Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.AcroleinBenzaldehydesDisulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.KetonesRetinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome: An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)GlyceraldehydeAldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.AcetalsOrganic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.EstersLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.FuraldehydeAlkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Allyl CompoundsFlushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.GlyoxalMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)SemicarbazidesOrganic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.IminesCombinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (1/2673)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (2/2673)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (3/2673)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2; EC 3.3.2.5) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in ischemic rat heart. (4/2673)

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. Because of its reactivity with nucleophilic compounds, particularly metabolites and proteins containing thiol groups, HNE is cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and time course for the formation of HNE-modified proteins during ischemia and ischemia plus reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. With an antibody to HNE-Cys/His/Lys and densitometry of Western blots, we quantified the amount of HNE-protein adduct in the heart. By taking biopsies from single hearts (n = 5) at various times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, and 40 min) after onset of zero-flow global ischemia, we showed a progressive, time-dependent increase (which peaked after 30 min) in HNE-mediated modification of a discrete number of proteins. In studies with individual hearts (n = 4/group), control aerobic perfusion (70 min) resulted in a very low level (296 arbitrary units) of HNE-protein adduct formation; by contrast, after 30-min ischemia HNE-adduct content increased by >50-fold (15,356 units, P < 0.05). In other studies (n = 4/group), administration of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG, 1 mM) to the heart for 5 min immediately before 30-min ischemia reduced HNE-protein adduct formation during ischemia by approximately 75%. In studies (n = 4/group) that included reperfusion of hearts after 5, 10, 15, or 30 min of ischemia, there was no further increase in the extent of HNE-protein adduct formation over that seen with ischemia alone. Similarly, in experiments with MPG, reperfusion did not significantly influence the tissue content of HNE-protein adduct. Western immunoblot results were confirmed in studies using in situ immunofluorescent localization of HNE-protein in cryosections. In conclusion, ischemia causes a major increase in HNE-protein adduct that would be expected to reflect a toxic sequence of events that might act to compromise tissue survival during ischemia and recovery on reperfusion.  (+info)

Conversion of (+/-)-synephrine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by Arthrobacter synephrinum. A novel enzymic reaction. (5/2673)

A partically purified enzyme from Arthrobacter synephrinum was found to catalyse the conversion of (+/-)-synphrine into p-hydroxyphrenylacetaldehyde and methylamine. The enzyme is highly specific for synephrine and is distinctly different from monoamine oxidase.  (+info)

Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. (6/2673)

Reactive oxygen species are involved in a diversity of biological phenomena such as inflammation, carcinogenesis, aging, and atherosclerosis. We and other investigators have shown that the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker for oxidative stress, is increased in either the urine or the mononuclear cells of the blood of type 2 diabetic patients. However, the association between type 2 diabetes and oxidative stress in the pancreatic beta-cells has not been previously described. We measured the levels of 8-OHdG and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of nonobese type 2 diabetes. Quantitative immunohistochemical analyses with specific antibodies revealed higher levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats than in the control Wistar rats, with the levels increasing proportionally with age and fibrosis of the pancreatic islets. We further investigated whether the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins would be modified in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats fed with 30% sucrose solution or 50 ppm of voglibose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor). In the GK rats, the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins, as well as islet fibrosis, were increased by sucrose treatment but reduced by voglibose treatment. These results indicate that the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats are oxidatively stressed, and that chronic hyperglycemia might be responsible for the oxidative stress observed in the pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (7/2673)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (8/2673)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

*Dakin oxidation

O-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones oxidize faster than p-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones in weakly basic conditions. ... In general, phenyl aldehydes are more reactive than phenyl ketones because the ketone carbonyl carbon is less electrophilic ... Catechol, for example, is synthesized from o-hydroxy and o-alkoxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones, and is used as the starting ... The Dakin oxidation (or Dakin reaction) is an organic redox reaction in which an ortho- or para-hydroxylated phenyl aldehyde (2 ...

*Aldose

However aldehydes and ketones are almost always more stable than the corresponding enol forms, so the aldo- and keto- forms ... The determination is made based on the chirality of the asymmetric carbon furthest from the aldehyde end, namely the second- ... making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms. Aldoses can be distinguished from ketoses, ...

*ADH1B

There are more genes in the family of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. These genes are now referred to as ADH1A, ADH1C ... Alcohol dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000196616 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ... "Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and drinking behavior of Chinese living in Shanghai". Human Genetics. 96 (2): 151- ... Reference:". Smith M (Mar 1986). "Genetics of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases". Adv Hum Genet. 15: 249-90. doi: ...

*Cascade reaction

Linear aldehydes (20), nitroalkenes (21) and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (22) could be condensed together organocatalytically to ... Condensation of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde 22 with the organocatalyst then facilitates the conjugate addition of 25 to give ... Michael addition of aldehyde 20 to nitroalkene 21 occurs through enamine catalysis, yielding nitroalkane 25. ... selective rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of the less sterically hindered olefin bond in 59 yielded unsaturated aldehyde 60 ...

*Alcohol dehydrogenase

... leading to NADH and a zinc bound aldehyde or ketone Release of the product aldehyde. The mechanism in yeast and bacteria is the ... Finally, Ser-48 deprotonates the alcohol, making it an aldehyde. From a mechanistic perspective, if the enzyme adds hydride to ... For instance cinnamaldehyde presents both aliphatic double bond and aldehyde function. Unlike conventional catalysts, alcohol ... Alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) Aldehyde dehydrogenase Oxidoreductase Blood alcohol content for rates of metabolism This ...

*Chiral auxiliary

The aldehyde is oriented such that the hydrogen is placed in a pseudo-axial orientation to minimize 1,3-diaxial interactions. ... Protected at the aldehyde function with (R)-BINOL, arylglyoxals reacted diastereoselectively with Grignard reagents to afford ... Condensation of SAMP or RAMP with an aldehyde or ketone affords the (E)-hydrazine. Deprotonation with lithium diisopropylamide ... Condensation of tert-butanesulfinamide with aldehydes and ketones Addition of a Grignard reagent to a tert-butanesulfinyl ...

*Phenolic aldehyde

Phenolic aldehydes are derivatives of phenol. Phenolic aldehydes can be found in wines and cognacs. Examples : ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_463 Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac ... Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde can be isolated from ... 1014914701477 Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea. Vanisree Mulabagal, Ruby L. Alexander-Lindo, David ...

*Aldehyde oxidase

AO catalyzes the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and hydrogen peroxide. an aldehyde + ... Aldehyde oxidase is very concentrated in the liver, where it oxidizes multiple aldehydes and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds ... Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybd-flavo protein family and has a very complex evolutionary profile-as the genes of AO ... Aldehyde oxidase is thought to have a significant impact on pharmacokinetics. AO is capable of oxidizing many drugs in the ...

*Zincke aldehyde

Zincke aldehydes, or 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienals, are the product of the reaction of a pyridinium salt with two equivalents of any ... Tryptamine-derived Zincke aldehydes are heated with strong base to give the rearranged enal as shown below. This reaction was ... One drawback of the Zincke Aldehyde synthesis is the need for 2 equivalents of the amine in the initial pyridine ring opening ... Also in 2009, the first reports of Zincke aldehydes undergoing a Pictet-Spengler reaction appeared from the group of Christian ...

*Fatty aldehyde

Fatty aldehydes are aliphatic, long-chain aldehydes which may be mono- or polyunsaturated. The fatty aldehydes include ... Fat aldehydes were also detected in the heart muscle of mammals. Fatty aldehydes can be prepared by dehydrogenation of fatty ... Many fatty aldehydes find use as a fragrance in perfume production. An example is 2-methylundecanal which is the typical odor ... Fatty aldehydes are a natural component of many natural ingredients such as the essential oils of various citrus fruits. ...

*Polyunsaturated aldehyde

T. rotula has been known to produce many types of polyunsaturated aldehydes, including (2E,4E/Z)-hepta-2,4-dienal, (2E,4E/Z,7Z ... Polyunsaturated aldehydes are oxylipins that are formed from lipids (specifically the fatty acid portion of lipids) when ... Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are a group of allelopathic chemicals typically associated with diatom-copepod predator-prey ... These particular aldehydes are also produced by Stephanopyxis turris and Skeletonema costatum in response to wounding. ...

*Abscisic aldehyde

... is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid. It is produced by the ... Ram K. Sindhu, David H. Griffin and Daniel C. Walton (1990). "Abscisic Aldehyde Is an Intermediate in the Enzymatic Conversion ... "Abscisic aldehyde oxidase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana". The Plant Journal. 23 (4): 481-488. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... "The Short-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase ABA2 Catalyzes the Conversion of Xanthoxin to Abscisic Aldehyde". The Plant Cell Online. ...

