Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.GlyceraldehydeAldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Nicotinyl Alcohol: Alcohol analog of NICOTINIC ACID which is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened GANGRENE.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Barbital: A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.BenzaldehydesAflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ribonucleotide ReductasesPolygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseNitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.FuraldehydeSorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Cytochrome ReductasesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.AcroleinNADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Rats, Inbred F344Dihydropteridine Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.99.7.Thioredoxin Reductase 1: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.KetonesDisulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mevalonic AcidLovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Arsenate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sulfite Reductase (NADPH): A NADPH-dependent oxidase that reduces hydrogen sulfite to HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is found in many microoganisms.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogensulfite Reductase: An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Hydroxypyruvate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate in the presence of NADP.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Thioredoxin Reductase 2: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sulfite Reductase (Ferredoxin): A FERREDOXIN-dependent oxidoreductase that is primarily found in PLANTS where it plays an important role in the assimilation of SULFUR atoms for the production of CYSTEINE and METHIONINE.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase: (5Z)-(15S)-11 alpha-Hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ delta(13)-oxidoreductase. An enzyme active in prostaglandin E and F catabolism. It catalyzes the reduction of the double bond at the 13-14 position of the 15-ketoprostaglandins and uses NADPH as cofactor. EC 1.3.1.48.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Ferredoxin-Nitrite Reductase: An IRON-containing protein that uses siroheme and 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur centers as prosthetic groups. It catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of AMMONIA to nitrite.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.GMP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nitrite Reductase (NAD(P)H): An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.4.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (1/765)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Polyol formation and NADPH-dependent reductases in dog retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells. (2/765)

PURPOSE: Dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose experience retinal vascular changes similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy, with selective pericyte loss as an initial lesion. In the present study the relationship among reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reductases, polyol formation, and flux through the polyol pathway in cultured dog retinal capillary cells were investigated. METHODS: Pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured from retina of beagle dogs. NADPH-dependent reductases were characterized by chromatofocusing after gel filtration. Sugars in cultured cells were analyzed by gas chromatography, and flux through the polyol pathway was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as a substrate. The presence of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in these cells was examined by northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct peaks corresponding to aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase, the latter being dominant, were observed in pericytes by chromatofocusing. Culture in medium containing either 10 mM D-galactose or 30 mM D-glucose resulted in the accumulation of sugar alcohol in pericytes that was markedly reduced by aldose reductase inhibitors. 19F NMR spectra obtained from pericytes cultured for 5 days in medium containing 2 mM 3FG displayed the marked accumulation of 3-fluoro-deoxysorbitol but not 3-fluoro-deoxyfructose. No 3FG metabolism was observed in similarly cultured endothelial cells. With northern blot analysis, aldose reductase was detected in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was below the detectable limit in pericytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Aldose, aldehyde, and glyceraldehyde reductases are present in dog retinal capillary pericytes, with aldehyde reductase being the major reductase present. Polyol accumulation easily occurs in pericytes but not in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (3/765)

The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated.  (+info)

Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion. (4/765)

Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action.  (+info)

Osmotic response element is required for the induction of aldose reductase by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (5/765)

Induction of aldose reductase (AR) was observed in human cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). AR protein expression increased severalfold in human liver cells after 1 day of exposure to 100 units/ml TNF-alpha. An increase in AR transcripts was also observed in human liver cells after 3 h of TNF-alpha treatment, reaching a maximum level of 11-fold at 48 h. Among the three inflammatory cytokines: TNF-alpha, interleukin-1, and interferon-gamma, TNF-alpha (100 units/ml) gave the most induction of AR. Differences in the pattern of AR induction were observed in human liver, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha. A similar pattern of AR promoter response was observed between TNF-alpha and osmotically stressed human liver cells. The deletion of the osmotic response element (ORE) abolished the induction by TNF-alpha and osmotic stress. A point mutation that converts ORE to a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) sequence abolished the osmotic response but maintained the TNF-alpha response. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays showed two NF-kappaB proteins, p50 and p52, capable of binding ORE sequence, and gel shift Western assay detected NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p65 in the ORE complex. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling, lactacystin, and MG132 abolished the AR promoter response to TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Comparisons of genomic structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse aldose reductase and aldose reductase-like genes. (6/765)

Aldose reductase (AR), best known as the first enzyme in the polyol pathway of sugar metabolism, has been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions and in the etiology of diabetic complications. We have determined the structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse AR gene (Aldor1) and of two genes highly homologous to Aldor1: the fibroblast growth factor regulated protein gene (Fgfrp) and the androgen regulated vas deferens protein gene (Avdp). The number of introns and their locations in the mouse Aldor1 gene are identical to those of rat and human AR genes and also to those of Fgfrp and Avdp. Mouse Aldor1 gene was found to be located near the Cald1 (Caldesmon) and Ptn (Pleiotropin) loci at the proximal end of chromosome 6. The closely related genes Fgfrp and Avdp were also mapped in this region of the chromosome, suggesting that these three genes may have arisen by a gene duplication event.  (+info)

Aldose reductase functions as a detoxification system for lipid peroxidation products in vasculitis. (7/765)

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting large and medium-sized arteries. Inflammatory infiltrates in the arterial wall induce luminal occlusion with subsequent ischemia and degradation of the elastic membranes, allowing aneurysm formation. To identify pathways relevant to the disease process, differential display-PCR was used. The enzyme aldose reductase (AR), which is implicated in the regulation of tissue osmolarity, was found to be upregulated in the arteritic lesions. Upregulated AR expression was limited to areas of tissue destruction in inflamed arteries, where it was detected in T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The production of AR was highly correlated with the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde and downstream product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro exposure of mononuclear cells to HNE was sufficient to induce AR production. The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat. Inhibition of AR increased HNE adducts twofold and the number of apoptotic cells in the arterial wall threefold. These data demonstrate that AR has a tissue-protective function by preventing damage from lipid peroxidation. We propose that AR is an oxidative defense mechanism able to neutralize the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation and has a role in limiting the arterial wall injury mediated by reactive oxygen species.  (+info)

Hypertonicity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in papillary interstitial cells. (8/765)

BACKGROUND: Medullary cells of the concentrating kidney are exposed to high extracellular solute concentrations. It is well established that epithelial cells in this kidney region adapt osmotically to hypertonic stress by accumulating organic osmolytes. Little is known, however, of the adaptive mechanisms of a further medullary cell type, the papillary interstitial cell [renal papillary fibroblast (RPF)]. We therefore compared the responses of primary cultures of RPFs and papillary collecting duct (PCD) cells exposed to hypertonic medium. METHODS: In RPFs and PCD cells, organic osmolytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography; mRNA expression for organic osmolyte transporters [Na+/Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter (BGT), Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT)], and the sorbitol synthetic and degrading enzymes [aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), respectively] was determined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Exposure to hypertonic medium (600 mOsm/kg by NaCl addition) caused intracellular contents of glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol, but not free amino acids, to increase significantly in both RPFs and PCD cells. The rise in intracellular contents of these organic osmolytes was accompanied by enhanced expression of mRNAs coding for BGT, SMIT, and AR in both RPFs and PCD cells. SDH mRNA abundance, however, was unchanged. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization studies on sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, normally concentrating kidneys showed strong expression of BGT, SMIT, and AR mRNAs in interstitial and collecting duct cells of the papilla, whereas expression of SDH mRNA was much weaker in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both RPFs and PCD cells use similar strategies to adapt osmotically to the high interstitial NaCl concentrations characteristic for the inner medulla and papilla of the concentrating kidney.  (+info)

*Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase

... (EC 1.3.1.92, Dbr2) is an enzyme with systematic name artemisinic aldehyde:NADP+ ... Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "The molecular cloning of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase and its role in glandular trichome-dependent biosynthesis of ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (11R)-dihydroartemisinic aldehyde + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...

*Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1

Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP+] also known as aldehyde reductase or aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1 is an enzyme that in ... "Entrez Gene: AKR1A1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase)". Palackal NT, Burczynski ME, Harvey RG, ... "The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The ... by mammalian aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1244 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(94) ...

