Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.
Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Insecticide, molluscacide, acaricide.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. The downy akund floss fiber from the seeds is used like kapok.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The status of health in suburban populations.
Health services, public or private, in suburban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A plant genus of the family PROTEACEAE that is the source of edible NUTS.
A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
A genus of fungi in the family Ophiostomataceae, order OPHIOSTOMATALES. Several species are the source of Dutch elm disease, which is spread by the elm bark beetle.

A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (1/53)

The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets.  (+info)

Aldicarb as a cause of food poisoning--Louisiana, 1998. (2/53)

Cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides (i.e., organic phosphates and carbamates), widely used in agriculture, can cause illness if they contaminate food or drinking water. Aldicarb, a regulated carbamate pesticide, is highly toxic, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires applicators to be trained and certified. This report describes a foodborne outbreak of aldicarb poisoning that occurred when improperly stored and labeled aldicarb was used mistakenly in food preparation.  (+info)

In vitro sulfoxidation of aldicarb by hepatic microsomes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. (3/53)

The carbamate pesticide, aldicarb, demonstrates significant acute toxicity in mammals, birds, and fish, and is readily biotransformed by most organisms studied. Metabolic products of aldicarb include the more toxic sulfoxide and the less toxic sulfone as two of the major products. Both the cytochrome P450 (CYP) and the flavin monooxygenase systems (FMO) are involved in this process. This study examined the capacities of liver microsomes of male channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), which lack FMO, to biotransform aldicarb in vitro. In addition, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potencies of aldicarb and its sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives were determined. For metabolism studies, incubations of [14C]-aldicarb (0.1mM) were carried out for up to 15-90 min using 1.0 mg/mL of hepatic microsomal protein. Total NADPH- dependent biotransformation was low (< 3.0% conversion to polar metabolites), and was inhibited by carbon monoxide. The only metabolite detected was aldicarb sulfoxide (Kmapp = 53.8 +/- 25.3 microM; Vmaxapp = 0.040 +/- 0.007 nmol/min/mg). Treatment of fish with the CYP modulators beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, 50 mg/kg) and ethanol (EtOH, 1.0% aqueous) had no effect on sulfoxide production. No correlation existed between CYP isoform expression (determined by western blot) and aldicarb sulfoxidation rates, suggesting the involvement of an unmeasured CYP isoform or involvement of several isoforms with low specificity. This study indicates that a low rate of bioactivation of aldicarb to aldicarb sulfoxide may be responsible for the resistance of channel catfish to aldicarb toxicity relative to that of other piscine species.  (+info)

A case of aldicarb poisoning: a possible murder attempt. (4/53)

A couple showing signs of cholinergic crisis was admitted to the hospital. Analyses with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry conducted on serum, urine, and stomach contents that were collected few hours after first symptoms showed the presence of aldicarb, which is the most potent carbamate insecticide on the market. A murder attempt was suspected because the patients showed the first signs some minutes after drinking coffee upon returning home and no commercial products containing aldicarb were found in the house. Because of the reversibility of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the patients recovered after treatment with atropine and toxogonin. They left the hospital after 12 days. To our knowledge, the serum concentrations of aldicarb reported in this paper are the highest reported for a nonfatal case.  (+info)

Serotonin inhibition of synaptic transmission: Galpha(0) decreases the abundance of UNC-13 at release sites. (5/53)

We show that serotonin inhibits synaptic transmission at C. elegans neuromuscular junctions, and we describe a signaling pathway that mediates this effect. Release of acetylcholine from motor neurons was assayed by measuring the sensitivity of intact animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. By this assay, exogenous serotonin inhibited acetylcholine release, whereas serotonin antagonists stimulated release. The effects of serotonin on synaptic transmission were mediated by GOA-1 (a Galpha0 subunit) and DGK-1 (a diacylglycerol [DAG] kinase), both of which act in the ventral cord motor neurons. Mutants lacking goa-1 G(alpha)0 accumulated abnormally high levels of the DAG-binding protein UNC-13 at motor neuron nerve terminals, suggesting that serotonin inhibits synaptic transmission by decreasing the abundance of UNC-13 at release sites.  (+info)

In vivo acetylcholinesterase inhibition, metabolism, and toxicokinetics of aldicarb in channel catfish: role of biotransformation in acute toxicity. (6/53)

The carbamate pesticide, aldicarb, demonstrates significant acute toxicity in mammals, birds, and fish through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and may present high potential for exposure of aquatic organisms during periods of runoff. Toxicity studies have shown that channel catfish are less sensitive to the acute toxic effects of aldicarb than are rainbow trout or bluegill. An earlier in vitro study suggests that the aldicarb resistance in catfish may be related to a low level of bioactivation to the potent aldicarb sulfoxide. The current study examines the toxicity, AChE inhibition, plasma kinetics, and in vivo metabolism of aldicarb in channel catfish. A 48-h LC50 of 9.7 mg/l was determined for juvenile channel catfish. Mortality was accompanied by dramatic loss of brain AChE. Further characterization of tissue-level effects suggests that muscle AChE plays a causal role in mortality. Aldicarb was metabolized in channel catfish to aldicarb sulfoxide, along with the formation of minor hydrolytic products. The toxicokinetics of aldicarb in catfish are bi-compartmental with rapid elimination (t1/2 = 1.9 h). Plasma AChE was inhibited in a pattern similar to that of the elimination of total aldicarb-derived compounds. A comparison of aldicarb uptake between catfish and rainbow trout showed no difference in compound absorbed in 24 h. The pattern of in vivo metabolism, however, was quite different between these species. Rainbow trout produce significantly more hydrolytic derivatives and have a 3-fold higher aldicarb sulfoxide to aldicarb ratio at 3 h. These data give strength to the hypothesis that a slower rate of bioactivation in the catfish (vs. rainbow trout) is acting as a protective mechanism against the acute toxicity of aldicarb.  (+info)

Mitochondrial expression and function of GAS-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. (7/53)

A mutation in the gene gas-1 alters sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, fecundity, and life span in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. gas-1 encodes a close homologue of the 49-kDa iron protein subunit of Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain from bovine heart. gas-1 is widely expressed in the nematode neuromuscular system and in a subcellular pattern consistent with that of a mitochondrial protein. Pharmacological studies indicate that gas-1 functions partially via presynaptic effects. In addition, a mutation in the gas-1 gene profoundly decreases Complex I-dependent metabolism in mitochondria as measured by rates of both oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. An increase in Complex II-dependent metabolism also is seen in mitochondria from gas-1 animals. There is no apparent alteration in physical structure in mitochondria from gas-1 nematodes compared with those from wild type. These data indicate that gas-1 is the major 49-kDa protein of complex I and that the GAS-1 protein is critical to mitochondrial function in C. elegans. They also reveal the importance of mitochondrial function in determining not only aging and life span, but also anesthetic sensitivity, in this model organism.  (+info)

Effects of salinity on aldicarb toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis x chrysops). (8/53)

Fluctuations in several environmental variables, such as salinity, can influence the interactions between organisms and pollutants in aquatic organisms, and, therefore, affect the toxicity of xenobiotics. In this study, after 2 species of fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x chrysops) were acclimated to 4 salinity regimens of 1.5, 7, 14, and 21 ppt for 1 week and then exposed to 0.5 mg/l aldicarb. Mortality, brain, and muscle cholinesterase levels were measured after 96 h. Rates of (14)C-aldicarb sulfoxide formation were determined in kidney (trout only), liver, and gill microsomes from each species acclimated to the 4 salinity regimens. Salinity significantly enhanced aldicarb toxicity, cholinesterase inhibition, and (14)C-aldicarb sulfoxide formation in rainbow trout but not in striped bass. In vitro incubations with (14)C-aldicarb and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor, N-benzylimidazole, did not significantly alter aldicarb sulfoxide formation in tissue microsomes from either species of fish, indicating CYP did not contribute to aldicarb sulfoxidation. Salinity increased flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) mRNA expression and catalytic activities in microsomes of liver, gill, and kidney of rainbow trout, which was consistent with the salinity-induced enhancement of aldicarb toxicity. Salinity did not alter FMO mRNA expression and catalytic activities in striped bass, which was also consistent with the lack of an effect of salinity on aldicarb toxicity in this species. These results suggest that salinity-mediated enhancement of aldicarb toxicity is species-dependent, and at least partially due to the salinity-related upregulation of FMOs, which, in turn, increases the bioactivation of aldicarb to aldicarb sulfoxide, which is a more potent inhibitor of cholinesterase than aldicarb.  (+info)