*Aldehyde tag

Limitations of aldehydes and ketones as chemical reporters are due to competition with endogenous aldehydes or ketones in ... This compound is very reactive and easily hydrolyzed, releasing the aldehyde and a molecule of H2S, The aldehyde tag is a ... demonstrate the application of the aldehyde tag as a chemical conjugation site for glycans. The aldehyde tag sequence was ... a reactive aldehyde group is generated for further coupling. Since there already is an array of aldehyde-specific reagents ...

*Caffeic aldehyde

... is a phenolic aldehyde contained in the seeds of Phytolacca americana. Caffeic acid Caffeyl alcohol Woo, W.S ... A new phenolic aldehyde from the seeds of Phytolacca americana. Soul Taehakkyo Saengyak Yonguso Opjukjip 18, 30-31. KEGG ...

*Aldehyde dehydrogenase

... s (EC 1.2.1.3) are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes. Despite the name " ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a polymorphic enzyme responsible for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, which leave the ... Marchitti, SA; Brocker, C; Stagos, D; Vasiliou, V (Jun 2008). "Non-P450 aldehyde oxidizing enzymes: the aldehyde dehydrogenase ... The active site binds to one molecule of an aldehyde and an NAD(P)+ that functions as a cofactor. A cysteine and a glutamate ...

*Myristyl aldehyde

... , also known as tetradecanal, is a reduced form of myristic acid. It is naturally produced by bioluminescent ...

*Protocatechuic aldehyde

... is a phenolic aldehyde, a compound released from cork stoppers into wine. This molecule can be used as ... Food Chem., 1998, 46 (8), pp 3166-3171 doi:10.1021/jf970863k Biotransformation of protocatechuic aldehyde and caffeic acid to ...

*Coniferyl aldehyde

Coniferyl-aldehyde dehydrogenase uses coniferyl aldehyde, H2O, NAD+, and NADP+ to produce ferulate, NADH, NADPH, and H+. ... Coniferyl aldehyde is a low molecular weight phenolic compound susceptible to be extracted from cork stoppers into wine. ... Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl alcohol or ... Coniferyl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses coniferyl alcohol and NADP+ to produce coniferyl aldehyde, NADPH, and H+. ...

*Cyclamen aldehyde

... is a fragrance molecule which has been used in soaps, detergents, lotions and perfumes since the 1920s. It ... Cyclamen aldehyde is not naturally occurring and is prepared by the crossed-aldol condensation of cuminaldehyde and ... The Council of Europe (1970) included cyclamen aldehyde in the list of admissible artificial flavoring substances, at a level ...

*Stephen aldehyde synthesis

... , a named reaction in chemistry, was invented by Henry Stephen (OBE/MBE). This reaction involves the ... 1925). "A new synthesis of aldehydes". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 127: 1874-1877. doi:10.1039/CT9252701874. Wang, Zerong (2009). ... from which an aldehyde (7) is formed. Substitutes that increase the electron density promote the formation of the aldimin-tin ... "Über eine neue Methode zur Umwandlung von Carbonsäuren in Aldehyde" [About a new method for converting carboxylic acids into ...

*Asymmetric addition of alkenylmetals to aldehydes

... has been widely used in total synthesis of natural product. For example, the ... Asymmetric addition of alkenylmetals to aldehydes is a chemical reaction in enantioselective synthesis that reacts an ... After transmetalation with diethylzinc, the generated alkenylzinc reagent (C) further reacted with the aldehyde (D) through ... alkenylmetal with an aldehyde to give an allyl alcohol (Figure "Asymmetric addition of alkenylmetals to aldehydes"). The ...

*Bouveault aldehyde synthesis

The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis (also known as the Bouveault reaction) is a one-pot substitution reaction that replaces an ... The Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is an example of a formylation reaction, and is named for French scientist Louis Bouveault. ... Bodroux-Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis Bouveault-Blanc reduction Duff reaction Bouveault, L. (1904). "Modes de formation et de ... The first step of the Bouveault aldehyde synthesis is the formation of the Grignard reagent. Upon addition of a N,N- ...

*Aldehyde oxidase 1

... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AOX1 gene. Aldehyde oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide and, ... 2007). "Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes". ... Aldehyde oxidase is a candidate gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. MOCOS GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138356 - ... Rodrigues AD (1994). "Comparison of levels of aldehyde oxidase with cytochrome P450 activities in human liver in vitro". ...

*Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase

In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aldehyde ... Its primary role is to oxidize aldehyde coming derived from the metabolism of amino acids and glucoses. Aldehyde Ferredoxin ... AOR has been proposed to be the primary enzyme responsible for oxidising the aldehydes that are produced by the 2-keto acid ... In the catalytic cycle, W(VI) (tungsten "six") converts to W(IV) concomitant with oxidation of the aldehyde to a carboxylic ...

*Aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)

