Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (1/2673)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (2/2673)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (3/2673)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2; EC 3.3.2.5) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in ischemic rat heart. (4/2673)

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. Because of its reactivity with nucleophilic compounds, particularly metabolites and proteins containing thiol groups, HNE is cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and time course for the formation of HNE-modified proteins during ischemia and ischemia plus reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. With an antibody to HNE-Cys/His/Lys and densitometry of Western blots, we quantified the amount of HNE-protein adduct in the heart. By taking biopsies from single hearts (n = 5) at various times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, and 40 min) after onset of zero-flow global ischemia, we showed a progressive, time-dependent increase (which peaked after 30 min) in HNE-mediated modification of a discrete number of proteins. In studies with individual hearts (n = 4/group), control aerobic perfusion (70 min) resulted in a very low level (296 arbitrary units) of HNE-protein adduct formation; by contrast, after 30-min ischemia HNE-adduct content increased by >50-fold (15,356 units, P < 0.05). In other studies (n = 4/group), administration of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG, 1 mM) to the heart for 5 min immediately before 30-min ischemia reduced HNE-protein adduct formation during ischemia by approximately 75%. In studies (n = 4/group) that included reperfusion of hearts after 5, 10, 15, or 30 min of ischemia, there was no further increase in the extent of HNE-protein adduct formation over that seen with ischemia alone. Similarly, in experiments with MPG, reperfusion did not significantly influence the tissue content of HNE-protein adduct. Western immunoblot results were confirmed in studies using in situ immunofluorescent localization of HNE-protein in cryosections. In conclusion, ischemia causes a major increase in HNE-protein adduct that would be expected to reflect a toxic sequence of events that might act to compromise tissue survival during ischemia and recovery on reperfusion.  (+info)

Conversion of (+/-)-synephrine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by Arthrobacter synephrinum. A novel enzymic reaction. (5/2673)

A partically purified enzyme from Arthrobacter synephrinum was found to catalyse the conversion of (+/-)-synphrine into p-hydroxyphrenylacetaldehyde and methylamine. The enzyme is highly specific for synephrine and is distinctly different from monoamine oxidase.  (+info)

Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. (6/2673)

Reactive oxygen species are involved in a diversity of biological phenomena such as inflammation, carcinogenesis, aging, and atherosclerosis. We and other investigators have shown that the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker for oxidative stress, is increased in either the urine or the mononuclear cells of the blood of type 2 diabetic patients. However, the association between type 2 diabetes and oxidative stress in the pancreatic beta-cells has not been previously described. We measured the levels of 8-OHdG and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of nonobese type 2 diabetes. Quantitative immunohistochemical analyses with specific antibodies revealed higher levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats than in the control Wistar rats, with the levels increasing proportionally with age and fibrosis of the pancreatic islets. We further investigated whether the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins would be modified in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats fed with 30% sucrose solution or 50 ppm of voglibose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor). In the GK rats, the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins, as well as islet fibrosis, were increased by sucrose treatment but reduced by voglibose treatment. These results indicate that the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats are oxidatively stressed, and that chronic hyperglycemia might be responsible for the oxidative stress observed in the pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (7/2673)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (8/2673)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
2012 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 53, no Suppl 1, S248-S249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
The major focus of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms by which oxidative stress affects cardiovascular function. In particular, we are interested in the role of lipid peroxidation as a contributor to myocardial ischemic injury and atherosclerosis. Although lipid peroxidation generates several reactive intermediates and end products, lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes are believed to be a major source of oxidative stress and these toxicants appear to be critical mediators of tissue injury due to lipid peroxidation. In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. We have learned that the enzymes - aldose reductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde dehydrogenase are the major constituents of aldehyde metabolism in the heart, and vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and ...
Based on the quantitative profiles of aldehydes reportedly formed during autoxidation of fatty acids, such as oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acid,17 18we measured eight aldehydes in this study (pentanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, and HNE). Pentanal and hexanal are mainly generated from the peroxidation of linoleic and arachidonic acid, while heptanal is generated from oleic acid, and 2-hexenal from α-linolenic acid. 2-nonenal and HNE are also the main peroxidation products of γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid.17 Among these aldehydes, HNE has already been widely studied19 and hexanal has also been reported20 to be an indicator of lipid peroxidation. It has already been confirmed that not only hexanal, HNE, and MDA, but also other aldehydes, actually increase during peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and in rats loaded with ethanol.14 17 All of the aldehydes measured in this study were higher in the CLD infants than in the ...
The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7±2 μM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of ...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a segmented-flow analyzer was used for the analysis of aldehydes. The aldehydes, which were separated on a reversed-phase C_(18) column, were derivatized with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinonhe ydrazone (MBTH) and detected at 640 nm. MBTH reacts readily with all aliphatic aldehydes to form MBTH derivatives with high molar absorptivities. Aldehydes below 1 µM can be easily detected by this method. Because aldehydes and other solutes are separated by HPLC before derivatization, free aldehydes are detected without interference. Aldehydes in cloud- and fogwater samples were analyzed. Form-aldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal concentrations were determined. Results obtained with the MBTH method were consistent with those obtained with the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method. The MBTH method allows for the rapid determination of the concentration of free aldehydes; the DNPH method will yield similar results, although the ...
Aldehydes Catalog with China Aldehydes Products, Aldehydes Suppliers, Aldehydes Manufacturers, and Aldehydes Exporters provided by ChemNet
Aldehydes are named by IUPAC nomenclature by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -al. Aliphatic aldehydes are named as derivatives of their longest alkyl chain. Thus, HCHO is named as a derivative of methane, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is named as a derivative of butane. The suffix -al replaces the -e of the alkane name. Thus, HCHO is named methanal, more commonly known as formaldehyde, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is named butanal. When a -CHO group is attached to a ring, the suffix -carbaldehyde is used. Thus, C6H11-CHO is known as cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. The name benzaldehyde is used as the root for aldehydes derived from benzene. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution. T2 - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures. AU - Schulte, Mitchell D.. AU - Shock, Everett L.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal ...
The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. Individual cells did not react or reacted to one or multiple aldehydes; in the latter case, cells only reacted to aldehydes of consecutive carbon chain lengths. The largest proportion of cells responded to octanal. It was also demonstrated that a structural difference as small as one hydrogenated carbon atom was detectable by the olfactory neurons. Neurons were increasingly able to discriminate between two aldehydes as the difference in chain length between the two increased. Discrimination between aldehydes with longer carbon chains was reduced. Although the odorants examined belong to a distinct chemical class and differ only slightly in structure, individual olfactory sensory neurons showed quite different receptive ...
Lipid peroxidation-derived cellular damage has been related to normal cellular aging and various age-related degenerative diseases. Tissues containing large numbers of postmitotic cells, as in the brain, skeletal muscles, or heart, are particularly at risk for age-related deterioration in function by lipid peroxidation products. The initiation of lipid peroxidation also requires the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The outer retina is exposed to light in an oxygen-rich environment, and unsaturated fatty acids are present in high concentrations in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. 24 Accordingly, evidence for light-induced lipid peroxidation reactions in the retina has been reported in several studies. 25 26 27 Exposure to intense light is thought to acutely induce retinal damage by generating the production of high doses of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA-reactive aldehydes that trigger photoreceptor cell apoptosis. 16 Besides ...
Changes in volatile aldehyde and ketone amounts from subcutaneous fat have been evaluated during the dry-curing process (987. days) of Iberian ham by purge & trap-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method, using the same hams for the first time. The subcutaneous adipose tissues of ten hams obtained from five Iberian pigs fed on acorns and pasture were sampled and analyzed periodically during whole processing time. Fifteen aldehydes and six ketones have been identified, all previously described except the 2,4-pentadienal that has been identified for the first time. A LDA was applied and the two discriminant functions were obtained using backward stepwise analysis retaining the variables: 4-octen-3-one, 2-methyl-butanal, butanal, 2-decenal, 2-heptanone, decanal, 2,4-pentadienal, pentanal, hexanal, 2-butanone, octanal and 2-octanone. A complete separation between the three periods was obtained, indicating that the retained variables are powerful descriptors to characterize samples from these ...
Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3I1; Involved in oxidative stress tolerance by detoxifying reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation. Medium- to long-chain saturated aldehydes are preferred substrates, while the short-chain aldehyde propanal is a weak substrate. Can use both NAD(+) and NADP(+), but the coenzyme preference is substrate dependent (550 aa ...
The name aldol is derived from the names of the two functional groups, aldehyde and alcohol, present in the products. The aldol and ketol readily lose water to give α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are aldol condensation products and the reaction is called Aldol condensation. Though ketones give ketols (compounds containing a keto and alcohol groups), the general name aldol condensation still applies to the reactions of ketones due to their similarity with aldehydes. ...
amino aldehydes Amino aldehydes are a group of compounds that have both amino (-NH2) and aldehyde (-CHO) groups. During the last decade α-amino aldehydes have attracted widespread attention as the important natural source of chiral substrates useful in stereocontrolled organic synthesis. They are of special interest due to their ready availability in both enantiomeric forms from natural sources, as well as their pronounced versatility, due to the presence of both the formyl group and suitably protected amino functionality in the molecule.
Full Text - Deposition and mobilization of fat in an organism aretightly controlled by multiple levels of endocrine and neuroendocrineregulation. Because these hormonal mechanisms ultimately act by affectingbiochemical reactions of fat synthesis or utilization, obesity could bealso modulated by altering directly the underlying lipid biochemistry. Wehave previously shown that genetically modified mice with an elevated levelof the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE become obese. We now demonstratethat the process is phylogenetically conserved and thus likely to beuniversal. In the nematode C. elegans, disruption of eitherconjugation or oxidation of 4-HNE leads to fat accumulation, whereasaugmentation of 4-HNE conjugation results in a lean phenotype. Moreover,direct treatment of C. elegans with synthetic 4-HNE causes increasedlipid storage, directly demonstrating a causative role of 4-HNE. Thepostulated mechanism, which involves modulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylaseactivity, could contribute to
Folates undergo oxidative cleavage in vivo, releasing a pterin aldehyde fragment that can be re-used in folate synthesis if the aldehyde group is reduced. High levels of NADPH-dependent reductase activity against pterin-6-aldehyde and its dihydro form were detected in Arabidopsis, pea and other plan …
Title: Chiral Pyrrolidine-Based Salen Ligands for the Enantioselective Alkylation of Aromatic Aldehydes. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 2. Author(s): M. Elisa da Silva Serra, Dina Murtinho, Albertino Goth and A. M. dA. Rocha Gonsalves. Affiliation:Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal.. Keywords:Pyrrolidine, diamine, Salen, diethylzinc, enantioselective, alkylation. Abstract: A new type of Salen ligands derived from (2R, 3R)-N-benzyl-2,3-diaminopyrrolidine and aromatic hydroxyaldehydes was synthesized and tested in the enantioselective alkylation of aromatic aldehydes with diethylzinc, moderate selectivity being observed. This study represents the application of a new type of Zn- Salen ligands and opens the way to exploring these promising new structures in other enantioselective and biological processes. ...
Our aldehydes are also sold to customers who produce transparent synthetic polymers for safety glass applications. Another example is their use as a chain regulator for polyolefin production. Further applications for aldehydes include: lacquers, polymer additives, flotation reagents, as well as building blocks for agrochemicals.. The widespread use of aldehydes as intermediates in organic synthesis is due to their high reactivity.. ...
Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a diffusible aldehyde product of membrane lipid peroxidation, can be produced by oxidative stress and has been detected in several diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of HNE exposure on cytotoxicity, intracellular redox status, endoplasmic re …
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
It is likely that the majority of proteins will undergo post-translational changes be it enzymatic or non-enzymatic. in the Western Society for the Biomedical Study on Alcoholism Achieving held September 12-15 2015 in Valencia Spain. electrophilic varieties including reactive aldehydes (carbonylation) acyl organizations (acetylation) and sugars moieties (glycosylation). CARBONYLATION A key contributor to the pathogenesis of ALD is definitely enhanced hepatocellular oxidative stress resulting from the production of reactive oxygen varieties induction of Cyp2E1 as well as xanthine and NADPH oxidases[12-16]. These reactive varieties in turn induce lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid forming α/β unsaturated aldehydes[17 18 The best KX2-391 2HCl characterized of these carbonyl-derivatives include 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal KX2-391 2HCl (4-HNE) 4 malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein. Following their formation these highly reactive lipid electrophiles improve DNA as well as ...
Abstract. A chiral bisaryl-silyl-protected pyrrolidine acts as a very selective epoxidation organocatalyst using simple oxidation agents. The scope of the reaction is demonstrated by the formation of optically active α,β-epoxy aldehydes in high yields and enantioselectivities. The asymmetric epoxidation reactions proceed also under environmental friendly reaction conditions in, for example, water mixtures of alcohols.. ...
Whole-cell catalysts overexpressing two enzymes for a double reduction cascade in which aliphatic α-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are converted into Guerbet alcohols as a highly demanded class of lubricants were constructed and characterized. The reaction conditions were optimized to suppress by-product Enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis
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Aldehydes are hydrocarbon-derived compounds containing terminal carbonyl groups. In the atmosphere, they are very reactive volatile organic compounds produced from the incomplete combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel and contribute to the production of ground level ozone. Examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde ...
This video explains how to identify aldehydes using some simple tests. Aldehydes are organic compounds containing formyl functional group, in which the carbonyl carbon is attached to a hydrogen atom and an R group.
Spectral data for 41 aldehydes have been recorded from 1/700 cm to 1/300 cm and analyzed for spectra-structure correlations. The information so attained can be applied in identifying aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Specific correlations were determined for aliphatic aldehydes with or without alpha-branching. Tentative correlations were observed for alphaolefinic, alicyclic, and aromatic aldehydes. (Author)
When treated with lithium aluminum hydride abbreviated LAH, esters are reduced to yield primary alcohols. As well as most mechanisms of reduction with LAH (reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines), this process is somewhat complex, so that a simpler version will be shown.. This reaction involves two equivalents of LAH. The first equivalent of LAH reduces the ester to an aldehyde and the second equivalent of LAH reduces the aldehyde to an alcohol. But with only one equivalent is not possible to produce aldehyde because aldehydes are more reactive than esters and will react with LAH immediately after being formed. For this purpose, DiBAl-H is used. ...
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Aldehydes is an organic compound containing functional group called as formyl group, which has numerous applications in medical disinfectant and antiseptic, food and cosmetics among others. It is anhydrous salt, a form of sodium bicarbonate, also called as washing soda. There are numerous types of aldehydes available such as butyraldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and others. However, there quantities are produced according to application and utilization. In industrial applications, it is used as precursor to numerous chemicals such as alcohols, resins, and acids.. Download PDF Brochure of Research Report @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/2358. Aldehydes Market Dynamics. Formaldehyde is among the most common type of aldehydes and is widely used aldehydes across the globe. It is prominently used in the manufacturing of numerous types of resins such as melamine formaldehyde resins, urea formaldehyde resins, and others, which is driving ...
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Breakdown chemical structures known as aldehydes are formed in cooked vegetable oils such as sunflower oil when heated to normal frying temperatures,and are also released into the air where they can be inhaled. Alternate food preparation methods such as roasting, steaming and broiling are safe methods of cooking foods to avoid the dangerous release of aldehydes andprovide a shield against cancer-forming particles and neurodegenerative decline. Prior studies have identified the health degrading nature of aldehydes, where their presence in organisms is linked to different types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Researchers also know that these compounds remain in vegetable oils after they have been used to fry foods and wanted to determine how they interact with proteins, hormones and enzymes in the body to impede its correct functioning. Many common vegetable oils produce dangerous aldehydes when heated The study team heated three types of oil (olive, ...