Kok FN, Arica MY, Halicigil C, Alaeddinoglu G, Hasirci V Carboxymethylcellulose microspheres cross-linked via aluminum ions were used as a support material for immobilization of Methylosinus isolated from soil contaminated with aldicarb. The degradation capacity of immobilized bacteria, different parameters such as substrate concentration (50-800 ppm), flow rate (10-60 ml h−1), and continuous contact with reaction medium (flow rate, 20 ml h−1 and concentration, 100 ppm) that affect aldicarb degradation were investigated in a packed-bed reactor. Increases in the flow rate decreased the conversion of aldicarb into its metabolites. On the other hand, increasing the substrate concentration up to 400 ppm led to an increase in the amount of aldicarb converted (max 16%). Beyond this, the proportion of aldicarb that converted was decreased, reaching approximately 7% at 800 ppm. The apparent kinetic parameters, K′m and Vmax, were determined to be as 310.11 ppm and 2.29 × 10−2 ppm s−1, ...
Kök FN, Wilkins RM, Cain RB, Arica MY, Alaeddinoğlu G, Hasirci V. Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Aldicarb loaded microspheres of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, of various compositions were prepared with the crosslinking action of Al(III). Into these microspheres, lignin was introduced as a filler to further regulate the rate of release. The encapsulation efficiency was low (4.15-13.00%) due to the high water solubility of aldicarb. Release into aqueous media was quite rapid and almost complete within 24h. Initial stages of the release (60% of AS released) was investigated to determine the release mechanism and it was found that release from the microspheres was governed by Fickian diffusion. Among the various parameters, the ratio of lignin to CMC and aldicarb to CMC were found to be influential on the rate of release from the crosslinked CMC-lignin microspheres. The soil behaviour confirmed the delayed release effect of the controlled ...
EWGs Tap Water Database Aldicarb sulfoxide results for Stoddard County Public Water Supply District 1 | Aldicarb sulfoxide. Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Aldicarb sulfone results for Toledo Village Water Supply Corporation | Aldicarb sulfone. Find out what is in your tap water
The small GTPase RHO-1 is an important regulator of neurotransmission. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing activated RHO-1 (G14V) in their cholinergic motor neurons (nRHO-1*) become hypersensitive to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, demonstrating increased acetylcholine release, and acquire a highly loopy, uncoordinated locomotion. RHO-1 inhibits diacylglycerol kinase (DGK-1), and so increases the availability of diacylglycerol (DAG), a key second messenger for release at the presynaptic membrane. Inhibiting RHO-1 in a dgk-1 mutant causes a decrease in neurotransmitter release, demonstrating the presence of additional targets downstream of RHO-1. During a forward genetic screen for suppressors of the loopy locomotion of nRHO-1* animals we obtained a mutant, nz94, which carried an additional fainter phenotype, helping us identify it as an allele of unc-80, a large, conserved protein, important in the localization of NCA-1 and NCA-2, C. elegans homologues of the novel ...
The carbamate pesticide aldicarb is used for the control of insects, nematodes, and mites. It is now registered for use on cotton, sugar beets, sugar cane, potatoes, peanuts, and a variety of field- and nursery-grown ornamental plants.. A bioassay of aldicarb for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex were administered aldicarb at one of two doses, either 2 or 6 ppm, for 103 weeks and then observed for an additional 0 to 2 weeks. Matched controls consisted of 25 untreated rats and 25 untreated mice of each sex. All surviving animals were killed at weeks 103 to 105.. Mean body weights of the dosed male and female rats were essentially the same as those of the corresponding controls. Mean body weights of the dosed male and female mice also were essentially the same as those of corresponding controls. Hyperactivity was noted in the dosed groups of mice. Survival was not affected ...
A quantitative assay: In the process of making double mutants we observed that worms doubly heterozygous for unc-13(n2813) and unc-64(e246) (genotype unc-13/+; unc-64/+) were uncoordinated. Thus, these mutations exhibited nonallelic noncomplementation. Further characterization of this phenomenon required a quantitative assay. Since the severity of an uncoordinated phenotype is a subjective measure, we chose to use a pharmacological assay to quantify allelic interactions. The inhibitor of cholinesterase, Aldicarb, blocks the breakdown of acetylcholine and causes acetylcholine to accumulate in the synaptic cleft. In wild-type worms, this accumulation results in constitutive depolarization and hypercontraction of the muscle, which leads to paralysis and eventually to death. Mutations that disrupt the release of acetylcholine are resistant to Aldicarb (Brenner 1974; Rand and Russell 1985; Hosonoet al. 1989; Milleret al. 1996). Therefore we used sensitivity to Aldicarb as a measure of synaptic ...
Acute symptoms of pesticide poisoning include headaches, vomiting,. tremors, lack of coordination, difficulty breathing or respiratory. depression, loss of consciousness, seizures and death. Chronic effects. of long-term pesticide exposure include impaired memory and concentration, disorientation, severe depression and confusion.. ● In India, home to over one third of the worlds cotton farmers, cotton. accounts for 54% of all pesticides used annually - despite occupying. just 5% of land under crops. In a single 5 month observation period, 97. cotton farmers experienced 323 separate incidents of ill health. Of these. 39% were associated with mild poisoning, 38% with moderate poisoning, and 6 % with severe poisoning.. ● A single drop of the pesticide aldicarb, absorbed through the skin can. kill an adult. Aldicarb is commonly used in cotton production and in. 2003 almost 1 million kilos was applied to cotton grown in the USA.. Aldicarb is also applied to cotton in 25 other countries ...
See how COMSOL can be used to simulate pesticide runoff and degradation patterns, important when determining if a pesticide is safe for use.
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: Verification of ER-resident E3 ubiquitin ligases for SLO-1 degradation. a known ER stress inducer. Data are means SEM; NS, not significant, One-way ANOVA; Tukeys post hoc test). (level pub = 10 m).(TIF) pgen.1008829.s002.tif (593K) GUID:?DBE63996-C89E-4F82-881B-7FFAF2BF049C S3 Fig: A mutation reverses the reduced SLO-1 function in the absence of ERG-28. A mutation raises aldicarb resistance in animals. Aldicarb-induced paralysis was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier success evaluation.(TIF) pgen.1008829.s003.tif (330K) GUID:?27E62CCF-E0A9-4960-B343-65FD7739843D S4 Fig: An mutation will not impede the trafficking of overexpressed SLO-1. (A) Consultant pictures and quantification of SLO-1 on the dorsal cable of mutant pets. No aggregated puncta had been observed (range club = 10 m).(TIF) pgen.1008829.s004.tif (1.0M) GUID:?AB4CE45E-2E16-4600-9923-5ABFB0F9CBFE S5 Fig: The deletion mutation recovers higher degrees of SLO-1 on the dorsal cord compared to the missense mutation. ...
• Ag Logic, a subsidiary of Maximum Economic Yield (MEY), has applied to the EPA for label clearance on a Temik-like product and expects the final answer by Oct. 23. • The product will not be Temik, it will be an aldicarb compound that is very similar to Temik.
ABDUCTEE ABEGGING ABLATORS ABLEISMS ABLEISTS ACANTHAE ACARBOSE ACOELOUS ACQUIREE ACTIONER ADMASSES ADMITTEE AEROBATS AGEMATES AGGADAHS AGGADOTH AGUACATE AIRSHOTS AIRSHOWS AKINESIA AKINETIC ALACHLOR ALDICARB ALIASING ALLOSAUR ALLSORTS ALMANACK ALTERITY AMARONES ANALYTES ANTHEMIC ANTIACNE ANTIGANG ANTIMINE ANTINOME ANTISPAM APOAPSES AQUAFARM AQUALUNG ARCHAEAL ARCHAEAN ARCHAEON ARCHFOES ASHCAKES ASOCIALS ASSUAGER ATABRINE ATENOLOL ATTAGIRL ATTICIZE ATTRITES AUDIBLED AUDITEES AURALITY AUTARCHS AUTOHARP AUTOMATS AUTONYMS AUTOPENS AVERTERS AZULEJOS BAASKAPS BAASSKAP BABBITRY BABYDOLL BABYSITS BACKFLIP BACKHOED BACKLOAD BACLOFEN BAGPIPED BAITFISH BAKELITE BAKEWARE BALLYARD BANDITOS BANDMATE BANDSAWS BANNABLE BAREHAND BARISTAS BAROSAUR BARYTONS BASHINGS BASILECT BATGIRLS BATIKING BATTERER BEDBOARD BEHEADAL BEHEADER BELAYERS BELLINGS BENADRYL BENCHTOP BENDIEST BENTHONS BERIMBAU BESTOWER BHANGRAS BIGSTICK BILEVELS BIMBETTE BINARISM BIOFILMS BIOFUELS BIOMETER BIOMORPH BIOSOLID BIRDDOGS BIRDFEED BIRDLIFE ...
Evidence that inhibitory motor neurons of the guinea-pig small intestine exhibit fast excitatory synaptic potentials mediated via P-2X receptors Journal Articles ...
From a pharmacological perspective, these substances act via the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) as reversible inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Typically, acetylcholine (ACh) is released into the neural synaptic cleft and binds to ACh receptors post-synapse, which then relays a signal from the nerve. AChE halts the signal transmission via hydrolysis of ACh into acetate and choline. AChE functions rapidly and has a very high catalytic activity - it has been demonstrated that AChE can degrade about 25,000 molecules of ACh per second. Choline is then taken up by the presynaptic nerve and ACh is constructed from choline and Acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via another enzyme, choline acetyltransferase. As AChE inhbitors, aldicarb and carbofuran inhibit or slow down the normal function of this enzymatic pathway of ACh which results in an accumulation of ACh in the neural synaptic cleft. This accumulation can result in devastating consequences for the organism. ...
