Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.AcroleinBenzaldehydesDisulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.KetonesRetinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome: An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)GlyceraldehydeAldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.AcetalsOrganic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.EstersLipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.FuraldehydeAlkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Allyl CompoundsFlushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.GlyoxalMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)SemicarbazidesOrganic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.IminesCombinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (1/2673)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (2/2673)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (3/2673)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2; EC 3.3.2.5) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in ischemic rat heart. (4/2673)

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. Because of its reactivity with nucleophilic compounds, particularly metabolites and proteins containing thiol groups, HNE is cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and time course for the formation of HNE-modified proteins during ischemia and ischemia plus reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. With an antibody to HNE-Cys/His/Lys and densitometry of Western blots, we quantified the amount of HNE-protein adduct in the heart. By taking biopsies from single hearts (n = 5) at various times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, and 40 min) after onset of zero-flow global ischemia, we showed a progressive, time-dependent increase (which peaked after 30 min) in HNE-mediated modification of a discrete number of proteins. In studies with individual hearts (n = 4/group), control aerobic perfusion (70 min) resulted in a very low level (296 arbitrary units) of HNE-protein adduct formation; by contrast, after 30-min ischemia HNE-adduct content increased by >50-fold (15,356 units, P < 0.05). In other studies (n = 4/group), administration of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG, 1 mM) to the heart for 5 min immediately before 30-min ischemia reduced HNE-protein adduct formation during ischemia by approximately 75%. In studies (n = 4/group) that included reperfusion of hearts after 5, 10, 15, or 30 min of ischemia, there was no further increase in the extent of HNE-protein adduct formation over that seen with ischemia alone. Similarly, in experiments with MPG, reperfusion did not significantly influence the tissue content of HNE-protein adduct. Western immunoblot results were confirmed in studies using in situ immunofluorescent localization of HNE-protein in cryosections. In conclusion, ischemia causes a major increase in HNE-protein adduct that would be expected to reflect a toxic sequence of events that might act to compromise tissue survival during ischemia and recovery on reperfusion.  (+info)

Conversion of (+/-)-synephrine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by Arthrobacter synephrinum. A novel enzymic reaction. (5/2673)

A partically purified enzyme from Arthrobacter synephrinum was found to catalyse the conversion of (+/-)-synphrine into p-hydroxyphrenylacetaldehyde and methylamine. The enzyme is highly specific for synephrine and is distinctly different from monoamine oxidase.  (+info)

Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. (6/2673)

Reactive oxygen species are involved in a diversity of biological phenomena such as inflammation, carcinogenesis, aging, and atherosclerosis. We and other investigators have shown that the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker for oxidative stress, is increased in either the urine or the mononuclear cells of the blood of type 2 diabetic patients. However, the association between type 2 diabetes and oxidative stress in the pancreatic beta-cells has not been previously described. We measured the levels of 8-OHdG and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of nonobese type 2 diabetes. Quantitative immunohistochemical analyses with specific antibodies revealed higher levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats than in the control Wistar rats, with the levels increasing proportionally with age and fibrosis of the pancreatic islets. We further investigated whether the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins would be modified in the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats fed with 30% sucrose solution or 50 ppm of voglibose (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor). In the GK rats, the levels of 8-OHdG and HNE-modified proteins, as well as islet fibrosis, were increased by sucrose treatment but reduced by voglibose treatment. These results indicate that the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats are oxidatively stressed, and that chronic hyperglycemia might be responsible for the oxidative stress observed in the pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (7/2673)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (8/2673)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
TY - THES. T1 - Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels. AU - Kiwamoto, R.. N1 - WU thesis, no. 6025. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3) Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in the molecule becomes electron deficient and the aldehydes react with electron rich molecules including DNA via Michael addition. The formation of DNA adducts raises a concern for genotoxicity, although formation of DNA adducts may not be significant at low doses relevant for dietary exposure in vivo because of adequate detoxification. This thesis therefore aimed at determining dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of food-borne ...
2012 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 53, no Suppl 1, S248-S249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
The major focus of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms by which oxidative stress affects cardiovascular function. In particular, we are interested in the role of lipid peroxidation as a contributor to myocardial ischemic injury and atherosclerosis. Although lipid peroxidation generates several reactive intermediates and end products, lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes are believed to be a major source of oxidative stress and these toxicants appear to be critical mediators of tissue injury due to lipid peroxidation. In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. We have learned that the enzymes - aldose reductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde dehydrogenase are the major constituents of aldehyde metabolism in the heart, and vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and ...
The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7±2 μM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of ...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a segmented-flow analyzer was used for the analysis of aldehydes. The aldehydes, which were separated on a reversed-phase C_(18) column, were derivatized with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinonhe ydrazone (MBTH) and detected at 640 nm. MBTH reacts readily with all aliphatic aldehydes to form MBTH derivatives with high molar absorptivities. Aldehydes below 1 µM can be easily detected by this method. Because aldehydes and other solutes are separated by HPLC before derivatization, free aldehydes are detected without interference. Aldehydes in cloud- and fogwater samples were analyzed. Form-aldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal concentrations were determined. Results obtained with the MBTH method were consistent with those obtained with the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method. The MBTH method allows for the rapid determination of the concentration of free aldehydes; the DNPH method will yield similar results, although the ...
The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. Individual cells did not react or reacted to one or multiple aldehydes; in the latter case, cells only reacted to aldehydes of consecutive carbon chain lengths. The largest proportion of cells responded to octanal. It was also demonstrated that a structural difference as small as one hydrogenated carbon atom was detectable by the olfactory neurons. Neurons were increasingly able to discriminate between two aldehydes as the difference in chain length between the two increased. Discrimination between aldehydes with longer carbon chains was reduced. Although the odorants examined belong to a distinct chemical class and differ only slightly in structure, individual olfactory sensory neurons showed quite different receptive ...