Catalyzes the oxidation 4-aminobutanal (gamma-aminobutyraldehyde) to 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyrate or GABA) (PubMed:3510672, PubMed:16023116). This is the second step in one of two pathways for putrescine degradation, where putrescine is converted into 4-aminobutanoate via 4-aminobutanal, which allows E.coli to grow on putrescine as the sole nitrogen source (PubMed:3510672, PubMed:22636776). Also functions as a 5-aminopentanal dehydrogenase in a a L-lysine degradation pathway to succinate that proceeds via cadaverine, glutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate (PubMed:30498244). Can also oxidize n-alkyl medium-chain aldehydes, but with a lower catalytic efficiency (PubMed:15381418, PubMed:16023116).
The oxidative modification of lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids results in a wide diversity of reactive products, including short-chain aldehydes, which can covalently modify proteins, a process called lipoxidation, and affect their function. The detection of lipoxidation adducts is extremely challenging due to their low abundance, so there is a need for new detection methods. Using the model proteins lysozyme and human serum albumin, five reporter ions for acrolein modification, eight for 4-hydroxyhexenal and one for 2-chlorohexadecanal were found by LC-MS/MS-based label-free method. Subsequently, a targeted multiple reaction monitoring method was developed as a potential tool for the identification and characterization of these modifications of human serum albumin in biological samples. Comparison between three different chromatographic methods for the separation of intact proteins unmodified or modified by short-chain aldehydes demonstrated that anion exchange chromatography was ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. A valine-derived, electron-deficient triazolium salt catalyzes a high yielding, highly chemo- and enantioselective cross-benzoin reaction between aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters. Diastereoselective reduction of the products gives access to densely oxygenated compounds with high chemo- and diastereoselectivity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomimetic flavin-catalyzed aldehyde oxidation. AU - Murray, Alexander T.. AU - Matton, Pascal. AU - Fairhurst, Nathan W. G.. AU - John, Matthew P.. AU - Carbery, David R.. PY - 2012/7/20. Y1 - 2012/7/20. N2 - The oxidation of alkyl and aryl aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids has been achieved through the action of a biomimetic bridged flavin catalyst. The reaction uses readily available 35% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and is operationally simple. The oxidation is a green and sustainable reaction, obviating chlorinated solvents with minimal byproducts.. AB - The oxidation of alkyl and aryl aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids has been achieved through the action of a biomimetic bridged flavin catalyst. The reaction uses readily available 35% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and is operationally simple. The oxidation is a green and sustainable reaction, obviating chlorinated solvents with minimal byproducts.. UR - ...
ALDEHYDE C-6 (HEXANAL) Green, fatty, leafy, vegetative, fruity and clean with a woody nuance. Used for its oily-green odour, at high dilution it adds an effect of freshly cut grass and unripe fruit.
Step 1 through 3 are an aldol reaction, steps 4 and 5 a 1,2-elimination via E1cB mechanism. Thus, aldol condensation is aldol reaction followed by 1,2-elimination.. OCHEMPAL IS NOW IN THE FORM OF A BOOK. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
The benefits of using the oxidized oils from rendering and recycling as an economic source of lipids and energy in animal feed always coexist with the concerns that diverse degradation products in these oxidized oils can negatively affect animal health and performance. Therefore, the quality markers that predict growth performance could be useful when feeding oxidized oils to non-ruminants. However, the correlations between growth performance and chemical profiles of oxidized oils have not been well examined. In this study, six thermally oxidized soybean oils (OSOs) with a wide range of quality measures were prepared under different processing temperatures and processing durations, including 45 °C-336 h; 67.5 °C-168 h; 90 °C-84 h; 135 °C-42 h; 180 °C-21 h; and 225 °C-10.5 h. Broilers and nursery pigs were randomly assigned to diets containing either unheated control soybean oil or one of six OSOs. Animal performance was determined by measuring body weight gain, feed intake, and gain to feed ratio.
Under pathological or other stressful conditions where reactive species are produced, cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids are modified into DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, and lipid peroxides, respectively. From the lipid peroxidation of plasma membrane, reactive lipid aldehydes such as HNE or hydroxyhexanal are produced via enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (Esterbauer et al., 1991). Newly synthesized HNE can readily move across cell membranes and can interrupt the normal functions of proteins as well as DNAs (Esterbauer et al., 1991; Martelli et al., 1994). Under extreme conditions of stress, concentration of newly synthesized HNE may reach up to 100 μM (Esterbauer et al., 1991) and thus, HNE may serve as a common cytotoxic signal in many cell types and tissues. For example, the levels of HNE-bound proteins are increased selectively in neurons in the substantia nigra of Parkinsons patients (Yoritaka et al., 1996) and levels of free HNE are increased more than 2-fold ...
IR Spectroscopy. Aldehydes show a the carbonyl stretch from 1740-1685. If the carbonyl is adjacent to saturated, aliphatic carbons, the C=O stretch is from 1740-1720. If the carbons alpha and beta to it are not saturated (for instance, if the carbonyl is on an aromatic ring), the C=O stretch shows up from 1710-1685.. Another useful diagnostic band for aldehydes is the C H stretch of the aldehyde group in the region 2830-2695. If you suspect a compound to be an aldehyde, always look for a peak in this region; it often appears as a shoulder-type peak just to the right of the alkyl C H stretches.. ...
Aldehydes are a class of chemicals made in our own bodies in small quantities but increasingly found everywhere in our environment. Exposure to these chemicals has previously been linked with cancer, but the reasons for the link remain unclear. New research led by Professor Ashok Venkitaraman, Director of the Medical Research Council Cancer Unit at the University of Cambridge, has used genetically-engineered human cells and cells from patients bearing a faulty copy of the breast cancer gene BRCA2 to identify the mechanism by which exposure to aldehydes could promote cancer.
Although aspalatone (acetylsalicylic acid maltol ester) is recognized as an antithrombotic agent with antioxidative and antiplatelet potential; its efficacy in preventing endothelial dysfunction is not known. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of aspalatone in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Specifically, the effect of aspalatone on VEGF-induced HAECs growth, migration, tube formation, and levels of lipid peroxidation-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined. Our results indicate that the treatment of HAECs with aspalatone decreased VEGF-induced cell migration, tube formation, and levels of MDA. Aspalatone also inhibited VEGF-induced decrease in the expression of eNOS and increase in the expression of iNOS, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Aspalatone also prevented the VEGF-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Furthermore, aspalatone also prevented VEGF-induced release of inflammatory markers such as Angiopoietin-2, Leptin, EGF, G-CSF,
The aldol condensation reaction is an organic reaction introduced by Charles Wurtz, who first prepared the β-hydroxy aldehyde from acetaldehdye in 1872.
Correct Answer: B. 2. The Aldol reaction combines two carbonyl compounds to form a new ?-hydroxy carbonyl compound. These products are known as aldols, from the aldehyde + alcohol, a structural motif seen in many of the products. The correct answer is the Aldol reaction of acetone. The newly formed bond is highlighted in red. Be able to recognize the ?-hydroxy carbonyl motif as an Aldol product.. ...
Here aldohexose reacts with one molecule of phenylhyrazine which condenses with the aldehyde group to give phenylhydrazone. When warmed with excess of phenyl hydrazine, the secondary alcoholic group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidised by another molecule of phenylhydrazine, to a ketonic group. With this ketonic group, the third molecule of phenylhydrazine condenses to give osazone. The phenylhydrazinyl group is transferred from osazone to C6H5CHO giving C6H5CH = N×NHC6H5 and a dicarbonyl compound called an osone. The more reactive aldehyde group of the osone is reduced, not the less reactive keto group and it gives the 2-ketohexose.. b) The configurations of these carbons which are unchanged in the reactions, must be identical in order to get the same osazone. Question:3, Why should isoelectric point for Aspartic acid (2.98) be so much lower than that of leucine?. Solution: This may be explained by considering following ion equilibria. ...