SUETT, D.L. & JUKES, A.A. (1990). Some factors influencing the accelerated degradation and biological activity of aldicarb and carbofuran in field soils. Abstracts 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Hamburg, Germany, August 1990, p. 71.. SUETT, D.L. & JUKES, A.A. (1988). Accelerated degradation of soil‑applied insecticides ‑ implications for control of damson‑hop aphid in hops. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, XI/5, pp. 22-32 ...
M Treinin] suppression of deg-3(u662) induced degenerations, Coilers, Levamisole resistance, Aldicarb resistance, pharyngeal pumping defect, temperature sensitive ...
The N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate hydrochloride, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, pirimicarb, ...
Neem gave a 36-56% reduction. In Clinical Veterinary Advisor: The Horse, 2012. The median duration of symptoms was 6 hours. In an interaction study, combined application of M. anisopliae CLO 53 with H. megidis and S. glaseri increased mortality of third-instar Hoplia philanthus in an additive/synergistic way. By diet incorporation bioassays in neonate T. ni treated with a low dose (LC20) of deltamethrin and a low dose (LC20) of vMAg4p+, vSAt2p+, or vSSh1p+, they found additive effects in terms of larval mortality, but no synergistic effects. Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide introduced in 1966. Brand names include Sevin (carbaryl), Temik (aldicarb), Golden Malrin (methomyl), Furadan (carbofuran), and Baygon (propoxur). Animal poisoning from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos) and carbamate (aldicarb, Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Integrated Pest Management. In another series of 52 carbamate-poisoned patients, 35 developed medical complications, principally ...
Poisoned Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) preparing to return to the UK skies. The female bird and her brother were discovered near Buckfastleigh in Devon in June. Her brother later died. Officials suspect deliberate poisoning. Tests show he swallowed a highly toxic substance. A pigeon smeared in the toxic pesticide, aldicarb, was also found. A £1000 reward is being offered for any information leading to a conviction ...
Aldicarb and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as postplant treatments for control of nematodes on American boxwood, and Japanese and Chinese hollies ...
According to a news bulletin recently released by the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, permethrin insecticide and laundry detergent caused the greatest numbers of reported deaths.. Permithrins are the most common over-the-counter flea and tick treatment. Although relatively safe (if ineffective) when used on dogs as directed, it is a common and potentially fatal mistake to misapply the product on cats. This can cause the cat to die of convulsions. There is no antidote.. Liquid laundry detergent or the new individual detergent packs cause severe stomach upset in bot dogs and cats, followed by aspiration of the detergent into the lungs. The ensuing respiratory complications can be fatal.. Poison number 3 is topical Efundex, or 5-fluorouracil. Dogs who get a hold of the tube and ingest even a small amount of the cream develop GI upset, severe seizures and cardiac arrest.. Carbonate insecticides, ie Aldicarb (illegal in the US) and methomyl can cause acute collapse and patients referral to the ...
Across Africa, the illegal use of poison is triggering a continent-wide scavenger crisis, with vultures suffering the most severe negative consequences. Vultures may die as indirect victims of the conflict between livestock farmers and predators, or they may be directly targeted by poachers with the aim to reduce the role of vultures as sentinels that alert authorities of poaching events. In this study, we provide novel information on vulture mortalities across the commercial farmlands of Namibia. We show that estimated mortalities of vultures due to anthropogenic causes amount to over 800 individuals over the period 2000-2015, which underscores the magnitude of the problem. The highest numbers of vulture deaths were reported from the southern half of the country, with the exception of the areas just south of Etosha National Park, and poisoning was the greatest cause of reported deaths. Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer ...
Kaitlin Soye is the co-author of the article RIG-I is required for the inhibition of measles virus by retinoids which was published by PLoS One.. ...
Weed Control Methods Handbook: Tools & Techniques …- natural house plant insecticides pdf instructions ,plants in natural areas. Chapter 5 discusses factors to consider when deciding whether to use herbicides or not, provides guidelines for herbicide use, and describes different application methods, who may apply herbicides and when they are most effectively applied. TNC staff should read the Standard Operating Procedures & Guidelines andPoinsettia Insect & Mite Management - Ornamental ...If insecticide/ miticide treatments are required, use of target-specific products that preserve populations of natural enemies is encouraged. Preventive treatment programs for pests such as spider mites and whiteflies are often conducted using soil-applied systemic insecticides such as Oxamyl 10G (oxamyl) or Temik 10G (aldicarb, removed from ...
Automated behavioural fingerprinting of C. elegans mutants: Rapid advances in genetics, genomics, and imaging have given insight into the molecular and cellular
Apl-1 expression was induced in adult worms via heat shock. A single induction in day one adults mildly increased lifespan (5%) whereas regular apl-1 expression robustly increased lifespan (12-30%). Tissue specific expression had differing effects, neuron specific expression resulted in a decrease in lifespan whereas hypodermis specific expression resulted in lifespan extension ...
UCIL used to manufacture three different kinds of pesticides: Carbaryl (trade name Sevin), Aldicarb (trade name Temik) and a formulation of Carbaryl and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (trade name Sevidol). The plant also used heavy metals like mercury and chromium. Most of these products and elements are persistent and toxic. The CSE laboratory chose the same chemicals for its tests.. In October this year, one water and eight soil samples were collected from various places inside the factory. Eleven more water samples came from locations outside, ranging from colonies next to the factorys boundary to those 3.5 km away.. All the samples collected from within the factory were found to be highly contaminated. The waste stored within the premises had Carbaryl content of 9,856 parts per million (ppm) and mercury content of 1,065 ppm. The soil sample near the Sevidol plant had 2,782 ppm of Lindane; soil from solar evaporation pond had chromium content of 1,065 ppm, while that from the Sevin plant had ...
Smooth muscle within the GI tract causes the involuntary peristaltic motion that moves consumed food down the esophagus and towards the rectum.[1] The smooth muscle throughout most of the GI tract is divided into two layers: an outer longitudinal layer and an inner circular layer.[1] Both layers of muscle are located within the muscularis externa. The stomach has a third layer: an innermost oblique layer. The physical contractions of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system, or by receptor mediated calcium influx.[1] These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer is innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons, while the outer longitudinal layer is innervated by mainly excitatory neurons. These action potentials cause the smooth muscle cells to contract or relax, depending on the particular stimulation the cells receive. ...
HPLC Application #18282: Carbamate Pesticides on Kinetex 2.6µm C18 50 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Kinetex® 2.6 µm C18 100 Å, LC Column 50 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00B-4462-E0
At 4 a.m., July 4, 1985, three adults who ate a solid green watermelon purchased in Oakland, California, had rapid onset of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating, excessive tearing, muscle fasciculations, and bradycardia. The most severely ill was a 59-year-old woman who had been receiving digoxin and who, on examination, had a heart rate of 32 and 4-second periods of asystole. The treating physician diagnosed cholinesterase-inhibitor poisoning, and the patient responded rapidly to atropine. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) had been alerted the day before by Oregon State Health Division officials of similar, although milder, clusters of illness in Oregon associated with ingestion of striped watermelons, possibly of California origin. CDHS notified the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center to be alert for watermelon-associated illness. When the attending physician consulted the Poison Control Center, CDHS was alerted to the outbreak in California. CDHS ...
The action potential (AP) is the basic signaling unit in various crucial physiological processing, for instance, in neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and glandular secretion (Koch, 1990). The classic model animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (or C. elegans), with a simple and compact nervous system, conservatively employs the calcium-mediated all-or-none APs for odor response in AWA olfactory neurons (Liu et al., 2018), as well as for muscle contraction in body wall muscles (Gao and Zhen, 2011; Liu et al., 2011) and pharyngeal muscles (Davis et al., 1999). Plateau potentials were also observed in ASE and RMD neurons (Goodman et al., 1998; Mellem et al., 2008; Lockery et al., 2009; Lockery and Goodman, 2009), though the underlying roles in specific behavior are still elusive. Either in neurons or in muscles, the action potential firing is dependent on the excitatory pre-synaptic vesicles release. The minimum number of the presynaptic vesicles to elicit a single action potential in C. elegans has ...