*Tickmill

Turner, A. J.; Hick, P. E. (1975-09-15). "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase by acidic metabolites of the biogenic amines". ...

*AKR1B1

AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Robinson B, Hunsaker LA, Stangebye LA, Vander Jagt DL (December 1993). "Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ...

*Sorbitol

The role of aldehyde reductase tyrosine phenol group is to serve as a general acid to provide proton to the reduced aldehyde ... The mechanism involves a tyrosine residue in the active site of aldehyde reductase. The hydrogen atom on NADH is transferred to ... Aldose reductase is the first enzyme in the sorbitol-aldose reductase pathway responsible for the reduction of glucose to ... Aldose reductase inhibitors, which are substances that prevent or slow the action of aldose reductase, are currently being ...

*AKR7A2

Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR7A2 gene. Aldo-keto reductases, such ... "Entrez Gene: AKR7A2 aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)". Human AKR7A2 genome location and ... evidence that the major 2-carboxybenzaldehyde reductase from human liver is a homologue of rat aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase ... Praml C, Savelyeva L, Perri P, Schwab M (1998). "Cloning of the human aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase gene at 1p35-1p36.1 in a ...

*Halogen bond

Aldehyde-based and carboxylate inhibitors are effective but toxic because the functional activity of aldehyde reductase is ... halogen bond that contributes to the large potency of this inhibitor for human aldose reductase rather than aldehyde reductase ... Carboxylate and aldehyde inhibitors were shown to hydrogen bond with Trp 111, Tyr 48, and His 110. The "specificity pocket," ... An example of this assertion in drug design is the substrate specificity for the binding of IDD 594 to human aldose reductase. ...

*Alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+)

Other names in common use include retinal reductase, aldehyde reductase (NADPH/NADH), and alcohol dehydrogenase [NAD(P)]. This ... an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are alcohol, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are aldehyde, ...

*Aldo-keto reductase

... such as aldehyde reductase, aldose reductase, prostaglandin F synthase, xylose reductase, rho crystallin, and many others. All ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9547-51. PMID 2498333 ... The aldo-keto reductase family is a family of proteins that are subdivided into 16 categories; these include a number of ... Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM (December 1992). "The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex". J. ...

*AKR1C1

... function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 also known as 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and ... This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. ... These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH ...

*Aldose reductase

In enzymology, aldose reductase (or aldehyde reductase) (EC 1.1.1.21) is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that ... The reaction mechanism of aldose reductase in the direction of aldehyde reduction follows a sequential ordered path where NADPH ... Barski OA, Gabbay KH, Bohren KM (September 1999). "Characterization of the human aldehyde reductase gene and promoter". ... AKR1B1 Aldo-keto reductase Petrash JM (April 2004). "All in the family: aldose reductase and closely related aldo-keto ...

*Aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent)

"Crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from D. gigas". Science. 270 (5239): 1170-6. doi: ... Other names in common use include aldehyde oxidase, aldehyde oxidoreductase, Mop, and AORDd. As of late 2007, only one ... In enzymology, an aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent) (EC 1.2.99.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with ...

*Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain

"Crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from D. gigas". Science. 270 (5239): 1170-6. doi: ... Aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and ... The aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. ...

*Carbonyl reductase (NADPH)

... carbonyl reductase, nonspecific NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase, aldehyde reductase 1, and carbonyl reductase (NADPH). This ... Other names in common use include aldehyde reductase 1, prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase, xenobiotic ketone reductase, NADPH- ... In enzymology, a carbonyl reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.1.1.184) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction R-CHOH-R' + NADP+ ... Wermuth B (1981). "Purification and properties of an NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase from human brain. Relationship to ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... ferredoxin-nitrite reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.750.500 --- nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163 --- aldehyde ... aldehyde reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.237 --- d-xylulose reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.400 --- ... gmp reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.500 --- nitrate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.124 --- nitrate reductase MeSH D08.811. ... 682.655.500.200 --- nitrate reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.249 --- nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D08.811.682.655. ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 1)

L-glucuronate reductase EC 1.1.1.20: glucuronolactone reductase EC 1.1.1.21: aldehyde reductase EC 1.1.1.22: UDP-glucose 6- ... artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase EC 1.3.1.93: very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase EC 1.3.1.94: polyprenol reductase ... flavin reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.37: FAD reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.38: FMN reductase (NADPH) EC 1.5.1.39: FMN reductase (NAD(P) ... zeatin reductase EC 1.3.1.70: D14-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.71: D24(241)-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.72: D24-sterol reductase EC ...

*Glucuronate reductase

Other names in common use include aldehyde reductase, L-hexonate:NADP dehydrogenase, TPN-L-gulonate dehydrogenase, aldehyde ... reductase II, NADP-L-gulonate dehydrogenase, D-glucuronate dehydrogenase, D-glucuronate reductase, and L-glucuronate reductase ... In enzymology, a glucuronate reductase (EC 1.1.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-gulonate + NADP+ ⇌ {\ ...

*Methylglyoxal pathway

Methylglyoxal reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase convert methylglyoxal into lactaldehyde and, eventually, L-lactate. If ... Methylglyoxal is, however, a reactive aldehyde that is very toxic to cells, it can inhibit growth in E. coli at milimolar ...

*4-Hydroxynonenal

Within this group are the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) such as hGSTA4-4 and hGST5.8, aldose reductase, and aldehyde ... 4-HNE has 3 reactive groups: an aldehyde, a double-bond at carbon 2, and a hydroxy group at carbon 4. It is found throughout ... Although they are the most studied ones, in the same process other oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (OαβUAs) are generated ... Increased activity of the mitochondrial enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has been shown to have a protective effect ...

*Aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)

Other names in common use include aromatic acid reductase, and aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+). Gross GG (1972). "Formation ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with NAD+ ... Gross GG, Zenk MH (1969). "[Reduction of aromatic acids to aldehydes and alcohols in the cell-free system. 1. Purification and ... In enzymology, an aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.2.1.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an ...

*Coniferyl aldehyde

Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl alcohol or ... Coniferyl-aldehyde dehydrogenase uses coniferyl aldehyde, H2O, NAD+, and NADP+ to produce ferulate, NADH, NADPH, and H+. ... Coniferyl aldehyde is a low molecular weight phenolic compound susceptible to be extracted from cork stoppers into wine. ... Coniferyl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses coniferyl alcohol and NADP+ to produce coniferyl aldehyde, NADPH, and H+. ...

*Molybdopterin

... respiratory arsenate reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase. Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, ... Molydopterin is a: Cofactor of: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, ethylbenzene ... Tungsten-using enzymes typically reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes. The first tungsten-requiring enzyme to be ... Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate ...

*Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase

White H, Strobl G, Feicht R, Simon H (September 1989). "Carboxylic acid reductase: a new tungsten enzyme catalyses the ... In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aldehyde ... Its primary role is to oxidize aldehyde coming derived from the metabolism of amino acids and glucoses. Aldehyde Ferredoxin ... AOR has been proposed to be the primary enzyme responsible for oxidising the aldehydes that are produced by the 2-keto acid ...

*Bioluminescent bacteria

LuxAB codes for luciferase while luxCDE codes for a fatty-acid reductase complex that is responsible for synthesizing aldehydes ... With the exception of the Photorhabdus operon type, all variants of the lux operon contain the flavin reductase-encoding luxG ... Nevertheless, all bio-luminescent bacteria share a common gene sequence: the enzymatic oxidation of Aldehyde and reduced Flavin ... For bacterial bio-luminescence specifically, the biochemical reaction involves the oxidation of an aliphatic aldehyde by a ...

*Molybdenum

... aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. People severely deficient in molybdenum have poorly functioning ... those enzymes include aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase. In some animals, and in humans, the oxidation of ...