Lipid peroxidation-derived cellular damage has been related to normal cellular aging and various age-related degenerative diseases. Tissues containing large numbers of postmitotic cells, as in the brain, skeletal muscles, or heart, are particularly at risk for age-related deterioration in function by lipid peroxidation products. The initiation of lipid peroxidation also requires the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The outer retina is exposed to light in an oxygen-rich environment, and unsaturated fatty acids are present in high concentrations in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. 24 Accordingly, evidence for light-induced lipid peroxidation reactions in the retina has been reported in several studies. 25 26 27 Exposure to intense light is thought to acutely induce retinal damage by generating the production of high doses of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA-reactive aldehydes that trigger photoreceptor cell apoptosis. 16 Besides ...
Changes in volatile aldehyde and ketone amounts from subcutaneous fat have been evaluated during the dry-curing process (987. days) of Iberian ham by purge & trap-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method, using the same hams for the first time. The subcutaneous adipose tissues of ten hams obtained from five Iberian pigs fed on acorns and pasture were sampled and analyzed periodically during whole processing time. Fifteen aldehydes and six ketones have been identified, all previously described except the 2,4-pentadienal that has been identified for the first time. A LDA was applied and the two discriminant functions were obtained using backward stepwise analysis retaining the variables: 4-octen-3-one, 2-methyl-butanal, butanal, 2-decenal, 2-heptanone, decanal, 2,4-pentadienal, pentanal, hexanal, 2-butanone, octanal and 2-octanone. A complete separation between the three periods was obtained, indicating that the retained variables are powerful descriptors to characterize samples from these ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3I1; Involved in oxidative stress tolerance by detoxifying reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation. Medium- to long-chain saturated aldehydes are preferred substrates, while the short-chain aldehyde propanal is a weak substrate. Can use both NAD(+) and NADP(+), but the coenzyme preference is substrate dependent (550 aa ...
Title: Chiral Pyrrolidine-Based Salen Ligands for the Enantioselective Alkylation of Aromatic Aldehydes. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 2. Author(s): M. Elisa da Silva Serra, Dina Murtinho, Albertino Goth and A. M. dA. Rocha Gonsalves. Affiliation:Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal.. Keywords:Pyrrolidine, diamine, Salen, diethylzinc, enantioselective, alkylation. Abstract: A new type of Salen ligands derived from (2R, 3R)-N-benzyl-2,3-diaminopyrrolidine and aromatic hydroxyaldehydes was synthesized and tested in the enantioselective alkylation of aromatic aldehydes with diethylzinc, moderate selectivity being observed. This study represents the application of a new type of Zn- Salen ligands and opens the way to exploring these promising new structures in other enantioselective and biological processes. ...
Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
It is likely that the majority of proteins will undergo post-translational changes be it enzymatic or non-enzymatic. in the Western Society for the Biomedical Study on Alcoholism Achieving held September 12-15 2015 in Valencia Spain. electrophilic varieties including reactive aldehydes (carbonylation) acyl organizations (acetylation) and sugars moieties (glycosylation). CARBONYLATION A key contributor to the pathogenesis of ALD is definitely enhanced hepatocellular oxidative stress resulting from the production of reactive oxygen varieties induction of Cyp2E1 as well as xanthine and NADPH oxidases[12-16]. These reactive varieties in turn induce lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid forming α/β unsaturated aldehydes[17 18 The best KX2-391 2HCl characterized of these carbonyl-derivatives include 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal KX2-391 2HCl (4-HNE) 4 malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein. Following their formation these highly reactive lipid electrophiles improve DNA as well as ...
Abstract. A chiral bisaryl-silyl-protected pyrrolidine acts as a very selective epoxidation organocatalyst using simple oxidation agents. The scope of the reaction is demonstrated by the formation of optically active α,β-epoxy aldehydes in high yields and enantioselectivities. The asymmetric epoxidation reactions proceed also under environmental friendly reaction conditions in, for example, water mixtures of alcohols.. ...
Whole-cell catalysts overexpressing two enzymes for a double reduction cascade in which aliphatic α-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are converted into Guerbet alcohols as a highly demanded class of lubricants were constructed and characterized. The reaction conditions were optimized to suppress by-product Enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis
Aldehydes are hydrocarbon-derived compounds containing terminal carbonyl groups. In the atmosphere, they are very reactive volatile organic compounds produced from the incomplete combustion of gasoline or diesel fuel and contribute to the production of ground level ozone. Examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde ...
Spectral data for 41 aldehydes have been recorded from 1/700 cm to 1/300 cm and analyzed for spectra-structure correlations. The information so attained can be applied in identifying aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Specific correlations were determined for aliphatic aldehydes with or without alpha-branching. Tentative correlations were observed for alphaolefinic, alicyclic, and aromatic aldehydes. (Author)
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Aldehydes is an organic compound containing functional group called as formyl group, which has numerous applications in medical disinfectant and antiseptic, food and cosmetics among others. It is anhydrous salt, a form of sodium bicarbonate, also called as washing soda. There are numerous types of aldehydes available such as butyraldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and others. However, there quantities are produced according to application and utilization. In industrial applications, it is used as precursor to numerous chemicals such as alcohols, resins, and acids.. Download PDF Brochure of Research Report @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/2358. Aldehydes Market Dynamics. Formaldehyde is among the most common type of aldehydes and is widely used aldehydes across the globe. It is prominently used in the manufacturing of numerous types of resins such as melamine formaldehyde resins, urea formaldehyde resins, and others, which is driving ...
