enzyme aldosterone synthase.

The medical relevance of 18-Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone lies in its role as a precursor to aldosterone and its potential use as a marker for certain adrenal gland disorders. For example, increased production of 18-Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone has been observed in some cases of primary hyperaldosteronism, which is a condition characterized by excessive aldosterone production leading to high blood pressure and low potassium levels. Measuring the levels of this hormone can help diagnose and manage such conditions.

Amiloride is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by preventing the reabsorption of salt and water in the kidneys, which helps to increase urine output and decrease fluid buildup in the body. At the same time, amiloride also helps to preserve the level of potassium in the body, which is why it is known as a potassium-sparing diuretic.

Amiloride is commonly used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema (fluid buildup) in the body. It is available in tablet form and is typically taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of amiloride include headache, dizziness, and stomach upset.

It's important to note that amiloride can interact with other medications, including some over-the-counter products, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting amiloride therapy. Additionally, regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels is necessary while taking this medication.

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an essential electrolyte in dietary intake. It is a chemical compound made up of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions. In a medical context, particularly in nutrition and dietetics, "sodium chloride, dietary" refers to the consumption of this compound in food sources.

Sodium plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as maintaining fluid balance, assisting nerve impulse transmission, and contributing to muscle contraction. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day and further suggest an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for most adults, especially those with high blood pressure. However, the average American consumes more than twice the recommended amount, primarily from processed and prepared foods. Excessive sodium intake can lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Canrenone is a synthetic steroid hormone that is used primarily as a diuretic to treat high blood pressure and edema (fluid retention) associated with heart, kidney, or liver disease. It works by increasing the amount of salt and water that the kidneys remove from the blood, which helps to reduce fluid buildup in the body. Canrenone is also known as a "aldosterone antagonist" because it blocks the action of aldosterone, a hormone that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the body.

Canrenone is not available as a standalone medication in many countries, but is instead found in combination with other medications such as spironolactone. It is important to note that canrenone and other aldosterone antagonists may increase potassium levels in the blood, so regular monitoring of potassium levels is necessary during treatment.

Here are some medical resources where you can find more information about Canrenone:

* National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus:
* Drugs.com:
* Mayo Clinic:

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

Diuretics are a type of medication that increase the production of urine and help the body eliminate excess fluid and salt. They work by interfering with the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules, which in turn causes more water to be excreted from the body. Diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. There are several types of diuretics, including loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics, each with its own mechanism of action and potential side effects. It is important to use diuretics under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have an impact on electrolyte balance in the body.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypoaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by decreased levels or impaired function of the hormone aldosterone, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone plays a crucial role in regulating electrolyte and fluid balance in the body by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium in the kidneys.

Hypoaldosteronism can lead to low blood pressure, muscle weakness, and an imbalance of electrolytes, particularly low serum sodium levels and high serum potassium levels. This condition can be caused by various factors, including damage to the adrenal gland, impaired production or function of aldosterone, or decreased responsiveness of the kidneys to aldosterone.

Hypoaldosteronism can be primary or secondary. Primary hypoaldosteronism is caused by a problem with the adrenal glands themselves, such as damage to the gland or a genetic disorder that affects aldosterone production. Secondary hypoaldosteronism is caused by a problem outside of the adrenal glands, such as decreased production of renin (an enzyme produced by the kidneys) or certain medications that interfere with aldosterone production or function.

Treatment for hypoaldosteronism depends on the underlying cause and may include medication to replace missing aldosterone or correct electrolyte imbalances, as well as addressing any underlying conditions contributing to the development of the condition.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Natriuresis is the process or condition of excreting an excessive amount of sodium (salt) through urine. It is a physiological response to high sodium levels in the body, which can be caused by various factors such as certain medical conditions (e.g., kidney disease, heart failure), medications, or dietary habits. The increased excretion of sodium helps regulate the body's water balance and maintain normal blood pressure. However, persistent natriuresis may indicate underlying health issues that require medical attention.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a hormone that is primarily produced and secreted by the atria of the heart in response to stretching of the cardiac muscle cells due to increased blood volume. ANF plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function.

The main physiological action of ANF is to promote sodium and water excretion by the kidneys, which helps lower blood volume and reduce blood pressure. ANF also relaxes vascular smooth muscle, dilates blood vessels, and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), further contributing to its blood pressure-lowering effects.

Defects in ANF production or action have been implicated in several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. Therefore, ANF and its analogs are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Furosemide is a loop diuretic medication that is primarily used to treat edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter in the ascending loop of Henle in the kidneys, thereby promoting the excretion of water, sodium, and chloride ions. This increased urine output helps reduce fluid accumulation in the body and lower blood pressure.

Furosemide is also known by its brand names Lasix and Frusid. It can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the patient's condition and the desired rate of diuresis. Common side effects include dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, hearing loss (in high doses), and increased blood sugar levels.

It is essential to monitor kidney function, electrolyte levels, and fluid balance while using furosemide to minimize potential adverse effects and ensure appropriate treatment.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Sodium chloride symporters are membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport sodium and chloride ions into a cell. They are also known as sodium-chloride cotransporters or NCCs. These transporters play a crucial role in regulating the electrolyte balance and water homeostasis in various tissues, particularly in the kidney's distal convoluted tubule.

