Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.GlyceraldehydeAldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Nicotinyl Alcohol: Alcohol analog of NICOTINIC ACID which is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened GANGRENE.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Barbital: A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.BenzaldehydesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Ribonucleotide ReductasesPolygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseNitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.FuraldehydeMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.RhodanineProstaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Cytochrome ReductasesImmunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PhthalazinesL-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Galactitol: A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.AcroleinNADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Rats, Inbred F344NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dihydropteridine Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.99.7.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thioredoxin Reductase 1: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)KetonesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mevalonic AcidLovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Arsenate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)XyloseDinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sulfite Reductase (NADPH): A NADPH-dependent oxidase that reduces hydrogen sulfite to HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is found in many microoganisms.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Hydrogensulfite Reductase: An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Hydroxypyruvate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate in the presence of NADP.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Thioredoxin Reductase 2: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Within this group are the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) such as hGSTA4-4 and hGST5.8, aldose reductase, and aldehyde ... 4-HNE has 3 reactive groups: an aldehyde, a double-bond at carbon 2, and a hydroxy group at carbon 4. It is found throughout ... Although they are the most studied ones, in the same process other oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (OαβUAs) are generated ... Increased activity of the mitochondrial enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has been shown to have a protective effect ...
Robinson B, Hunsaker LA, Stangebye LA, Vander Jagt DL (December 1993). "Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex ... aldose reductase)". Lee H (August 1998). "The structure and function of yeast xylose (aldose) reductases". Yeast. 14 (11): 977- ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ...
... halogen bond that contributes to the large potency of this inhibitor for human aldose reductase rather than aldehyde reductase ... Aldehyde-based and carboxylate inhibitors are effective but toxic because the functional activity of aldehyde reductase is ... An example of this assertion in drug design is the substrate specificity for the binding of IDD 594 to human aldose reductase. ... 2004), "Ultrahigh Resolution Drug Design I: Details of Interactions in Human Aldose Reductase-Inhibitor Complex at 0.66 Å", ...
aldose + NAD(P)H + H+ Aldehyde reductase Ja 1.1.1.22 UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase Ja ... L-xylulose reductase Ja 1.1.1.11 D-arabitol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-xylulose + NADH + H+ D-arabitol 4- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ... Aldehyde + NADPH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.3 L-Homoserine + NAD(P)+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L- ...
In enzymology, aldose reductase (or aldehyde reductase) (EC 1.1.1.21) is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that ... The reaction mechanism of aldose reductase in the direction of aldehyde reduction follows a sequential ordered path where NADPH ... AKR1B1 Aldo-keto reductase Petrash JM (April 2004). "All in the family: aldose reductase and closely related aldo-keto ... "Mechanistic basis for nonlinear kinetics of aldehyde reduction catalyzed by aldose reductase". Biochemistry. 29 (42): 9947-55. ...
... such as aldehyde reductase, aldose reductase, prostaglandin F synthase, xylose reductase, rho crystallin, and many others. All ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9547-51. PMID 2498333 ... Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM (December 1992). "The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex". J. ... "An unlikely sugar substrate site in the 1.65 A structure of the human aldose reductase holoenzyme implicated in diabetic ...
"The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The ... by mammalian aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1244 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(94) ... Bohren KM, Page JL, Shankar R, Henry SP, Gabbay KH (December 1991). "Expression of human aldose and aldehyde reductases. Site- ... Vander Jagt DL, Hunsaker LA, Robinson B, Stangebye LA, Deck LM (July 1990). "Aldehyde and aldose reductases from human placenta ...
Aldose reductase is the first enzyme in the sorbitol-aldose reductase pathway responsible for the reduction of glucose to ... The role of aldehyde reductase tyrosine phenol group is to serve as a general acid to provide proton to the reduced aldehyde ... Aldose reductase inhibitors, which are substances that prevent or slow the action of aldose reductase, are currently being ... The reaction requires NADH and is catalyzed by aldose reductase. Glucose reduction is the first step of the polyol pathway of ...
... aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. ... "The structure of Apo R268A human aldose reductase: hinges and latches that control the kinetic mechanism.". Biochim Biophys ... aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity. • L-glucuronate reductase activity. • glucuronolactone reductase activity. • retinol ... "The role of aldehyde reductase AKR1A1 in the metabolism of γ-hydroxybutyrate in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. ". Chem Biol ...
2003). "Human aldose reductase and human small intestine aldose reductase are efficient retinal reductases: consequences for ... This member can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and it is less active on hexoses. It is highly expressed ... 2005). "Phorbol ester up-regulates aldose reductase expression in A549 cells: a potential role for aldose reductase in cell ... "Entrez Gene: AKR1B10 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (aldose reductase)". Human AKR1B10 genome location and AKR1B10 ...
L-glucuronate reductase EC 1.1.1.20: glucuronolactone reductase EC 1.1.1.21: aldehyde reductase EC 1.1.1.22: UDP-glucose 6- ... usnate reductase EC 1.1.1.200: aldose-6-phosphate reductase (NADPH) EC 1.1.1.201: 7b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC ... artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase EC 1.3.1.93: very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase EC 1.3.1.94: polyprenol reductase ... flavin reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.37: FAD reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.38: FMN reductase (NADPH) EC 1.5.1.39: FMN reductase (NAD(P) ...
Although aldose reductase can also detoxify methylgloxal, the glyoxalase system is more efficient and seems to be the most ... The attack of the glutathione would leave a charged O- and the aldehyde hydrogen bound to C1. If the carbonyl oxygen of C2 can ... In this mechanism, a basic sidechain of the enzyme abstracts the aldehyde proton from C1; at the same time, the a proton is ... In effect, two identical aldehydes reduce and oxidize each other, leaving the net oxidation state the same.) In glyoxalase I, ...
Aldose reductase. *Beta-Ketoacyl ACP reductase. *Carbohydrate dehydrogenases. *Carnitine dehydrogenase. *D-malate dehydrogenase ... reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl thioester reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier ... 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acylcarrier protein]reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[ACP]reductase. This enzyme ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ...
Aldose reductase. *Beta-Ketoacyl ACP reductase. *Carbohydrate dehydrogenases. *Carnitine dehydrogenase. *D-malate dehydrogenase ... reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl thioester reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier ... 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acylcarrier protein]reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[ACP]reductase. This enzyme ... 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Beta-Ketoacyl ACP reductase ...
... ferredoxin-nitrite reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.750.500 --- nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163 --- aldehyde ... aldose-ketose isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.174 --- autocrine motility factor MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.350 --- glucose-6- ... aldehyde reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.237 --- d-xylulose reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.400 --- ... gmp reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.500 --- nitrate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.124 --- nitrate reductase MeSH D08.811. ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ... Aldose reductase. *Beta-Ketoacyl ACP reductase. *Carbohydrate dehydrogenases. *Carnitine dehydrogenase. *D-malate dehydrogenase ... dihydromyricetin reductase, NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase, and dihydroquercetin reductase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase (EC 1.1.1.219) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
1.1 Aldose reductase. *HMG-CoA reductase. *1.3 5α-Reductase. *1.4 Monoamine oxidase ... Irreversible inhibitors often contain reactive functional groups such as nitrogen mustards, aldehydes, haloalkanes, alkenes, ... Dihydrofolate reductase is inhibited by methotrexate which prevents binding of its substrate, folic acid. Binding site in blue ... Trypanothione reductase with the lower molecule of an inhibitor bound irreversibly and the upper one reversibly. Created from ...
Aldose reductase. *Beta-Ketoacyl ACP reductase. *Carbohydrate dehydrogenases. *Carnitine dehydrogenase. *D-malate dehydrogenase ... a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion from a carbohydrate to an aldehyde ...