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Breakdown chemical structures known as aldehydes are formed in cooked vegetable oils such as sunflower oil when heated to normal frying temperatures,and are also released into the air where they can be inhaled. Alternate food preparation methods such as roasting, steaming and broiling are safe methods of cooking foods to avoid the dangerous release of aldehydes andprovide a shield against cancer-forming particles and neurodegenerative decline. Prior studies have identified the health degrading nature of aldehydes, where their presence in organisms is linked to different types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Researchers also know that these compounds remain in vegetable oils after they have been used to fry foods and wanted to determine how they interact with proteins, hormones and enzymes in the body to impede its correct functioning. Many common vegetable oils produce dangerous aldehydes when heated The study team heated three types of oil (olive, ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. A valine-derived, electron-deficient triazolium salt catalyzes a high yielding, highly chemo- and enantioselective cross-benzoin reaction between aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters. Diastereoselective reduction of the products gives access to densely oxygenated compounds with high chemo- and diastereoselectivity.. ...
Step 1 through 3 are an aldol reaction, steps 4 and 5 a 1,2-elimination via E1cB mechanism. Thus, aldol condensation is aldol reaction followed by 1,2-elimination.. OCHEMPAL IS NOW IN THE FORM OF A BOOK. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
The benefits of using the oxidized oils from rendering and recycling as an economic source of lipids and energy in animal feed always coexist with the concerns that diverse degradation products in these oxidized oils can negatively affect animal health and performance. Therefore, the quality markers that predict growth performance could be useful when feeding oxidized oils to non-ruminants. However, the correlations between growth performance and chemical profiles of oxidized oils have not been well examined. In this study, six thermally oxidized soybean oils (OSOs) with a wide range of quality measures were prepared under different processing temperatures and processing durations, including 45 °C-336 h; 67.5 °C-168 h; 90 °C-84 h; 135 °C-42 h; 180 °C-21 h; and 225 °C-10.5 h. Broilers and nursery pigs were randomly assigned to diets containing either unheated control soybean oil or one of six OSOs. Animal performance was determined by measuring body weight gain, feed intake, and gain to feed ratio.
Under pathological or other stressful conditions where reactive species are produced, cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids are modified into DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, and lipid peroxides, respectively. From the lipid peroxidation of plasma membrane, reactive lipid aldehydes such as HNE or hydroxyhexanal are produced via enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (Esterbauer et al., 1991). Newly synthesized HNE can readily move across cell membranes and can interrupt the normal functions of proteins as well as DNAs (Esterbauer et al., 1991; Martelli et al., 1994). Under extreme conditions of stress, concentration of newly synthesized HNE may reach up to 100 μM (Esterbauer et al., 1991) and thus, HNE may serve as a common cytotoxic signal in many cell types and tissues. For example, the levels of HNE-bound proteins are increased selectively in neurons in the substantia nigra of Parkinsons patients (Yoritaka et al., 1996) and levels of free HNE are increased more than 2-fold ...
Aldehydes are a class of chemicals made in our own bodies in small quantities but increasingly found everywhere in our environment. Exposure to these chemicals has previously been linked with cancer, but the reasons for the link remain unclear. New research led by Professor Ashok Venkitaraman, Director of the Medical Research Council Cancer Unit at the University of Cambridge, has used genetically-engineered human cells and cells from patients bearing a faulty copy of the breast cancer gene BRCA2 to identify the mechanism by which exposure to aldehydes could promote cancer.
Although aspalatone (acetylsalicylic acid maltol ester) is recognized as an antithrombotic agent with antioxidative and antiplatelet potential; its efficacy in preventing endothelial dysfunction is not known. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of aspalatone in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Specifically, the effect of aspalatone on VEGF-induced HAECs growth, migration, tube formation, and levels of lipid peroxidation-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined. Our results indicate that the treatment of HAECs with aspalatone decreased VEGF-induced cell migration, tube formation, and levels of MDA. Aspalatone also inhibited VEGF-induced decrease in the expression of eNOS and increase in the expression of iNOS, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Aspalatone also prevented the VEGF-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Furthermore, aspalatone also prevented VEGF-induced release of inflammatory markers such as Angiopoietin-2, Leptin, EGF, G-CSF,
Here aldohexose reacts with one molecule of phenylhyrazine which condenses with the aldehyde group to give phenylhydrazone. When warmed with excess of phenyl hydrazine, the secondary alcoholic group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidised by another molecule of phenylhydrazine, to a ketonic group. With this ketonic group, the third molecule of phenylhydrazine condenses to give osazone. The phenylhydrazinyl group is transferred from osazone to C6H5CHO giving C6H5CH = N×NHC6H5 and a dicarbonyl compound called an osone. The more reactive aldehyde group of the osone is reduced, not the less reactive keto group and it gives the 2-ketohexose.. b) The configurations of these carbons which are unchanged in the reactions, must be identical in order to get the same osazone. Question:3, Why should isoelectric point for Aspartic acid (2.98) be so much lower than that of leucine?. Solution: This may be explained by considering following ion equilibria. ...
CHAPTER 11 Alcohol Reactivity 1 Summary Table Oxidation: Adding O, Losing H Chromic Acid (Cr(VI)) is a powerful oxidizing agent 4 Oxidation Mechanism When Aldehydes are formed by Cr(VI) in water, they
VOCs and aldehydes are frequently emitted from automotive components. Some emissions are highly toxic (including the carcinogens benzene and formaldehyde), whereas others have nuisance value. Recognizing the public health issues, regulatory bodies and industry increasingly seek to reduce exposure to these emissions.