In enzymology, an aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.2.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aldehyde + ... Other names in common use include NADP+-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, NADP+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase, and aldehyde ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with NAD+ ... Adachi O, Matsushita K, Shinagawa E & Ameyama M (1980). "Crystallization and properties of NADP-dependent aldehyde ...
Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
2012 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 53, no Suppl 1, S248-S249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
The major focus of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms by which oxidative stress affects cardiovascular function. In particular, we are interested in the role of lipid peroxidation as a contributor to myocardial ischemic injury and atherosclerosis. Although lipid peroxidation generates several reactive intermediates and end products, lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes are believed to be a major source of oxidative stress and these toxicants appear to be critical mediators of tissue injury due to lipid peroxidation. In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. We have learned that the enzymes - aldose reductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde dehydrogenase are the major constituents of aldehyde metabolism in the heart, and vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and ...
Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds which contain a formyl group, represented by -C(=O)H. Most of the aldehydes are colorless or pale-colored liquids with noticeable odors. The aldehydes, containing alpha-hydrogen, can exist as either a keto or enol tautomer, in which the enol tautomer is more reactive. Aldehydes generally undergo addition reactions, by losing a water molecule and therefore it is known as an addition-elimination or condensation reaction. Cyanohydrins, formed through this mechanism, are a route to the synthesis of important alpha-hydroxy acids. Aldehydes are efficient partners in the Witting reaction for the synthesis of olefins. They are also important intermediates in organic synthesis for the preparation of alcohols, imines and amines. Ketones are a class of compounds with the carbonyl group bonded to two other organic fragments through carbon [R(C=O)R], wherein R and R are organic fragments bonded through carbon)]. Ketones are either pleasant smelling liquids or odorless
The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7±2 μM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of ...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a segmented-flow analyzer was used for the analysis of aldehydes. The aldehydes, which were separated on a reversed-phase C_(18) column, were derivatized with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinonhe ydrazone (MBTH) and detected at 640 nm. MBTH reacts readily with all aliphatic aldehydes to form MBTH derivatives with high molar absorptivities. Aldehydes below 1 µM can be easily detected by this method. Because aldehydes and other solutes are separated by HPLC before derivatization, free aldehydes are detected without interference. Aldehydes in cloud- and fogwater samples were analyzed. Form-aldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal concentrations were determined. Results obtained with the MBTH method were consistent with those obtained with the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method. The MBTH method allows for the rapid determination of the concentration of free aldehydes; the DNPH method will yield similar results, although the ...
The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. Individual cells did not react or reacted to one or multiple aldehydes; in the latter case, cells only reacted to aldehydes of consecutive carbon chain lengths. The largest proportion of cells responded to octanal. It was also demonstrated that a structural difference as small as one hydrogenated carbon atom was detectable by the olfactory neurons. Neurons were increasingly able to discriminate between two aldehydes as the difference in chain length between the two increased. Discrimination between aldehydes with longer carbon chains was reduced. Although the odorants examined belong to a distinct chemical class and differ only slightly in structure, individual olfactory sensory neurons showed quite different receptive ...
A dialdehyde is an organic chemical compound with two aldehyde groups. The nomenclature of dialdehydes have the ending -dial or sometimes -dialdehyde. Short aliphatic dialdehydes are sometimes named after the diacid from which they can de derived. An example is butanedial, which is also called succinaldehyde (from succinic acid).; Aldehydes are readily identified by spectroscopic methods. Using IR spectroscopy, they display a strong νCO band near 1700 cm−1. In their 1H NMR spectra, the formyl hydrogen center absorbs near δ9, which is a distinctive part of the spectrum. This signal shows the characteristic coupling to any protons on the alpha carbon.; An aldehyde ( /ˈældɨhaɪd/) is an organic compound containing a formyl group. This functional group, with the structure R-CHO, consists of a carbonyl center (a carbon double bonded to oxygen) bonded to hydrogen and an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group without R is called the aldehyde group or formyl group. Aldehydes ...
Changes in volatile aldehyde and ketone amounts from subcutaneous fat have been evaluated during the dry-curing process (987. days) of Iberian ham by purge & trap-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method, using the same hams for the first time. The subcutaneous adipose tissues of ten hams obtained from five Iberian pigs fed on acorns and pasture were sampled and analyzed periodically during whole processing time. Fifteen aldehydes and six ketones have been identified, all previously described except the 2,4-pentadienal that has been identified for the first time. A LDA was applied and the two discriminant functions were obtained using backward stepwise analysis retaining the variables: 4-octen-3-one, 2-methyl-butanal, butanal, 2-decenal, 2-heptanone, decanal, 2,4-pentadienal, pentanal, hexanal, 2-butanone, octanal and 2-octanone. A complete separation between the three periods was obtained, indicating that the retained variables are powerful descriptors to characterize samples from these ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3I1; Involved in oxidative stress tolerance by detoxifying reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation. Medium- to long-chain saturated aldehydes are preferred substrates, while the short-chain aldehyde propanal is a weak substrate. Can use both NAD(+) and NADP(+), but the coenzyme preference is substrate dependent (550 aa ...
Aliphatic aldehydes of the general formula I ##STR1## where R.sup.1 is hydrogen or methyl,R.sup.2 is a straight-chain or branched alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms and the two radicals X are each hydrogen or together form a further C--C bond, in particular2,5,7,7-tetramethyloctanal,2,4,5,7,7-pentamethyloctanal,2-ethyl-5,7,7-trimethyloctanal and2,5,7,7-tetramethyl-2-octen-1-al, are used in scent compositions and are prepared by a process in which an aldehyde of the general formula II ##STR2## is condensed with an aldehyde of the general formula III ##STR3## in the presence of an aldol condensation catalyst to give the substituted octenal of the general formula I, and, if required, the latter is partially hydrogenated or reduced to give the ocorresponding octanal of the formula I.
Several studies point to the existence of an inverse correlation between cellular lipid peroxidation and both cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Here, we show that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) concentrations close to the level found in normal cells (in the range of 1 and 3 µm) can specifically induce changes in the expression of c-myc and γ-globin mRNA in K562 cells, without inducing any toxic effects or affecting cell viability. Since we have determined that K562 cells have undetectable levels of endogenous lipid peroxidation, all these effects can be assigned to the exogenous HNE treatment. After a 1-h treatment with 1 µm HNE, c-myc mRNA levels decrease transiently during the first 4 h, rebounding later to higher levels, and normalizing to basal expression after 4 days. Run-on experiments show a transient transcriptional block 20 min after HNE treatment and subsequent posttranscriptional regulation. According to S1 mapping, mRNA changes are exerted on c-myc transcripts initiated ...
Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
It is likely that the majority of proteins will undergo post-translational changes be it enzymatic or non-enzymatic. in the Western Society for the Biomedical Study on Alcoholism Achieving held September 12-15 2015 in Valencia Spain. electrophilic varieties including reactive aldehydes (carbonylation) acyl organizations (acetylation) and sugars moieties (glycosylation). CARBONYLATION A key contributor to the pathogenesis of ALD is definitely enhanced hepatocellular oxidative stress resulting from the production of reactive oxygen varieties induction of Cyp2E1 as well as xanthine and NADPH oxidases[12-16]. These reactive varieties in turn induce lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid forming α/β unsaturated aldehydes[17 18 The best KX2-391 2HCl characterized of these carbonyl-derivatives include 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal KX2-391 2HCl (4-HNE) 4 malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein. Following their formation these highly reactive lipid electrophiles improve DNA as well as ...
Whole-cell catalysts overexpressing two enzymes for a double reduction cascade in which aliphatic α-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are converted into Guerbet alcohols as a highly demanded class of lubricants were constructed and characterized. The reaction conditions were optimized to suppress by-product Enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis
Aldehydes are hydrocarbon-derived compounds containing terminal carbonyl groups. In the atmosphere, they are very reactive volatile organic compounds produced from the incomplete combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel and contribute to the production of ground level ozone. Examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde ...
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Aldehydes is an organic compound containing functional group called as formyl group, which has numerous applications in medical disinfectant and antiseptic, food and cosmetics among others. It is anhydrous salt, a form of sodium bicarbonate, also called as washing soda. There are numerous types of aldehydes available such as butyraldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and others. However, there quantities are produced according to application and utilization. In industrial applications, it is used as precursor to numerous chemicals such as alcohols, resins, and acids.. Download PDF Brochure of Research Report @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/2358. Aldehydes Market Dynamics. Formaldehyde is among the most common type of aldehydes and is widely used aldehydes across the globe. It is prominently used in the manufacturing of numerous types of resins such as melamine formaldehyde resins, urea formaldehyde resins, and others, which is driving ...
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Breakdown chemical structures known as aldehydes are formed in cooked vegetable oils such as sunflower oil when heated to normal frying temperatures,and are also released into the air where they can be inhaled. Alternate food preparation methods such as roasting, steaming and broiling are safe methods of cooking foods to avoid the dangerous release of aldehydes andprovide a shield against cancer-forming particles and neurodegenerative decline. Prior studies have identified the health degrading nature of aldehydes, where their presence in organisms is linked to different types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Researchers also know that these compounds remain in vegetable oils after they have been used to fry foods and wanted to determine how they interact with proteins, hormones and enzymes in the body to impede its correct functioning. Many common vegetable oils produce dangerous aldehydes when heated The study team heated three types of oil (olive, ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. A valine-derived, electron-deficient triazolium salt catalyzes a high yielding, highly chemo- and enantioselective cross-benzoin reaction between aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters. Diastereoselective reduction of the products gives access to densely oxygenated compounds with high chemo- and diastereoselectivity.. ...