From aldehydes[edit]. The cyclisation of an amino alcohol and an aldehyde produces an intermediate oxazolidine which can be ... The method has been shown to be effective for a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes however electron rich aromatic R ... Ishihara, Midori; Togo, Hideo (2007). "Direct oxidative conversion of aldehydes and alcohols to 2-imidazolines and 2-oxazolines ...
From aldehydes[edit]. The Tishchenko reaction involve disproportionation of an aldehyde in the presence of an anhydrous base to ... As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... DIBAH reduces esters to aldehydes.[21] Direct reduction to give the corresponding ether is difficult as the intermediate ... Compared to ketones and aldehydes, esters are relatively resistant to reduction. The introduction of catalytic hydrogenation in ...
Aldehydes[edit]. A usually desired consecutive reaction is the hydrogenation of the aldehydes to alcohols. Higher temperatures ... It is important because aldehydes are easily converted into many secondary products. For example, the resulting aldehydes are ... Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from ... The resulting aldehydes are directly hydrogenated to the fatty alcohols, which are separated by distillation, which allows the ...
The approximate order of reactivity, beginning with the most reactive, is as follows: acid chlorides > aldehydes > tosylates ~ ...
AldehydesEdit. Aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporicidal and ...
Synthesen aromatischer Aldehyde mit Dichlormethyl-alkyläthern". Chemische Berichte. 93 (1): 88-94. doi:10.1002/cber.19600930115 ... Rieche, A.; Gross, H.; Höft, E. (1967). "Aromatic Aldehydes. Mesitaldehyde". Organic Syntheses. 47 (47): 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn ...
The conversion of monosubstituted acetylenes into aldehydes and 1 : 2-dithiols". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 619 ... unsaturated aldehydes". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 116-121. doi:10.1039/JR9560000116. Fairbanks, Benjamin D.; ...
"Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ...
... can also be referred to as caprylic aldehyde or C8 aldehyde. Silberberg, 2006, Principles of Chemistry Octanal ... Octanal is the organic compound, an aldehyde, with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)6CHO. A colorless fragrant liquid with a fruit- ... "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ...
Kohlpaintner, Christian; Schulte, Markus; Falbe, Jürgen; Lappe, Peter; Weber, Jürgen (2008). "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's ...
... is an aldehyde that consists of acetaldehyde bearing a phenyl substituent; the parent member of the ... It is an alpha-CH2-containing aldehyde and a member of phenylacetaldehydes. Phenylacetaldehyde is one important oxidation- ... Kohlpaintner, Christian; Schulte, Markus; Jürgen, Falbe; Lappe, Peter; Jürgen, Weber; Frey, Guido (2014). "Aldehydes, ... related aldehyde. Exposure to styrene gives phenylacetaldehyde as a secondary metabolite. Styrene has been implicated as ...
... is reduced to undecylene aldehyde, which is valued in perfumery. The acid is first converted to the acid ... "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ...
"Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ... Dodecanal, also known as lauraldehyde or dodecyl aldehyde, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CHO. This ...
Kohlpaintner, Christian; Schulte, Markus; Falbe, Jürgen; Lappe, Peter; Weber, Jürgen; Frey, Guido D. (2013). "Aldehydes, ...
... or heptanaldehyde is an alkyl aldehyde. It is a colourless liquid with a strong fruity odor, which is used as ... "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ... also called jasmine aldehyde because of the typical jasmine odor), which is mostly used in many fragrances as a cis/trans ... "Aldehyde and ketone condensation reactions catalyzed by boric acid". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 33 (2): 775-777. doi: ...
Like many other aldehydes, it reacts with amines and thiol groups, which are common functional groups in proteins. Being bi- ... Like many other dialdehydes, (e.g., glyoxal) and simple aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde), glutaraldehyde converts in aqueous ... Christian Kohlpaintner; Markus Schulte; Jürgen Falbe; Peter Lappe; Jürgen Weber (2008). "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's ...
... , also known as undecyl aldehyde, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C10H21CHO. It is an eleven-carbon ... "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub3. ... aldehyde. A colourless, oily liquid, undecanal is a component of perfumes. Although it occurs naturally in citrus oils, it is ...
Company •Maharashtra Aldehydes •Sudarshan •Maharashtra Seamless •EMBIO •Privi Organics India Limited Mahad consists of two ...
... , also called nonanaldehyde, pelargonaldehyde or Aldehyde C-9, is an aldehyde. A colourless, oily liquid, nonanal is a ... "Aldehydes, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_321.pub2. ...
Mutations in this gene, along with mutations in HADHA, result in trifunctional protein deficiency.[5] Mutations in either gene have similar clinical presentations.[8] Trifunctional protein deficiency is characterized by decreased activity of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, and long-chain thiolase. This deficiency can be classified into 3 main clinical phenotypes: neonatal onset of a severe, lethal condition resulting in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),[9] infantile onset of a hepatic Reye-like syndrome, and late-adolescent onset of primarily a skeletal myopathy.[10] Additionally, some presents showed symptoms associated with myopathy, recurrent and episodic rhabdomyolysis, and sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.[11] In some cases, symptoms of the deficiency can present as dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, and respiratory failure. The deficiency has presented as hydrops fetalis and HELLP syndrome in fetuses.[12] A compound ...
There are five types of carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters.[2] The principal ...
The regulation of mammalian ACC is complex, in order to control two distinct pools of malonyl CoA that direct either the inhibition of beta oxidation or the activation of lipid biosynthesis.[12] Mammalian ACC1 and ACC2 are regulated transcriptionally by multiple promoters which mediate ACC abundance in response to the cells nutritional status. Activation of gene expression through different promoters results in alternative splicing; however, the physiological significance of specific ACC isozymes remains unclear.[11] The sensitivity to nutritional status results from the control of these promoters by transcription factors such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, controlled by insulin at the transcriptional level, and ChREBP, which increases in expression with high carbohydrates diets.[13][14] Through a feed-forward loop, citrate allosterically activates ACC.[15] Citrate may increase ACC polymerization to increase enzymatic activity; however, it is unclear if polymerization is ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], NADPH, and H+.. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl thioester reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acylcarrier protein]reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[ACP]reductase. This enzyme participates in fatty acid biosynthesis and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.. ...
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency can be caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. More than 30 ACADM gene mutations that cause medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency have been identified.[9] Many of these mutations switch an amino acid building block in the ACADM enzyme. The most common amino acid substitution replaces lysine with glutamic acid at position 329 in the enzyme's chain of amino acids (also written as Lys329Glu or K329E).[10] This mutation and other amino acid substitutions alter the enzyme's structure, reducing or abolishing its activity. Other mutations delete or duplicate part of the ACADM gene, which leads to an unstable enzyme that cannot function. With a shortage (deficiency) of functional ACADM enzyme, medium-chain fatty acids cannot be degraded and processed. As a result, these fats are not converted into energy, which can lead to characteristic symptoms of this disorder, such as lack of energy (lethargy) and low blood sugar. Levels of ...
... (or ENR) (EC 1.3.1.9), is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system.[1] ENR is an attractive target for narrow-spectrum antibacterial drug discovery because of its essential role in metabolism and its sequence conservation across many bacterial species. In addition, the bacterial ENR sequence and structural organization are distinctly different from those of mammalian fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes.[2] ...
Mammalian FAS consists of a homodimer of two identical protein subunits, in which three catalytic domains in the N-terminal section (-ketoacyl synthase (KS), malonyl/acetyltransferase (MAT), and dehydrase (DH)), are separated by a core region of 600 residues from four C-terminal domains (enoyl reductase (ER), -ketoacyl reductase (KR), acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)).[16][17] The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model on the right) is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active site cysteine thiol of the KS domain in one FAS monomer with the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of the ACP domain in the other monomer.[18][19] Complementation analysis of FAS dimers carrying different mutations on each monomer has established that the KS and MAT domains can cooperate with the ACP of either monomer.[20][21] and a reinvestigation of the DBP crosslinking experiments revealed ...