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Aldrich-192619; Tiglic aldehyde |=96%; CAS No.: 497-03-0; Synonyms: (E)-2-Methylbut-2-enal; trans-2,3-Dimethylacrolein; trans-2-Methyl-2-butenal; Tiglinaldehyde; Linear Formula: CH3CH=C(CH3)CHO
Printing tips! To print chromatograms full page, change the print settings in the print dialogue window of your PDF reader software: 1) "fit" or "fit to page", 2) "landscape" for wide chromatograms or "portrait" for tall chromatograms.. ...
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OK, I need to review a bit to get back in the carbohydrate saddle (oh wait, its a chair). The α- in α-D-glucose is only really defined when the D-glucose is bound into a larger molecule. The bond out of glucose is in the α form in glucose and the β form in starch, but as a monomer bulk D-glucose in aqueous solution is not firmly in either α or β form (though one molecule, at one instant, if bound in a ring, will be in either α or β form). As a monomer, glucose is in equilibrium with a free aldehyde form. When the aldehyde reacts intramolecularly to form a closed ring, the resulting ring will be in α or β form depending on which face the carbonyl carbon (C1) forms the ring-closing bond. However, free D-glucose is a mixture of α and β forms and they are dynamically interconverting though the free aldehyde form. When the glucose is bound into a polymer, this locks the position of the ring-closing bond into either the α or β form. Galactose is pure 1-4 α-bound glucose while starch is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tetra-n-butylammonium Iodide Catalyzed C-H Azidation of Aldehydes with Thermally Stable Azidobenziodoxolone. AU - Shinomoto, Yukino. AU - Yoshimura, Akira. AU - Shimizu, Hisato. AU - Yamazaki, Mutsumi. AU - Zhdankin, Viktor V.. AU - Saito, Akio. PY - 2015/11/6. Y1 - 2015/11/6. N2 - Tetra-n-butylammonium iodide can efficiently catalyze direct azidation of aldehyde C-H bonds with thermally stable azidobenziodoxolone at room temperature. Compared to conventional methods, which require excessive amounts of highly explosive azide sources, this is a safe and convenient procedure.. AB - Tetra-n-butylammonium iodide can efficiently catalyze direct azidation of aldehyde C-H bonds with thermally stable azidobenziodoxolone at room temperature. Compared to conventional methods, which require excessive amounts of highly explosive azide sources, this is a safe and convenient procedure.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84946811389&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
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Our research focuses on the development of new synthetic methodology for the interconversion of abundant sugars to more exotic ones utilizing the natural reactivity of the aldehyde moiety. The open chain content generally represents a minute minority in reducing sugars equilibria (dominated by the hemiacetal forms), which is usually too small to be determined efficiently and/or accurately. To overcome this issue, we have developed an assay based on the adduct formation of a strongly UV-active aminal species which thereby translates the open chain proportion into a readily measurable reaction rate (see Figure 1, middle). [1] We have confirmed the validity of the approach measuring all parent hexoses and pentoses and exhibiting a high degree of consistency with literature data. Next, we went on to apply the assay to real cases from the field of indium mediated acyloxyallylation [2] (Figure 1, bottom) and our current study of the organocatalytic anomeric activation by N-heterocyclic carbenes ...
2008 (English)In: 6:e Svensk-norskt miljökemiskt möte: SNMM 2008 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
... Possess a free aldehyde(-CHO) or ketone (-C=0) Group. A free aldehyde or ketonic group is lacking.
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Acrolein (AC) is an α,ß-unsaturated aldehyde, classified by the IARC in group 3B (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). It is supposed to be formed by heating of fat containing foods, via heat induced formation from glycerides/glycerol. Formation of AC from carbohydrates has also been discussed [Stevens and Maier, 2008]. Moreover, it also has been suggested that AC might be formed by endogenous metabolism as a side product of carbohydrate and/or amino acid turnover or by oxidative desamination of polyamines. Analytical determination of AC in foodstuffs is difficult, due to its high volatility and reactivity. Data on exposure and contents of AC in heat treated foods therefore are scarce. It is unclear, to which extent AC contributes to the overall exposure of heat induced biologically active compounds such as acrylamide (AA) and furan. AC forms 1,4-Michael type adducts of biomolecular targets with nucleophiles like sulfhydryl and amino groups. In the organism, AC is mainly ...
Get an answer for What does controlled oxidation of alcohols (to produce aldehydes/ketones) really mean? Can you explain the process? Can you also explain what further controlled oxidation of aldehydes to form carboxylic acids is? Thank you so much! :) and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Aldehydes and ketones Tollens Test Benedicts Solution Fehlings solution Only aldehydes will react during these tests are they are able to be oxidised further to the carboxylic acid ...
Research accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes with ammonia is correlated.
Severn Biotech, Limited SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde - SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde MW: 492.5 Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO A specific reversible inhibitor of caspase 1 (ICE, Interleukin 1ß Converting Enzyme) Thornberry N.A. et al. (1992) Nature 356, 768; Molineaux S.M. et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1809; Walker N.P.C. et al. (1994) Cell 78, 343; Wilson K.P. et al. (1994) Nature 370, 270;
From aldehydes[edit]. The cyclisation of an amino alcohol and an aldehyde produces an intermediate oxazolidine which can be ... The method has been shown to be effective for a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes however electron rich aromatic R ... Ishihara, Midori; Togo, Hideo (2007). "Direct oxidative conversion of aldehydes and alcohols to 2-imidazolines and 2-oxazolines ...