Step 1 through 3 are an aldol reaction, steps 4 and 5 a 1,2-elimination via E1cB mechanism. Thus, aldol condensation is aldol reaction followed by 1,2-elimination.. OCHEMPAL IS NOW IN THE FORM OF A BOOK. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
Under pathological or other stressful conditions where reactive species are produced, cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids are modified into DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, and lipid peroxides, respectively. From the lipid peroxidation of plasma membrane, reactive lipid aldehydes such as HNE or hydroxyhexanal are produced via enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (Esterbauer et al., 1991). Newly synthesized HNE can readily move across cell membranes and can interrupt the normal functions of proteins as well as DNAs (Esterbauer et al., 1991; Martelli et al., 1994). Under extreme conditions of stress, concentration of newly synthesized HNE may reach up to 100 μM (Esterbauer et al., 1991) and thus, HNE may serve as a common cytotoxic signal in many cell types and tissues. For example, the levels of HNE-bound proteins are increased selectively in neurons in the substantia nigra of Parkinsons patients (Yoritaka et al., 1996) and levels of free HNE are increased more than 2-fold ...
Aldehydes are a class of chemicals made in our own bodies in small quantities but increasingly found everywhere in our environment. Exposure to these chemicals has previously been linked with cancer, but the reasons for the link remain unclear. New research led by Professor Ashok Venkitaraman, Director of the Medical Research Council Cancer Unit at the University of Cambridge, has used genetically-engineered human cells and cells from patients bearing a faulty copy of the breast cancer gene BRCA2 to identify the mechanism by which exposure to aldehydes could promote cancer.
Here aldohexose reacts with one molecule of phenylhyrazine which condenses with the aldehyde group to give phenylhydrazone. When warmed with excess of phenyl hydrazine, the secondary alcoholic group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidised by another molecule of phenylhydrazine, to a ketonic group. With this ketonic group, the third molecule of phenylhydrazine condenses to give osazone. The phenylhydrazinyl group is transferred from osazone to C6H5CHO giving C6H5CH = N×NHC6H5 and a dicarbonyl compound called an osone. The more reactive aldehyde group of the osone is reduced, not the less reactive keto group and it gives the 2-ketohexose.. b) The configurations of these carbons which are unchanged in the reactions, must be identical in order to get the same osazone. Question:3, Why should isoelectric point for Aspartic acid (2.98) be so much lower than that of leucine?. Solution: This may be explained by considering following ion equilibria. ...
Information Engineering for Mechanics and Materials: Preparation of Aromatic Aldehydes from Lignin Oxidation with a Perovskite-Type Catalyst
CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity 1 Summary Table Oxidation: Adding O, Losing H Chromic Acid (Cr(VI)) is a powerful oxidizing agent 4 Oxidation Mechanism When Aldehydes are formed by Cr(VI) in water, they
VOCs and aldehydes are frequently emitted from automotive components. Some emissions are highly toxic (including the carcinogens benzene and formaldehyde), whereas others have nuisance value. Recognizing the public health issues, regulatory bodies and industry increasingly seek to reduce exposure to these emissions.
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DNA for the core sequence of six amino acids -- leucine, cysteine, threonine, proline, serine, and arginine (red letters) -- is cloned into the gene for the recombinant protein at the locus to be chemically modified. The cells own FGE converts the cysteine in the sequence to formylglycine, outfitting the protein with an aldehyde group. Synthetic molecules (starred) that are specially equipped to react with the aldehyde group modify the protein at that site and no other. Many kinds of proteins can be tagged in this way; "generic" proteins are pictured here ...
Printing tips! To print chromatograms full page, change the print settings in the print dialogue window of your PDF reader software: 1) "fit" or "fit to page", 2) "landscape" for wide chromatograms or "portrait" for tall chromatograms.. ...
OK, I need to review a bit to get back in the carbohydrate saddle (oh wait, its a chair). The α- in α-D-glucose is only really defined when the D-glucose is bound into a larger molecule. The bond out of glucose is in the α form in glucose and the β form in starch, but as a monomer bulk D-glucose in aqueous solution is not firmly in either α or β form (though one molecule, at one instant, if bound in a ring, will be in either α or β form). As a monomer, glucose is in equilibrium with a free aldehyde form. When the aldehyde reacts intramolecularly to form a closed ring, the resulting ring will be in α or β form depending on which face the carbonyl carbon (C1) forms the ring-closing bond. However, free D-glucose is a mixture of α and β forms and they are dynamically interconverting though the free aldehyde form. When the glucose is bound into a polymer, this locks the position of the ring-closing bond into either the α or β form. Galactose is pure 1-4 α-bound glucose while starch is ...
OK, I need to review a bit to get back in the carbohydrate saddle (oh wait, its a chair). The α- in α-D-glucose is only really defined when the D-glucose is bound into a larger molecule. The bond out of glucose is in the α form in glucose and the β form in starch, but as a monomer bulk D-glucose in aqueous solution is not firmly in either α or β form (though one molecule, at one instant, if bound in a ring, will be in either α or β form). As a monomer, glucose is in equilibrium with a free aldehyde form. When the aldehyde reacts intramolecularly to form a closed ring, the resulting ring will be in α or β form depending on which face the carbonyl carbon (C1) forms the ring-closing bond. However, free D-glucose is a mixture of α and β forms and they are dynamically interconverting though the free aldehyde form. When the glucose is bound into a polymer, this locks the position of the ring-closing bond into either the α or β form. Galactose is pure 1-4 α-bound glucose while starch is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tetra-n-butylammonium Iodide Catalyzed C-H Azidation of Aldehydes with Thermally Stable Azidobenziodoxolone. AU - Shinomoto, Yukino. AU - Yoshimura, Akira. AU - Shimizu, Hisato. AU - Yamazaki, Mutsumi. AU - Zhdankin, Viktor V.. AU - Saito, Akio. PY - 2015/11/6. Y1 - 2015/11/6. N2 - Tetra-n-butylammonium iodide can efficiently catalyze direct azidation of aldehyde C-H bonds with thermally stable azidobenziodoxolone at room temperature. Compared to conventional methods, which require excessive amounts of highly explosive azide sources, this is a safe and convenient procedure.. AB - Tetra-n-butylammonium iodide can efficiently catalyze direct azidation of aldehyde C-H bonds with thermally stable azidobenziodoxolone at room temperature. Compared to conventional methods, which require excessive amounts of highly explosive azide sources, this is a safe and convenient procedure.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84946811389&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Paper products having high initial wet strengths are disclosed. The paper products comprise cellulosic fibers having free aldehyde groups, which fibers are combined with a water-soluble polymer having functional groups that are reacted with the aldehyde groups to form bonds joining the fibers. In a preferred embodiment, the cellulosic fibers contain a polysaccharide in which the hydroxyl groups of at least a portion of the repeating units of the polysaccharide are cis-hydroxyl groups, preferred repeating units being mannose and/or galactose. Similarly, the water-soluble polymer is preferably a polysaccharide in which the hydroxyl groups of at least a portion of the repeating units of the polysaccharide are cis-hydroxyl groups. Preferred polysaccharides are derived from one or more sugars selected from mannose, galactose, allose, altrose, gulose, talose and lyxose.
How is Gomoris aldehyde fuchsin-Alcian blue combination abbreviated? GAF-AB stands for Gomoris aldehyde fuchsin-Alcian blue combination. GAF-AB is defined as Gomoris aldehyde fuchsin-Alcian blue combination rarely.
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Our research focuses on the development of new synthetic methodology for the interconversion of abundant sugars to more exotic ones utilizing the natural reactivity of the aldehyde moiety. The open chain content generally represents a minute minority in reducing sugars equilibria (dominated by the hemiacetal forms), which is usually too small to be determined efficiently and/or accurately. To overcome this issue, we have developed an assay based on the adduct formation of a strongly UV-active aminal species which thereby translates the open chain proportion into a readily measurable reaction rate (see Figure 1, middle). [1] We have confirmed the validity of the approach measuring all parent hexoses and pentoses and exhibiting a high degree of consistency with literature data. Next, we went on to apply the assay to real cases from the field of indium mediated acyloxyallylation [2] (Figure 1, bottom) and our current study of the organocatalytic anomeric activation by N-heterocyclic carbenes ...
2008 (English)In: 6:e Svensk-norskt miljökemiskt möte: SNMM 2008 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
Aldehydes: Structure and Nomenclature. General formula: RCHO or RCH=OThe aldehyde group is always at the end of a chainIUPAC system: Select the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the C=O group and replace the ending by the suffix al.The CHO group is assigned the number 1 position and takes precedence over other functional groups that may the present such as Slideshow 151261 by lotus
4 Hydroxynonenal兔多克隆抗体(ab46545)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 狗, 人, 其他物种样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被22篇文献引用并得到9个独立的用户反馈。
Acrolein (AC) is an α,ß-unsaturated aldehyde, classified by the IARC in group 3B (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). It is supposed to be formed by heating of fat containing foods, via heat induced formation from glycerides/glycerol. Formation of AC from carbohydrates has also been discussed [Stevens and Maier, 2008]. Moreover, it also has been suggested that AC might be formed by endogenous metabolism as a side product of carbohydrate and/or amino acid turnover or by oxidative desamination of polyamines. Analytical determination of AC in foodstuffs is difficult, due to its high volatility and reactivity. Data on exposure and contents of AC in heat treated foods therefore are scarce. It is unclear, to which extent AC contributes to the overall exposure of heat induced biologically active compounds such as acrylamide (AA) and furan. AC forms 1,4-Michael type adducts of biomolecular targets with nucleophiles like sulfhydryl and amino groups. In the organism, AC is mainly ...
A redox-neutral, [3+3]-type condensation of O-acetyl ketoximes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that is synergistically catalyzed by a copper(I) salt and a secondary ammonium salt (or amine), allows modular synthesis of a variety of substituted pyridines under mild conditions with tolerance of a broad range of functional groups. The reaction is driven by a merger of iminium catalysis and redox activity of the copper catalyst ...
Get an answer for What does controlled oxidation of alcohols (to produce aldehydes/ketones) really mean? Can you explain the process? Can you also explain what further controlled oxidation of aldehydes to form carboxylic acids is? Thank you so much! :) and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Aldehydes and ketones Tollens Test Benedicts Solution Fehlings solution Only aldehydes will react during these tests are they are able to be oxidised further to the carboxylic acid ...
Research accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes with ammonia is correlated.
Severn Biotech, Limited SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde - SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde MW: 492.5 Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO A specific reversible inhibitor of caspase 1 (ICE, Interleukin 1ß Converting Enzyme) Thornberry N.A. et al. (1992) Nature 356, 768; Molineaux S.M. et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1809; Walker N.P.C. et al. (1994) Cell 78, 343; Wilson K.P. et al. (1994) Nature 370, 270;