*Metabolism

Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with many hydroxyl groups attached, that can exist as straight chains or rings. ... This reduced form of the coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent prevention of sugar cataracts in galactose-fed dogs by the aldose reductase inhibitor M79175. AU - Sato, Sanai. AU - Mori, Kazuhiko. AU - Wyman, Milton. AU - Kador, Peter F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Sugar cataracts rapidly develop in dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose. While studies on the formation and progression of these sugar cataracts suggest that they are osmotic in nature and are linked to aldose reductase, sugar cataract formation in the dog to date has not been completely prevented by the administration of aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil and M79175. To demonstrate that the formation and progression of sugar cataracts in galactose-fed dogs can be dose-dependently inhibited by the administration of aldose reductase inhibitors, 9-month old male beagles were placed on diet containing 30% galactose with/without 10 or 16 mg kg-1 day-1 of M79175 for up to 39 months. Cataract progression in all dogs was followed by periodic slit lamp examination ...
Low apparent aldose reductase activity, as measured by NADPH oxidation, can be produced by the spontaneous autoxidation of monosaccharides. NADPH is oxidized to metabolically active NADP+ in a solution of autoxidizing DL-glyceraldehyde at rates of up to 15 X 10(-4) A340/min. The close parallelism between the effects of buffer salt type and concentration, monosaccharide structure and temperature activation on autoxidation and NADPH oxidation imply that autoxidation is a prerequisite for the NADPH oxidation, probably via the hydroperoxy radical. Nucleotide-binding proteins enhanced NADPH oxidation induced by DL-glyceraldehyde, up to 10.6-fold with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glutathione reductase-catalysed NADPH oxidation in the presence of autoxidizing monosaccharide showed many characteristics of the aldose reductase reaction. Aldose reductase inhibitors acted as antioxidants in inhibiting this NADPH oxidation. These results indicate that low apparent aldose reductase activities may be ...
The proteomic approach is a valuable tool to detect and identify proteins that are associated with cancer. In previous investigations on experimentally induced rat hepatomas, we detected aldose reductase-like protein (ARLP) as a highly significant marker protein. Our present study was intended to look for the presence of similar tumor-associated marker proteins on human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). We found several novel tumor-associated protein variants that represent members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. Human aldose reductase-like protein-1 (hARLP-1) was the most prominent tumor-associated AKR member detected in HCC by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometric fingerprinting. The enzyme was found in 4 distinct forms (hARLP-1, 36/7.4 (kd/pI); hARLP-2, 36/7.2; hARLP-3, 36/6.4; and hARLP-4, 33/7-35). In addition, a human aldose reductase-like protein (hARLP-5, 36/7.6) was identified that differed from hARLP-1 by 1 amino acid (D313N), indicating ...
1ADS: AN UNLIKELY SUGAR SUBSTRATE SITE IN THE 1.65 ANGSTROMS STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN ALDOSE REDUCTASE HOLOENZYME IMPLICATED IN DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS
Top performende anti-Pferd Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member B1 (Aldose Reductase) Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
Methods and Results-Atherosclerosis development was quantified in 2 lines of transgenic mice expressing human AR (hAR) crossed on the apolipoprotein E knockout background. The transgenes were used to increase the normally low levels of this enzyme in wild-type mice. Both generalized hAR overexpression and hAR expression via the Tie 2 promoter increased lesion size in streptozotocin diabetic mice. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of AR reduced lesion size.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aldose reductase inhibition on nerve conduction and morphometry in diabetic neuropathy. AU - Greene, Douglas A.. AU - Arezzo, Joseph C.. AU - Brown, M. B.. PY - 1999/8/11. Y1 - 1999/8/11. N2 - Objective: To determine whether the aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) zenarestat improves nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and nerve morphology in diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPN). Methods: A 52-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multiple-dose, clinical trial with the ARI zenarestat was conducted in patients with mild to moderate DPN. NCV was measured at baseline and study end. Contralateral sural nerve biopsies were obtained at 6 weeks and at the studys end for nerve sorbitol measurement and computer-assisted light morphometry to determine myelinated nerve fiber density (number of fibers/mm2 cross-sectional area) in serial bilateral sural nerve biopsies. Results: Dose-dependent increments in sural nerve zenarestat level and sorbitol suppression were ...
Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (AKR1B10), a cancer-related oxidoreductase, is expressed in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, AKR1B10 levels are minimal in normal liver tissues (NLs), similar to the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) and glypican-3. Moreover, the role of AKR1B10 in chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, which are considered preneoplastic conditions for HCC, has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AKR1B10, HSP70, and glypican-3 in 61 HCC tissue samples compared to corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues (NTs), comprising 42 chronic hepatitis and 19 cirrhosis cases to clarify the significance of molecular changes at the preneoplastic stages of HCC. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the median expression levels of AKR1B10 were higher in HCCs than in NTs (p < 0.001) and higher in NTs than NLs (p < 0.001) with 54.8%, 2.1%, and 0.3% expression in HCCs, NTs, and NLs, respectively. HSP70
Aldose (or aldehyde) reductase is inhibited by several substances, including isoliquiritigenin (which Ive been discussing in connection with licorice) and rutin (which interestingly is in tea - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/elan.200603496/abstract). Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibition include spinach, cumin, fennel, lemon, basil, and black pepper. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114390) Aldose reductase is most known for its role in glucose metabolism, but it has other functions including in norepinephrine metabolism (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P15121 ...
1PWM: Ultrahigh resolution drug design. II. Atomic resolution structures of human aldose reductase holoenzyme complexed with Fidarestat and Minalrestat: implications for the binding of cyclic imide inhibitors
Compare aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 (delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5-beta-reductase) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Ranirestat (also known as AS-3201) is an aldose reductase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and PharmaKyorin. It has been granted orphan drug status. The drug is to be used orally. A Canadian Phase III clinical trial has been completed. Phase III trials in Europe and the US started in June 2009 and are expected to complete in April 2013. Ranirestat is aldose reductase inhibitor that acts by reducing sorbitol accumulation in cells. Aldose reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes one of the steps in sorbitol (polyol) pathway which is responsible for formation of fructose from glucose. Aldose reductase activity is increased, parallel to glucose blood levels, in tissues that are not insulin sensitive, including lenses, peripheral nerves and renal glomeruli. Sorbitol does not diffuse through cell membranes easily and therefore accumulates in these tissues, causing osmotic damage, leading to retinopathy and neuropathy. Results from a Canadian ...
This review covers aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) isolated from natural sources. Compounds in the review are grouped according to the source from which they have been isolated: terrestrial, marine, or microorganism and the in vitro inhibitory act
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease. One of the key pathways activated in DN is the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol (a relatively non-metabolizable sugar) by the enzyme aldose reductase (AR). Shunting of glucose into this pathway causes disruption to glucose metabolism and subsequently damages the tissues via increased oxidative stress, protein kinase c activation and production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the kidney. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the AR enzyme structure, substrate specificity and topology in normal physiology; to elaborate on the deleterious effects of AR activation in DN; and to summarize the potential therapeutic benefits and major challenges associated with AR inhibition in patients with DN ...
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011 ...
In the present study, we determined the expression and localization of porcine AKR1C1 in the ovary and uterine endometrium through RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blotting, and immunohistochemistry during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by using the GenBank database revealed that porcine AKR1C1 cDNA belongs to the AKR family. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the porcine AKR1C1 cloned in this study showed high homology with those of bovine (86/82%), goat (80/78%), rat (76/66), mouse (76/68%), and human (81/76%) 20α-HSD. Based on the results of 3-RACE, we detected a stop codon in a different site from that of porcine AKR1C1 reported previously [7]. Several conserved sequence patterns were found in the porcine AKR1C1 cloned in the present study. A catalytic tetrad, such as that consisting of Asp 50, Tyr 55, Lys 84, and His 117, is a common feature of the AKR family [1]. Other amino acids such as Gly 22, Gly 45, Asp 112, Pro 119, Gly 164, Asn 167, ...
Other lines of investigation have demonstrated that aldose reductase exhibits broad substrate specificity for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic aldehydes. Aldose reductase and the structurally related enzyme in the aldo-keto reductase family, aldehyde reductase, both catalyze the reduction of biogenic aldehydes derived from the catabolism of the catecholamines and serotonin by the action of monoamine oxidase (Turner and Tipton, 1972; Tabakoff et al., 1973;Wermuth et al., 1982). These two enzymes also catalyze the reduction of isocorticosteroids, intermediates in the catabolism of the corticosteroid hormones (Wermuth and Monder, 1983). Recently, aldose reductase in the adrenal gland was reported to be a major reductase for isocaproaldehyde, a product of sidechain cleavage of cholesterol (Matsuura et al., 1996).. Apart from these findings, molecular cloning of bovine testicular 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase cDNA incidentally revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme is ...
Exposure of harvested grapefruit to UV-C (254 nm) irradiation was previously found to induce resistance against the green mold decay caused by Penicillium digitatum. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of this UV-induced resistance we initiat