It exhibits most of the chemical properties of other aldehydes but is more reactive. Formaldehyde, unlike most aldehydes, ... "Acidity of aldehydes". Chemistry Stack Exchange. Archived from the original on 2018-09-01. Retrieved 2019-04-21. Nelson Jr., R ... Transition metal complexes of aldehydes and ketones includess several complexes of formaldehyde. 1,3-Dioxetane DMDM hydantoin ... It is the simplest of the aldehydes (R−CHO). The common name of this substance comes from its similarity and relation to formic ...
"Myth debunking 1: what are aldehydes, how do aldehydes smell and Chanel No. 5". perfumeshrine.blogspot.co.uk. ... "What are Aldehydes?". about.com. About.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Vosnaki, Elena. " ...
4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
The catalytic cycle is assumed to involve oxidative addition of the aldehyde (or acid chloride) to gives a 16e acyl Rh(III)- ... Decarbonylation of aldehydes using rhodium complex". Tetrahedron Letters. 6 (44): 3969-3971. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)89127-9 ... In addition to aliphatic, aromatic, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, acyl nitriles and 1,2-diketones are also suitable substrates ... The Tsuji-Wilkinson decarbonylation reaction is a method for the decarbonylation of aldehydes and some acyl chlorides. The ...
Some aldehydes are substrates for aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes which metabolize aldehydes in the body. There are toxicities ... Stephen aldehyde synthesis Nitriles Hydrolysis of an iminium salt generated by tin(II) chloride and HCl to form an aldehyde. ... IUPAC names for aldehydes[edit]. The common names for aldehydes do not strictly follow official guidelines, such as those ... Naturally occurring aldehydes[edit]. Traces of many aldehydes are found in essential oils and often contribute to their ...
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... aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon ... Other articles where Aldehyde dehydrogenase is discussed: alcohol consumption: Processing in the liver: …acted upon by another ... acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ...
... has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role human ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) is a quaternary ammonium ... CHEBI:15710 - betaine aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role Aspergillus metabolite (CHEBI:76956) ...
It is not known what happens to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone once they are released to the environment. However, the amount ... Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde. ... Little is known about the properties of endrin aldehyde (an impurity and breakdown product of endrin) or endrin ketone (a ... of endrin broken down to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone is very small. ...
... is a fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:35746) ... 8Z,10Z-tetradecadienal (CHEBI:137769) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). 9Z,11E,13-tetradecatrienal (CHEBI:137826) ... is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). dodecanal (CHEBI:27836) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). ... CHEBI:17176 - long-chain fatty aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... a filter support material coated with an acetoacetate-functional polymeric composition that reacts with and removes aldehydes, ... Aldehydes removal is not mentioned.. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. We have found that gaseous aldehydes such as formaldehyde ... A method for the removal of a gaseous aldehyde from a gas by contacting a gas containing a gaseous aldehyde with a filter ... A method for the removal of a gaseous aldehyde from a gas which comprises contacting a gas containing a gaseous aldehyde with a ...
... this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ethanal ... Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ...
Coniferylic aldehyde; Cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-; CONIFERYL ALDEHYDE-1; 2-Propenal, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), (E ... 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (coniferilic aldehyde); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde *Information on this page: *Notes ...
Breath gas aldehydes as biomarkers of lung cancer.. Fuchs P1, Loeseken C, Schubert JK, Miekisch W. ... Volatile aldehydes were determined in exhaled breath of 12 lung cancer patients, 12 smokers and 12 healthy volunteers. Alveolar ... Exhaled aldehydes reflect aspects of oxidative stress and tumor-specific tissue composition and metabolism. Noninvasive ... Exhaled C(1)-C(10) aldehydes could be detected in all healthy volunteers, smokers and lung cancer patients. Concentrations ...
Nitrated Aldehydes to Bahrain was 10235 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Bahrain rank in Import of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes?. #. 119 Countries. US Dollars. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Bahrain - Import of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes US Dollars - 2003 to 2017 ... Nitrated Aldehydes. Bahrain is overtaken by Jordan, which was number 54 with $10,271.83 and is followed by Nepal at $8,968.72. ...
Aldehyde definition is - acetaldehyde; broadly : any of a class of highly reactive organic compounds that are analogous to ... Comments on aldehyde. What made you want to look up aldehyde? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of aldehyde to Facebook Share the Definition of aldehyde on Twitter ... Examples of aldehyde in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. In this first study, the focus was on recognizing a group of ...
Little is known about the properties of endrin aldehyde, an impurity and breakdown product of endrin, or endrin ketone, which ... Endrin and endrin aldehyde can enter your body when you eat foods or drink beverages or breathe air that contain this substance ... It is not known what happens to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone once they are released to the environment; however, the amount ... One study in rodents suggests that exposure to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone may cause liver disease. No other studies were ...
Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical. Theyre commonly used in making ... Aldehydes and ketones are related compounds where an aldehyde contains at least one hydrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group ... Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical or group, CHO, and are used as ... The simplest of aromatic aldehydes is benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO, which is an almond extract that is used as a flavoring, and as an ...
In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected ... These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable ... Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use ... This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. ...
Nitrated Aldehydes from Czech Republic was 3066 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Czech Republic rank in Export of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes?. #. 43 Countries. US Dollars. Last. ... Since 2014, Czech Republic Export of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes jumped by 79.2% year on year. In 2019, the ... Czech Republic - Export of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes US Dollars - 1993 to 2019 ...
Trypsin inhibitors with rigid tripeptidyl aldehydes. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ZZZ/pdb. *Classification: HYDROLASE/HYDROLASE INHIBITOR ... The crystal structures of three highly potent and selective low-molecular weight rigid peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors complexed ... The crystal structures of three highly potent and selective low-molecular weight rigid peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors complexed ... structures of thrombin and trypsin inhibited with rigid peptidyl aldehydes.. Krishnan, R., Zhang, E., Hakansson, K., Arni, R.K. ...
Ingestion: If an aldehyde or a solution containing an aldehyde is ingested, give the victim several glum of water to drink, dim ... Mutagenicity and Toxicity of Nine Low-Molecular-Weight Aldehydes. Aldehyde. Health effects. Organism. Exposure route. ... Eye exposure: If an aldehyde or a solution containing an aldehyde gets into the eyes, immediately flush them with large amounts ... Although formaldehyde is also a low-molecular-weight aldehyde similar to the aldehydes discussed in this CIB, it was not ...
Aldehyde oxidase genes in vertebrates. The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected ... Phylogeny of eukaryotic aldehyde oxidases. A rooted dendrogram was obtained by the Phylip method after CLUSTAL-W computer-aided ... Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal ... The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.. Garattini E1, Fratelli M, Terao M. ...
In some embodiments, the aldehyde is n-butyraldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is propionaldehyde. In some embodiments ... the aldehyde is acetaldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is formaldehyde. ... Furthermore, an additional aspect of the invention is the use of static mixtures in an oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic ... Thus, the invention provides processes that include contacting an aldehyde having the formula R1-CHO with an oxidant in a ...
IUPAC names for aldehydes. IUPAC prescribes the following nomenclature for aldehydes:. *Acyclic aliphatic aldehydes are named ... The word aldehyde seems to have arisen from alcohol dehydrogenated. In the past, aldehydes were sometimes named after the ... An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. This functional group, called an aldehyde group, ... If replacing the aldehyde group with a carboxyl (-COOH) group would yield a carboxylic acid with a trivial name, the aldehyde ...
... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ... Ammonia Organic Chemistry Aldehyde Pyridine Polytechnic Institute Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. ... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ...
Lab 26: Identification of Aldehydes and Ketones - Pre-Lab. Before beginning this quiz please investigate how Benedicts reagent ...
Phenolic aldehydes are derivatives of phenol. Phenolic aldehydes can be found in wines and cognacs. Examples : ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_463 Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac ... Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde can be isolated from ... 1014914701477 Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea. Vanisree Mulabagal, Ruby L. Alexander-Lindo, David ...
... any compound formed by the union of an aldehyde with ammonia; specifically : a crystalline compound CH3CH(OH)NH2 derived from ... Share aldehyde ammonia. Post the Definition of aldehyde ammonia to Facebook Share the Definition of aldehyde ammonia on Twitter ... any compound formed by the union of an aldehyde with ammonia specifically : a crystalline compound CH3CH(OH)NH2 derived from ... The first known use of aldehyde ammonia was in 1833. See more words from the same year ...