Guidchem offer qualified suppliers for Octyl aldehyde (CAS NO.124-13-0) ,Find latest products of Octyl aldehyde manufacturers, suppliers, exporters and producers on guidechem.com.
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A new book reveals that some companies tend to reserve hazard-free products for the European Union and exports toxin-filled versions of the same items to America and developing countries.
Boc Sciences offers cas 21834-92-4 5-METHYL-2-PHENYL-2-HEXENAL in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 21834-92-4 5-METHYL-2-PHENYL-2-HEXENAL.
MULTIPLE CHOICE [1]. Senyawa 2-metil butanal berisomer dengan: a. dietileter; b. etil isopropil eter; c. 3-pentanol; d.3-metil 2-butanol; e. dietil keton.. [2]. Nama senyawa CH3-CH2-COO-CH2-CH2-CH3adalah: a. propana etana karboksilat; b. propana etilkarboksilat; c. etil propil karboksilat; d. propilpropanoat; e. propil etanoat.. [3]. Nama senyawa CH3-CH(CH3)-CH(COOH)-CH3yang tidak tepat berikut ini adalah: a. 2,3-dimetilbutanoat; b. 2,3-dimetil butirat; c. 2,3-dimetilpropana karboksilat; d. 2-metil butana 3-karboksilat; e.3-metil butana 2-karboksilat.. [4]. Senyawa berikut ini yang tidak dapat berisomeradalah: a. eter dengan alkohol; b. alkanal dengan alkanon;c. alkanoat dengan ester; d. alkana dengan sikloalkana;e. alkena dengan sikloalkana.. [5]. Oksidasi suatu alkohol menghasilkan 3-metil butanal. Alkoholtersebut adalah: a. CH3-(CH2)2-CHOH-CH3;b. CH3-C(CH3)2-CH2OH;c. CH3-(CH2)3-CH2OH;d. (CH3)2-CH-CH2-CH2OH;e. CH3-CH2-CHOH-CH2-CH3.. [6]. Dari nama senyawa-senyawa berikut yang menunjukkan ...
Phosphonate aldehyde annulation: One pot synthesis of delta-Hydroxy cyclopentenoic esters and to-hydroxy cyclohexenoic esters. studies toward the synthesis of analog of Glycinoeclepin A ...
Step 2: Enolate ion 1 preferentially adds to the non-enolizable aldehyde, which has the sterically less hindered and, therefore, more accessible carbonyl carbon.. ...
A robust, facile and solvent-free mechanochemical path for aldehyde-oxime transformations using hydroxylamine and NaOH is explored; the method is suitable for aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes decorated with a range of substituents ...
Other articles where Reimer-Tiemann reaction is discussed: aldehyde: Synthesis of aldehydes: …common of these, called the Reimer-Tiemann reaction, phenols (ArOH) are converted to phenolic aldehydes by treatment with chloroform in basic solution. The ―CHO group usually goes into the position adjacent to the ―OH group.
And they even used system where they could remove the selection gene easily. The strain was uracil or thymine dependent and they used some gene recovering this. Thus after transformation it was able to grow without U/T (Im not sure which one). However, if they added 5-fluoro-uracil, it produced some toxic product and thus only fungi lacking the selection gene survived ...
概要Grignard试剂或有机锂化合物与DMF或N-甲酰基哌啶作用得到醛的反应(Bouveault法)。即使在现在,芳香族化合物的甲酰化也常用该方法合成。
I have just packaged up TCMDC-123794 (PMY 11-2) and -123812 (PMY 10-2) along with the parent acid (PMY 8-2), ester (PMY 6-1), aldehyde (PMY 2-4), near neighbour analogue (PMY 14-1) and also the acylurea by-product (PMY 12-1-A). These have been sent to GSK Tres Cantos where the original study was carried out for further testing.. ...
Ala*nine (#), n. [Aldehyde + the ending -ine. The -n- is a euphonic insertion.] Chemistry|Chem. A white crystalline base, C3H7NO2,...
Only 1 reference electrophile was used to determine N; sN was estimated (based on the sN of structurally analogous C-H hydride donors ...
Only 1 reference electrophile was used to determine N; sN was estimated (based on the average sN of other Si-H hydride donors ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Hydrogenation of alpha, beta unsaturated aldehydes over platinum catalysts. AU - Englisch, M.. AU - Lercher, J.A.. PY - 1995/7/6. Y1 - 1995/7/6. KW - METIS-107776. M3 - Other contribution. CY - Velem, Hungary. ER - ...
Other names: (E,E)-2,4-Decadienal; trans-2, trans-4-Decadienal; trans,trans-2,4-Decadien-1-al; trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal; 2-trans-4-trans-Decadienal; 2,4-trans,trans-Decadienal; (E,E)-2,4-Decanedienal; 2,4-Decadien-1-al, (trans,trans)-; (2E,4E)-2,4-Decadienal; 2E,4E-Decadienal; Deca-2(E),4(E)-dienal; (E)-2,(E)-4-decadienal; (E,E)-2,4-decadien-1-al; (E,E)-Deca-2,4-dienal; (2E,4E)-Deca-2,4-dienal; 2,4-Decadienal, (2E,4E)-; 2,4-(E,E)-Decadienal; (E; E)-2,4-decadienal; 2,4-Decadienal ,E,E,; (E,E)-2,4-decadecenal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium hypochlorite as oxidant in phase transfer catalytic systems. Part I. Oxidation of aromatic aldehydes. AU - Abramovici, Sara. AU - Neumann, Ronny. AU - Sasson, Yoel. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Aromatic aldehydes were oxidized to carboxylic acids in high yields and selectivity under mild conditions. The reactions were performed using aqueous sodium hypochlorite as oxidant in a liquid-liquid phase transfer catalytic system using quaternary ammonium salts as catalysts. The reaction was strongly pH-dependent, with maximum reaction rates at pH 9-11. Similarly, extraction of the hypochlorite ion was maximal at these pHs. The maxima are attributed to coextraction of hypochlorous acid together with the hypochlorite anion into the organic phase, the former significantly increasing the reaction rate.. AB - Aromatic aldehydes were oxidized to carboxylic acids in high yields and selectivity under mild conditions. The reactions were performed using aqueous sodium hypochlorite as oxidant ...
Protection against corrosion and deposition of sludge and varnish is provided by lubricating oils containing a minor amount of the ashless type addition agents which are prepared by reacting under conditions of the Mannich Reaction (1) a high molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxy aromatic compound, in which the alkyl-substituent has an average molecular weight of from about 600 to about 100,000, (2) an amine compound containing at least one HN | group (3) an aliphatic aldehyde, and (4) an aliphatic acid containing at least six carbon atoms, in the respective reactant molar ratio of 1:0.1-10:1-10:0.014-1.0 and further reacting such modified condensation product with from about 2 to about 6 moles of an aliphatic aldehyde per mole of the alkyl-substituted hydroxy aromatic compound.
Define Aldehyde ammonia. Aldehyde ammonia synonyms, Aldehyde ammonia pronunciation, Aldehyde ammonia translation, English dictionary definition of Aldehyde ammonia. a compound formed by the union of aldehyde with ammonia. See also: Aldehyde
Goat anti Human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 antibody recognizes aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1, also known as ALDH1A1. Goat anti
Aldehydes and ketones can be detected using the reagent 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNP). A solution of 2,4-DNP in a mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid is known as Bradys reagent. When Bradys reagent is added to an aldehyde or ketone, a yellow or orange precipitate is formed. There is no precipitation with a carboxylic acid or an ester.. Once identified as an aldehyde or ketone, Tollens reagent (a weak oxidising agent) can be used to distinguish between the two. Aldehydes are oxidised to carboxylic acids by the reagent whereas ketones are not. Tollens is made by adding aqueous sodium hydroxide to aqueous silver nitrate until a brown precipitate of silver oxide is formed. Dilute aqueous ammonia is added until the precipitate dissolves. When added to an aldehyde, a silver mirror is formed, whereas when added to a ketone there is no reaction.. Once identified as an aldehyde or ketone, it can be positvely identified. The yellow/orange impure product is filtered and recrystallised to ...
Results (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal (2.5-10 mg/ml) inhibited lipopolysaccharides (1 mg/ml)-induced pro-inflammatory responses through downregulating IkB kinase b (IKKb)/nuclear factor-kapaB (NF-kB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways in RAW 264.7 cells and synoviocytes. (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal not only suppressed the collagen (100 mg/0.1ml)-induced arthritic responses through inhibition of IKKb/NF-kB and STAT3 activities but also reduced the extent of bone destruction and fibrosis in joint tissue. The population of white blood cells in blood and NO generation in murine splenic T cells of collagen-induced arthritic mice were significantly reduced by (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal. Sol-gel biochip analysis proved that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal directly binds to IKKb, and thus inhibit its activity. A docking experiment and pull-down assay indicate that IKKb might be a potential target of ...
Aldehyde scents can be recognized by their distinctive clean, almost soapy character, but they can also smell quite modern when aldehydes are paired with the right notes.
TY - CONF. T1 - Expression and characterisation of human aldehyde dehydrogenase 10. T2 - implications for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. AU - Lloyd, M. D.. AU - Boardman, K. D. E.. AU - Threadgill, M. D.. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. M3 - Other. ER - ...
The report generally describes (e)-crotonaldehyde, examines its uses, production methods, patents. (E)-crotonaldehyde market situation is overviewed;
Looking for Citronellal? Find out information about Citronellal. the terpene aldehyde 2C═CH 2CH CH2CHO. Citronellal is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, lemonlike odor. Insoluble in water, it is soluble in alcohol and... Explanation of Citronellal
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, EC 1.2.1.3) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation (dehydrogenation) of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, an action also performed by xanthine oxidase (XO) and aldehyde oxidase (AO).. The aldehyde cinnamaldehyde commonly used as a food flavoring is rapidly oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenases into the carboxylic acid cinnamic acid.. ...
2007 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 46, no 12, 1983-1987 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
A sequence encoding a novel glutathione transferase, GST A4-4, has been identified in a human fetal brain cDNA library. The protein has been produced in Escherichia coli after optimization of the codon usage for high-level heterologous expression. The dimeric protein has a subunit molecular mass of 25704 Da based on the deduced amino acid composition. Human GST A4-4 is a member of the Alpha class but shows only 53% amino acid sequence identity with the major liver enzyme GST A1-1. High catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals and other cytotoxic and mutagenic products of radical reactions and lipid peroxidation is a significant feature of GST A4-4. The kcat/Km values for 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxydecenal are , 3×106 M-1·s-1, several orders of magnitude higher than the values for conventional GST substrates. 4-Hydroxynonenal and other reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to aging, atherosclerosis, cataract formation, Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in detoxification of aldehydes. High expression of ALDHs is a marker for stem cells of many organs including the lungs. A common polymorphism in ALDH2 gene (ALDH2*2) results in inactivation of the enzyme and is associated with alcohol flushing syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular and Alzheimers diseases and some cancers. The effect of this ALDH2 polymorphism on the lung and its stem cells has not been thoroughly examined. We examined the association between the ALDH2*2 allele and lung function parameters in a population of healthy individuals. We also examined its association with the incidence of asthma and COPD in patient cohorts. We used the in vitro colony forming assay to detect the effect of the polymorphism on lung epithelial stem cells from both primary human surgical samples and Aldh2*2 transgenic (Tg) and Aldh2 −/− mice. Response to acute and chronic lung injuries was compared between wild type (WT),
How to name aldehydes? How to name ketones? Nomenclature of substituted aldehydes or ketones - examples of acceptable names, displayed formula of aldehydes and ketones, graphic formula, molecular formula, skeletal formula, structural formula of these homologous series and how to name the carbonyl group of compounds known as aldehydes and ketones