The primary function of sodium chloride symporters is to reabsorb sodium and chloride ions from the filtrate in the nephron back into the bloodstream. By doing so, they help maintain the body's sodium concentration and control water balance through osmosis.

Mutations in the gene encoding for the NCC can lead to various kidney disorders, such as Gitelman syndrome or Bartter syndrome type III, which are characterized by electrolyte imbalances, low blood pressure, and metabolic alkalosis.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Sodium channels are specialized protein structures that are embedded in the membranes of excitable cells, such as nerve and muscle cells. They play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in these cells. Sodium channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell during the initial phase of an action potential, which is the electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. This sudden influx of sodium ions causes the membrane potential to rapidly reverse, leading to the depolarization of the cell. After the action potential, the sodium channels close and become inactivated, preventing further entry of sodium ions and helping to restore the resting membrane potential.

Sodium channels are composed of a large alpha subunit and one or two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunit forms the ion-conducting pore, while the beta subunits play a role in modulating the function and stability of the channel. Mutations in sodium channel genes have been associated with various inherited diseases, including certain forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and muscle disorders.

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins found inside cells that bind to glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones. These receptors play an essential role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

When a glucocorticoid hormone such as cortisol binds to the GR, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to translocate into the nucleus of the cell. Once inside the nucleus, the GR acts as a transcription factor, binding to specific DNA sequences called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located in the promoter regions of target genes. The binding of the GR to the GRE can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of co-regulatory proteins.

Glucocorticoids have diverse effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. They are commonly used in clinical settings to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, long-term use of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, including osteoporosis, weight gain, and increased risk of infections, due to the widespread effects of these hormones on multiple organ systems.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Dietary Potassium is a mineral and an essential electrolyte that is required in the human body for various physiological processes. It is primarily obtained through dietary sources. The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is 4700 milligrams (mg).

Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood pressure, heart function, and muscle and nerve activity. It also helps to balance the body's fluids and prevent kidney stones. Foods that are rich in dietary potassium include fruits such as bananas, oranges, and melons; vegetables such as leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes; legumes such as beans and lentils; dairy products such as milk and yogurt; and nuts and seeds.

It is important to maintain a balanced intake of dietary potassium, as both deficiency and excess can have negative health consequences. A deficiency in potassium can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart arrhythmias, while an excess can cause hyperkalemia, which can result in serious cardiac complications.

Metoclopramide is a medication that is primarily used to manage gastrointestinal disorders. It is classified as a dopamine antagonist and a prokinetic agent, which means it works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can slow down stomach and intestine function.

The medical definition of Metoclopramide is:
A synthetic congener of procainamide, used as an antiemetic and to increase gastrointestinal motility. It has a antidopaminergic action, binding to D2 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and stomach, and it may also block 5HT3 receptors at intrapyloric and central levels. Its actions on the gut smooth muscle are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. (Source: Dorland's Medical Dictionary)

Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, and gastroparesis, which is a condition that affects the normal movement of food through the digestive tract. It can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Like any medication, Metoclopramide can have side effects, including drowsiness, restlessness, and muscle spasms. In some cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, a condition characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or limbs. It is important to use Metoclopramide only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Hyperkalemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum, specifically when the concentration exceeds 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter). Potassium is a crucial intracellular ion that plays a significant role in various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm regulation.

Mild to moderate hyperkalemia might not cause noticeable symptoms but can still have harmful effects on the body, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of hyperkalemia (potassium levels > 6.5 mEq/L) can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure.

Hyperkalemia may result from various factors, such as kidney dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, trauma, or excessive potassium intake. Prompt identification and management of hyperkalemia are essential to prevent severe complications and ensure proper treatment.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Fadrozole is a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor drug that is used in the treatment of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors work by blocking the production of estrogen, which some types of breast cancer cells need to grow. By reducing the amount of estrogen in the body, fadrozole can help slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells.

Fadrozole is typically used as a treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. It may be used as a first-line therapy or after other treatments have failed. The drug is administered orally, and the typical dosage is 1-2 mg per day.

Like all medications, fadrozole can cause side effects, including hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, and joint pain. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects such as liver damage or an increased risk of bone fractures. Patients taking fadrozole should be monitored closely by their healthcare provider to ensure that the drug is working effectively and to manage any side effects that may occur.

Potassium deficiency, also known as hypokalemia, is a condition characterized by low levels of potassium (

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are a class of medications used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and protect against kidney damage in patients with diabetes. They work by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict and blood pressure to increase, at its type 1 receptor. By blocking this effect, ARBs cause blood vessels to dilate, reducing blood pressure and decreasing the workload on the heart. Examples of ARBs include losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan.

Diuresis is a medical term that refers to an increased production of urine by the kidneys. It can occur as a result of various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, or as a response to a physiological need, such as in the case of dehydration. Diuretics are a class of drugs that promote diuresis and are often used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema.