Diabetes increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease as well as the complications of myocardial infarction. Studies using animal models of diabetes have demonstrated that the metabolic alterations occurring at the myocyte level may contribute to the severity of ischemic injury in diabetic hearts. Of the several mechanisms being investigated to understand the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, the increased metabolism of glucose via the polyol pathway has received considerable attention. Deviant metabolic regulation due to increased flux through aldose reductase in diabetic hearts may influence the ability of the myocardium to withstand ischemia insult. To determine if aldose reductase inhibition improves tolerance to ischemia, hearts from acute type I diabetic and nondiabetic control rats were isolated and retrograde perfused. Each group was exposed to 1 μmol/l zopolrestat, a specific inhibitor of aldose reductase, for 10 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia and 60 min of ...
Coconut oil (CO), the primary choice of cooking purposes in the south Asian countries, is rich in medium chain saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid (50-52%).. The oil has high medicinal use in Ayurvedic system and known to contain polyphenolic antioxidants.. Studies have reported that CO improves insulin sensitivity and shows hypoglycemic effect. However, there is no information regarding its effect on chronic diabetic complications including retinopathy and nephropathy is available.. The secondary diabetic complications are mediated by the activation of polyol pathway, where aldose reductase (AR) plays crucial role.. In this study, in silico analysis has been used to screen the effect of CO as well as its constituents, MCFAs and phenolic compounds, for targeting the molecules in polyol pathway.. The study revealed that lauric acid (LA) interacts with AR and DPP-IV of polyol pathway and inhibits the activity of these enzymes. Validation studies using animal models confirmed the ...
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AKR1A1 - AKR1A1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase) (AKR1A1), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
In women of reproductive age, the surgeon should consider endometriosis as a differential diagnosis in case of various gastrointestinal symptoms. The step affected seems to be the elongation of polypeptide chains. It was not possible to differentiate between the muscarinic receptors involved in the different parts of the enteric nervous system on the basis of our results. At diagnosis, external eating behaviour and emotional eating behaviour are associated with high-energy intake and restrained eating behaviour with low-energy intake. Molecular hybridization of potent generic cialis walmart fragments has been widely used as a rational drug discovery strategy. Clonal cultures derived from single founder cells identified by marker genes generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, confirming the multipotent nature of the parent cell.. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Unlike hybrids between MalE and other proteins, MalE-Lzp was quite stable exhibiting ...
AKR1C3 - AKR1C3 (untagged)-Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II) (AKR1C3) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
AKR1A1 antibody, C-term (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-AKR1A1 pAb (GTX11802) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens family with sequence similarity 159, member B (FAM159B) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Homo sapiens aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1; 20-alpha (3-alpha)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) (AKR1C1), mRNA. (H00001645-R01) - Products - Abnova
Complete information for AKR1C7P gene (Pseudogene), Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C7, Pseudogene, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for AKR1C4 gene (Protein Coding), Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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The other day I posted all the issues associated with paralysis that I have personally gone through. At that time I said that I thought I could be the "paralysis secondary complications" poster boy. ...
Soltesova Prnova, J. Ballekova, M. Majekova, M. Stefek, Antioxidant action of 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid, an efficient aldose reductase inhibitor, in a 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and in the cellular system of isolated erythrocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Redox Rep. 2015 vol. 20, pp. 282-288. (2014 IF: 1.522 ...
Differential proteomic analysis of caveolin-1 KO cells reveals Sh2b3 and Clec12b as novel interaction partners of caveolin-1 and Capns1 as a potential mediator of caveolin-1-induced apoptosis ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
This invention provides antibodies immunologically specific for human ARL-1 (also referred to AKR1B10), a species of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins. The invention also provides methods of making and methods of using said antibodies.
Yıl:2 Sayı:5 Ocak-Haziran 2012 Year:2 Issue:5 January-June 2012 Elbi den yepyeni bir seri. Sınırları kaldırın! Sınırları kaldırın! Moda Stila, sınırları kaldırıyor. Stila nın tek bir çerçevede birden fazla
FAM76B antibody, Internal (family with sequence similarity 76 member B) for WB. Anti-FAM76B pAb (GTX45714) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. 1975. Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain.. Biochem Pharmacol. 24(20):1865-9. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
mai 21, 2017 - Non classé, Seulement AYYILDIZ TİM Ayyıldız Tim, 2002 yılında Yeni Zelandada kurulan ve Türkiyede faaliyette olan, kendisini vatansever, milliyetçi ve Atatürkçü olarak tanımlayan Türk hacker grubudur. Bünyesinde birçok muhtelif grubu barındırır ve askerî rütbe sistemi vardır.[1] Grup, ismini Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Savunma Bakanlığının internet sitesini hackleyerek duyurmuştur.[kaynak belirtilmeli] Kendilerini Türkiyeyi gelecek sanal tehditlerden korumak ve cevap vermek için toplanmış sanal dünyanın askerleri diye tanıtmaktadırlar. Grup bu ifadelerini milliyetçilik fikri ile birleştirerek ve Soğuk Savaşın antikomünist psikolojik savaş tekniklerini kullanarak hack eylemlerini gerçekleştirmektedirler.[2] Özellikle hack grupları olan RedHack ve Anonymouse karşı verdikleri savaş ile bilinirler. Grubun sloganı, aynı zamanda Mustafa Kemal Atatürkün de söylediği bir söz olan « Vatanını en çok seven, görevini en iyi ...
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In enzymology, aldose reductase (or aldehyde reductase) (EC 1.1.1.21) is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of a variety of aldehydes and carbonyls, including monosaccharides. It is primarily known for catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol, the first step in polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. Aldose reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of glucose to sorbitol, the first step in polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. The second and last step in the pathway is catalyzed by sorbitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the NAD-linked oxidation of sorbitol to fructose. Thus, the polyol pathway results in conversion of glucose to fructose with stoichiometric utilization of NADPH and production of NADH. glucose + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } sorbitol + NADP+ Galactose is also a substrate for the polyol pathway, but the corresponding keto sugar is not produced because sorbitol dehydrogenase is incapable of oxidizing ...
The aim of this study was to identify the cardiac oxidoreductases involved in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), an α,β unsaturated aldehyde generated during the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. The NADPH-dependent enzyme catalysing HNE reduction was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The purified enzyme displayed kinetic and immunological properties identical with the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR), and catalysed the reduction of HNE to its alcohol 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), with a Km of 7±2 μM. In the presence of NADP the enzyme did not catalyse the oxidation of DHN. During catalysis, HNE did not cause inactivation of AR. Nevertheless when the apoenzyme was incubated with HNE a dissociable complex was formed between the enzyme and HNE, followed by irreversible loss of activity. Inactivation of ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Although the enhanced activity of the polyol pathway has been detected in diabetic glomeruli, the intraglomerular localization of this pathway has not yet been well defined. In this study, we attempted to identify aldose reductase, a key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cultured rat mesangial cells and to characterize the properties of this enzyme using enzymological and immunological methods. When the aldose reductase (DL-glyceraldehyde-reducing) activity was analyzed in mesangial cell extract, the Lineweaver-Burk plot showed concave downward curvature, and the Michaelis constant was 0.83 mM DL-glyceraldehyde, and this activity was noncompetitively inhibited by an aldose reductase inhibitor, ICI-128,436. The enzyme activity was enhanced by the addition of sulfate ion and partially suppressed by barbital. The enzyme cross-reacted with the antisera against rat lens and testis aldose reductases on Ouchterlony plate, and migrated to the region of molecular weight of about 36,500 Da on Western ...
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications, include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Recent studies revealed that Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) directly regulates the transcription of aldose reductase (AR), which catalyzes the first step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. Activation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) is dependent on AR and it has been linked to diabetic complications. However, whether TonEBP affects expressions of AR and PKCδ in diabetic retinopathy was not clearly shown. In this study, we used TonEBP heterozygote mice to study the role of TonEBP in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy. We performed immunofluorescence staining and found that retinal expressions of AR and PKCδ were significantly reduced in the heterozygotes compared to wild type littermates, particularly in ganglion cell layer. To examine further the effect of TonEBP reduction in retinal tissues, we performed intravitreal injection of TonEBP siRNA and confirmed the decrease in AR and PKCδ levels. In addition, we found that a proapoptotic factor, Bax ...
The development of cataracts in patients suffering from diabetes can lead to blindness at late stages of the disease. The polyol pathway, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and oxidative stress have all been implicated in the development of DC [55-58]. Lens epithelial cells (LECs) are damaged in diabetic cataractogenesis, which can be induced by ultraviolet radiation, oxidative stress, and hyperglycemia [59-61]. Apoptosis of LECs occurs during cataract formation, and, as such, inhibiting apoptosis can prevent or delay this process [60, 62]. AR catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol via the polyol pathway, a process involved in diabetic cataract formation [63-67]. Extensive research has demonstrated that the AR pathway is the initiating step in diabetic cataract formation. Intracellular accumulation of sorbitol leads to osmotic changes resulting in hydropic lens fibers that degenerate and form sugar cataracts [68, 69]. There are several factors leading to the accumulation of ...