We,China 4-Methylthiazole-5-aldehyde 82294-70-0 Suppliers and China 4-Methylthiazole-5-aldehyde 82294-70-0 Manufacturers, provide 4-Methylthiazole-5-aldehyde 82294-70-0 product and the products related with China 4-Methylthiazole-5-aldehyde 82294-70-0 - Shandong Sihuan
Synthesis of polyaldols consisting of beta-keto alcohol monomer units is described. These polymers were obtained by direct step-growth polymerization of purposely designed bifunctional enolizable bis(ketone) monomers playing the role of nucleophilic donors, and activated nonenolizable bis(aldehyde)s serving as electrophilic acceptors. Monofunctional ketone and aldehyde homologues were first synthesized as models to establish the aldol reaction conditions using reaction partners at stoichiometry. A bifunctional organocatalytic system consisting of pyrrolidine in conjunction with acetic acid allowed performing polyaldolizations of stoichiometric amounts of the bis(aldehyde) and the bis(ketone) in solution in THF, DMSO, or DMF, at room temperature. However, polar solvents and/or prolonged reaction time induced further aldol reactions between aldol units of polymer chains, as indicated by the relatively broad molecular weight distribution of related polyaldols observed by size exclusion chromatography.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic remodeling induced by mitochondrial aldehyde stress stimulates tolerance to oxidative stress in the heart. AU - Endo, Jin. AU - Sano, Motoaki. AU - Katayama, Takaharu. AU - Hishiki, Takako. AU - Shinmura, Ken. AU - Morizane, Shintaro. AU - Matsuhashi, Tomohiro. AU - Katsumata, Yoshinori. AU - Zhang, Yan. AU - Ito, Hideyuki. AU - Nagahata, Yoshiko. AU - Marchitti, Satori. AU - Nishimaki, Kiyomi. AU - Wolf, Alexander Martin. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroki. AU - Hattori, Fumiyuki. AU - Vasiliou, Vasilis. AU - Adachi, Takeshi. AU - Ohsawa, Ikuroh. AU - Taguchi, Ryo. AU - Hirabayashi, Yoshio. AU - Ohta, Shigeo. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. AU - Ogawa, Satoshi. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - RATIONALE:: Aldehyde accumulation is regarded as a pathognomonic feature of oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE:: We investigated how the heart compensates for the accelerated accumulation of aldehydes. METHODS AND RESULTS:: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 ...
The selective transformation of the aldehyde group (-CHO) in multifunctional oxygenates is a key challenge in the development of sustainable biomass feedstock. Herein, a smart Ni-MFC catalyst was developed from a 2D Ni-based metal-organic framework (MOF), which efficiently promoted the transformation of -CHO in the
The proline-catalyzed aldol reaction is discussed in Chapter 5.3 of my book. This is an area of continued research and the recent paper of Sharma and Sunoj addresses an alternative mechanism involving oxazolidinone.1 They examine the proline-catalyzed aldol self-condensation of propanal with B3LYP/6-31+G** and MP2/6-31+G** computations. This reaction is found to proceed2 with 4:1 anti:syn diastereoselectivity.. An oxazolidinone intermediate has been observed in proline-catalyzed aldol condensations. This intermediate is proposed to come about via Path b, whereas the generally accepted mechanism put forth by Houk and List, discussed in my book, follows Path a. Sharma and Sunoj find that the oxazolidinone 7 is lower in energy than the enamine 4, and its barrier for ring opening back to 3 is large. Thus, it is not unreasonable that it is the observed intermediate.. ...
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are approximately 100 kDa transmembranous proteins that catalyze the ATP-dependent transport of cytosolic Ca2+ [Ca2+]i into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), thereby maintaining low concentrations of resting [Ca2+]i. Reactive free- and non-radical oxygen and nitrogen species regulate SERCA function. Additionally, free radicals can oxidize lipids producing bioactive lipid-peroxidation end-products which are capable of modifying membranous proteins, resulting in protein inactivation. Here, in order to characterize the effect of 4-HNE, a lipid-peroxidation end-product, on SERCA structure and function, mouse WG and LV tissues were treated with 4-HNE and subsequently assayed for maximal Ca2+-dependent SERCA activity and SERCA post-translational structural modifications. Ca2+-dependent, maximal SERCA activity assays demonstrate a dose-dependent functional impairment of the SERCA pumps following 4-HNE treatment; interestingly, western blotting ...
We investigated the activities and relevance of a validated panel of antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, specific lipid peroxidation end products and six fatty acids by correlational analyses with peak E(2) levels and pregnancy outcome after ovarian stim
Definition of aldol condensation. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Polysaccharide aldehydes having the general structure ##STR1## such as starch, cellulose and gum aldehydes, are useful for imparting wet, dry, or temporary wet strength to paper. They are prepared by a non-oxidative method which involves reacting the polysaccharide base, in the presence of alkali, with a derivatizing acetal reagent having the general structure ##STR2## and then hydrolyzing the acetal by adjusting the pH to less than 7, preferably 2-4. R is (CH2)n or a divalent aromatic group and n is 0 or greater; R1, R6, and R7 are hydrogen or an organic group; R2, R5, and R8 are (CH2)m with m being 1-6; R3 and R4 are hydrogen or a lower alkyl; Y is an anion; Z is an organic group capable of reacting with the polysaccharide base to form an ether derivative and selected from the group consisting of an epoxide, ethylenically unsaturated group, halohydrin, and halogen; R11, if present, is a divalent organic group containing no reactive substiuents; and A and A are lower alkyls or together form at least a
Propanal, 2-hydroxy-, oxime | C3H7NO2 | CID 71354251 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
1-Cyclohexene-1-propanal, 2,6,6-trimethyl- | C12H20O | CID 579297 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
26328-11-0 - JZQKKSLKJUAGIC-NSHDSACASA-N - 2-Propanal, 1-(1H-indol-4-yloxy)-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)-, (S)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
In the present study, we showed that alkylamine activated a large cluster of glomeruli in the anteromedial part and a small cluster of glomeruli in the posteromedial part of the dorsal OB. The alkylamine-responsive glomeruli in the anteromedial cluster responded to aldehydes with medium-to-long carbon chains (mainly C5-C10 CHO), and especially strongly to hexanal and heptanal. The odors of hexanal and heptanal contain a fatty, fishy note, and they are major components of the fatty, tallowy, fishy off-flavor associated with oxidative degradation of lipids in meats and seafoods (Mottram et al., 1982; St. Angelo et al., 1987; Josephson, 1991; Nijssen, 1991; Refsgaard et al., 1999). cis- 4-heptenal, for example, has been recognized for years to be responsible for the fishy off-flavor of cold-stored cod and butter (McGill et al., 1974; Josephson, 1991). The alkylamine-responsive glomeruli were activated also by aliphatic acids with medium-to-long carbon chains (C5-C10 COOH), including hexanoic acid ...
The single oral dose toxicity was estimated by the gastric intubation of groups of five non-fasted, Carworth-Wistar male rats following a standard acute method decsribed in sufficient detail. The LD50 for mixed isomers of hexanal was determined to be 7703.1 mg/kg bw. ...
Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help Services | Live Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Tutors | Online Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Help | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Tutors | Online Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Tutors | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids Homework Services | Aldehydes Ketones from Fatty Acids
Description of disease Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Treatment Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Symptoms and causes Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency Prophylaxis Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Although aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from sheep liver cytosol has a broad specificity, it will not oxidize the aldehyde group of glyoxylic acid which is in fact an inhibitor of the enzyme. The inhibition pattern is non-linear but competitive at high propionaldehyde concentrations (2-20 mM); however, a simple non-competitive pattern is observed at low (less than 100 microM) propionaldehyde concentrations (Ki = 1.6 mM). The esterase activity was unaffected by glyoxylic acid in the absence of NAD+ but a simple competitive inhibition pattern (Ki = 2.5 mM) was observed with respect to 4-nitrophenyl acetate in the presence of NAD+. The data require a two-site model in which ester and aldehyde binding sites are distinct but with a second propionaldehyde molecule, and glyoxylic acid, binding at or near the ester binding site. Consistent with this model is the fact that chloral hydrate was a non-competitive inhibitor of the esterase activity in the presence of NAD+ but a competitive inhibitor in its ...
Looking for online definition of Aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme in the Medical Dictionary? Aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme explanation free. What is Aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme? Meaning of Aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme medical term. What does Aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme mean?
Title:Synthesis of Pyrimidine Derivatives from Three-component Reaction of Malononitrile, Aldehydes and Thiourea/Urea in the Presence of High Surface Area and Nanosized MgO as a Highly Effective Heterogeneous Base Catalyst. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Zahra Hassani. Affiliation:Department of New Materials, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.. Keywords:High surface area, nanosized MgO, Pyrimidine derivatives, Three-component reaction.. Abstract:The three-component reaction of malononitrile, aldehydes and thiourea/urea, is applied to the formation of pyrimidine derivatives. The reaction occurs at best in EtOH at reflux, in the presence of high surface area and nanosized MgO. This methodology is more convenient to compare with alternative ways because it needs shorter reaction times, allows straightforward product isolation, and provides higher yields.. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Many aldehydes are important components of natural flavours. They are used in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industries in large amounts. Plant cells or microorganisms carry out their production by biotransformation, which is one of the biotechnological methods that allow them to be defined as natural. Cell cultures of Silybum marianum and Peganum harmala have been studied with a view to investigat their abilities to produce flavonolignans and b-carboline alkaloids respectively. However, we have isolated S. marianum and P. harmala culture strain, which are able to metabolise several aromatic aldehydes. Ten culture strains derived from S. marianum and P. harmala were examined for their ability to biotransform exogenous aromatic aldehyde compounds, including benzaldehyde, 2-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde. Callus cultures of Silybum marianum and Peganum harmala were established from seedlings, and healthy suspensions were grown using
Background: Reuterin produced from glycerol by Lactobacillus reuteri, a normal inhabitant of the human intestine, is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has been postulated that reuterin could play a role in the probiotic effects of Lb. reuteri. Reuterin is active toward enteropathogens, yeasts, fungi, protozoa and viruses, but its effect on commensal intestinal bacteria is unknown. Moreover reuterins mode of action has not yet been elucidated. Glutathione, a powerful antioxidant, which also plays a key role in detoxifying reactive aldehydes, protects certain bacteria from oxidative stress, and could also be implicated in resistance to reuterin. The aim of this work was to test the activity of reuterin against a representative panel of intestinal bacteria and to study a possible correlation between intracellular low molecular weight thiols (LMW-SH) such as glutathione, hydrogen peroxide and/or reuterin sensitivity. Reuterin was produced by Lb. reuteri SD2112 in pure glycerol solution, purified and