The common species of thrips infesting cotton seedlings include flower thrips, Frankliniella tritici (Fitch); tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman); and soybean thrips, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach). In surveys of cotton seedlings at several locations in Louisiana, tobacco thrips was the most common species. The occurrence of flower thrips and soybean thrips was variable. Western flower thrips accounted for < 15% of adults collected at all locations, except two. The performance of acephate and imidacloprid applied as seed treatments and in-furrow, and aldicarb applied in-furrow was evaluated for thrips management across different production environments. Insecticide treatments reduced thrips densities and delayed development of thrips larval populations. The at-planting insecticides influenced thrips species composition in some instances. In studies to evaluate the effects of ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of APL-9 in adults with mild to moderate ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) caused by COVID-19 who are hospitalized and require supplemental oxygen therapy with or without mechanical ventilation.. It is thought that COVID-19 activates the complement system, part of the immune system that responds to infection or tissue damage, and increases inflammation in the lungs. APL-9 has been designed to inhibit or block activation of part of the complement pathway, and potentially reduce inflammation in the lungs.. Part 1 of the study is open-label to evaluate safety; all participants will receive APL-9 plus standard of care. Part 2 of the study is double-blind, randomized; participants will receive either APL-9 or the vehicle-control plus standard of care.. ...
Twelve-month results of the FILLY trial show that in patients with geographic atrophy, the administration of complement C3 inhibitor APL-2 slowed the growth rate of the disease. It also appeared to increase the risk of new onset AMD, although this did not have an adverse effect on visual outcomes.
In order to understand the huge complexity of brain function, and to determine the mechanisms underlying various psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia) and neuronal disorders (Alzheimers disease), it is imperative that the basic machinery involved in neuronal transmission is fully elucidated. This involves exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and subsequent release of neurotransmitter. SVs can exocytose by two different modes: full fusion (FF) and kiss-and-run (K&R). There is much debate as to whether SV fusion in the nerve terminal can occur via K&R mode of exocytosis and this has been studied herein, using cerebrocortical synaptosomes from adult rats. Switching between the two modes depends upon the secondary messenger calcium and protein phosphorylation reactions. Dr. Ashton has previously demonstrated that an increase in intracellular calcium levels regulates the switch between these modes of exocytosis, and thus the role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) was studied. Blockade of L-type ...
Environmental fate: Animals:Cleavage of N-methylcarbamate group with conjugation of resulting 3-dimethylamino-methyleneaminophenol, also cleavage at amino nitrogen to give 3-formamidophenol-N-methylcarbamate, followed by loss of N-methylcarbamate to producSoil:Degradation by hydrolysis occurs rapidly in soil, DT50 1-9 d (aerobic and anaerobic) under both laboratory and field conditions. Photolytic degradation on soil surface DT50 16.3 h, involving cleavage oPlant:Hydrolytic mechanisms provide the main route of metabolism to give a metabolite spectrum similar to that found in animals, water and soil ...
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Recent organic fertilizer treatments (cow manure, pig slurry, composts, or green manure) simultaneously increase insecticide adsorption onto soil and the insecticide soil persistence, indicating a mechanism of slow release of insecticide into soil by the organic matter. This occurred in sugar beet crops with aldicarb, thiofanox and imidacloprid; also, in leek, cauliflower and brussels sprouts crops with chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinphos. In contrast, organic fertilizer treatments applied once or repeatedly in the past, have no significant influence on adsorption or persistence of insecticides; the same is observed for the old soil organic matter, when its soil concentrations change in limited ranges ...
PNH is a rare, acquired, potentially life-threatening disease characterized by complement-mediated thrombosis and hemolytic anemia. Apellis is developing APL-2, a novel inhibitor of complement factor C3 as a next generation monotherapy, with the goal of improving anemia and transfusion dependency in patients with PNH. In a recent study, up to 70% of patients treated with eculizumab (the only currently approved therapy for PNH) were anemic with hemoglobin levels below 12.0 g/dL.1. PEGASUS is a 70-patient, randomized, head-to-head study comparing APL-2 monotherapy to eculizumab monotherapy in patients currently on treatment with eculizumab who have a hemoglobin level ,10.5 g/dL, regardless of eculizumab dose or transfusion history. Patients will be co-treated for 4 weeks with subcutaneous injection twice weekly dosing of APL-2 with eculizumab and then randomized 1:1 to either APL-2 monotherapy or eculizumab monotherapy and monitored for 56 weeks. The primary endpoint will be the week 16 change ...
APL-1 overexpression using either the apl-1 or the snb-1 promoter, but not the pan-neuronal rab-3 promoter, caused a diminished chemotaxis response to both sodium acetate and benzaldehyde. Similarly, a short heat shock during adulthood to induce ubiquitous APL-1 expression was sufficient to cause an impaired chemotaxis response. These results suggest that APL-1 expression in non-neuronal cells decreases or disrupts the chemotaxis response. For instance, apl-1 signaling may interfere with the feedback from downstream neurons or non-neuronal tissue to the sensory neurons. Strikingly, the chemotaxis impairments of these transgenic animals were fully or partially restored by decreased activity of daf-2 insulin-IGF-1 receptor, daf-7 TGFβ, or daf-12 NHR signaling. Hence, the effects of APL-1 levels on chemotaxis are unlikely to be due to disrupted neuronal structure or neurodegeneration, but rather to modulation of the insulin/IGF-1 and/or DAF-12 NHR signaling pathways. Similarly, disruption of apl-1 ...
Rodenticides are chemical poisons used against rodents. Most all rodenticides are also harmful to humans if swallowed or absorbed through the skin in high enough quantities.
TORONTO--(Marketwire - Oct 29, 2012) - October 29, 2012 -Independent Committee Selects Cynapsus Novel Sublingual formulation of Apomorphine, as One of the Most Promising CNS Candidates- TORONTO, CANADA - Cynapsus Therapeutics Inc. (CTH: TSX V) today announced that its APL-130277 for Parkinsons was recognized as one of the Top Ten...
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... binds and reversibly inactivates the cholinesterases, thus inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This increases acetylcholine concentrations at cholinergic synapses.[1] The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood. Certainly, Alzheimer's disease involves a substantial loss of the elements of the cholinergic system and it is generally accepted that the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are related to this cholinergic deficit, particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an important role in the processes of control of attention, memory and learning. Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. In addition to its actions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil has been found to act as a potent agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = ...
... is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed as a casting worm control agent in amenity turf situations such as golf greens, tennis courts etc. and in some countries is licensed for that use only.[2] The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits, including citrus, bananas, strawberries, pineapples, and pomes.[3] It is also controversially used in Queensland, Australia on macadamia plantations.[4] A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride, sold as Eertavas, is marketed as a treatment for Dutch elm disease. Studies have found high doses of carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals.[5][6] Maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) have reduced since discovering its harmful effects. The MRLs for fresh produce in the EU are now between 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg with the exception of loquat, which is 2 mg/kg.[7] The limits for more commonly consumed citrus and pome fruits are ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. The use of botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy children is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles.[5][6] Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or with time spread from the injection site, causing temporary paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[41] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of a new series of nerve agents with properties similar to both the "G-series" and "V-series". It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with properties similar to other nerve agents, being a highly poisonous vapour. Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6.[1][2] ...
The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[5] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is ...