From aldehydes[edit]. The Tishchenko reaction involve disproportionation of an aldehyde in the presence of an anhydrous base to ... As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... DIBAH reduces esters to aldehydes.[21] Direct reduction to give the corresponding ether is difficult as the intermediate ... Compared to ketones and aldehydes, esters are relatively resistant to reduction. The introduction of catalytic hydrogenation in ...
Aldehydes[edit]. A usually desired consecutive reaction is the hydrogenation of the aldehydes to alcohols. Higher temperatures ... It is important because aldehydes are easily converted into many secondary products. For example, the resulting aldehydes are ... Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from ... The resulting aldehydes are directly hydrogenated to the fatty alcohols, which are separated by distillation, which allows the ...
The approximate order of reactivity, beginning with the most reactive, is as follows: acid chlorides > aldehydes > tosylates ~ ...
Synthesen aromatischer Aldehyde mit Dichlormethyl-alkyläthern". Chemische Berichte. 93 (1): 88-94. doi:10.1002/cber.19600930115 ... Rieche, A.; Gross, H.; Höft, E. (1967). "AROMATIC ALDEHYDES. MESITALDEHYDE". Organic Syntheses (47): 1. doi:10.15227/orgsyn. ...
The conversion of monosubstituted acetylenes into aldehydes and 1 : 2-dithiols". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 619 ... unsaturated aldehydes". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 116. doi:10.1039/JR9560000116. Fairbanks, Benjamin D.; Scott ...
Kohlpaintner, Christian; Schulte, Markus; Jürgen, Falbe; Lappe, Peter; Jürgen, Weber; Frey, Guido (2014). "Aldehydes, ... with polystyrene oxide polymer because of the especial lability of the benzylic alpha proton and the reactivity of the aldehyde ...
"What are Aldehydes?". about.com. About.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014. Vosnaki, Elena. "Myth debunking 1: what are aldehydes, how ... do aldehydes smell and Chanel No. 5". perfumeshrine.blogspot.co.uk. perfumeshrineblogspot. Retrieved 10 July 2014. "Lanvin ...
Decarbonylation of aldehydes using rhodium complex". Tetrahedron Letters. 6 (44): 3969-3971. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)89127-9 ... Doughty, D. H.; Pignolet, L. H. (October 1978). "Catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes". Journal of the American Chemical ... Novel decarbonylation reactions of aldehydes and acyl halides using rhodium complexes". Journal of the American Chemical ... Decarbonylation of acyl chloride and aldehyde catalyzed by palladium and its relationship with the rosenmund reduction". ...
Carbonaceous chondrites (such as C1 and C2) include organic compounds such as amines and amides; alcohols, aldehydes, and ...
L. Marinescu; J. Thinggaard; I. B. Thomsen; M. Bols (2003). "Radical Azidonation of Aldehydes". J. Org. Chem. 68 (24): 9453- ...
Bouveault aldehyde synthesis Bodroux-Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis Reimer-Tiemann reaction Sommelet reaction Vilsmeier-Haack ... Formation of phenolic aldehydes. Distinctive behaviour of p-nitrophenol". J. Chem. Soc.: 1305. doi:10.1039/jr9340001305. Duff, ... The initial reaction product is an iminium which is hydrolyzed to the aldehyde. See mechanism below. The reaction requires ... An intramolecular redox reaction then ensues, raising the benzylic carbon to the oxidation state of an aldehyde. The oxygen ...
... s are phenolic aldehydes. The term may refer to: Salicylaldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) 3- ...
Enantioselective alkenylation of aldehydes. Preparation of stable boronate complexes, which can be alkylated to yield amino ... Today, the name has grown to refer to any reaction of aldehydes, primary aromatic amines and phenols producing α- ... The Betti reaction is a chemical addition reaction of aldehydes, primary aromatic amines and phenols producing α- ... Uses for the Betti base and its derivatives include: Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aryl aldehydes. ...
Another route starts with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacting with iodine azide which is formed from sodium azide and ... Marinescu, Lavinia; Thinggaard, Jacob; Thomsen, Ib B.; Bols, Mikael (2003). "Radical Azidonation of Aldehydes". J. Org. Chem. ...
Mutations in this gene, along with mutations in HADHA, result in trifunctional protein deficiency.[5] Mutations in either gene have similar clinical presentations.[8] Trifunctional protein deficiency is characterized by decreased activity of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, and long-chain thiolase. This deficiency can be classified into 3 main clinical phenotypes: neonatal onset of a severe, lethal condition resulting in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),[9] infantile onset of a hepatic Reye-like syndrome, and late-adolescent onset of primarily a skeletal myopathy.[10] Additionally, some presents showed symptoms associated with myopathy, recurrent and episodic rhabdomyolysis, and sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.[11] In some cases, symptoms of the deficiency can present as dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, and respiratory failure. The deficiency has presented as hydrops fetalis and HELLP syndrome in fetuses.[12] A compound ...
There are five types of carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters.[2] The principal ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], NADPH, and H+.. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl thioester reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acylcarrier protein]reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[ACP]reductase. This enzyme participates in fatty acid biosynthesis and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.. ...
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency can be caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. More than 30 ACADM gene mutations that cause medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency have been identified.[9] Many of these mutations switch an amino acid building block in the ACADM enzyme. The most common amino acid substitution replaces lysine with glutamic acid at position 329 in the enzyme's chain of amino acids (also written as Lys329Glu or K329E).[10] This mutation and other amino acid substitutions alter the enzyme's structure, reducing or abolishing its activity. Other mutations delete or duplicate part of the ACADM gene, which leads to an unstable enzyme that cannot function. With a shortage (deficiency) of functional ACADM enzyme, medium-chain fatty acids cannot be degraded and processed. As a result, these fats are not converted into energy, which can lead to characteristic symptoms of this disorder, such as lack of energy (lethargy) and low blood sugar. Levels of ...