Our articles are evidence-based and contain scientific references, fact-checked by experts. We source information from studies, clinical trial findings, and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals.. To increase transparency to the user, we provide reference links marked by numbers in parentheses in the copy of the article. The entire list of reference links is also provided at the bottom of the article.. ...
We will be learning about the nomenclature and reactions of aldehydes and ketones, including how to use acetals as protecting ... Aldehydes and ketones can be starting materials for a range of other functional groups. ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... tr,Q7M053,Q7M053_RAT Aldehyde dehydrogenase OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 PE=1 SV=1 BSGZPTAVMYILFHKR Align. Format. Add to ...
The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The ... Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes. Pablo Englebienne, Hernan Schulz and Norma Nudelman * ... Englebienne, P.; Schulz, H.; Nudelman, N. Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes. Molecules 2000, 5, 598- ... The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The ...
  • Aldehydes and ketones are related compounds where an aldehyde contains at least one hydrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group of a carbon- oxygen bond. (wisegeek.com)
  • The two most commonly used aromatic aldehydes and aromatic ketones are formaldehyde and acetone , respectively. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are literally hundreds of different varieties of aromatic aldehydes and ketones manufactured by the chemical industry that are used to produce plastics and dyes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Esters, ketones, and aromatic aldehydes also have chemical components that make them important in human biological functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Carbohydrates such as sugars and starches are based on compounds that contain ester hydroxyl groups, or aldehydes and ketones. (wisegeek.com)
  • Steroids produced by the human body, such as testosterone, cortisone, and progesterone, are ketones as well, and retinal is an aldehyde that is essential for human vision. (wisegeek.com)
  • Aldehydes and ketones Tollens Test Benedicts Solution Fehling's solution Only aldehydes will react during these tests are they are able to be oxidised further to the carboxylic acid. (prezi.com)
  • The predominant compounds identified in the emissions from particleboard and MDF samples were terpenes and aldehydes, although small straight-chain alcohols and ketones were also found. (usda.gov)
  • The first examples for the rhenium-catalysed hydroboration of aldehydes, ketones and aldimines, including heteroaromatic quinoline, are reported herein. (rsc.org)
  • An efficient and highly productive rhodium-catalyzed method for the synthesis of nitriles employing aldehydes or ketones, methyl cyanoacetate, water and carbon monoxide as starting materials has been developed. (rsc.org)
  • The chemical formula C5H10O has many different isomers which include aldehydes, ketones, and esters. (reference.com)
  • 1 Recently, aminooxylation of aldehydes 2 and ketones 3 has been demonstrated using nitrosobenzene. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While this reagent is only useful on aldehyde substrates, a similar bench stable reagent can be applied towards the α-oxygenation of ketones. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Are you having problems understanding the learning unit Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones to Alcohols? (chemgapedia.de)
  • Organocatalyzed additions of simple carbonyl compounds to diazocarboxylates and nitrosobenzene allow the incorporation of nitrogen-[2] and oxygen-containing[3] a substituents into aldehydes and ketones with excellent levels of stereoselectivity. (docme.ru)
  • Very recently, organocatalyzed substitution reactions of N-halosuccinimides and related electrophiles have been developed for the a halogenation of aldehydes and ketones. (docme.ru)
  • Analyzing for the presence of low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones (carbonyl compounds), especially in ambient air, has significant economic and social impact. (waters.com)
  • Common air samplers such as Waters Sep-Pak DNPH-Silica and XPoSure cartridges trap aldehydes and ketones and immediately react them with DNPH to form stable hydrazone derivatives 4,5 . (waters.com)
  • SunFire C 18 columns are high-purity-based silica columns that provide unique selectivity for the separation of DNPH-derivatized aldehydes and ketones. (waters.com)
  • Little is known about the properties of endrin aldehyde (an impurity and breakdown product of endrin) or endrin ketone (a product of endrin when it is exposed to light). (cdc.gov)
  • Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not known what happens to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone once they are released to the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the amount of endrin broken down to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone is very small. (cdc.gov)
  • This toxicological profile focuses on endrin, but because of its close association to both endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone, the profile includes studies with data relevant to human exposure to these compounds when available. (cdc.gov)
  • An aldehyde has one or both vacancies of the carbonyl carbon satisfied by a H atom, while a ketone has both its vacancies satisfied by carbon. (wikibooks.org)
  • Aldehyde and ketone polarity is characterized by the high dipole moments of their carbonyl group, which makes them rather polar molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • What Are the Aldehyde and Ketone Isomers of C5H10O? (reference.com)
  • Aspects of the invention include aza-peptide aldehyde and ketone compositions that inhibit proteases. (wipo.int)
  • Figure 1: In organic chemistry, carbonyl groups (as shown in the aldehyde and ketone above) are the birthplace of many reactions 1 . (ukessays.com)
  • Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of aldehyde or ketone residues. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Aldehyde and ketone standards derivatized with DNPH were supplied from the manufacturer at a concentration of 100 μg/mL (100 ppm) in 100% CH 3 CN. (waters.com)
  • [8] [9] In the past, aldehydes were sometimes named after the corresponding alcohols , for example, vinous aldehyde for acetaldehyde . (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller aldehydes are more soluble in water, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde completely so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus NIOSH is also concerned about occupational exposure to these nine aldehydes because they (in addition to acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde) may be used as substitutes for formaldehyde, a regulated carcinogen [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1048 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH recommends that the producers and users of acetaldehyde, malonaldehyde, and the other low-molecular-weight aldehydes disseminate this information to workers and customers. (cdc.gov)
  • Cigarette smoke (CS) is a significant environmental source of human exposure to chemically active saturated (acetaldehyde) and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein) inducing protein carbonylation and dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • One aldehyde, acetaldehyde, is what causes around 8 percent of people - and one-third of East Asians - to flush when they drink alcohol. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aldehydes - including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde - are everywhere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. (hindawi.com)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde, an intermediate of ethanol metabolism [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a growing concern that aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde may pollute air and water in lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in the environment. (jascoinc.com)
  • The aldehydes that are of greatest concern are acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde. (phys.org)
  • Acyclic aliphatic aldehydes are named as derivatives of the longest carbon chain containing the aldehyde group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes with ammonia is correlated. (springer.com)
  • The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)propan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic) in CH 2 Cl 2 in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2 H -benzo[ f ]isochromenes in 54%-86% yield. (mdpi.com)
  • The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. (biologists.org)
  • More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. (biologists.org)
  • Yet, aldhyde in each case entails a different meaning, The chemist uses it to denote any molecule with an aldehydic grouping, while the flavor and fragrance industry usually uses the term to denote the aliphatic aldehydes. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • The perfiumer thinks of aliphatic aldehydes as materials in the C-8 to C-12 range, while tbe flavorist uses the term to mean aliphatic aldehydes in the C-2 to C-7 range. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemically, the term aldehyde represents a class of organic chemicals, lying structurally between alcohols and carboxylic acids. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • In the human body, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) metabolizes primary alcohols to aldehydes. (chemgapedia.de)
  • Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. (avantilipids.com)
  • Reduction of ethanethiol esters of α-amino acids to α-amino aldehydes by triethylsilane and catalytic palladium-on-carbon is described. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Essentially, the authors demonstrated that engineered active-site variants of myoglobin constitute efficient catalysts for the conversion of aryl aldehydes into olefins in the presence of α-diazo esters and triphenylphosphine or triphenylarsine. (thieme.de)
  • The catalytic condensation of aldehydes to esters / by William Clark Child. (hathitrust.org)
  • With this are bound 2 reprints from Journal of the American Chemical Society: The condensation of aldehydes to esters by aluminum ethoxide / By W. C. Child and Homer Adkins. (hathitrust.org)