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... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Neuromuscular blocking agents need to fit in a space close to 2 nanometres, which resembles the molecular length of decamethonium.[13] Some molecules of decamethonium congeners may bind only to one receptive site. Flexible molecules have a greater chance of fitting receptive sites. However, the most populated conformation may not be the best-fitted one. Very flexible molecules are, in fact, weak neuromuscular inhibitors with flat dose-response curves. On the other hand, stiff or rigid molecules tend to fit well or not at all. If the lowest-energy conformation fits, the compound has high potency because there is a great concentration of molecules close to the lowest-energy conformation. Molecules can be thin but yet rigid.[14] Decamethonium for example needs relatively high energy to change the N-N distance.[13] In general, molecular rigidity contributes to potency, while size affects whether a muscle relaxant shows a polarizing or a depolarizing effect.[3] Cations must be able to flow through ...
When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all cholinesterase inhibitors require doses to be increased gradually over several weeks, and this is usually referred to as the titration phase. Many other types drug treatments may require a titration or stepping up phase. This strategy is used to build tolerance to adverse events or to reach a desired clinical effect.[12] This also prevents accidental overdose and is therefore recommended when initiating treatment with drugs that are extremely potent and/or toxic (drugs with a low therapeutic index). ...
... can be broadly categorized as a cholinergic physiological antagonist, because it reduces the apparent activity of cholinergic neurons, but does not act at the postsynaptic ACh receptor. Vesamicol causes a non-competitive and reversible block of the intracellular transporter VAChT responsible for carrying newly synthesized ACh into secretory vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. This transport process is driven by a proton gradient between cell organelles and the cytoplasm. Blocking of acetylcholine loading leads to empty vesicles fusing with neuron membranes, decreasing ACh release. ...
... s are a group of highly conserved G-protein coupled receptors from the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family. These receptors were originally identified based on their ability to bind the spider venom alpha-latrotoxin.[1] This conserved family of membrane proteins has up to three homologues in chordate species, including humans.[2] The precise functions of latrophilins remain unknown.[2] Genetic defects in latrophilin genes have been associated with diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and cancer.[3] ...
... ( anticholinergic agent) is a group of substances that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at synapses in the central and the peripheral nervous system, and, in broad terms, neuromuscular junction.[1][2] These agents inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body;[3] cholinergic process otherwise by enhancing ACh function.[3] In broad terms, anticholinergics are divided into two categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central, peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junction:[3] antimuscarinic agents, and antinicotinic agents (ganglionic blockers, neuromuscular blockers).[4] In strict terms, anticholinergic only comprises ...
InChI=1S/C28H32O8/c1-24(2)10-9-22(29)26(4)27(24,31)12-11-25(3)28(26,32)15-17-20(36-25)14-19(35-23(17)30)16-7-8-18(33-5)21(13-16)34-6/h7-10,13-14,31-32H,11-12,15H2,1-6H3/t25-,26+,27-,28-/m1/ ...
... is an alkaloid found in Corydalis (Papaveraceae) and Dicentra, plants in the family Fumariaceae that can cause fatal poisoning in sheep and cattle.[citation needed] It has been shown to act as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor,[1] and inhibits biosynthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase.[2][3] Like apomorphine, it is reported to be an inhibitor of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) fiber formation, whose presence is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bulbocapnine is thus a potential therapeutic under the amyloid hypothesis.[4] According to the Dorlands Medical Dictionary, it "inhibits the reflex and motor activities of striated muscle. It has been used in the treatment of muscular tremors and vestibular nystagmus".[5] A psychiatrist at Tulane University named Robert Heath carried out experiments on prisoners at the Louisiana State Penitentiary using bulbocapnine to induce stupor.[6] This work at Tulane inspired, and was continued parallel to, experiments ...
Carbamate insecticide Aldicarb Aharonson, N; Muszkat, Lea; Klein, M (1985). "Residue analysis of butocarboxim and aldicarb ... It is a structural isomer of aldicarb. ...
Aldicarb is a cholinesterase inhibitor, which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synapse. In case of severe ... Aldicarb (Temik), a carbamate insecticide marketed by Bayer CropScience, is an example of a commonly used commercial nematicide ... Vermicide "Bayer CropScience plans to discontinue Aldicarb by 2014". Archived from the original on 2010-09-25. Retrieved 2012- ... Bayer CropScience announced that it planned to discontinue aldicarb by 2014. Human health safety and environmental concerns ...
... for example aldicarb. An amine functional group -NH2 can be protected from unwanted reactions by being formed as carbamate ... "The Toxicologic Effects of the Carbamate Insecticide Aldicarb in Mammals: A Review". Environmental Health Perspectives. 72: 267 ...
Some materials such as cotton require pesticides like Aldicarb for growing as cotton. "The World Resources Institute estimates ...
Application of aldicarb to seedbeds or repeated application of sprays of endosulfan or the synthetic pyrethroid fenpropathrin, ... reduced vector populations and the incidence of infection by RgMV; however, use of aldicarb is especially undesirable, owing to ...
Included in this group are aldicarb (Temik), carbofuran (Furadan), carbaryl (Sevin), ethienocarb, fenobucarb, oxamyl, and ... the most potent compounds such as aldicarb and carbofuran are still capable of inhibiting mammalian acetylcholinesterase ...
... blamed the leak of aldicarb oxime (made from MIC but does not contain any MIC itself), the main ingredient in the ... A company spokesman insisted that the aldicarb oxime leak "never was a threat to the community." Union Carbide's operations in ...
2015). The specific chemical control utilized is nematicide toxins, including Aldicarb, Enzon, Oxamyl, and Cadusafos (Rugby). ...
Lynn Goldman, Johns Hopkins University's School of Public Health:] 'Ginger with Aldicarb is not legal food.' In fact, the ... was found when tested to be contaminated with the banned pesticide Aldicarb. The organic ginger from which the QAI certified ...
... and aldicarb). It has also been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a highly toxic and irritating material, it ...
... and aldicarb). It has also been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a highly toxic and irritating material, it ...
... aldicarb) nicotine poisoning can also present with similar symptoms, as it also involves excessive parasympathetic stimulation ...
... has one of the highest acute toxicities to humans of any insecticide widely used on field crops (only aldicarb and ...
Soil application of aldicarb provided limited control of Asian citrus psyllid, while drenches of imidacloprid to young trees ...
... and carbamates such as aldicarb and oxamyl are recommended as a last resort. Tobacco Rattle Virus is only found in nature in ...
... carbofuran and aldicarb. Carbamoyl chlorides are prepared by the reaction of an amine with phosgene: 2 R2NH + COCl2 → R2NCOCl ...
Other names: Propanal, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-, O-[(methylamino)carbonyl]oxime; Propionaldehyde, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-, O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime; Ambush; Temik; Temik G 10; 2-Methyl-2-(Methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime; Aldecarb; Aldicarbe; Carbamic acid, methyl-, O-((2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propylidene)amino) deriv.; 2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)propanal, O-((methylamino)carbonyl)oxime; 2-Methyl-2-methylthio-propionaldehyd-O-(N-methyl-carbamoyl)-oxime; 2-Metil-2-tiometil-propionaldeid-O-(N-metil-carbamoil)-ossima; Temic; Temik 10 G; NSC 379586; OMS-771; UC-21149 ...
Aldicarb is one of the most widely used pesticides internationally, and is also one of the most environmentally toxic. Aldicarb ... A new aldicarb pesticide named AgLogic 15G, was approved by the EPA in December 2011 and is said to be entering the market in ... Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide which is the active substance in the pesticide Temik. It is effective against thrips, ... Aldicarb is a cholinesterase inhibitor which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synapse. In case of severe ...
EPA has placed aldicarb in its highest acute toxicity category. Aldicarb is classified as a restricted-use pesticide and can be ... This report describes a foodborne outbreak of aldicarb poisoning that occurred when improperly stored and labeled aldicarb was ... In addition to occupational exposures (4), aldicarb poisoning has resulted from unintentional or suicidal ingestion of aldicarb ... EPA has developed tolerance levels for aldicarb residues on food or animal feed and a maximum contaminant level for aldicarb in ...
Aldicarb sulfoxide. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Aldicarb sulfoxide results for City of ... Aldicarb sulfoxide. City of Houston. Aldicarb sulfoxide is a groundwater contaminant related to the neurotoxic insecticide ...
Aldicarb sulfone. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Aldicarb sulfone results for Genoa ... Aldicarb sulfone. Genoa City Waterworks. Aldicarb sulfone is a groundwater contaminant and a neurotoxic metabolite of the ...