"Synthesis and Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of 5- Arylidene-2,4-thiazolidinediones," Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ... Keeping optimized reaction condition, a variety of carbonyl compounds such as aromatic aldehydes 1a-b, heterocyclic aldehydes ... A mixture of aldehyde (1 mmol), 2,4-thiazolidinedione/rhodanine (1 mmol) and ZnO nanoparticles (5 mol%) was heated under oil ... Electron withdrawing and donating groups on aromatic aldehyde, were shown slightly diversion in rate of reaction and yields i.e ...
... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ...
Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase. / Mizoguchi, T.; Itabe, H.; Kador, P. ... Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase. Advances in experimental medicine and ... title = "Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase", ... T1 - Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase ...
"The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The ... by mammalian aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1244 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(94) ... Bohren KM, Page JL, Shankar R, Henry SP, Gabbay KH (December 1991). "Expression of human aldose and aldehyde reductases. Site- ... Vander Jagt DL, Hunsaker LA, Robinson B, Stangebye LA, Deck LM (July 1990). "Aldehyde and aldose reductases from human placenta ...
... Academic Article ... Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) ...
aldose + NAD(P)H + H+ Aldehyde reductase Ja 1.1.1.22 UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase Ja ... L-xylulose reductase Ja 1.1.1.11 D-arabitol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-xylulose + NADH + H+ D-arabitol 4- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ... Aldehyde + NADPH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.3 L-Homoserine + NAD(P)+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L- ...
... such as aldehyde reductase, aldose reductase, prostaglandin F synthase, xylose reductase, rho crystallin, and many others. All ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9547-51. PMID 2498333 ... Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM (December 1992). "The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex". J. ... "An unlikely sugar substrate site in the 1.65 A structure of the human aldose reductase holoenzyme implicated in diabetic ...
Inhibitors of aldose reductase (ARIs) have been widely investigated as potential thera … ... or adverse side effects attributed to lack of inhibitor specificity and likely inhibition of the related aldehyde reductase ( ... Aldose reductase structures: implications for mechanism and inhibition Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004 Apr;61(7-8):750-62. doi: 10.1007 ... Inhibitors of aldose reductase (ARIs) have been widely investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but to date only ...
A study was made of inhibitory effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor, CT-112 (5-(3-ethoxy-4-pentyloxyphenyl)-2,4- ... Effects of aldose reductase inhibitor, CT-112, on sugar alcohol accumulation in corneal epithelium of galactose-fed rats Jpn J ... A study was made of inhibitory effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor, CT-112 (5-(3-ethoxy-4-pentyloxyphenyl)-2,4- ... Aldehyde Reductase / antagonists & inhibitors* * Animals * Cornea / metabolism* * Diet* * Epithelium / metabolism * Galactitol ...
Inhibition of human aldose and aldehyde reductases by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ... Aldehyde and aldose reductases from human placenta. Heterogeneous expression of multiple enzyme forms. ... Methylglyoxal metabolism and diabetic complications: roles of aldose reductase, glyoxalase-I, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ... Reduction of trioses by NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductases. Aldose reductase, methylglyoxal, and diabetic complications. ...
cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ... AKR1B1, ADR, ALDR1, ALR2, AR, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B ... aldose reductase)".. *^ Lee H (August 1998). "The structure and function of yeast xylose (aldose) reductases". Yeast. 14 (11): ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Aldehyde Reductase. An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad ... Aldo-keto reductase that functions as an all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. It also reduces aromatic and aliphatic ALDEHYDES. ... Aldose reductase regulates hyperglycemia-induced HUVEC death via SIRT1/AMPK-α1/mTOR pathway.. 08:00 EDT 1st April 2019 , ... Aldose Reductase Polymorphisms, Fasting Blood Glucose, and Age-Related Cortical Cataract.. To determine whether there is an ...
Abbreviations: ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; AR, aldose/aldehyde reductase; COMT, catechol‐O‐methyltransferase; DA, dopamine; ... Abbreviations: AD, aldehyde dehydrogenase; ADR, adrenaline; COMT, catechol‐O‐methyltransferase; DHPG, dihydroxyphenylglycol; ...