Mammalian FAS consists of a homodimer of two identical protein subunits, in which three catalytic domains in the N-terminal section (-ketoacyl synthase (KS), malonyl/acetyltransferase (MAT), and dehydrase (DH)), are separated by a core region of 600 residues from four C-terminal domains (enoyl reductase (ER), -ketoacyl reductase (KR), acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)).[16][17] The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model on the right) is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active site cysteine thiol of the KS domain in one FAS monomer with the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of the ACP domain in the other monomer.[18][19] Complementation analysis of FAS dimers carrying different mutations on each monomer has established that the KS and MAT domains can cooperate with the ACP of either monomer.[20][21] and a reinvestigation of the DBP crosslinking experiments revealed ...
In the case of the aldehyde, isopropanol is added as a terminal reductant to turn over the metal catalyst. Remarkably, due to a ... An important feature of this reaction is that it can be done from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation state without the usual ... The Krische allylation involves the iridium-catalyzed enantioselective addition of an allyl group to an aldehyde or an alcohol ... Keck, Gary E.; Tarbet, Kenneth H.; Geraci, Leo S. (1993-09-01). "Catalytic asymmetric allylation of aldehydes". Journal of the ...
As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... DIBAH reduces esters to aldehydes. Direct reduction to give the corresponding ether is difficult as the intermediate hemiacetal ... Compared to ketones and aldehydes, esters are relatively resistant to reduction. The introduction of catalytic hydrogenation in ... tends to decompose to give an alcohol and an aldehyde (which is rapidly reduced to give a second alcohol). The reaction can be ...
"Readily Available Unprotected Amino Aldehydes". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (46): 14772-3. doi:10.1021/ja065898s. B. Pulipaka; ...
It is used in the Duff reaction (formylation of arenes), the Sommelet reaction (converting benzyl halides to aldehydes), and in ... Allen, C. F. H.; Leubne, G. W. (1951). "Syringic Aldehyde". Organic Syntheses. 31: 92. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.031.0092. CS1 maint ...
Stockman, R. (2001). "Dibal reduction of an amino acid derived methyl ester; Garner's Aldehyde". ChemSpider Synthetic Pages. ... and nitriles to aldehydes. DIBAL efficiently reduces α-β unsaturated esters to the corresponding allylic alcohol. By contrast, ...
T1 - Widespread nonhematopoietic tissue distribution by transplanted human progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase ... Widespread nonhematopoietic tissue distribution by transplanted human progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase ... title = "Widespread nonhematopoietic tissue distribution by transplanted human progenitor cells with high aldehyde ... Widespread nonhematopoietic tissue distribution by transplanted human progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 8. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 9. Hydrogen 10. Urea (Carbamide) Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Oral ...
Some aldehydes are substrates for aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes which metabolize aldehydes in the body. There are toxicities ... Stephen aldehyde synthesis Nitriles Hydrolysis of an iminium salt generated by tin(II) chloride and HCl to form an aldehyde. ... IUPAC names for aldehydes[edit]. The common names for aldehydes do not strictly follow official guidelines, such as those ... Naturally occurring aldehydes[edit]. Traces of many aldehydes are found in essential oils and often contribute to their ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon ... Other articles where Aldehyde dehydrogenase is discussed: alcohol consumption: Processing in the liver: …acted upon by another ... acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ...
Phenolic aldehydes are derivatives of phenol. Phenolic aldehydes can be found in wines and cognacs. Examples : ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_463 Determination of Phenolic Aldehydes in Cognacs and Wines by Capillary Electrophoresis: New Cognac ... Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde can be isolated from ... 1014914701477 Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea. Vanisree Mulabagal, Ruby L. Alexander-Lindo, David ...
Protocatechuic aldehyde is a phenolic aldehyde, a compound released from cork stoppers into wine. This molecule can be used as ... Food Chem., 1998, 46 (8), pp 3166-3171 doi:10.1021/jf970863k Biotransformation of protocatechuic aldehyde and caffeic acid to ...
It is not known what happens to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone once they are released to the environment. However, the amount ... Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde. ... Little is known about the properties of endrin aldehyde (an impurity and breakdown product of endrin) or endrin ketone (a ... of endrin broken down to endrin aldehyde or endrin ketone is very small. ...
The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substances toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies. The complete list of topics covered (chapter titles) is shown at the left and in more detail further down this page.
... is a fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:35746) ... 8Z,10Z-tetradecadienal (CHEBI:137769) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). 9Z,11E,13-tetradecatrienal (CHEBI:137826) ... is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). dodecanal (CHEBI:27836) is a long-chain fatty aldehyde (CHEBI:17176). ... CHEBI:17176 - long-chain fatty aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ethanal ... Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ...
Coniferylic aldehyde; Cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-; CONIFERYL ALDEHYDE-1; 2-Propenal, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), (E ... 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (coniferilic aldehyde); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde *Information on this page: *Notes ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Breath gas aldehydes as biomarkers of lung cancer.. Fuchs P1, Loeseken C, Schubert JK, Miekisch W. ... Volatile aldehydes were determined in exhaled breath of 12 lung cancer patients, 12 smokers and 12 healthy volunteers. Alveolar ... Exhaled aldehydes reflect aspects of oxidative stress and tumor-specific tissue composition and metabolism. Noninvasive ... Exhaled C(1)-C(10) aldehydes could be detected in all healthy volunteers, smokers and lung cancer patients. Concentrations ...