  • The condensation of aldehydes to esters by alkoxides / By W. C. Child and Homer Adkins. (hathitrust.org)
  • The reactions of aldehydes with [beta]-anilinocrotonic esters. (hathitrust.org)
  • The reactions of aldehydes with Þ-anilinocrontic esters. (hathitrust.org)
  • In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. (mdpi.com)
  • ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also important in metabolizing other toxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, ALDH2 is important for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as 4-HNE and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We hypothesized that 2 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in CS, crotonaldehyde and acrolein, induce neurogenic inflammation by stimulating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel coexpressed with TRPV1 on capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors. (jci.org)
  • Any fatty aldehyde that has a chain length of C 12 or greater. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A cobalt-porphyrin enzyme converts a fatty aldehyde to a hydrocarbon and CO. (pnas.org)
  • The final step in hydrocarbon biosynthesis involves loss of CO from a fatty aldehyde. (pnas.org)
  • When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde stability during the reaction is required. (avantilipids.com)
  • What Are Aromatic Aldehydes? (wisegeek.com)
  • Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical or group, CHO, and are used as precursor chemicals in the pharmaceutical and plastics industries. (wisegeek.com)
  • The simplest of aromatic aldehydes is benzaldehyde, C 6 H 5 CHO, which is an almond extract that is used as a flavoring, and as an ingredient in some dye and plastics production. (wisegeek.com)
  • The smallest examples of aromatic aldehydes such as benzaldehyde are soluble in water, though most of them also tend to be very flammable. (wisegeek.com)
  • I didn't know they were called aromatic aldehydes, but I frequently use extracts in my aromatic diffuser to make the house smell nice. (wisegeek.com)
  • The first aldehydes used in our industry were mainly aromatic aldehydes. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • The condensation of dithiooxamide with aromatic aldehydes. (hathitrust.org)
  • However, in the case of aromatic aldehydes, the C formyl -H⋯O inter-actions have to compete with C aryl -H⋯O inter-actions involving a relatively more acidic H atom. (iucr.org)
  • Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Puffing duration and the particular flavor contributed to the formation of reactive aldehydes, although these factors played a smaller role than battery output in the amount of aldehydes present. (phys.org)
  • If replacing the aldehyde group with a carboxyl group (−COOH) would yield a carboxylic acid with a trivial name, the aldehyde may be named by replacing the suffix -ic acid or -oic acid in this trivial name by -aldehyde . (wikipedia.org)
  • This word can be recognized in the simplest aldehyde, formaldehyde , and in the simplest carboxylic acid, formic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • This word can be recognized in the simplest aldehyde, formaldehyde (structure shown at top of article), and in the simplest carboxylic acid, formic acid (structure shown at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehyde s into the corresponding carboxylic acid s. (everything2.com)
  • Excess dichromate will further oxidise the aldehyde to form a carboxylic acid , so either the aldehyde is distilled out as it forms (if volatile ), or milder methods and reagents such as PCC oxidation, IBX acid, Dess-Martin periodinane or Swern oxidation are used. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Here sulfur is used as a poisoner so that aldehyde formed doesn't get oxidised to the carboxylic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • In order to identify genes that are critical for the ABA-dependent stress response in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum , a gene was isolated with homology to class 3 variable substrate aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological roles of the ALDH family remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • In the Stephen aldehyde synthesis aldehydes form from nitriles, tin chloride and hydrochloric acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • During the last decade α-amino aldehydes have attracted widespread attention as the important natural source of chiral substrates useful in stereocontrolled organic synthesis. (sophia.org)
  • Pyruvic aldehyde is used in the synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of N-terminal analogues of tubulysin-U an antimitotic compound. (fishersci.com)
  • Asymmetric Catalysis Enantioselective Organocatalyzed a Sulfenylation of Aldehydes** Mauro Marigo, Tobias C. Wabnitz, Doris Fielenbach, and Karl Anker Jørgensen* Optically active a-heterosubstituted aldehydes are versatile building blocks for the synthesis of chiral molecules that bear heteroatom functionalities. (docme.ru)
  • The crystal structures of three highly potent and selective low-molecular weight rigid peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors complexed with thrombin have been determined and refined to R values 0.152-0. (rcsb.org)
  • A reaction that introduces an aldehyde group is known as a formylation reaction . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Various formylation reactions, such as the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, can be used to introduce an aldehyde group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the Nef reaction, aldehydes form by hydrolysis of salts of primary nitro compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Zincke aldehydes form by reaction of pyridinium salts with secondary amines followed by hydrolysis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = an acid + NADH + H+. (yeastgenome.org)
  • More significantly, when coniferyl aldehyde and ferulate were present together, coniferyl aldehyde was a noncompetitive inhibitor ( K i = 0.59 μM) of ferulate 5-hydroxylation, thereby eliminating the entire reaction sequence from ferulate to sinapate. (pnas.org)
  • The preparation of reaction products of acrylamide polymers and amino-aldehyde resins is taught in U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • If an aldehyde group is present, the reaction in Figure 7 will occur, and Ag 1+ will be reduced to a metal or form a silver mirror-like film on the inner wall of the test tube 2 . (ukessays.com)
  • Figure 7: Reaction that occurs when Tollens reagent is added to a compound with an aldehyde group. (ukessays.com)
  • Figure 1 shows the chemical reaction of 1,3-Cyclohexanedione with aldehydes during the post-column derivatization and figure 2 shows flow path of the system. (jascoinc.com)
  • Chemical reaction of 1,3-Cyclohexanedione with aldehydes. (jascoinc.com)
  • However, the study also showed that in general, one puff of flavored vapor contained levels of aldehydes exceeding the safe thresholds for occupational exposure -- set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists -- by factors of 1.5 to 270. (eurekalert.org)
  • Notably, the next-generation e-cigarettes, which have a tank-type atomizer, produced higher levels of aldehydes and acetone. (phys.org)
  • The common names for aldehydes do not strictly follow official guidelines, such as those recommended by IUPAC , but these rules are useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tollens reagent tests for the presence of aldehydes in chemical compounds 2 . (ukessays.com)
  • About half an hour in, Weinberg said, Kool had sketched out the idea for what would become Darkzone - a chemical that glows brightly in the presence of aldehydes. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidases have broad substrate specificity and catalyse the hydroxylation of N-heterocycles and the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acid. (nih.gov)
  • Phenolic aldehydes are derivatives of phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several widely used examples of these aldehydes are obtained as natural derivatives, with benzaldehyde being derived from almonds, cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon, and carvone from caraway seeds as a spearmint flavor. (wisegeek.com)
  • Phylogenetically, the Cp- and Ath-ALDH3 and -ALDH4 proteins are closely related to aldehyde dehydrogenases from bacteria and mammalian species and are separated from known plant ALDHs and betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADH). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are highly expressed in the chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant cell subpopulations of many different cancer types. (nih.gov)
  • Cinnamic aldehyde is widely preferred in the households as a flavoring agent. (openpr.com)
  • Rapidly expanding cosmetics & personal care industry with growing appearance consciousness among the consumers coupled with rising per capita disposable income is driving the cinnamic aldehyde growth globally. (openpr.com)
  • The global cinnamic aldehyde market is segmented into nature, application, end use industry, and region. (openpr.com)
  • Based on the region, the cinnamic aldehyde market is segregated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region in the cinnamic aldehyde market owing to the increasing demand for nutritious food and energy drink with rising health consciousness among the consumers. (openpr.com)
  • North America is the second largest region in the cinnamic aldehyde market with increasing spending on personal care products coupled with high per capita income. (openpr.com)
  • Thus, the detoxification of harmful aldehydes generated endogenously or ingested from environment and foods is an important role of ALDHs. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that newer devices produced more harmful aldehydes than first generation e-cigarettes. (phys.org)
  • In this first study, the focus was on recognizing a group of chemicals, called aldehydes , that are often associated with fragrances but also human stress conditions and illnesses. (merriam-webster.com)
  • We are employed in Supplying and Trading a best grade array of Biocide Aldehyde in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India that is created using chemicals that are procured from reliable vendors. (tradeindia.com)