Cyanamide
      - Calcium Carbimide
     Summary Report | CureHunterCyanamide - Calcium Carbimide Summary Report | CureHunter

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 8. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 9. Hydrogen 10. Urea (Carbamide) Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Oral ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD003484-Cyanamide-Calcium-Carbimide.do

aldehydesaldehydes

Some aldehydes are substrates for aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes which metabolize aldehydes in the body. There are toxicities ... Stephen aldehyde synthesis Nitriles Hydrolysis of an iminium salt generated by tin(II) chloride and HCl to form an aldehyde. ... IUPAC names for aldehydes[edit]. The common names for aldehydes do not strictly follow official guidelines, such as those ... Naturally occurring aldehydes[edit]. Traces of many aldehydes are found in essential oils and often contribute to their ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldehyde

Phenolic aldehyde - WikipediaPhenolic aldehyde - Wikipedia

Phenolic aldehydes are derivatives of phenol. Phenolic aldehydes can be found in wines and cognacs. Examples : ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_463 Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac ... Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde can be isolated from ... 1014914701477 Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea. Vanisree Mulabagal, Ruby L. Alexander-Lindo, David ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenolic_aldehyde

Aldehyde oxidase - WikipediaAldehyde oxidase - Wikipedia

AO catalyzes the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and hydrogen peroxide. an aldehyde + ... Aldehyde oxidase is very concentrated in the liver, where it oxidizes multiple aldehydes and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds ... Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybd-flavo protein family and has a very complex evolutionary profile-as the genes of AO ... Aldehyde oxidase is thought to have a significant impact on pharmacokinetics. AO is capable of oxidizing many drugs in the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldehyde_oxidase

ALDEHYDES || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGALDEHYDES || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/726353/ALDEHYDES/

Coniferyl aldehydeConiferyl aldehyde

Coniferylic aldehyde; Cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-; CONIFERYL ALDEHYDE-1; 2-Propenal, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), (E ... 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (coniferilic aldehyde); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde *Information on this page: *Notes ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C10H10O3/c1-13-10-7-8

What Are Aromatic Aldehydes? (with picture)What Are Aromatic Aldehydes? (with picture)

Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical. Theyre commonly used in making ... Aldehydes and ketones are related compounds where an aldehyde contains at least one hydrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group ... Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical or group, CHO, and are used as ... The simplest of aromatic aldehydes is benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO, which is an almond extract that is used as a flavoring, and as an ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-aromatic-aldehydes.htm

Aldehyde dehydrogenase - Everything2.comAldehyde dehydrogenase - Everything2.com

... this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ethanal ... Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/Aldehyde+dehydrogenase

Aldehydes dictionaryAldehydes dictionary

The dictionary of aldehydes contains a set of kewords with translations related to aldehydes. Translations in more than 50 ... Dictionary of Aldehydes in other languages:. Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Basque Bengali Bosnian Brazilian Portuguese ...
more infohttp://www.dicts.info/dictionary/?topic=aldehydes&l1=Lithuanian

Aldehydes dictionaryAldehydes dictionary

The dictionary of aldehydes contains a set of kewords with translations related to aldehydes. Translations in more than 50 ... Index > Aldehydes Acetaldehyde Asetaldehydi. Acrolein Akroleiini. Aldehyde Aldehydi. Aldose Aldoosi. Chloral Hydrate ... Dictionary of Aldehydes in other languages:. Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Basque Bengali Bosnian Brazilian Portuguese ...
more infohttps://www.dicts.info/dictionary/?topic=aldehydes&l1=Finnish

long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176)long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176)

... is a fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:35746) ... 8Z,10Z-tetradecadienal (CHEBI:137769) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). 9Z,11E,13-tetradecatrienal (CHEBI:137826) ... is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). dodecanal (CHEBI:27836) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). ... CHEBI:17176 - long-chain fatty aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:17176

ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Endrin (Endrin aldehyde)ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Endrin (Endrin aldehyde)

It is not known what happens to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone once they are released to the environment. However, the amount ... Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde. ... Little is known about the properties of endrin aldehyde (an impurity and breakdown product of endrin) or endrin ketone (a ... of endrin broken down to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone is very small. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=616&tid=114

Aldehyde | Definition of Aldehyde by Merriam-WebsterAldehyde | Definition of Aldehyde by Merriam-Webster

Aldehyde definition is - acetaldehyde; broadly : any of a class of highly reactive organic compounds that are analogous to ... Comments on aldehyde. What made you want to look up aldehyde? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of aldehyde to Facebook Share the Definition of aldehyde on Twitter ... Examples of aldehyde in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. In this first study, the focus was on recognizing a group of ...
more infohttps://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aldehyde

Aldehyde dehydrogenase - Rattus norvegicus (Rat)Aldehyde dehydrogenase - Rattus norvegicus (Rat)

Aldehyde dehydrogenaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... tr,Q7M053,Q7M053_RAT Aldehyde dehydrogenase OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 PE=1 SV=1 BSGZPTAVMYILFHKR Align. Format. Add to ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7M053

Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric propargylation of aldehydes.Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric propargylation of aldehydes.