Aldehyde definition is - acetaldehyde; broadly : any of a class of highly reactive organic compounds that are analogous to ... Comments on aldehyde. What made you want to look up aldehyde? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of aldehyde to Facebook Share the Definition of aldehyde on Twitter ... Examples of aldehyde in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. In this first study, the focus was on recognizing a group of ...
Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical. Theyre commonly used in making ... Aldehydes and ketones are related compounds where an aldehyde contains at least one hydrogen atom attached to a carbonyl group ... Aromatic aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that contain a carbon hydroxide radical or group, CHO, and are used as ... The simplest of aromatic aldehydes is benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO, which is an almond extract that is used as a flavoring, and as an ...
In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected ... These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable ... Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use ... This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. ...
Ingestion: If an aldehyde or a solution containing an aldehyde is ingested, give the victim several glum of water to drink, dim ... Mutagenicity and Toxicity of Nine Low-Molecular-Weight Aldehydes. Aldehyde. Health effects. Organism. Exposure route. ... Eye exposure: If an aldehyde or a solution containing an aldehyde gets into the eyes, immediately flush them with large amounts ... Although formaldehyde is also a low-molecular-weight aldehyde similar to the aldehydes discussed in this CIB, it was not ...
Aldehyde oxidase genes in vertebrates. The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected ... Phylogeny of eukaryotic aldehyde oxidases. A rooted dendrogram was obtained by the Phylip method after CLUSTAL-W computer-aided ... Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal ... The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.. Garattini E1, Fratelli M, Terao M. ...
In some embodiments, the aldehyde is n-butyraldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is propionaldehyde. In some embodiments ... the aldehyde is acetaldehyde. In some embodiments, the aldehyde is formaldehyde. ... Furthermore, an additional aspect of the invention is the use of static mixtures in an oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic ... Thus, the invention provides processes that include contacting an aldehyde having the formula R1-CHO with an oxidant in a ...
IUPAC names for aldehydes. IUPAC prescribes the following nomenclature for aldehydes:. *Acyclic aliphatic aldehydes are named ... The word aldehyde seems to have arisen from alcohol dehydrogenated. In the past, aldehydes were sometimes named after the ... An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. This functional group, called an aldehyde group, ... If replacing the aldehyde group with a carboxyl (-COOH) group would yield a carboxylic acid with a trivial name, the aldehyde ...
... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ... Ammonia Organic Chemistry Aldehyde Pyridine Polytechnic Institute Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. ... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ...
Lab 26: Identification of Aldehydes and Ketones - Pre-Lab. Before beginning this quiz please investigate how Benedicts reagent ...
Our articles are evidence-based and contain scientific references, fact-checked by experts. We source information from studies, clinical trial findings, and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals.. To increase transparency to the user, we provide reference links marked by numbers in parentheses in the copy of the article. The entire list of reference links is also provided at the bottom of the article.. ...
We will be learning about the nomenclature and reactions of aldehydes and ketones, including how to use acetals as protecting ... Aldehydes and ketones can be starting materials for a range of other functional groups. ...
  • After transplantation into β-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice, we characterized the distribution of lineage-depleted human umbilical cord blood-derived cells purified by selection using high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity with CD133 coexpression. (elsevier.com)
  • ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also important in metabolizing other toxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, ALDH2 is important for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as 4-HNE and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We hypothesized that 2 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in CS, crotonaldehyde and acrolein, induce neurogenic inflammation by stimulating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel coexpressed with TRPV1 on capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors. (jci.org)
  • In the Stephen aldehyde synthesis aldehydes form from nitriles, tin chloride and hydrochloric acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pyruvic aldehyde is used in the synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of N-terminal analogues of tubulysin-U an antimitotic compound. (fishersci.com)
  • Asymmetric Catalysis Enantioselective Organocatalyzed a Sulfenylation of Aldehydes** Mauro Marigo, Tobias C. Wabnitz, Doris Fielenbach, and Karl Anker Jørgensen* Optically active a-heterosubstituted aldehydes are versatile building blocks for the synthesis of chiral molecules that bear heteroatom functionalities. (docme.ru)
  • The Tollens reagent tests for the presence of aldehydes in chemical compounds 2 . (ukessays.com)
  • About half an hour in, Weinberg said, Kool had sketched out the idea for what would become Darkzone - a chemical that glows brightly in the presence of aldehydes. (scienceblog.com)
  • acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. (britannica.com)
  • Although the CAld5H/COMT enzyme system can mediate the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol intermediates through either route, k cat / K m of CAld5H for coniferyl aldehyde was ≈140 times greater than that for ferulate. (pnas.org)
  • A cobalt-porphyrin enzyme converts a fatty aldehyde to a hydrocarbon and CO. (pnas.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that biosynthesis of hydrocarbons is effected by a microsomal Co-porphyrin-containing enzyme that catalyzes decarbonylation of aldehydes and, thus, reveal a biological function for Co in plants. (pnas.org)
  • The enzyme, which is distinguishable from aldehyde-oxidizing activities in other tissues, is secreted into the receptor lymph that bathes the primary olfactory dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • In situ cryocrystallization has been employed to grow single crystals of 4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde (anisaldehyde), C 8 H 8 O 2 , 2-hy-droxy-benzaldehyde (salicyl-aldehyde), C 7 H 6 O 2 , and (2 E )-3-phenyl-prop-2-enal (cinnamaldehyde), C 9 H 8 O, all of which are liquids at room temperature. (iucr.org)
  • In salicyl-aldehyde, the OH group is bound intra-molecularly to the aldehyde C=O group. (iucr.org)