  • Under the EU system devised to evaluate flavorings, perilla aldehyde is also a proxy for evaluating nine other structurally similar chemicals known collectively as "alicyclic aldehydes. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • Endogenous aldehydes are generated during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins as well as the biotransformation of many drugs and environmental chemicals [ 10 , 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reacting an alkene (if there is a vinylic hydrogen) with ozone will form an ozonide (an unstable, explosive intermediate) which yields an aldehyde upon reduction with zinc and acid at reduced temperatures. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric propargylation of aldehydes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tetradecanal, also known as Myristyl aldehyde or Myristaldehyde, is myristic acid in its reduced form and is produced by bioluminescent bacteria. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Dry strength resins are prepared by reacting acrylamide polymers with amino/aldehyde resin acid colloids during the formation of the colloid. (google.ca)
  • Amino-aldehyde resins have been used to impart wet strength to paper both as resins per se and as acid colloids thereof, see U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • This patent teaches the preferred preparation of the product by forming an aqueous solution of the acid colloid of the amino-aldehyde resin beforehand and then reacting it with an aqueous solution of the acrylamide polymer. (google.ca)
  • We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of colorimetric indicators: a new technique to determine acid, base, and aldehyde contaminations. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the study was to develop new colorimetric indicator pads for detecting acid, base, and aldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves. (cdc.gov)
  • Acid, base, and aldehyde indicators were synthesized and indicator pads were designed and fabricated. (cdc.gov)
  • The gas-phase acidity of aldehyde was found to be 1,640 kJ/mol (393 kcal/mol), making it more acidic than hydrogen (1,700 kJ/mol, 400 kcal/mol) and ammonia (1,680 kJ/mol, 402 kcal/mol), but less acidic than water (1,600 kJ/mol, 390 kcal/mol) in the gas phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of resonance stabilization of the conjugate base, an α-hydrogen in an aldehyde (not shown in the picture above) is far more acidic , with a p K a near 17, compared to the acidity of a typical alkane (p K a about 50). (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Amino aldehydes with Boc, Cbz, or Fmoc protection could be obtained without racemization in high yield. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Amino aldehydes are a group of compounds that have both amino (-NH2) and aldehyde (-CHO) groups. (sophia.org)
  • 2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the amino-aldehyde resin is melamine-formaldehyde. (google.ca)
  • 7. Paper according to claim 6 wherein the amino-aldehyde resin is melamine-formaldehyde. (google.ca)
  • 4-HNE is an α , β -unsaturated aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation in vivo [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 11q13 that encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase that plays a major role in detoxifying aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the other hand, aldehydes are highly reactive compounds, which can form adducts with proteins, DNA, and lipids, affecting the function of these biomolecules and leading to cell toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemically, an aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ is a compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to any generic alkyl or side chain R group. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The word aldehyde was coined by Justus von Liebig as a contraction of the Latin al cohol dehyd rogenatus (dehydrogenated alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • The word aldehyde was coined by Justus von Liebig as a contraction of the Latin alcohol dehydrogenatus (dehydrogenated alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term aldehyde was coined in 1835 by von Liebig from the term dehydrogenated alcohol (alcohol dehydrogenatus). (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, a single aldehyde oxidase gene ( AOX1 ) and two pseudogenes clustering on a short stretch of chromosome 2q are known. (nih.gov)
  • The group-without R-is the aldehyde group , also known as the formyl group . (wikipedia.org)
  • If the presence of another functional group demands the use of a suffix, the aldehyde group is named with the prefix formyl- . (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional group itself (i.e. without the "R" side chain) is known as an aldehyde or formyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the chemical formula for an aldehyde functional group is -CH=O, and the general formula for an aldehyde is R-CH=O. The aldehyde group is occasionally called the formyl or methanoyl group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If another functional group is present which IUPAC rules prescribe must be named as a suffix, the aldehyde group is named with the prefix formyl- . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The -CH=O group of aldehydes is known as a formyl group. (wikibooks.org)
  • The formyl C-H⋯O hydrogen bond in small-mol-ecule aldehydes is one such example. (iucr.org)
  • acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. (britannica.com)
  • Although the CAld5H/COMT enzyme system can mediate the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol intermediates through either route, k cat / K m of CAld5H for coniferyl aldehyde was ≈140 times greater than that for ferulate. (pnas.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that biosynthesis of hydrocarbons is effected by a microsomal Co-porphyrin-containing enzyme that catalyzes decarbonylation of aldehydes and, thus, reveal a biological function for Co in plants. (pnas.org)
  • In aqueous base, 97% of 2,2-diphenylethanal is present as a species different from the aldehyde, enol or aldol addition or condensation products. (physicsforums.com)
  • Catalog Record: The catalytic condensation of aldehydes to. (hathitrust.org)
  • A growing body of research on e-cigs has shown that the heat that converts e-liquids into vapor decomposes its contents, producing aldehydes and other toxic compounds that can potentially cause health problems. (eurekalert.org)
  • The tests for 12 different aldehydes showed that the amount of potentially harmful compounds varied widely across e-liquid brands and flavors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Emissions of small straight-chain aldehydes, such as hexanal, pentanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal, generally exceeded emissions of other compounds and accounted for more than 50 percent of total VOC emissions. (usda.gov)
  • With the exception of formaldehyde, aldehydes are not added to the adhesives used to bond wood, and they have not previously been reported as extractable compounds in wood. (usda.gov)
  • Many simple aldehydes are liquids, so not many structural reports are available for these compounds. (iucr.org)
  • In 2019, the country was number 29 among other countries in Export of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes at $3,066. (nationmaster.com)
  • Endogenous coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl, and sinapyl aldehydes were detected, consistent with in vivo operation of the CAld5H/COMT pathway from coniferyl to sinapyl aldehydes via 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde for syringyl monolignol biosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • Process for use of static mixers in oxidation reactions of aldehydes are also provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Aldehydes (except those without an alpha carbon, or without protons on the alpha carbon, such as formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) can exist in either the keto or the enol tautomer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldehydes can exist in either the keto or enol tautomers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal and plant kingdoms. (nih.gov)
  • In vertebrates, aldehyde oxidases constitute the small sub-family of molybdo-flavoenzymes, along with the evolutionarily and structurally related protein, xanthine oxidoreductase. (nih.gov)
  • In other mammals, a variable number of structurally conserved aldehyde oxidase genes has been described. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to the use of multifunctional aldehyde-containing polymers as temporary wet strength agents for paper and tissue applications, as well as non-wovens. (google.es)
  • The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected vertebrates for which complete or almost complete genomic sequence data are available. (nih.gov)
  • Mass spectrometry-based functional analysis of LsM88 in yeast identified it as coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylase (CAld5H). (pnas.org)
  • Together, CAld5H and COMT converted coniferyl aldehyde to sinapyl aldehyde, suggesting a CAld5H/COMT-mediated pathway from guaiacyl to syringyl monolignol biosynthesis via coniferyl aldehyde that contrasts with the generally accepted route to sinapate via ferulate. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, ferulate had no effect on coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulate 5-hydroxylation does not occur, and the syringyl monolignol can be synthesized only from coniferyl aldehyde. (pnas.org)
  • Examples : Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde can be isolated from Antigonon leptopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding mechanism between protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • At $10,234.98 in 2017, the country was ranked number 55 among other countries in Import of Hydrogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated Aldehydes. (nationmaster.com)
  • 1 N-tert-butyl-O -benzoylhydroxylamine hydrochloride is a bench stable reagent for the α-functionalization of a variety of aldehydes under mild conditions ( Scheme 1 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Once the reagent is formed, it can be used to test for an aldehyde group 2 . (ukessays.com)
  • Thus, aldehydes are prone to undergo hydrogen atom abstraction in the presence of free radicals, a fact accounts for the ease with which aldehydes undergo autoxidation . (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional group , called an aldehyde group , consists of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single covalent bond and an oxygen atom with a double bond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)