0297] The following references, to the extent that they provide exemplary procedural or other details supplementary to those set forth herein, are specifically incorporated herein by reference. [0298] U.S. Pat. No. 4,130,714 [0299] U.S. Pat. No. 4,251,528 [0300] U.S. Pat. No. 4,436,745 [0301] U.S. Pat. No. 4,438,272 [0302] U.S. Pat. No. 4,464,382 [0303] U.S. Pat. No. 4,540,704 [0304] U.S. Pat. No. 4,600,724 [0305] U.S. Pat. No. 4,734,419 [0306] U.S. Pat. No. 4,771,050 [0307] U.S. Pat. No. 4,791,126 [0308] U.S. Pat. No. 4,831,045 [0309] U.S. Pat. No. 4,883,410 [0310] U.S. Pat. No. 4,883,800 [0311] U.S. Pat. No. 4,980,357 [0312] U.S. Pat. No. 5,037,831 [0313] U.S. Pat. No. 5,066,659 [0314] U.S. Pat. No. 5,252,572 [0315] U.S. Pat. No. 5,270,342 [0316] U.S. Pat. No. 5,354,855 [0317] U.S. Pat. No. 5,430,060 [0318] U.S. Pat. No. 5,447,946 [0319] U.S. Pat. No. 5,582,981 [0320] U.S. Pat. No. 5,756,291 [0321] U.S. Pat. No. 5,780,610 [0322] U.S. Pat. No. 5,792,613 [0323] U.S. Pat. No. 5,840,867 [0324] ...
Aldo-Keto Reductases and Toxicant Metabolism provides an overview of the rapidly growing Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) superfamily and its role in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous toxicants. This book discusses the ability of AKRs to metabolize endogenous toxicants including: sugar aldehydes, advanced glycosylation end products, and lipid aldehydes (products of lipid peroxidation decomposition).
aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C2 (dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 2; bile acid binding protein; 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type III ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. tolrestat ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-G5001, DL-Glyceraldehyde for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
In recent years, efforts are being made to search for new molecules from the natural sources and in this endeavour diaryl heptanoids, oxygenated abietanes, diterpene quinones are showing promise as new lead molecules. Randomly designed heterocyclic ionone like molecules [Anzaldi M., Sottofattori E., Rizzetto R, di Casaleto B. G., Balbi A., Eur. J. Med. Chem. (1999), 34, 837] and some novel terpenyl 2, 4-diamino pyrimidines [Rosowsky A., Papoulis A. T., Queener S. F., J. Heterocyclic Chem.(1999), 36 723] are showing promising antimicrobial and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitory activities. Rationally designed 2, 4-diaminopyrimidines and some computer aided molecules are also giving further inputs in the leishmanial dihydrofolate reductase activity. In continuation of our studies on terpenyl pyrimidines as novel antileishmanial agents [Pandey S, Suryawanshi S. N., Gupta S, Srivastava V. M. L., Eur. J. Med. Chem. (2004), 39, 969], we have designed novel terpenyl Isooxazoles for their in-vivo ...
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Campbell, E., Chuang, S., and Banta, S. (2013) "Modular exchange of substrate-binding loops alters both substrate and cofactor specificity in a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily" Protein Engineering, Design and Selection 26(3) 181-186 ...
can be subdivided into two group with closer relationships within each group than between the groups; the first three families form one group whereas the last two families form the other group ...
For dogs with severe flu, treatment is more involved and requires hospitalization. Depending on the dogs condition and on which secondary complications are present, treatment can include supportive care, powerful broad-spectrum antibiotics (for severe forms of pneumonia) and IV fluids (for dehydration) [source: PetMD].. The severe form can be fatal, but its not technically the flu that causes death. Its a secondary complication, usually pneumonia [source: AVMA].. Overall, fatality rates for dog flu are pretty low. (They were much higher in the initially exposed racing greyhounds - 36 percent at one track -- than they are in the pet population [source: Iowa State].) According to most sources, 1 percent to 5 percent of infected dogs die, though some say its as high as 8 percent [sources: VCA, Iowa State].. Of course, when were talking about beloved pets, even 1 percent is a lot. There are things you can do to minimize your dogs risk, though, the most obvious being to vaccinate. But ...
INTRODUCTION It has been shown that diabetes predisposes the patient for neuropsychiatric deficits as stroke, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetic encephalopathy, depression and anxiety (Kuhad & Chopra, 2007). Diabetic encephalopathy, characterized by impaired cognitive functions and neurochemical and structural abnormalities, involves direct neuronal damage caused by intracellular glucose (Kuhad & Chopra). Primary diabetic encephalopathy may cause by hyperglycemia and impaired insulin action diabetes. In contrast, secondary diabetic encephalopathy appears to arise from hypoxic-ischemic insults due to underlying microvascular disease or as a consequence of hypoglycemia (Sima et al., 2004). The hippocampal formation plays an important role in spatial navigation and the formation of certain types of memories (Sneider et al., 2006). Subregional models of hippocampal function suggest that CA1 function is critical in correctly identifying novel relationships among objects within a particular spatial ...
ptr:464931 K00128 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:1.2.1.3] , (RefSeq) ALDH1B1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member B1 (A) MLRFLAPRLLSLQGRTARYSSVAALPSPILNPDIPYNQLFINNEWQDAVSKKTFPTVNPT TGEVIGHVAEGDRADVDRAVKAAREAFRLGSPWRRMDASERGRLLNRLADLVERDRVYLA SLETLDNGKPFQESYALDLDEVIKVYRYFAGWADKCHGKTIPMDGQHFCFTRHEPVGVCG QIIPWNFPLVMQGWKLAPALATGSTVVMKVAEQTPLSALYLASLIKEAGFPPGVVNIITG YGPTAGAAIAQHMDVDKVAFTGSTEVGHLIQKAAGDSNLKRVTLELGGKSPSIVLADADM EHAVEQCHEALFFNMGQCCCAGSRTFVEESIYNEFLERTVEKAKQRKVGNPFELDTQQGP QVDKEQFERVLGYIQLGQKEGAKLLCGGERFGERGFFIKPTVFGGVQDDMRIAKEEIFGP VQPLFKFKKIEEVIERANNTRYGLAAAVFTRDLDKAMYFTQALQAGTVWVNTYNIVTCHT PFGGFKESGNGRELGEDGLKAYTEVKTVTIKVPQKNS ...
Recombinant fragment, corresponding to amino acids 650-920 of Human Androgen Receptor including the Ligand Binding domain with a FLAG-tag on the N-terminus and a 8X His-tag on the C-terminus, expressed in a baculovirus system, 32kDa.
Liquid Sorbitol, Wholesale Various High Quality Liquid Sorbitol Products from Global Liquid Sorbitol Suppliers and Liquid Sorbitol Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
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Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) enzyme pathway in myocardium. Whether there are alterations in the AR axis in heart failure (HF) is unknown. Sixteen instrumented dogs were studied before and after either 24 h or 4 wk of rapid left ventricular (LV) pacing (early and late HF, respectively). Six unpaced dogs served as controls. In early HF, there was subtle depression of LV performance (maximum rate of LV pressure rise, P < 0.05 vs. baseline) but no chamber enlargement, whereas in late HF there was significant (P < 0.05) contractile depression and LV dilatation. Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA (P < 0.025 vs. control). AR protein levels and activity decreased progressively during HF (P < 0.025 early/late HF vs. control); however, AR mRNA expression decreased only in late HF (P < 0.005 vs. early HF and control). DNA ...
Accepted name: D-xylose reductase. Reaction: xylitol + NAD(P)+ = D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+ Other name(s): XylR; XyrA; msXR; dsXR; monospecific xylose reductase; dual specific xylose reductase; NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase; xylose reductase. Systematic name: xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. Comments: Xylose reductase catalyses the initial reaction in the xylose utilization pathway, the NAD(P)H dependent reduction of xylose to xylitol. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Neuhauser, W., Haltrich, D., Kulbe, K.D. and Nidetzky, B. NAD(P)H-dependent aldose reductase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Candida tenuis. Isolation, characterization and biochemical properties of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 326 (1997) 683-692. [PMID: 9307017]. 2. Nidetzky, B., Bruggler, K., Kratzer, R. and Mayr, P. Multiple forms of xylose reductase in Candida intermedia: comparison of their functional properties using quantitative structure-activity ...
A large number of studies have documented the evidence that progression of diabetes leads to various secondary diabetic complications among which nephropathy is a serious complication with an increasing prevalence worldwide [22]. The nephropathy disease is characterized by morphological and ultra structural changes in the kidney including expansion of the molecular matrix. Even though, the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex and still not fully elucidated, few biochemical changes such as increase in polyol pathway flux, increased AGEs formation, have been actively studied for their role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Increased matrix proteins leading to decreased GFR is considered as a marker for the progression of the Diabetic nephropathy disease. Elevation of serum creatinine levels and BUN in diabetic rats is used as an index of altered GFR in diabetic nephropathy [23].. Results of the present study have corroborated with the previous reports in which administration ...
BioAssay record AID 182605 submitted by ChEMBL: In vivo inhibition of sorbitol accumulation in sciatic nerves from streptozotocin-diabetic rats dosed over 5 days. at a dose of 10 mg/kg.
BioAssay record AID 185258 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent inhibition of sorbitol accumulation in the sciatic nerve of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats at peroral dose of 30 mg/kg (preventive effect).
The major focus of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms by which oxidative stress affects cardiovascular function. In particular, we are interested in the role of lipid peroxidation as a contributor to myocardial ischemic injury and atherosclerosis. Although lipid peroxidation generates several reactive intermediates and end products, lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes are believed to be a major source of oxidative stress and these toxicants appear to be critical mediators of tissue injury due to lipid peroxidation. In order to understand how the cardiovascular tissues protect themselves from the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, we are currently investigating the biochemical mechanisms by which unsaturated aldehydes are detoxified in the heart and blood vessels. We have learned that the enzymes - aldose reductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldehyde dehydrogenase are the major constituents of aldehyde metabolism in the heart, and vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ascorbic acid reverses the prolonged anesthetic action of pentobarbital in Akr1a-knockout mice. AU - Ito, Junitsu. AU - Otsuki, Noriyuki. AU - Zhang, Xuhong. AU - Konno, Tasuku. AU - Kurahashi, Toshihiro. AU - Takahashi, Motoko. AU - Yamato, Mayumi. AU - Matsuoka, Yuta. AU - Yamada, Ken-Ichi. AU - Miyata, Satoshi. AU - Fujii, Junichi. PY - 2014/1/24. Y1 - 2014/1/24. N2 - Aims Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in both the detoxification of carbonyl compounds and ascorbic acid biosynthesis. By comparison with wild-type mice, Akr1a-knockout (Akr1a-/-) mice and human Akrla-transgenic (Akr1atg/+) mice experience different anesthetic actions from pentobarbital - prolonged in Akr1a-knockout (Akr1a -/-) mice and shortened in human Akrla-transgenic (Akr1a tg/+) mice. Main methods We investigated this alteration in the anesthetic efficacy of pentobarbital in Akr1a genetically modified mice. Key ...
Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous metabolite synthesized in the brain. There is strong evidence to suggest that GHB has an important role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator.. The human aldo-keto reductase AKR7A2 has been proposed previously to catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to GHB in human brain. In this study we have used RNA interference to evaluate the role of AKR7A2 in GHB biosynthesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and immunoblotting revealed that short interfering RNA molecules directed against AKR7A2 led to a significant reduction in both AKR7A2 transcript and protein levels 72 h post-transfection. We have shown that reduced expression of AKR7A2 results in a 90% decrease in SSA reductase activity of cell extracts. Furthermore, we have shown using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that a decrease in the level of AKR7A2 was paralleled with a significant reduction in intracellular GHB ...
Subsequently, we set out to determine whether Zn2+ supplementation increases erythritol synthesis by the engineered Y. lipolytica. In this experiment we compared AMM pAD-YlER strain harboring the overexpression cassette with its parental strain MK1. The strains were grown in baffled flasks in medium developed for erythritol synthesis, supplemented with 0.25 mM ZnSO4 × 7H2O. Interestingly, we noted a strong increase in erythritol titer for both of the strains, the engineered and the control strain (Fig. 2b). The erythritol titer was improved by 22 and 37% for the engineered (54.1 g/L) and the control strain (51.0 g/L), respectively, when compared to the results obtained in medium without zinc supplementation (Fig. 2a). In addition, for the engineered strain we noted an increase in YERY, which achieved 0.55 g/L/h. Interestingly, a significant difference was observed for the control, which achieved an erythritol titer (51.0 g/L) at a similar level to the engineered strain (44.4 g/L) in medium ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Zopolrestat Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21 ...
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy - Answer: Long-term treatment with epalrestat is well tolerated ...
This gene encodes a member of the uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of glucuronic acid from uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid to a diverse array of substrates including steroid hormones and lipid-soluble drugs. This process, known as glucuronidation, is an intermediate step in the metabolism of steroids. Copy number variation in this gene is associated with susceptibility to osteoporosis.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
on May 11, 2017. 2 cases of the lethal form of dwarfism - Thanatophoric dwarfism detected on antetal ultrasound and followed up completely with photographs. The.... ...
With these new results it becomes even more obvious why HFCS which is actually a mixture of glucose and fructose is particularly nasty. It will not only increase the absorption of fructose (see Figure 2), but also provide our bodies with the necessary substrate to top an already overabundant fructose intake off with endogenously fructose to create something even I, as an outspoken critic of the "fructose hypothesis of obesity" would say is part of the perfect obesogenic storm and could easily explain why soft drink intake is so closely associated with an increased risk for obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Recombinant fragment corresponding to amino acids 224-323 of Human AKR1C2, with N terminal proprietary tag; predicted MW: 36.63 kDa inclusive of tag. AAH63574.
CD205LY-75, CLEC13BLy-75, C-type lectin domain family 13 member B, DEC-205CD205 antigen, gp200-MR6, GP200-MR6, lymphocyte antigen ...
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Principal Investigator:三浦 金次, Project Period (FY):1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (A), Research Field:General surgery
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Learn about Esophageal choke which usually occurs when a horse bolts down incompletely chewed feed or foreign objects, what can be done to treat the choking horse, and why it is important to resolve the problem quickly to prevent secondary complications.
Research Summary: China started sorbitol production from late 1950s,stimulated by the production of vitamin C. China is growing strong in the production of sorbitol. The quality of Chinese solid sorbitol, crystalline sorbitol in particular, has been improved. It seems that, with the improvement of Chinese sorbital quality, the import of sorbitol will decrease and the export will […].... ...
Stepan Companys expandsion of its polyester polyol facility in Brzeg Dolny, Poland will be completed in mid 2016, with the addition of a new reactor. The new asset is required to support Stepans growth in the Coatings Adhesives
This practice of crying to the gurus from afar is well known to everyone. The key to invoking blessings is devotion, which is aroused by sadness and renunciation. It should not be a mere platitude but be born in the center of ones bones. With decisive conviction that there is no other buddha who is greater than the guru, recite this melodic tune ...
Define xylose: a crystalline aldose sugar C5H10O5 that is not fermentable with ordinary yeasts and occurs especially as a constituent of xylans from …
Deficiency of the enzyme phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2) caused by loss-of-function mutations in the human PMM2 gene was shown over two decades ago to be the basis of a recessive congenital disorder of glycosylation originally called CDG1 or CDG1a. The first clinical observation by Jaeken and colleagues of a carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome occurred four decades ago (Jaeken et al., 1980). The researcher and patient communities now refer to the disease as PMM2-CDG, which is the most common congenital disorder of glycosylation and affects at least 1000 patients worldwide (Chang et al., 2018). Classical pediatric clinical presentations include developmental delay, severe encephalopathy with axial hypotonia, abnormal eye movements, psychomotor retardation and cerebellar hypoplasia (Matthijs et al., 1997). As patients reach their teenage years and young adulthood, health challenges include hypogonadism, coagulation abnormalities and thrombotic events, retinitis pigmentosa and peripheral ...
Nature provides abundant plant biomass that can be potentially converted into biofuels as a promising sustainable source of energy [1, 2]. The main sugar constituents of biomass are stored in the form of hexoses, primarily glucose, and pentoses, primarily xylose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is widely used in industry for production of a variety of chemicals, including bioethanol from glucose, is a promising candidate for bioethanol production from sugars. However, the native strain of this organism is unable to utilize xylose because of the lack of a mechanism converting xylose into metabolic intermediates [3, 4].. In efforts to enable xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae, the wild-type strains have been modified in two ways: (1) by introducing heterologous XYL1 and XYL2 genes from Scheffersomyces stipitis (previously Pichia stipitis) [5] or XYL1 from Candida tenuis and XYL2 from Galactocandida mastotermitis [6, 7] that encode for xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Enhanced xylitol production through simultaneous co-consumption of cellobiose and xylose by an engineereed saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. AU - Oh, Eun Joong. AU - Ha, Suk Jin. AU - Kim, Soo Rin. AU - Galazka, Jonathan M.. AU - Cate, Jamie H.D.. AU - Su Jin, Yong. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054765849&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85054765849&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:85054765849. SN - 9781618397362. T3 - Fuels and Petrochemicals Division - Core Programming Topic at the 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting. BT - Fuels and Petrochemicals Division - Core Programming Topic at the 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting. PB - AIChE. ER - ...
Purpose: : The selective destruction of retinal capillary pericytes, the hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, has been linked to hyperglycemia and the accumulation of polyols. Their destruction is reduced by tight control of hyperglycemia; however, the establishment of tight control is often accompanied by increased incidences of hypoglycemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the affect of hexose fluctuations on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in retinal pericytes and endothelial cells since ER stress can generate an unfolded protein response (UPR) and UPR-dependent apoptosis. Methods: : The conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericyte (TR-rPCT) and endothelial (TR-iBRB) cell lines were cultured in 100 mm dishes coated with collagen type 1 in DMEM medium containing 5 mM glucose. After reaching 80% confluence, the cells were cultured for 24 hrs in similar DMEM media containing various levels of glucose or galactose with/without 10 µM of the aldose reductase inhibitor AL-1576. Cell ...
Efficient xylose utilisation by microorganisms is of importance to the lignocellulose fermentation industry. The aim of this work was to develop constitutive catabolite repression mutants in a xylose-utilising recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and evaluate the differences in xylose consumption under fermentation conditions. S. cerevisiae YUSM was constitutively catabolite repressed through specific disruptions within the MIG1 gene. The strains were grown aerobically in synthetic complete medium with xylose as the sole carbon source. Constitutive catabolite repressed strain YCR17 grew four-fold better on xylose in aerobic conditions than the control strain YUSM. Anaerobic batch fermentation in minimal medium with glucose-xylose mixtures and N-limited chemostats with varying sugar concentrations were performed. Sugar utilisation and metabolite production during fermentation were monitored. YCR17 exhibited a faster xylose consumption rate than YUSM under high glucose conditions in ...
Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration ...
In some studies, high yields and productivities were achieved. Immobilized L-arabinose isomerase in calcium alginate produced 145 g/L of tagatose with 48 % conversion of galactose and a productivity of 54 g/Lh in a packed-bed reactor [123]. An enzyme of T. 9 % and a productivity up to 10 g/Lh with, however, lower conversion. After incubation of the resulting syrup with S. cerevisiae, purities above 95 % were achieved [85]. The enzyme of T. neapolitana immobilized on chitopearl beds gave a tagatose concentration of 138 g/L at 70 C [86]. Lee WJ, Ryu Seo JH (2000) Characterization of two-substrate fermentation processes for xylitol production using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing xylose reductase gene. Process Biochem 35(10):1199-1203 83. Leuchtenberger W, Huthmacher K, Drauz K (2005) Biotechnological production of amino acids and derivatives: current status and prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69(1):1-8 84. Li Y, Zhu Y, Liu A et al (2011) Identification and characterization of ...