Aldehydes / chemistry*. Alkadienes / chemistry. Alkynes / chemical synthesis, chemistry*. Boronic Acids / chemistry*. Bromine ... 0/Aldehydes; 0/Alkadienes; 0/Alkynes; 0/Boronic Acids; 0/Bromine Compounds; 0/Propanols; 4AV0LZ8QKB/propadiene; E920VF499L/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Acid-Catalyzed-Asymmetric-Propargylation-Aldehydes/22223476.html

ALDEHYDE OXIDATION PROCESSES - EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANYALDEHYDE OXIDATION PROCESSES - EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY

In some embodiments, the aldehyde is n-butyraldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is propionaldehyde. In some embodiments ... the aldehyde is acetaldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is formaldehyde. ... Furthermore, an additional aspect of the invention is the use of static mixtures in an oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic ... Thus, the invention provides processes that include contacting an aldehyde having the formula R1-CHO with an oxidant in a ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2015/0166451.html

Aldehydes and ketones | Organic chemistry | Science |
Khan AcademyAldehydes and ketones | Organic chemistry | Science | Khan Academy

We will be learning about the nomenclature and reactions of aldehydes and ketones, including how to use acetals as protecting ... Aldehydes and ketones can be starting materials for a range of other functional groups. ...
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/organic-chemistry/aldehydes-ketones

Aldehydes and ketones | Organic chemistry | Science | Khan AcademyAldehydes and ketones | Organic chemistry | Science | Khan Academy

We will be learning about the nomenclature and reactions of aldehydes and ketones, including how to use acetals as protecting ... Aldehydes and ketones can be starting materials for a range of other functional groups. ...
more infohttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/aldehydes-ketones/reactions-aldehydes-ketones-jay/v/acid-and-base-catalyzed-formation-of-hydrates-and-hemiacetals?modal=1

Reduction of Ethanethiol Esters to AldehydesReduction of Ethanethiol Esters to Aldehydes

Facile Palladium-Mediated Conversion of Ethanethiol Esters to Aldehydes and Ketones. H. Tokuyama, S. Yokoshima, T. Yamashita, S ... α-Amino aldehydes with Boc, Cbz, or Fmoc protection could be obtained without racemization in high yield. ... Reduction of ethanethiol esters of α-amino acids to α-amino aldehydes by triethylsilane and catalytic palladium-on-carbon is ... Reduction of Ethanethiol Esters to Aldehydes. Hidetoshi Tokuyama, Satoshi Yokoshima, Shao-Cheng Lin, Leping Li, Tohru Fukuyama ...
more infohttp://www.organic-chemistry.org/abstracts/literature/159.shtm

Sensory Aldehydes - American Vineyard FoundationSensory Aldehydes - American Vineyard Foundation

Cat.: Sensory Aldehydes Primary Investigator(s): Susan E. Ebelerby AVF. Most aroma compounds exist in grapes as glycosidically ... Cat.: Enology, Sensory Aldehydes Primary Investigator(s): Linda F. Bissonby AVF. The goal of this project is to use the process ... Cat.: Enology, Sensory Aldehydes Primary Investigator(s): David Blockby AVF. The goal of this project is to find critical ... Cat.: Enology, Sensory Aldehydes Primary Investigator(s): Susan E. Ebelerby AVF. Most aroma compounds exist in grapes as ...
more infohttp://www.avf.org/category/enology/sensory-aldehydes/

Synthesis of pyridine bases from aldehydes and ammonia (review) | SpringerLinkSynthesis of pyridine bases from aldehydes and ammonia (review) | SpringerLink

... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ... Ammonia Organic Chemistry Aldehyde Pyridine Polytechnic Institute Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. ... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00764521

The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.  - PubMed - NCBIThe mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family. - PubMed - NCBI

Aldehyde oxidase genes in vertebrates. The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected ... Phylogeny of eukaryotic aldehyde oxidases. A rooted dendrogram was obtained by the Phylip method after CLUSTAL-W computer-aided ... Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal ... The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.. Garattini E1, Fratelli M, Terao M. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20038499?dopt=Abstract

WO2013117433 ALDEHYDES AS PERFUMING INGREDIENTSWO2013117433 ALDEHYDES AS PERFUMING INGREDIENTS

... for instance to impart odor notes of the aldehyde, lily of the valley type. ... The present invention relates to an aldehyde of formula (I) in the form of any one of its stereoisomers or a mixture thereof, ... EN) ALDEHYDES AS PERFUMING INGREDIENTS. (FR) ALDÉHYDES EN TANT QUINGRÉDIENTS DE PARFUM. ... EN) The present invention relates to an aldehyde of formula (I) in the form of any one of its stereoisomers or a mixture ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2013117433
  • Cinnamic aldehyde is widely preferred in the households as a flavoring agent. (openpr.com)
  • Rapidly expanding cosmetics & personal care industry with growing appearance consciousness among the consumers coupled with rising per capita disposable income is driving the cinnamic aldehyde growth globally. (openpr.com)
  • The global cinnamic aldehyde market is segmented into nature, application, end use industry, and region. (openpr.com)
  • Based on the region, the cinnamic aldehyde market is segregated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region in the cinnamic aldehyde market owing to the increasing demand for nutritious food and energy drink with rising health consciousness among the consumers. (openpr.com)
  • North America is the second largest region in the cinnamic aldehyde market with increasing spending on personal care products coupled with high per capita income. (openpr.com)
  • Thus, aldehydes are prone to undergo hydrogen atom abstraction in the presence of free radicals, a fact accounts for the ease with which aldehydes undergo autoxidation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal and plant kingdoms. (nih.gov)
  • In vertebrates, aldehyde oxidases constitute the small sub-family of molybdo-flavoenzymes, along with the evolutionarily and structurally related protein, xanthine oxidoreductase. (nih.gov)
  • We are employed in Supplying and Trading a best grade array of Biocide Aldehyde in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India that is created using chemicals that are procured from reliable vendors. (tradeindia.com)
  • The provided aldehyde is processed using quality tested basic chemical substances and progressive technology under the strict supervision of experienced professionals as per the laid industry norms at our vendors. (tradeindia.com)
  • Professor Ashok Venkitaraman director of the Medical Research Council, Cancer Unit at Cambridge University has conducted research into common carcinogens and concluded a host of 'aldehydes' commonly found in toiletry, personal care and around the home are linked to cancer. (canceractive.com)
  • The word aldehyde was coined by Justus von Liebig as a contraction of the Latin al cohol dehyd rogenatus (dehydrogenated alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclamen Aldehyde is a fragrance molecule which has been used in soaps, detergents, lotions, and perfumes. (tradeindia.com)
  • If the presence of another functional group demands the use of a suffix, the aldehyde group is named with the prefix formyl- . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenolic aldehydes can be found in wines and cognacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venkitaraman's team found that aldehydes had a DNA damaging effect, and concluded this was extremely worrying given their presence in so many everyday products. (canceractive.com)
  • The notes say that its note include aldehydes , almond milk, and incense. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Our Aldehyde Free Disinfectant Cleaner is highly recommended for use in hospitals, hotels and industries with good cleaning power and a rapid bactericidal and fungicidal action. (tradeindia.com)
  • As a world-leading entity, we are engaged in manufacturing, exporting and supplying a wide range of highly effective Cumin Aldehyde to our clients. (tradeindia.com)
  • The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. (mdpi.com)
  • Aldehydes have properties that are diverse and that depend on the remainder of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_463 Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac Quality Markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our firm has gained immense recognition in offering premium quality Para Anisic Aldehyde. (tradeindia.com)
  • Aldehyde Type Bactericide By keeping track with market development, we are engrossed in manufacturing, exporting and supplying our clients a high quality Aldehyde Type Bactericide that is extensively used for reducing bacteria, algae and fungi from oil, water and many more. (tradeindia.com)
  • However, the amount of endrin broken down to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone is very small. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of resonance stabilization of the conjugate base, an α-hydrogen in an aldehyde (not shown in the picture above) is far more acidic , with a p K a near 17, compared to the acidity of a typical alkane (p K a about 50). (wikipedia.org)
  • These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'aldehyde. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde. (cdc.gov)