Herein, we show that inhibition of the aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) modulates NF-kappaB-dependent ... Aldose reductase mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages.. ... Expression of Concern: Aldose reductase mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 ... suggesting that reduced GS-lipid aldehydes catalyzed by AR propagate LPS-induced production of inflammatory markers. ...
... aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase 1, aldose reductase; inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2; galactokinase, in brain of fetal ... evidence that the major 2-carboxybenzaldehyde reductase from human liver is a homologue of rat aflatoxin Bl-aldehyde reductase ... Down Syndrome Aldose Reductase Phosphoglycerate Kinase Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Fructose Bisphosphate Aldolase These ... Lubec G, Labudova O, Cairns N, Berndt P, Langen H, Fountoulakis M (1999) Reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase in brain of patients ...
Aldehyde Reductase (Aldose Reductase)IBA 01/2011. 1. tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol combination (Sativex)IBA 01/2010. ...
Accepted name: aldehyde reductase. Reaction: alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+. Other name(s): aldose reductase; polyol ... NADP+-aldehyde reductase; NADP+-dependent aldehyde reductase; NADPH-aldehyde reductase; NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase; ... nonspecific succinic semialdehyde reductase; ALR 1; low-Km aldehyde reductase; high-Km aldehyde reductase; alcohol ... Other name(s): aldehyde reductase; L-hexonate:NADP dehydrogenase; TPN-L-gulonate dehydrogenase; aldehyde reductase II; NADP-L- ...
Aldose Reductase) Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen. ... Top performende anti-Pferd Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member B1 ( ... Aldose reductase, ALDR1, ADR, Aldehyde reductase, Aldehyde reductase 1, ALR2, Lii5-2 CTCL tumor antigen, Low Km aldose ... Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member B1 (Aldose Reductase) (AKR1B1) Andere Bezeichnung AKR1B1 / Aldose Reductase (AKR1B1 ...
Aldose Reductase) Antikörper für Western Blotting (WB) vergleichen & kaufen. ... Top performende anti-Meerschweinchen Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member B1 ( ... Steuber, Heine, Podjarny, Klebe: "Merging the binding sites of aldose and aldehyde reductase for detection of inhibitor ... Aldose Reductase) Antikörper * anti-Meerschweinchen Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member B1 (Aldose Reductase) Antikörper für ...
... and their roles in the reduction of toxic aldehydes in plants subjected to chilling stress. ... and their roles in the reduction of toxic aldehydes in plants subjected to chilling stress. ... Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (cytosolic GLYR1 and plastidial/mitochondrial GLYR2) ... Plant NADPH-dependent glyoxylate/succinic semialdehyde reductases 1 and 2 (cytosolic GLYR1 and plastidial/mitochondrial GLYR2) ...
... and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid ... and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid ... 2000). A novel aldose/aldehyde reductase protects transgenic plants against lipid peroxidation under chemical and drought ... Mundree, S. G., Whittaker, A., Thomson, J. A., and Farrant, J. M. (2000). An aldose reductase homolog from the resurrection ...
The kinetic mechanism of human placental aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase II. Arch. Bioch. Biophys., 261: 264-274.. ... Isoflavones inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in vitro. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 68: 428-432.. ...
Studies by others and ourselves have implicated aldose reductase (AR) as a key player in... ... Srivastava SK, Ansari NH, Hair GA et al (1984) Aldose and aldehyde reductases in human tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta 800:220- ... Human aldose reductase and human small intestine aldose reductase are efficient retinal reductases: consequences for retinoid ... Aldose reductase Aldose reductase inhibitor Sorbitol dehydrogenase Reactive oxygen species Advanced glycation end products ...
Oberschall, A., Deak, M., Torok, K., et al., A Novel Aldose/Aldehyde Reductase Protects Transgenic Plants Against Lipid ... Zhifang, G. and Loescher, W.H., Expression of a Celery Mannose 6-Hosphate Reductase in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt ...