RCSB PDB 









- 1CWN: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF PORCINE ALDEHYDE REDUCTASE HOLOENZYME Methods Report PageRCSB PDB - 1CWN: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF PORCINE ALDEHYDE REDUCTASE HOLOENZYME Methods Report Page

Crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase at 2.0 angstrom resolution: Modeling an inhibitor in the active site of the ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1CWN

Aldehyde ReductaseAldehyde Reductase

Category: Aldehyde Reductase. Posted on June 20, 2017. Targeted toxins, referred to as immunotoxins or cytotoxins also, are ...
more infohttp://www.woofahs.com/category/aldehyde-reductase/

Aldehyde Reductase - Page 2 - Genomics Proteomics and BioinformaticsAldehyde Reductase - Page 2 - Genomics Proteomics and Bioinformatics

admin January 19, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase hSNF2b, Probucol supplier Maintenance of genome honesty via repair of DNA damage is a ... admin January 6, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase Felypressin Acetate, RG7112 CLEC14a (C-type lectin website family 14 member) is a ... admin September 4, 2017 Aldehyde Reductase a member of the integrin a chain family with 165 kDa MW. which is expressed on NK ... admin February 16, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase 856866-72-3, DNM1 We present optimum perfusion conditions for the growth of ...
more infohttp://www.bioinf.org/index.php/category/aldehyde-reductase/page/2/

Aldehyde ReductaseAldehyde Reductase

... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of your skin may be the most Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of your skin may be the ... Aldehyde Reductase Open in another window The molecular chaperone Hsp90 requires the help Open in another window The molecular ... Aldehyde Reductase Although caspase-2 is thought to be involved with death receptor-mediated apoptosis, Although caspase-2 is ... Aldehyde Reductase Goal: To investigate whether the conjugation of magainin II (MG2), an Goal: To investigate whether the ...
more infohttps://www.brain-tumor-cancer-information.com/category/aldehyde-reductase/

Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2

Has NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase activity towards 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyridine-2-aldehyde (in ... Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase (AKR7A2) was confirmed to be only highly expressed in pancreatic cancer, not in normal ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldo/keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and AKR7 family, which are involved in ... The human aldo-keto reductase AKR7A2 has been proposed previously to catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/O43488

Aldehyde Reductase - PI3K Signaling in B and T LymphocytesAldehyde Reductase - PI3K Signaling in B and T Lymphocytes

Category: Aldehyde Reductase. Posted on June 16, 2017. IMPORTANCE Obtained neuromyotonia is regarded as an autoimmune disorder ...
more infohttp://health-e-nc.org/category/aldehyde-reductase/

Aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit | definition of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase...Aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit | definition of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase...