Aldicarb has the lowest LD((50)) of any pesticide registered in the United States (LD((50((1 mg/kg body weight) (1). Aldicarb ... Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide used in citrus groves and potato fields. Unlike organophosphates, which also interfere with ... Toxicological properties of aldicarb. Berkeley: California Department of Health Services, 1979; publication no. CA/DOH/AIHL/R- ... ASO is the primary toxic metabolite of aldicarb (Temik), a systemic pesticide not registered in the United States for use on ...
... frederic.hinault at wanadoo.fr frederic.hinault at wanadoo.fr Mon Jun 29 13:21 ... I search information about human toxicity of aldicarb=Temik,carbamate pesticide,and especially about toxic doses and lethal ...
See Also: Aldicarb (EHC 121, 1991) Aldicarb (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991) Aldicarb (ICSC) ... Aldicarb injected into hens eggs at a dose of 1.0 mg/egg produced no teratogenic effects. Aldicarb given to pregnant rats at ... Aldicarb should not be used on stored crops or products. 1.4.4 Unintended effects - Applied as directed aldicarb is not ... Mice fed a 1:1 ratio of aldicarb and aldicarb sulfone at dose levels from 2 to 36 mg/kg b.w. showed no treatment related ...
... to EPA on the agencys draft human health and ecological risk assessment for aldicarb and urged EPA to refine the risk ... Cotton producers have not had access to aldicarb for several years. Historically, aldicarb has been used to control thrips and ... NCC Submits Aldicarb Comments. The NCC submitted comments on June 27, 16, to EPA on the agencys draft human health and ... Aldicarb has been an important crop protectant product for cotton production in the U.S. and has been used safely for 40 years ...
Briefly, adult worms are incubated in the presence of aldicarb and scored for the time-course of aldicarb-induced paralysis. ... Analysis of synaptic transmission in Caenorhabditis elegans using an aldicarb-sensitivity assay Nat Protoc. 2006;1(4):1772-7. ... This protocol monitors the sensitivity of C. elegans to the paralyzing affects of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, aldicarb. ... harboring mutations in genes that affect synaptic transmission generally exhibit a change in their sensitivity to aldicarb ( ...
Aldicarb is a systemic insecticide sold in granular form under the trade name Temik®. It is applied directly to soil and is ... Next article in issue: Refined aquatic risk assessment for aldicarb in the United States Next article in issue: Refined aquatic ... Refined avian risk assessment for aldicarb in the United States. Authors. *. Dwayne RJ Moore,. Corresponding author*E-mail ... Thus, aldicarb granules may be mistaken for grit by birds. The Granular Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (GranPARAM) is ...
For aldicarb and aldicarb sulfoxide, the toxicity is LD50 = 0.9 mg/kg; a very high toxicity, while aldicarb sulfone has a value ... When aldicarb degrades, it transforms first into the toxic chemicals aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone, and then is ... Concentration of the toxic species aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone over a period of 100 days. ... The sorption, degradation, and volatilization of the three solutes, aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone proceed ...
Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide registered for use against insects, mites, and nematodes on field crops, certain vegetables ... Poisonings Associated with Illegal Use of Aldicarb as a Rodenticide -- New York City, 1994-1997 MMWR 46(41);961-963 Publication ... Editorial Note: This report presents the first known cases of poisonings resulting from the illegal use of aldicarb as a ... Laboratory analysis indicated that the product contained the carbamate pesticide aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio)- ...
Achetez Aldicarb-sulfone 100 µg/mL in Methanol - Numéro CAS 1646-88-4 de LGC Standards. Sidentifier ou senregistrer pour ...
... aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate hydrochloride, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, pirimicarb, ... ... ASTM D7645 - 10e1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Aldicarb, Aldicarb Sulfone, Aldicarb Sulfoxide, Carbofuran, ... ASTM D7645 - 10e1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Aldicarb, Aldicarb Sulfone, Aldicarb Sulfoxide, Carbofuran, ... No comments were found for ASTM D7600 - 09e1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and ...
Aldicarb is the active ingredient in Bayers Temik 15G, and is used on a variety of agricultural crops. This systemic N-methyl ... Aldicarb wont be completely banned from use until 2018, which is a long period of time for such a hazardous pesticide proven ... Aldicarb Voluntarily Canceled by Bayer through Agreement with EPA. (Beyond Pesticides, August 20, 2010) Behind closed doors ... Aldicarb was first registered in 1970, but was placed under Special Review in 1984. EPA is authorized to use the Pesticide ...
The chemical aldicarb is coming back as AgLogic 15G. It will be available for use on cotton, peanuts and soybeans grown in ... The return of aldicarb certainly will be welcomed by agricultural producers.". Aldicarb is a chemical many growers relied on to ... Pesticide aldicarb is back for use in South Carolina. Denise Attaway, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences; ... The chemical aldicarb is coming back as AgLogic 15G. It will be available for use on cotton, peanuts and soybeans grown in ...
... ,2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)propanal O-[(methylamino)carbonyl]oxime,2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-( ...
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References of Aldicarb. Title: Aldicarb CAS Registry Number: 116-06-3 CAS Name: 2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)propanal O-[(methylamino ... Name: Aldicarb. *Synonyms: AI 3-27093;2-Methyl-2-(methylthio)propanal O-((methylamino)carbonyl) oxime; UC21149; Aldicarbe; ...
The Aldicarb assays were performed as described previously (Mahoney et al. 2006b). NGM plates containing Aldicarb at a final ... A-D) Aldicarb-induced paralysis at 80 or 105 min is shown for the indicated genotypes. The casy-1 Aldicarb hypersensitivity was ... The rate of Aldicarb-induced paralysis was found to vary in few of the experiments, although the Aldicarb concentration used in ... and after every 30 min during the Aldicarb assay. For this assay, Aldicarb plates were seeded with OP50 containing 0.8 mM all- ...
Aldicarb is available from vendors selling their goods on the sidewalks of our cities. It is a street poison and it is leaving ... From what we learnt this one is the Aldicarb that is sold as Temik. Not a whole lot of dust, just the grey granules.. Now it ... The illegal Aldicarb comes in from Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, and as far as Tanzania so the borders are porous. Anyone can ... Wendy: If an animal in the wild was poisoned using Aldicarb what is the impact on the environment. Tim Snow: If an animal is ...
WA 240 91AL Aldicarb / WA 240 91AL-1 Aldicarb : WA 240 91AL-2 Alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha- and beta-HCHs : WA ... In each of these cases, poisoning resulted from the use of aldicarb on a non-approved crop. The book concludes that aldicarb is ... In each of these cases, poisoning resulted from the use of aldicarb on a non-approved crop. The book concludes that aldicarb is ... Aldicarb has been approved for use on a wide range of crops; ingestion of contaminated food is the main route of exposure for ...
The aldicarb assay was adapted from previously described methods (Mahoney et al. 2006). Aldicarb (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis) ... For assays determining the sensitivity to aldicarb-induced paralysis, 10 first-day adults were moved to the aldicarb treatment ... 1 mM aldicarb, no food), ad601 did not appear more sensitive to aldicarb than ad467 as has been reported (Doi and Iwasaki 2008 ... first-day adults were moved to the aldicarb plates (0.5 or 1.0 mM) after their body size was determined on an aldicarb-free ...
Plates with six different aldicarb final concentrations were prepared (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 mM). Aldicarb was ... S3 shows apm-2 aldicarb assay. Fig. S4 is a cartoon structure of apm-2∷GFP DNA constructs. Fig. S5 depicts the assembly of AP2 ... Aldicarb resistance assay. Each agar plate was seeded with bacteria and weighed to top spread plates with the appropriate ... Mutants lacking μ3 (apm-2(tm920)) are outwardly wild type but slightly aldicarb resistant. Again, μ2 and μ3 mutations do not ...
Controlled release of aldicarb from lignin loaded ionotropic hydrogel microspheres. Kök FN, Wilkins RM, Cain RB, Arica MY, ... Among the various parameters, the ratio of lignin to CMC and aldicarb to CMC were found to be influential on the rate of ... Aldicarb loaded microspheres of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, of various compositions were prepared with the crosslinking ... The encapsulation efficiency was low (4.15-13.00%) due to the high water solubility of aldicarb. Release into aqueous media was ...
Carbide to Suspend Aldicarb Work, Pay Expenses of Victims Associated Press. *. Pope Asks Africans to Forgive Christians for ...
Donepezil binds and reversibly inactivates the cholinesterases, thus inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This increases acetylcholine concentrations at cholinergic synapses.[1] The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in patients with Alzheimers disease is not fully understood. Certainly, Alzheimers disease involves a substantial loss of the elements of the cholinergic system and it is generally accepted that the symptoms of Alzheimers disease are related to this cholinergic deficit, particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an important role in the processes of control of attention, memory and learning. Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. In addition to its actions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil has been found to act as a potent agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = ...