Whereas aldehyde reductase and aldose reductase are AKRs, several forms of carbonyl reductase belong to the SDRs. In addition, ... Carbonyl Reductase from Comamonas testosteroni:New Approaches for efficient Protein Design Carbonyl reduction of aldehydes, ... Carbonyl reduction of aldehydes, ketones and quinones to their corresponding hydroxy de-rivatives plays an important role in ... Carbonyl-reducing enzymes are grouped into two large protein superfamilies, the aldo-keto reductases (AKR) and the short-chain ...
  • Its use for the condensation of aldehydes and active methylene compounds under solvent free reaction condition at 90˚C afforded the corresponding products in excellent yields in minute time. (scirp.org)
  • It also participates in glucose metabolism and osmoregulation and plays a protective role against toxic aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonyl reduction of aldehydes, ketones and quinones to their corresponding hydroxy de-rivatives plays an important role in the phase-I metabolism of many endogenous (biogenic aldehydes, steroids, prostaglandins, reactive lipid peroxidation products) and xenobiotic (pharmacologic drugs, carcinogens. (uni-marburg.de)
  • 9 - 11 Lipid peroxidation causes the formation of a number of lipid aldehyde byproducts, including malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and acrolein (ACR). (arvojournals.org)
  • 2009 ). Lipid peroxidation products such as HNE are metabolically removed by several enzymes including aldose reductase (AR) (Baba et al. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ). Although extensive investigations have delineated the pathological role of lipid peroxidation products and identified metabolic pathways that detoxify these toxic aldehydes, non-enzymatic pathways, which can sequester these aldehydes and protect against myocardial injury, have been less well studied. (springer.com)
  • Lipid peroxidation generates high levels of alkoxyl radicals that degenerate into saturated and unsaturated lipid-derived aldehydes (LDAs). (arvojournals.org)
  • In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. (louisville.edu)
  • Based on this understanding we are currently assessing in detail the role of aldose reductase and related aldo-keto reductases in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. (louisville.edu)
  • Thus, our work on the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes bears significance for understanding the cardiovascular effects of environmental aldehydes. (louisville.edu)
  • The aldose reductase reaction, in particular the sorbitol produced, is important for the function of various organs in the body. (wikidoc.org)
  • To examine the regulation of aldose reductase (AR) activity by nitric oxide (NO) in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC), cultured rat lens, and normal and diabetic rat lens, we have incubated HLEC or cultured rat lenses with 1 mm of the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and the AR activity and sorbitol content were measured. (utmb.edu)
  • Displays enzymatic activity towards endogenous metabolites such as aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, monosacharides, bile acids and xenobiotics substrates. (genecards.org)
  • The current oilahuasca theory states that all allylbenzenes must first be converted into alcohols by hydroxylation of either the 1 position of the tail or the 3 position, and then converted to either phenyl vinyl ketones or aldehydes which then condense with dimethylamine , pyrrolidine , or piperidine to form one of three corresponding alkaloid metabolites. (wikidot.com)
  • abstract = "Our objective was to determine whether impaired ovarian function induced by short-term creation of a galactosemic state in the rat might be prevented by the coadministration of an aldose reductase inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • Aldose (or aldehyde) reductase is inhibited by several substances, including isoliquiritigenin (which I've been discussing in connection with licorice) and rutin (which interestingly is in tea - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/elan.200603496/abstract ). (blogspot.com)
  • Since diabetic patients have higher ratios of glycated proteins than normoglycemic individuals, they have higher levels of 3DG, which at once tends to inactivate aldehyde reductase and reduces the enzyme's ability to detoxify this reactive molecule by reduction to 3DF. (justia.com)
  • Several ubiquitous pollutants such as gasoline vapor, car exhaust, smoke, and smog contain significant amounts of reactive aldehydes. (louisville.edu)
  • Promising compounds during in vitro studies or in trials with animal models have failed to proceed beyond clinical trials and to everyday use, due to a lack of efficacy or adverse side effects attributed to lack of inhibitor specificity and likely inhibition of the related aldehyde reductase (ALR1). (nih.gov)