What is aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit? Meaning of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol ... What does aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit mean? ... aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit in the Medical Dictionary? ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aldehyde+reductase+class-I+alcohol+dehydrogenase%2C+beta+subunit

Aldehyde ReductaseAldehyde Reductase

Category: Aldehyde Reductase. Background Modifications to pulmonary surfactant structure have already been encountered in. ...
more infohttp://www.globaltechbiz.com/category/aldehyde-reductase/

Crystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii  -ORCACrystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii -ORCA

Crystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii. Applied and ... Crystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii ... Many aldehydes such as furfural are present in high quantities in lignocellulose lysates and are fermentation inhibitors that ... Cbei_3974 has recently been identified as an aldo-keto reductase responsible for partial furfural resistance in Clostridium ...
more infohttp://orca.cf.ac.uk/122822/

Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase - WikipediaArtemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase - Wikipedia

Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase (EC 1.3.1.92, Dbr2) is an enzyme with systematic name artemisinic aldehyde:NADP+ ... Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "The molecular cloning of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase and its role in glandular trichome-dependent biosynthesis of ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (11R)-dihydroartemisinic aldehyde + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisinic_aldehyde_Delta11(13)-reductase

What does hAFAR1 mean? - Definition of hAFAR1 - hAFAR1 stands for human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. By...What does hAFAR1 mean? - Definition of hAFAR1 - hAFAR1 stands for human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. By...

The hAFAR1 meaning is human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. The definition of hAFAR1 by AcronymAndSlang.com ... aldehyde reductase 1". Q: A: How to abbreviate "human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1"?. "human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde ... What is the abbreviation for human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1?. human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1 can be ... aldehyde reductase 1". Q: A: What is shorthand of human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1?. The most common shorthand of " ...
more infohttp://acronymsandslang.com/definition/2399886/hAFAR1-meaning.html

Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis |...Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis |...

Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis. Peter ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/366/3/889

The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes...The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes...

... reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes of Artemisia annua L., Plant Molecular Biology" ... Artemisinic aldehyde is reduced into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde by DBR2. Artemisinic aldehyde can also be oxidized by amorpha- ... Overexpression of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase gene-enhanced artemisinin and its relative metabolite biosynthesis in ... The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin... Yang, Ke; Monafared, ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/the-activity-of-the-artemisinic-aldehyde-11-13-reductase-promoter-is-a5MAjvHwQh

PDB 3cv7 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBIPDB 3cv7 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBI

Structure of aldehyde reductase in ternary complex with coenzyme and the potent 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor ... Structure of aldehyde reductase in ternary complex with coenzyme and the potent 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > Aldo/keto reductase * Occurring in:. *Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > ... Aldo/keto reductase, conserved site * Occurring in:. *Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > NADP-dependent oxidoreductase ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/entry/pdb/3cv7

Renal medullary gene expression in aquaporin-1 null mice - NDI FoundationRenal medullary gene expression in aquaporin-1 null mice - NDI Foundation

aldehyde reductase DEFINITION: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reduction of aldoses to form alditols, ... In galactosemia due to galactokinase deficiency, catalysis of the reduction of galactose to galactitol by aldehyde reductase in ... aldehyde reductase 6 and p8 were decreased in the AQP1 null mice. Uroplakin 1A, carboxylesterase 3, matrilin 2 and lipocalin 2 ... aldehyde reductase 6 and p8 were decreased in the AQP1 null mice. Uroplakin 1A, carboxylesterase 3, matrilin 2 and lipocalin 2 ...
more infohttp://www.ndif.org/proceedings/147-Renal_medullary_gene_expression_in_aquaporin1_null_mice/abstract

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis.  -...Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis. -...

Aldehyde Reductase/chemistry*. *Aldehyde Reductase/isolation & purification*. *Candida tropicalis/enzymology*. *Crystallization ... Xylose reductase (XR), which requires NADPH as a co-substrate, catalyzes the reduction of D-xylose to xylitol, which is the ... Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis.. ... Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19342796

CRYSTAL - UNIVERSITY OF BATHCRYSTAL - UNIVERSITY OF BATH

Aldehyde reductase. February, 2006. Mcgonigle et al.. 20070031415. Regulation of interaction between rapl and rap1. February, ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2014/0377836.html

NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE ENCODING ARTEMISINIC ALDEHYDE DOUBLE BOND REDUCTASE, ARTEMISINIC ALDEHYDE DOUBLE BOND REDUCTASE AND USES...NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE ENCODING ARTEMISINIC ALDEHYDE DOUBLE BOND REDUCTASE, ARTEMISINIC ALDEHYDE DOUBLE BOND REDUCTASE AND USES...

Artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase enzymatically reduces artemisinic aldehyde to (11R)-dihydroartemisinic aldehyde. The ... aldehyde double bond reductase gene or altered activity of an artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase enzyme compared to a ... aldehyde to biologically active dihydroartemisinic aldehyde than artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductases of the prior art. ... artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase gene or altered activity of an artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase enzyme ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100299778

Akr1a1 - Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Akr1a1 gene & proteinAkr1a1 - Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Akr1a1 gene & protein

Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. ... "Cloning and developmental expression of mouse aldehyde reductase (AKR1A4).". Allan D., Lohnes D.. Mech. Dev. 94:271-275(2000) [ ... PS00798. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1. 1 hit. PS00062. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2. 1 hit. PS00063. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3. 1 hit. ... PS00798. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1. 1 hit. PS00062. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2. 1 hit. PS00063. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3. 1 hit. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9JII6

Alkohol dehidrogenase - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebasAlkohol dehidrogenase - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Oksidoreduktase alkohol:NAD+ (bahasa Inggris: aldehyde reductase; alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD); aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenase ... NADH-aldehyde dehydrogenase; primary alcohol dehydrogenase; yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD+ oxidoreductase, ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) ...
more infohttps://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oksidoreduktase_alkohol:NAD%2B

alrB - Aldose reductase B - Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold) - alrB gene & proteinalrB - Aldose reductase B - Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold) - alrB gene & protein

PS00798. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1. 1 hit. PS00062. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2. 1 hit. PS00063. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3. 1 hit. ... PS00798. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1. 1 hit. PS00062. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2. 1 hit. PS00063. ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3. 1 hit. ... Aldehyde reductase B. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and ... IPR018170. Aldo/ket_reductase_CS. IPR020471. Aldo/keto_reductase. IPR023210. NADP_OxRdtase_dom. IPR036812. NADP_OxRdtase_dom_sf ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q54NZ7

Aldose reductase regulates hyperglycemia-induced HUVEC death via SIRT1/AMPK-α1/mTOR pathway.Aldose reductase regulates hyperglycemia-induced HUVEC death via SIRT1/AMPK-α1/mTOR pathway.

Aldo-keto reductase that functions as an all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. It also reduces aromatic and aliphatic ALDEHYDES. ... Aldehyde Reductase. An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad ... Aldose reductase regulates hyperglycemia-induced HUVEC death via SIRT1/AMPK-α1/mTOR pathway.. 08:00 EDT 1st April 2019 , ... Aldose Reductase Polymorphisms, Fasting Blood Glucose, and Age-Related Cortical Cataract.. To determine whether there is an ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2345903/Aldose-reductase-regulates-hyperglycemia-induced-HUVEC-death-via-SIRT1-AMPK-1-mTOR.html

butein (CHEBI:3237)butein (CHEBI:3237)

EC 1.1.1.21 (aldehyde reductase) inhibitor An EC 1.1.1.* (oxidoreductase acting on donor CH-OH group, NAD. +. or NADP. +. ... butein (CHEBI:3237) has role EC 1.1.1.21 (aldehyde reductase) inhibitor (CHEBI:48550) butein (CHEBI:3237) has role tyrosine ... acceptor) inhibitor that interferes with the action of aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=3237

ADH6 Gene - GeneCards | ADH6 Protein | ADH6 AntibodyADH6 Gene - GeneCards | ADH6 Protein | ADH6 Antibody

Aldehyde Reductase 3 * EC 1.1.1 58 * ADH-5 3 External Ids for ADH6 Gene. *HGNC: 255 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=130
  • oxidoreductase acting on donor CH-OH group, NAD + or NADP + acceptor) inhibitor that interferes with the action of aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Many aldehydes such as furfural are present in high quantities in lignocellulose lysates and are fermentation inhibitors that make biofuel production from this abundant carbon source extremely challenging. (cf.ac.uk)