Carbendazim is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed as a casting worm control agent in amenity turf situations such as golf greens, tennis courts etc. and in some countries is licensed for that use only.[2] The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits, including citrus, bananas, strawberries, pineapples, and pomes.[3] It is also controversially used in Queensland, Australia on macadamia plantations.[4] A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride, sold as Eertavas, is marketed as a treatment for Dutch elm disease. Studies have found high doses of carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals.[5][6] Maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) have reduced since discovering its harmful effects. The MRLs for fresh produce in the EU are now between 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg with the exception of loquat, which is 2 mg/kg.[7] The limits for more commonly consumed citrus and pome fruits are ...
The injunction addresses pesticide use only within and around certain geographic areas designated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as critical habitat, and specified non-critical habitat sections. Sections are defined one-square mile areas of land, based on the Meridian-Township-Range-Section (MTRS) geographic system. These geographic areas are within one or more of 33 counties within California.. Are you planning to apply the pesticide in one or more of the following counties in California? If you answer "no", the courts injunction does not apply to the pesticide application. If you answer "yes", click on the county name to view a map of critical habitat and non-critical habitat sections within that county to which the injunction applies.. Is your proposed use within 400 feet of the general critical habitat areas or non-critical habitat sections? If you answer "no", the courts injunction does not apply to your pesticide application. If you answer "yes", continue to step 3.. You will need ...
  • Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide which is the active substance in the pesticide Temik. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA started limiting the main aldicarb pesticide, Temik 15G, in 2010, requiring an end to distribution by 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASO is the primary toxic metabolite of aldicarb (Temik), a systemic pesticide not registered in the United States for use on watermelons. (cdc.gov)
  • I search information about human toxicity of aldicarb=Temik,carbamate pesticide,and especially about toxic doses and lethal doses for human. (bio.net)
  • The soil behaviour confirmed the delayed release effect of the controlled release formulation compared to Temik (a commercial preparation of aldicarb), especially when lignin was incorporated. (kokbiolab.com)
  • Aldicarb sulfone is a groundwater contaminant and a neurotoxic metabolite of the insecticide aldicarb used on agricultural crops. (ewg.org)
  • When aldicarb degrades, it transforms first into the toxic chemicals aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone , and then is detoxified by hydrolysis, forming oximes and nitriles. (comsol.se)
  • By setting up a model in COMSOL Multiphysics, we can measure the time it takes for aldicarb to degrade, as well as measure the spatial concentration distribution of the toxic components aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone over time. (comsol.se)
  • The sorption, degradation, and volatilization of the three solutes, aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone proceed in linear proportion to the aqueous concentrations. (comsol.se)
  • Concentration of the toxic species aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone over a period of 100 days. (comsol.se)
  • Aldicarb sulfoxide is a groundwater contaminant related to the neurotoxic insecticide aldicarb. (ewg.org)
  • Later on July 4, Oregon officials reported that aldicarb sulfoxide (ASO) had been detected in several melons associated with similar illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • This method has been investigated for use with reagent and surface water for the selected carbamates: aldicarb, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 1.1 This procedure covers the determination of aldicarb, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl (referred to collectively as carbamates in this test method) in surface water by direct injection using liquid chromatography (LC) and detected with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). These analytes are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by this method. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides: aldicarb, carbofuran, methomyl, oxamyl, and thiofanox have been identified by EPA as working through a common mechanism. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The pesticide aldicarb is used as an insecticide to control the populations of insect herbivores on many crops, especially cotton. (comsol.se)
  • Laboratory analysis indicated that the product contained the carbamate pesticide aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime), which is not registered for use as a rodenticide in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The carbamate pesticide aldicarb is used for the control of insects, nematodes, and mites. (nih.gov)
  • The pesticide aldicarb has been studied for possibleactions on the immune system and there is no clear evidence thatit affects the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Bayer CropScience, the manufacturer, have reached an agreement to end use of the pesticide aldicarb in the United States. (solutions-site.org)
  • The carbamate insecticide Aldicarb is a chemical prevalent in suicide , homicide and accidental intoxication. (bvsalud.org)
  • The NCC submitted comments on June 27, '16, to EPA on the agency's draft human health and ecological risk assessment for aldicarb and urged EPA to refine the risk assessment to reflect the appropriate biological information of the product. (cotton.org)
  • Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by aldicarb, a carbamate insecticide applied, exclusively in granular form and below the soil surface, to control certain insects, mites, and nematodes. (who.int)
  • The toxicity of aldicarb on movement, life cycle, population growth rate and resource allocation, and the gene expression changes underpinning these effects, were investigated for Caenorhabditis elegans. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Aldicarb is effective where resistance to organophosphate insecticides has developed, and is extremely important in potato production, where it is used for the control of soil-borne nematodes and some foliar pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.4.2 Susceptible pests - Aldicarb is effective against various insects (especially aphids, whiteflies, leaf miners, flea beetles and ground beetles), mites and nematodes on field crops, some vegetable and fruit crops, cotton and ornamentals in commercial plantings. (intox.org)
  • Historically, aldicarb has been used to control thrips and nematodes during early seed germination and seedling establishment. (cotton.org)
  • The cotton industry is in dire need of effective rotational products such as aldicarb for control of thrips and nematodes in early season cotton production. (cotton.org)
  • Aldicarb is used as an at-planting treatment that is applied beneath the soil to protect seedling cotton plants against early season insects and, at higher rates, nematodes. (cotton.org)
  • Cotton, peanut and soybean producers in South Carolina will soon have aldicarb to use in their fight against insects and nematodes. (clemson.edu)
  • Aldicarb is a chemical many growers relied on to help with control of early-season insect pests and nematodes. (clemson.edu)
  • Aldicarb (chemical name: 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime) is an carbamate-class insecticide applied directly to the soil and is used to control mites, nematodes, and aphids. (openwetware.org)
  • Aldicarb is a fast-acting cholinesterase inhibitor, causing rapid accumulation of acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldicarb is one of the most widely used pesticides internationally, and is also one of the most environmentally toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldicarb, a regulated carbamate pesticide, is highly toxic, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires applicators to be trained and certified. (cdc.gov)
  • The book concludes that aldicarb is one of the most potent and acutely toxic pesticides in use, that most cases of poisoning and toxicity arise from the use of aldicarb on non-approved crops or the failure to follow recommended safety precautions, that the symptoms of poisoning are transient and rarely fatal, and that aldicarb poses no risk to the general population when applied at recommended rates and using current techniques. (who.int)
  • Aldicarb is manufactured by Bayer CropScience, but was formerly owned and produced by Union Carbide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protocol monitors the sensitivity of C. elegans to the paralyzing affects of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, aldicarb. (nih.gov)
  • In the laboratory, aldicarb acts as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme present in the basal lamina of the post-synaptic cell of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). (openwetware.org)
  • 1.4.3 Use pattern - Aldicarb is applied only as a soil dressing at rates of 0.56-11.25 kg a.i./ha depending upon the crop. (intox.org)
  • For most effective use, aldicarb should be incorporated into the soil 2.5-5.0 cm below the surface. (intox.org)
  • Let's assume that we want to understand the pesticide runoff and degradation patterns of aldicarb as it leaches into relatively dry and variably-saturated soil. (comsol.se)