Diuresis can be classified into several types based on its underlying cause or mechanism, including:

1. Osmotic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine in response to a high concentration of solutes (such as glucose) in the tubular fluid. The high osmolarity of the tubular fluid causes water to be drawn out of the bloodstream and into the urine, leading to an increase in urine output.
2. Forced diuresis: This is a medical procedure in which large amounts of intravenous fluids are administered to promote diuresis. It is used in certain clinical situations, such as to enhance the excretion of toxic substances or to prevent kidney damage.
3. Natriuretic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of sodium and water in response to the release of natriuretic peptides, which are hormones that regulate sodium balance and blood pressure.
4. Aquaresis: This is a type of diuresis that occurs in response to the ingestion of large amounts of water, leading to dilute urine production.
5. Pathological diuresis: This refers to increased urine production due to underlying medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus or pyelonephritis.

It is important to note that excessive diuresis can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, so it should be monitored carefully in clinical settings.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11-β-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and cortisone, which belong to the class of glucocorticoids. These enzymes exist in two isoforms: 11-β-HSD1 and 11-β-HSD2.

1. 11-β-HSD1: This isoform is primarily located within the liver, adipose tissue, and various other peripheral tissues. It functions as a NADPH-dependent reductase, converting inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This enzyme helps regulate glucocorticoid action in peripheral tissues, influencing glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.
2. 11-β-HSD2: This isoform is predominantly found in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands. It functions as a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, converting active cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone. By doing so, it protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from being overstimulated by cortisol, ensuring aldosterone specifically binds and activates this receptor to maintain proper electrolyte and fluid balance.

Dysregulation of 11-β-HSDs has been implicated in several disease states, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat related conditions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Glycyrrhiza" is the medical term for the licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra), which belongs to the legume family. The root of this plant contains glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting compound that has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as treating coughs, stomach ulcers, and liver disorders. However, excessive consumption of glycyrrhizin can lead to serious side effects like high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and even heart problems. Therefore, it is important to use licorice products under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Tetrazoles are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. They have the chemical formula of C2H2N4. Tetrazoles are stable under normal conditions, but can decompose explosively when heated or subjected to strong shock.

In the context of medicinal chemistry, tetrazoles are sometimes used as bioisosteres for carboxylic acids, as they can mimic some of their chemical and biological properties. This has led to the development of several drugs that contain tetrazole rings, such as the antiviral drug tenofovir and the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib.

However, it's important to note that 'tetrazoles' is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical term that can be used in the context of medicinal chemistry or pharmacology.

Captopril is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a chemical in the body called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to narrow and release hormones that can increase blood pressure. By blocking the action of angiotensin II, captopril helps relax and widen blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow.

Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. The medication comes in the form of tablets that are taken by mouth, usually two to three times per day.

Common side effects of captopril include cough, dizziness, headache, and skin rash. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, and changes in blood cell counts. It is important for patients taking captopril to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

The kidney cortex is the outer region of the kidney where most of the functional units called nephrons are located. It plays a crucial role in filtering blood and regulating water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. The kidney cortex contains the glomeruli, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal tubules, which work together to reabsorb necessary substances and excrete waste products into the urine.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

The Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 (AT1 receptor) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to the hormone angiotensin II, which plays a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The RAAS is a vital physiological mechanism that regulates blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte balance.

The AT1 receptor is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, adrenal glands, kidneys, and brain. When angiotensin II binds to the AT1 receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to vasoconstriction, increased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, and stimulation of aldosterone release from the adrenal glands. These effects ultimately result in an increase in blood pressure and fluid volume.

AT1 receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are a class of drugs used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and other cardiovascular conditions. By blocking the AT1 receptor, these medications prevent angiotensin II from exerting its effects on the cardiovascular system, leading to vasodilation, decreased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, and reduced aldosterone release. These actions ultimately result in a decrease in blood pressure and fluid volume.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the excessive accumulation and/or altered deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, in various tissues and organs. This results in the formation of fibrous scar tissue that can impair organ function and structure. Fibrosis can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, tissue injury, or abnormal repair mechanisms, and it is a common feature of many diseases, including liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure, and kidney disease.

In medical terms, fibrosis is defined as:

"The process of producing scar tissue (consisting of collagen) in response to injury or chronic inflammation in normal connective tissue. This can lead to the thickening and stiffening of affected tissues and organs, impairing their function."

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Peptidyl-dipeptidase A is more commonly known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

ACE is a membrane-bound enzyme found primarily in the lungs, but also in other tissues such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in converting the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

ACE also degrades the peptide bradykinin, which is involved in the regulation of blood flow and vascular permeability. By breaking down bradykinin, ACE helps to counteract its vasodilatory effects, thereby maintaining blood pressure homeostasis.

Inhibitors of ACE are widely used as medications for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease, among other conditions. These drugs work by blocking the action of ACE, leading to decreased levels of angiotensin II and increased levels of bradykinin, which results in vasodilation, reduced blood pressure, and improved cardiovascular function.

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but can also be used to manage chronic heart failure and protect against kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. It works by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to rise. By blocking this hormone's effects, losartan helps relax and widen blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the workload on the cardiovascular system.

The medical definition of losartan is: "A synthetic angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. It selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor, leading to vasodilation, decreased aldosterone secretion, and increased renin activity."