  • Thus, the detoxification of harmful aldehydes generated endogenously or ingested from environment and foods is an important role of ALDHs. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that newer devices produced more harmful aldehydes than first generation e-cigarettes. (phys.org)
  • Examples : Hydroxybenzaldehydes Protocatechuic aldehyde Vanillin and isovanillin 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde can be isolated from Antigonon leptopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998, 46 (8), pp 3166-3171 doi:10.1021/jf970863k Biotransformation of protocatechuic aldehyde and caffeic acid to vanillin and capsaicin in freely suspended and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum frutescens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding mechanism between protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • In this first study, the focus was on recognizing a group of chemicals, called aldehydes , that are often associated with fragrances but also human stress conditions and illnesses. (merriam-webster.com)
  • We are employed in Supplying and Trading a best grade array of Biocide Aldehyde in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India that is created using chemicals that are procured from reliable vendors. (tradeindia.com)
  • Under the EU system devised to evaluate flavorings, perilla aldehyde is also a proxy for evaluating nine other structurally similar chemicals known collectively as "alicyclic aldehydes. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • Endogenous aldehydes are generated during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins as well as the biotransformation of many drugs and environmental chemicals [ 10 , 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reacting an alkene (if there is a vinylic hydrogen) with ozone will form an ozonide (an unstable, explosive intermediate) which yields an aldehyde upon reduction with zinc and acid at reduced temperatures. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric propargylation of aldehydes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tetradecanal, also known as Myristyl aldehyde or Myristaldehyde, is myristic acid in its reduced form and is produced by bioluminescent bacteria. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Dry strength resins are prepared by reacting acrylamide polymers with amino/aldehyde resin acid colloids during the formation of the colloid. (google.ca)
  • Amino-aldehyde resins have been used to impart wet strength to paper both as resins per se and as acid colloids thereof, see U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • This patent teaches the preferred preparation of the product by forming an aqueous solution of the acid colloid of the amino-aldehyde resin beforehand and then reacting it with an aqueous solution of the acrylamide polymer. (google.ca)
  • We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of colorimetric indicators: a new technique to determine acid, base, and aldehyde contaminations. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the study was to develop new colorimetric indicator pads for detecting acid, base, and aldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves. (cdc.gov)
  • Acid, base, and aldehyde indicators were synthesized and indicator pads were designed and fabricated. (cdc.gov)
  • α-Amino aldehydes with Boc, Cbz, or Fmoc protection could be obtained without racemization in high yield. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because of resonance stabilization of the conjugate base, an α-hydrogen in an aldehyde (not shown in the picture above) is far more acidic , with a p K a near 17, compared to the acidity of a typical alkane (p K a about 50). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, aldehydes are highly reactive compounds, which can form adducts with proteins, DNA, and lipids, affecting the function of these biomolecules and leading to cell toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • The carcinogenic potential of the nine related low-molecular-weight aldehydes has not been adequately evaluated by appropriate experimentation. (cdc.gov)
  • The invention concerns the use of a water-soluble or water-dispersible polymer having a molecular weight of at least 800, containing at least 5 aldehyde groups per molecule and at least 1 carboxyl group per molecule, the ratio of aldehyde groups to carboxyl groups being higher than 0.75:1, as a wet strength. (google.es)
  • Therefore, we chose to investigate the nature and type of inter-molecular inter-actions in the crystal structures of some very simple aldehydes. (iucr.org)
  • Endogenous coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl, and sinapyl aldehydes were detected, consistent with in vivo operation of the CAld5H/COMT pathway from coniferyl to sinapyl aldehydes via 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde for syringyl monolignol biosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • The present invention relates to the use of multifunctional aldehyde-containing polymers as temporary wet strength agents for paper and tissue applications, as well as non-wovens. (google.es)
  • Cinnamic aldehyde is widely preferred in the households as a flavoring agent. (openpr.com)
  • Rapidly expanding cosmetics & personal care industry with growing appearance consciousness among the consumers coupled with rising per capita disposable income is driving the cinnamic aldehyde growth globally. (openpr.com)
  • The global cinnamic aldehyde market is segmented into nature, application, end use industry, and region. (openpr.com)
  • Based on the region, the cinnamic aldehyde market is segregated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region in the cinnamic aldehyde market owing to the increasing demand for nutritious food and energy drink with rising health consciousness among the consumers. (openpr.com)
  • North America is the second largest region in the cinnamic aldehyde market with increasing spending on personal care products coupled with high per capita income. (openpr.com)
  • Alpha amyl cinnamic aldehyde Rinse immediately with plenty of water for 10 minutes at least. (exportersindia.com)
  • We deals in supplying of wide range of Alpha Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde. (exportersindia.com)
  • Cinnamic Aldehyde is an ingredient for the flavour, fragrance and animal feed industries. (exportersindia.com)
  • Product name: cinnamic aldehyde "sh"rnrnbrief introduction of ourselvesrnsuyashherbs is the leading of manufacturer and essential oil.rnwe avail this opportunity and have immense pleasure to introduce ourselves rnas pioneers manufacturer, exporter of natural essential oils, spice oils, rnaromatherapy oils, vegetable oils, indian perfumes/attars & herbal extracts rnetc. (exportersindia.com)
  • Of all aldehydes examined, the pheromone bombykal was the best substrate with an apparent Km of 5 microM, whereas the next best substrate, benzaldehyde, had an apparent Km of 255 microM. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, aldehydes are prone to undergo hydrogen atom abstraction in the presence of free radicals, a fact accounts for the ease with which aldehydes undergo autoxidation . (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional group , called an aldehyde group , consists of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single covalent bond and an oxygen atom with a double bond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)