  • In the diagram, you can see the ring representing the aldicarb concentration, as well as the two permeable layers of soil below. (comsol.se)
  • As the aldicarb leaches into the surrounding soil, it is transported by advection, dispersion, sorption, and volatilization, and moves from the top of the geometry and into the soil at a constant concentration. (comsol.se)
  • Within the soil, the aldicarb reacts and is adsorbed into the soil particles. (comsol.se)
  • However, over time, the degrading aldicarb passes into the soil and spreads. (comsol.se)
  • We can measure the concentrations of the aldicarb and the decay products that remain in the soil beneath the pond after a 100-day period. (comsol.se)
  • Because aldicarb is applied to the subsoil, the evaluation of environmental fate concentrates on mobility and persistence in soil and on the circumstances under which aldicarb may contaminate shallow wells. (who.int)
  • Carboxymethylcellulose microspheres cross-linked via aluminum ions were used as a support material for immobilization of Methylosinus isolated from soil contaminated with aldicarb. (kokbiolab.com)
  • Aldicarb loaded microspheres of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, of various compositions were prepared with the crosslinking action of Al(III). (kokbiolab.com)
  • In July 1985, aldicarb present in watermelons grown in California caused an outbreak of pesticide food poisoning which affected over 2,000 people, and lead to a temporary ban on watermelon sales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldicarb controls more early-season cotton pests than any other available product and fits well into integrated pest management (IPM) programs since it has a minimal impact on beneficial cotton insects. (cotton.org)
  • Aldicarb is by far the most effective chemical nematicide available. (cotton.org)
  • In the United States, aldicarb was approved by the EPA for use by professional pesticide applicators on a variety of crops, including cotton, beans, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldicarb should not be used on stored crops or products. (intox.org)
  • The rapid uptake of aldicarb and its residues by food crops is another consistently reported finding. (who.int)
  • In the United States it is illegal to use aldicarb on certain crops, e.g., watermelons, because it is incorporated into the flesh of the fruit. (nap.edu)
  • Editorial Note: Aldicarb (2-methyl-2-{methylthio} propionaldehyde O-{methylcarbamoyl} oxime) is one of the most potent pesticides used in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Aldicarb (BSI, ISO, ANSI, exception - Germany) 1.1.1 Identity: IUPAC: 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime CAS No. 1: Propionaldehyde,2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-,O- (methylcarbamoyl)oxime CAS Reg. (intox.org)
  • Aldicarb oxime [2-Methyl-2-(methyl-thio)-propanal,oxime] is produced primarily as an intermediate in the synthesisof aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-prioionaldehyde)-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime] which is used as a pesticide. (nih.gov)
  • Aldicarb oxime is also anintermediate in the metabolism of aldicarb. (nih.gov)
  • Aldicarb oxime was administered bygavage at doses of 1, 7.5 or 15 mg/kg daily for 14 consecutivedays. (nih.gov)
  • Aldicarb oxime produced no overt pharmacotoxicologicalsigns. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, aldicarb oxime, administered in dosesbetween 1 and 15 mg/kg by gavage, produced no detectable adverseeffects on basic toxicological parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Aldicarb oxime produced no changes in the number or functionof T cells which are considered biologically meaningful. (nih.gov)
  • T cellresponses to mitogens (Con A and PHA) and allogeneic cells (MLR)were all unaffected by exposure to aldicarb oxime. (nih.gov)
  • With respect to innate immunity, naturalkiller cell function and peritoneal macrophage number and functionswere unaffected by aldicarb oxime exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae,Listeria monocytogenes, and the B16F10 pulmonary metastaticmelanoma models were all unaffected by exposure to aldicarb oxime. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, aldicarb oxime, in dosesbelow those that produced major central nervous system action,administered daily for 14 days, did not alter any of the toxicological,immunological or host resistance parameters measured. (nih.gov)
  • Formulated aldicarb may be used concurrently with many fertilizers or other pesticides. (intox.org)
  • Concerning risks to human health, the book draws on reports of several widespread outbreaks of aldicarb poisoning following the ingestion of contaminated cucumbers, melons, watermelons, and drinking water. (who.int)
  • This was attributed to watermelons contaminated through the illegal or accidental use of aldicarb by a few farmers in one part of the state. (nap.edu)
  • The encapsulation efficiency was low (4.15-13.00%) due to the high water solubility of aldicarb. (kokbiolab.com)
  • The chemical aldicarb is coming back as AgLogic 15G. (clemson.edu)
  • A bioassay of aldicarb for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (nih.gov)
  • Animals harboring mutations in genes that affect synaptic transmission generally exhibit a change in their sensitivity to aldicarb (either increased sensitivity for enhancements in synaptic transmission or decreased sensitivity for blockage in synaptic transmission). (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the studies may not have been conducted using maximum sensitivity for the assessment of the possible carcinogenicity of aldicarb. (nih.gov)
  • In unc-18 (nematode homolog of MUNC18-1 ) null Caenorhabditis elegans , we found that the p.His16Arg exhibits a compromised ability to rescue the locomotion defect and aldicarb sensitivity, indicating a functional defect in neurotransmitter release. (frontiersin.org)
  • Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex were administered aldicarb at one of two doses, either 2 or 6 ppm, for 103 weeks and then observed for an additional 0 to 2 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • By looking at the reaction mechanism of the pesticide's degradation, we can determine the decomposition kinetics and mass balance equations for aldicarb and its decay products. (comsol.se)
  • The degradation capacity of immobilized bacteria, different parameters such as substrate concentration (50-800 ppm), flow rate (10-60 ml h−1), and continuous contact with reaction medium (flow rate, 20 ml h−1 and concentration, 100 ppm) that affect aldicarb degradation were investigated in a packed-bed reactor. (kokbiolab.com)
  • Although the use of aldicarb declined with the introduction of neonicotinoid insecticides, it was still a foundational crop protectant for efficient cotton production in many areas of the U.S. cotton belt. (cotton.org)
  • A new aldicarb pesticide named AgLogic 15G, was approved by the EPA in December 2011 and is said to be entering the market in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the various parameters, the ratio of lignin to CMC and aldicarb to CMC were found to be influential on the rate of release from the crosslinked CMC-lignin microspheres. (kokbiolab.com)
  • In particular, multiple states have sought additional means to control nematode pests of cotton due to the lack of access to aldicarb. (cotton.org)
  • A clear effect of aldicarb on nematode movement was found suggesting that this pesticide acts as a neurotoxicant. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Studies in experimental animals point to the efficient absorption of aldicarb from the gastrointestinal tract and its wide distribution to all tissues, including the developing fetus. (who.int)
  • therefore, inhibition of AChE using aldicarb results in prolonged activation of ACh receptors in the post-synaptic cell, causing paralysis and eventually death. (openwetware.org)
  • Briefly, adult worms are incubated in the presence of aldicarb and scored for the time-course of aldicarb-induced paralysis. (nih.gov)
  • Aldicarb is a useful tool in genetic screens that search for mutants resistant or hypersensitive to the aldicarb-induced paralysis. (openwetware.org)
  • needs update] Tres Pasitos, a mouse, rat, and roach killer that contains high concentrations of aldicarb, has been illegally imported into the United States from Mexico and other Latin American countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report describes a foodborne outbreak of aldicarb poisoning that occurred when improperly stored and labeled aldicarb was used mistakenly in food preparation. (cdc.gov)
  • Aldicarb , commonly known as "chumbinho", is sold illegally in the State of Rio de Janeiro and has been involved in poisonings , suicides and homicides resulting in a serious public health problem. (bvsalud.org)
  • The National Cotton Council (NCC) appreciates the opportunity to provide comments regarding EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessment of aldicarb. (cotton.org)
  • Cotton producers have not had access to aldicarb for several years. (cotton.org)
  • Aldicarb has been an important crop protectant product for cotton production in the U.S. and has been used safely for 40 years. (cotton.org)
  • Research presented at the 2011 Beltwide Cotton Conferences demonstrated the importance of aldicarb by evaluating the effects on cotton yields in the absence of the product. (cotton.org)
  • Over a 5-year period, cotton yields from untreated control plots were compared to plots treated with aldicarb. (cotton.org)
  • The (U.S.) cotton crop has suffered with declining availability of aldicarb. (clemson.edu)
  • Jeremy Greene , entomologist at Clemson's Edisto Research and Education Center , said the return of aldicarb is "great news" for agricultural producers. (clemson.edu)
  • The return of aldicarb certainly will be welcomed by agricultural producers. (clemson.edu)