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Aldosterone is synthesized by following the metabolism of progesterone. In the potential case where aldosterone synthase is not ... Deficient aldosterone synthase activity results in impaired biosynthesis of aldosterone while corticosterone in the zona ... Aldosterone synthase converts 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, to 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and finally to aldosterone ... the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as a paradigm". Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. 1 (4): 316-24. ...
In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that ... Aldosterone initially results in an increase in Na+ reabsorption in these patients through stimulation of ENaC channels in ... This is the proposed mechanism of "mineralocorticoid escape" for how patients with increased levels of aldosterone are able to ... The inability of ACE inhibitor therapy to reliably suppress aldosterone release, for example, in patients with heart failure or ...
... (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity or by serum ... Also, it can be given in pmol/L per µg/(L·h), where aldosterone is given in molar concentration. The former can be converted to ... The aldosterone/renin ratio is recommended as screening tool for primary hyperaldosteronism. There is more than one way to ... 1] Aldosterone-Renin Ratio in Primary Hyperaldosteronism by Allan S. Brett. Posted: 03/15/2005; Journal Watch. 2005;4(2) (All ...
... is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is abstracted and indexed in, among other databases: SCOPUS, and the Social ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a resource for biomedical professionals, including basic scientists and ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System also publishes research on other peptides, such as vasopressin, the ...
It has about 100 to 500% of the affinity of aldosterone for the MR and about 50 to 230% of the affinity of progesterone for the ... 115-. ISBN 978-3-319-14385-9. Ménard J (2004). "The 45-year story of the development of an anti-aldosterone more specific than ... Drospirenone is an antagonist of the MR, the biological target of mineralocorticoids like aldosterone, and hence is an ... Oelkers W (February 2002). "The renin-aldosterone system and drospirenone". Gynecol. Endocrinol. 16 (1): 83-7. doi:10.1080/gye. ...
The production of aldosterone is regulated via the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system, a system composed of baroreceptors ... These hormones include aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid that regulates the amount of salt in tissue and body fluids, cortisol, ... Scott JH, Menouar MA, Dunn RJ (2023). "Physiology, Aldosterone". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID ... The difference between primary hyperaldosteronism and secondary hyperaldosteronism lies in the causation of excess aldosterone ...
September 1987). "Aldosterone antagonists. 2. Synthesis and biological activities of 11,12-dehydropregnane derivatives". ... Similarly to spironolactone, prorenone is also a potent inhibitor of aldosterone biosynthesis. Prorenone can be synthesized via ... "Relative inhibitory potency of five mineralocorticoid antagonists on aldosterone biosynthesis in vitro". Biochemical ...
Rather, both renin and aldosterone are measured, and a resultant aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is used for case detection. A ... of cases Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma: < 0.1% of cases 40% of people with an adrenal aldosterone producing ... Other genes commonly mutated in aldosterone producing adenomas are ATP1A1 ATP2B3, CACNA1D, and CTNNB1. Aldosterone has effects ... Tiu SC, Choi CH, Shek CC, Ng YW, Chan FK, Ng CM, Kong AP (January 2005). "The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic ...
... and aldosterone receptor antagonists. These drugs inhibit the first and rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ... This mechanism, which runs from renin through Ang II and to aldosterone, as well as the negative feedback that Ang II has on ... The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathology of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, ... Hsueh, W. A.; Wyne, K. (2011). "Renin-angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Diabetes and Hypertension". The Journal of Clinical ...
Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitors such as metyrapone, mitotane, and osilodrostat prevent the production of the potent ... Jürg Müller (6 December 2012). Regulation of Aldosterone Biosynthesis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 39-. ISBN 978-3- ... and aldosterone from the less potent corticosteroids 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol and are used in the diagnosis ... mineralocorticoid aldosterone from the less potent mineralocorticoid corticosterone. Osilodrostat was investigated for the ...
HSD211B2 expression is also found in the brainstem in a small, aldosterone-sensitive subset of neurons located in the nucleus ... Corticosteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 is an NAD+-dependent enzyme expressed in aldosterone-selective epithelial tissues ... thereby out-competing aldosterone in cells that do not produce HSD11B2. This glucocorticoid-inactivating enzyme is also ... "Aldosterone in the brain". American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. 297 (3): F559-76. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.90399.2008 ...
Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist. This has two actions, firstly, as a potassium-sparing diuretic, although its ... Secondly, it reduces aldosterone-mediated myocardial fibrosis, possibly slowing the progression of heart disease. An ACE ...
Sodium absorption by the distal tubule is mediated by the hormone aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption. ...
Suppression of angiotensin II leads to a decrease in aldosterone levels. Since aldosterone is responsible for increasing the ... The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a major blood pressure regulating mechanism. Markers of electrolyte and water ... High blood potassium is another possible complication of treatment with an ACE inhibitor due to its effect on aldosterone. ... ACE inhibitors reduce the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as the primary etiologic (causal) event ...
Aldosterone synthase (18-hydroxylase; CYP11B2). Prevents the conversion of corticosterone into aldosterone. As such, AG is an ... Aldosterone synthase inhibitors, Anticonvulsants, Antiglucocorticoids, Aromatase inhibitors, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage ...
Aldosterone has been found to have rapid non-genomic effects in the central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular ... It has been estimated that as much as 50% of the rapid actions of aldosterone are mediated by mMRs that are not the classical ... GPER, also known as GPR30, binds and is activated by aldosterone, and may be considered an mMR, although it also binds and is ... Harvey BJ, Alzamora R, Stubbs AK, Irnaten M, McEneaney V, Thomas W (2008). "Rapid responses to aldosterone in the kidney and ...
In rigid systems such as aldosterone, the 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer is exceedingly fast, with a rate constant on the order of ... Barton, D. H. R.; Beaton, J. M. (1960). "A Synthesis of Aldosterone Acetate". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 82 (10 ... a synthesis of aldosterone acetate is demonstrated. Allowing corticosterone acetate to react with nitrosyl chloride in dry ...
Bauman K, Muller J (1972). "Effect of potassium on the final status of aldosterone biosynthesis in the rat. I 18-hydroxylation ... The name cortisol is derived from cortex.) While the adrenal cortex also produces aldosterone (in the zona glomerulosa) and ... ISBN 978-0-471-06266-0. Muller AF, Oconnor CM (1958). An International Symposium on Aldosterone. Little Brown & Co. p. 58. ... High-potassium media (which stimulates aldosterone secretion in vitro) also stimulate cortisol secretion from the fasciculata ...
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 11 (1): 57-66. doi:10.1177/1470320309347790. PMID 19880657. US patent 4812462, BLANKLEY C ...
Aldosterone is produced in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland and its secretion is mediated principally by ... Aldosterone acts on the kidneys to provide active reabsorption of sodium and an associated passive reabsorption of water, as ... Aldosterone and cortisol (a glucosteroid) have similar affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoids ... Hypoaldosteronism (the syndrome caused by underproduction of aldosterone) leads to the salt-wasting state associated with ...
For example, aldosterone functions to raise blood sodium levels and lower blood potassium levels by targeting the kidneys. ... Connell, J. M. C., & Davies, E. (2005). The new biology of aldosterone. Journal of Endocrinology, 186, 1-20.] Nelson, D. L., ... Examples of adrenocortical hormones that are involved in the stress response are aldosterone and cortisol. These hormones also ... hypoglycemia and decreased blood sodium levels and increased blood potassium levels caused by a deficiency of aldosterone. ...
... decreasing the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and impairing tubular responsiveness to aldosterone Kim, ... There is active excretion of potassium in the distal tubule and the collecting duct; both are controlled by aldosterone. In ... In chronic kidney disease, hyperkalemia occurs as a result of reduced aldosterone responsiveness and reduced sodium and water ... Mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) deficiency or resistance can also cause hyperkalemia. Primary adrenal insufficiency are: ...
Canrenoic acid Potassium canrenoate Müller J (6 December 2012). Regulation of Aldosterone Biosynthesis: Physiological and ... 804-. ISBN 978-0-8155-1856-3. "List of Aldosterone receptor antagonists". "Potassium Uses, Side Effects & Interactions". ( ... Aldosterone synthase inhibitors, Antimineralocorticoids, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme inhibitors, CYP17A1 inhibitors ...
Colombo L, Dalla Valle L, Fiore C, Armanini D, Belvedere P (April 2006). "Aldosterone and the conquest of land". Journal of ... All vertebrates have some form of a renin-angiotensin axis, and all tetrapods have aldosterone as a primary mineralocorticoid. ... TRH - TSH - T3/T4 GnRH - LH/FSH - sex hormones CRH - ACTH - cortisol Renin - angiotensin - aldosterone leptin vs. Ghrelin ...
"Thrombospondin expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas". Hypertension Research. 25 (4): 523-7. doi:10.1291/hypres.25.523. ...
Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone, ADH, and thirst. Aldosterone causes kidneys to reabsorb sodium; ADH ...
The adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol and mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone; when proper amounts of ... 2001). "Endocrinology-an Integrated Approach-Aldosterone". National Institutes of Health (US). Retrieved 25 January 2011. ... or possibly serum or plasma aldosterone during the ACTH stimulation test. While most corticosteroid drugs will invalidate the ...
Renin but not aldosterone is elevated. Many infants born with this condition died before a method for diagnosis was recognized ... it is undamaged at birth and can make aldosterone for a while, so the eventual salt-wasting crisis develops more gradually and ...
The cell membrane aldosterone receptor has shown to increase the activity of the basolateral Na/K ATPase, ENaC sodium channels ... Aldosterone) 3: Progesterone receptor (PR; NR3C3, PGR) (Sex hormones: Progesterone) 4: Androgen receptor (AR; NR3C4, AR) (Sex ...
It selectively stimulates secretion of aldosterone. The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm. Aldosterone is the ... Aldosterone is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It has a plasma half-life of less than 20 minutes. Drugs that ... Aldosterone is increased at low sodium intakes, but the rate of increase of plasma aldosterone as potassium rises in the serum ... A measurement of aldosterone in blood may be termed a plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), which may be compared to plasma ...
J. Deheneffe, Victoria Cuesta, Iris Robertson; The Control of Aldosterone in Anephric Man. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 May 1975; 48 (5 ...
An aldosterone-producing adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in an adrenal gland, which is a small hormone- ... Aldosterone-producing adenomas are caused by mutations in one of several genes. The most commonly mutated gene is KCNJ5, ... An aldosterone-producing adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in an adrenal gland, which is a small hormone- ... In adrenal gland cells, this flow of ions helps control the production of aldosterone. Mutations in the KCNJ5, CACNA1D, or ...
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Pregnancy. Normal pregnancy is associated with many changes in the renin-angiotensin- ... Measuring plasma aldosterone levels may not be useful in the diagnosis of pregnant women, because the normal elevation in ... Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adenoma consisting of pure zona glomerulosa-type cells in a pregnant woman. ... Blood pressure, the renin-aldosterone system and sex steroids throughout normal pregnancy. Am J Med. 1980 Jan. 68(1):97-104. [ ...
USMLE Step 1 General Pathology Active Recall Review [Pathoma Ch 1-3 ...
Explore the 1 paper that mention a possible interaction between Aldosterone and Dietary Fiber. ... Aldosterone induction of hepatic stellate cell contraction through activation of RhoA/ROCK-2 signaling pathway ...
Aldosterone - Baseline and Pre & Post ACTH Stimulation. By adminDecember 21, 2020May 23rd, 2023REFERRED, Test ...
Excess aldosterone. *Pheochromocytoma. *Adrenal nodules. *Adrenal cancer. Treatments for adrenal diseases include:. * ...
In vivo certain tissues with this receptor are aldosterone selective (eg, kidney and parotid) whereas others with the same ... In vitro the mineralocorticoid receptor is non-specific and does not distinguish between aldosterone and cortisol. ... In vivo certain tissues with this receptor are aldosterone selective (eg, kidney and parotid) whereas others with the same ... Autoradiographic studies showed that protection is lost when the enzyme is inhibited; 3H-corticosterone and 3H-aldosterone were ...
Comparative effects of Celecoxib and Rofecoxib on serum aldosterone and aldosterone-related markers of thrombosis and sudden ...
aldosterone blockers. •. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), e.g., indomethacin. •. heparin and low molecular ... Aldosterone levels may be exceptionally high in this condition. ALDACTAZIDE is indicated for maintenance therapy together with ... Spironolactone (ALDACTONE®), an aldosterone antagonist, is 17-hydroxy-7α-mercapto-3-oxo-17α-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid γ- ... Relative to spironolactone, their binding affinities to the aldosterone receptors in rat kidney slices were 0.19, 0.86, and ...
"Adrenal tumors include nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs), which do not produce aldosterone, and aldosterone-producing adenomas ( ... Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) find that the cells that make up aldosterone-producing adenomas ... These tumors, known as adenomas, produce a hormone called aldosterone that raises blood pressure and can cause other ... As the cells differentiated, they expressed even higher levels of genes involved in aldosterone synthesis and became ...
Although hirsutism is broadly defined as excessive hairiness, the common clinical use of the term refers to women with excess growth of terminal hair in a male pattern. In this sense, hirsutism is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting approximately 10% of women in the United States.
... improved renal function in type 1 diabetes patients with renal impairment when combined with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ... Plasma renin activity (PRA), serum and urinary aldosterone, renal plasma flow (RPF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were used ... and overactive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) (11). In other words, DKD is a complex disease that arises from the ... serum or urinary aldosterone, MAP, and RPF between both interventions (24). ...
In an increasingly competitive market environment, Apotex continually strives to introduce quality, affordable medicines to consumers.
Water and sodium retention in edematous disorders: role of vasopressin and aldosterone. Am J Med 2006;119:S47-53.. 5. Atherton ... Activation of the renin angiotensin system -that leads to an increased concentration of aldosterone- plays an important role in ...
Aldosterone causes salt to be retained in the body, driving up blood pressure. Patients with excessive aldosterone levels in ... aldosterone. The scan found that in two-thirds of patients with elevated aldosterone secretion, this is coming from a benign ... The scan uses a very short-acting dose of metomidate, a radioactive dye that sticks only to the aldosterone-producing nodule. ... "These aldosterone-producing nodules are very small and easily overlooked on a regular CT scan. When they glow for a few minutes ...
A couple of notes on aldosterone.. *. I often refer to spironolactone as my secret weapon for heart failure with preserved ... Well, TARGET HTN studied perhaps a better way to deal with aldosterones role in HTN. Instead of blocking the mineralocorticoid ... The role of high levels of aldosterone in HTN, especially resistant HTN and HTN in obesity, is underappreciated. ... A news column on theHeart.org,Medscape Cardiology from Megan Brooks also tells of another promising aldosterone synthase ...
Aldosterone Antagonism Is More Effective at Reducing Blood Pressure and Excessive Renal ENaC Activity in AngII-Infused Female ... AngII (angiotensin II)-dependent hypertension causes comparable elevations of blood pressure (BP), aldosterone levels, and ... Aldosterone Antagonism Is More Effective at Reducing Blood Pressure and Excessive Renal EN ... that determines the availability of MR to aldosterone is significantly higher in AngII-infused female rats than in males. ENaC ...
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors. 12 (5.9). 0. Nephrotoxic antimicrobial drugs. 5 (2.4). 0. ...
Although the drug has a relatively short half-life, its blockade of the aldosterone receptor lasts for at least 24 hours. ... Spironolactone (Aldactone) blocks the aldosterone receptor at the distal tubule. It is dosed at 50-300 mg once daily. ... Ideally, TIPS placement produces a decrease in sinusoidal pressure and in plasma renin and aldosterone levels, with subsequent ... They are, to some extent, due to increased levels of renin and aldosterone. ...
मूत्रपिंडाच्या व्यवस्थित कामासाठी Aldosterone व ADH या हॉर्मोन्सचे कार्य व्यवस्थित असणे महत्वाचे असते. अनुक्रमे Adrenal व ... हे उत्सर्जन व्यवस्थित होण्यासाठी मूत्रपिंडाचे कार्य व्यवस्थित असले पाहिजे आणि या कामात Aldosterone हे हॉर्मोन महत्वाची भूमिका ...
... aldosterone; atropine; steroids (eg, hydrocortisone); norepinephrine transporter inhibitors, (eg, atomoxetine), ergot alkaloids ...
And when aldosterone senses that sodium losses are becoming too great to maintain normal bodily functioning, it orchestrates a ... In doing so, aldosterone helps conserve our stores of sodium. Now, this recirculation/conservation process cannot take care of ... Regarding sodium loss, there is a hormone called aldosterone whose primary responsibility (in laymans terms) is to monitor ... When the normal function of aldosterone is "shut down" due to excess sodium intake, another hormone, vasopressin, will ...
Serum aldosterone concentrations significantly increased after 6 days of torsemide administration (p=0.0006). Orally- ...
Many labs use blood tests to measure aldosterone levels, but I definitely prefer measuring aldosterone as part of an over-all ... This test measures all the aldosterone output in a 24-hour period; since aldosterone and other steroid hormones are secreted ... sodium and potassium regulation are two of aldosterones major responsibilities), please dont take aldosterone, bio-identical ... His hearing did improve, but unless you too are an M.D., D.O., or N.D. who can prescribe bio-identical aldosterone and order ...
  • The last parts are mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes are nearly identical (they share 11β-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation functions), but aldosterone synthase is also able to perform an 18-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone synthase is normally absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAH due to aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) causes a decrease in aldosterone level without affecting cortisol levels. (medscape.com)
  • Drugs that interfere with the secretion or action of aldosterone are in use as antihypertensives, like lisinopril, which lowers blood pressure by blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), leading to lower aldosterone secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone also stimulates the activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signaling cascades that act independently on specific molecular targets in the cell membrane and also modulate the transcriptional action of aldosterone through MR. This review describes current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and targets of rapid aldosterone action in the nephron and how aldosterone integrates these responses into the regulation of renal physiology. (annualreviews.org)
  • Serum potassium concentrations are the most potent stimulator of aldosterone secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It selectively stimulates secretion of aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The close correlation between AII and aldosterone secretion suggests that locally produced AII may play an important role in aldosterone biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Although CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 share 95% homology, the former regulates the final steps in cortisol synthesis, whereas the latter regulates the final steps in aldosterone synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • The steroid hormone aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney and contributes to both homeostatic whole-body electrolyte balance and the development of renal and cardiovascular pathologies. (annualreviews.org)
  • K-RAS4A was expressed in RCC tissue and in the renal cancer cell lines but K-RAS was downregulated by spironolactone and upregulated by aldosterone. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • K-RAS expression in renal cell carcinoma is at least partially induced by aldosterone. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The effects of aldosterone on arachidonic acid metabolism and on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were evaluated in the Dahl salt sensitive (DS) rat aorta, renal, femoral and carotid arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aldosterone Antagonism Is More Effective at Reducing Blood Pressure and Excessive Renal ENaC Activity in AngII-Infused Female Rats Than in Males. (bvsalud.org)
  • AngII ( angiotensin II )-dependent hypertension causes comparable elevations of blood pressure (BP), aldosterone levels, and renal ENaC (epithelial Na+ channel) activity in male and female rodents . (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of renal MR and HSD11ß2 (11ß- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) that determines the availability of MR to aldosterone is significantly higher in AngII-infused female rats than in males . (bvsalud.org)
  • Aldosterone has exactly the opposite function of the atrial natriuretic hormone secreted by the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with an aldosterone-producing adenoma may develop severe high blood pressure ( hypertension ), and they have an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, or an irregular heart beat ( atrial fibrillation ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another example is spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic of the steroidal spirolactone group, which interferes with the aldosterone receptor (among others) leading to lower blood pressure by the mechanism described above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by several factors: increase in the plasma concentration of angiotensin III, a metabolite of angiotensin II increase in plasma angiotensin II, ACTH, or potassium levels, which are present in proportion to plasma sodium deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased potassium level works to regulate aldosterone synthesis by depolarizing the cells in the zona glomerulosa, which opens the voltage-dependent calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes known to be involved in aldosterone-producing adenomas have roles in balancing the amounts of positively charged atoms (ions) of sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), and calcium (Ca 2+ ) in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High levels of Aldosterone can cause hyperaldosteronism which is the increased levels of blood pressure and reduced potassium levels in the body. (flebo.in)
  • Low levels of Aldosterone can cause Hypoaldosteronism which can cause low blood pressure, high potassium levels in the blood, low sodium levels as well as dehydration. (flebo.in)
  • Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aldosterone levels, another steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex, are primarily responsible for regulating this balance. (drlamcoaching.com)
  • Excess aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain more salt than normal, which increases the body's fluid levels and blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Aldosterone Serum Test In Pune works around a hormone called Aldosterone or ALD. (flebo.in)
  • Why is the aldosterone Serum Test done? (flebo.in)
  • The Aldosterone Serum Test is done to check endocrine functions and identify any endocrine dysfunctionality. (flebo.in)
  • An Aldosterone Serum Test In Pune measures the levels of ALD in the blood. (flebo.in)
  • The Aldosterone Serum Test In Pune can be conducted in labs, hospitals, and through services providing a home collection of samples. (flebo.in)
  • It ensures that your tests are done smoothly and that you get the best Aldosterone Serum Test In Pune prices. (flebo.in)
  • The Aldosterone Serum Test does not pinpoint the cause of increased ALD levels. (flebo.in)
  • Abcam's Aldosterone Competitive In Vitro ELISA Kit (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is designed for the precise quantitative measurement of aldosterone in plasma, serum, and urine. (bayan-na2s.com)
  • If decreased blood pressure is detected, the adrenal gland is stimulated by these stretch receptors to release aldosterone, which increases sodium reabsorption from the urine, sweat, and the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone, one of the major culprits associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is significantly elevated following high salt administration in Dahl rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in alterations of vascular function in hypertensive patients, the study of aldosterone effects on vascular function could be especially relevant in the hemodynamic abnormalities associated with hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is involved in the development of hypertension and its associated complications. (cyberounds.com)
  • The role of the sympathetic nervous system, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in the control of blood pressure was discussed. (cdc.gov)
  • Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is a C-21 (21 carbon atoms) steroid hormones synthesized in the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona glomerulosa (ZG) of the adrenal gland and is a precursor for the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is a C-21 (21 carbon atoms) steroid hormone synthesized in zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona glomerulosa (ZG) of the adrenal gland and is a precursor for the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • An aldosterone-producing adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in an adrenal gland, which is a small hormone-producing gland located on top of each kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In primary aldosteronism (PA), two subtypes are distinguished: aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). (medscape.com)
  • the ACTH stimulation test, which is sometimes used to stimulate the production of aldosterone along with cortisol to determine whether primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal tumor produces too much of the hormone aldosterone, which is a condition known as primary hyperaldosteronism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas cause up to 60 percent of cases of primary hyperaldosteronism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Overactivation of this biochemical process also increases aldosterone production, resulting in hyperaldosteronism and leading to hypertension. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldosterone helps regulate the body's fluid levels and blood pressure by controlling the amount of salt retained by the kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldosterone exerts its action principally through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in target tissues. (annualreviews.org)
  • When dysregulated, aldosterone is pathogenic and contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since we have previously demonstrated that aldosterone (ALDO) upregulates cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in the kidney, the present study was design to assess whether prostaglandin release is involved in the effects of chronic aldosterone treatment on vascular function of the aorta from nonhypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In fact, aldosterone produces a time-dependent increase in blood pressure in the presence of a low-salt diet, but not in the presence of a high-salt diet, implicating an inappropriate control of plasma aldosterone levels during the development of aldosterone-mediated hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indirect blood pressure (BP), the release of prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) and prostaglandin E 2 , and the expression of COX-2 were measured to assess the vascular remodelling by aldosterone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In adrenal gland cells, this flow of ions helps control the production of aldosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cells of the adrenal cortex contain angiotensin-II (AII), but whether this peptide is synthesized there (vs. internalized from the systemic circulation), whether it is secreted, and whether it is important in aldosterone production remain uncertain. (nih.gov)
  • We previously reported the salt content of the diet was crucial for the hypertensive effect of aldosterone [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aldosterone modulates membrane receptors and signalling molecules and influences the actions of a variety of agents to sensitize the vasculature to effects of various agents that induce vasoconstriction or result in direct effects on growth and remodelling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the contribution of cyclooxgenase and its products to the vascular effects of aldosterone on specific blood vessels needs to be further examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the present study was design to assess whether prostaglandin release is involved in the effects of chronic aldosterone treatment on vascular function of the aorta from nonhypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aldosterone is the primary of several endogenous members of the class of mineralocorticoids in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, suggesting a role for prostaglandins in the vasculopathic aspects of aldosterone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aldosterone: How diet, lifestyle, and supplements may provide benefits. (examine.com)
  • There was a highly significant correlation between AII and aldosterone release. (nih.gov)
  • Standards or test samples are added to the wells, along with an aldosterone antigen conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (AP) and a sheep polyclonal antibody specific for aldosterone. (bayan-na2s.com)
  • Also, we have found that aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction in both normotensive and hypertensive rats may be related to an involvement of the prostanoid pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intensity of the yellow coloration is inversely proportional to the amount of aldosterone captured on the plate. (bayan-na2s.com)
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas are generally not inherited but arise from a mutation in the body's cells that occurs after conception. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldosterone supports the survival and proliferation of RCC cells by upregulation of K-RAS acting through the Akt and Raf pathways. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • 0.3% NaCl) and Group 2 was fed a LS with aldosterone (ALDO;0.05 mg/kg/day) for three weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water output is regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. (drlamcoaching.com)