Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.GlyceraldehydeAldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Nicotinyl Alcohol: Alcohol analog of NICOTINIC ACID which is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened GANGRENE.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Barbital: A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.BenzaldehydesAflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ribonucleotide ReductasesPolygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseNitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.FuraldehydeSorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Cytochrome ReductasesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.AcroleinNADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Rats, Inbred F344Dihydropteridine Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.99.7.Thioredoxin Reductase 1: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.KetonesDisulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mevalonic AcidLovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Arsenate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sulfite Reductase (NADPH): A NADPH-dependent oxidase that reduces hydrogen sulfite to HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is found in many microoganisms.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogensulfite Reductase: An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Hydroxypyruvate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate in the presence of NADP.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Thioredoxin Reductase 2: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sulfite Reductase (Ferredoxin): A FERREDOXIN-dependent oxidoreductase that is primarily found in PLANTS where it plays an important role in the assimilation of SULFUR atoms for the production of CYSTEINE and METHIONINE.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase: (5Z)-(15S)-11 alpha-Hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ delta(13)-oxidoreductase. An enzyme active in prostaglandin E and F catabolism. It catalyzes the reduction of the double bond at the 13-14 position of the 15-ketoprostaglandins and uses NADPH as cofactor. EC 1.3.1.48.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Ferredoxin-Nitrite Reductase: An IRON-containing protein that uses siroheme and 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur centers as prosthetic groups. It catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of AMMONIA to nitrite.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.GMP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nitrite Reductase (NAD(P)H): An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.4.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (1/765)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Polyol formation and NADPH-dependent reductases in dog retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells. (2/765)

PURPOSE: Dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose experience retinal vascular changes similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy, with selective pericyte loss as an initial lesion. In the present study the relationship among reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reductases, polyol formation, and flux through the polyol pathway in cultured dog retinal capillary cells were investigated. METHODS: Pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured from retina of beagle dogs. NADPH-dependent reductases were characterized by chromatofocusing after gel filtration. Sugars in cultured cells were analyzed by gas chromatography, and flux through the polyol pathway was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as a substrate. The presence of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in these cells was examined by northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct peaks corresponding to aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase, the latter being dominant, were observed in pericytes by chromatofocusing. Culture in medium containing either 10 mM D-galactose or 30 mM D-glucose resulted in the accumulation of sugar alcohol in pericytes that was markedly reduced by aldose reductase inhibitors. 19F NMR spectra obtained from pericytes cultured for 5 days in medium containing 2 mM 3FG displayed the marked accumulation of 3-fluoro-deoxysorbitol but not 3-fluoro-deoxyfructose. No 3FG metabolism was observed in similarly cultured endothelial cells. With northern blot analysis, aldose reductase was detected in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was below the detectable limit in pericytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Aldose, aldehyde, and glyceraldehyde reductases are present in dog retinal capillary pericytes, with aldehyde reductase being the major reductase present. Polyol accumulation easily occurs in pericytes but not in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (3/765)

The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated.  (+info)

Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion. (4/765)

Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action.  (+info)

Osmotic response element is required for the induction of aldose reductase by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (5/765)

Induction of aldose reductase (AR) was observed in human cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). AR protein expression increased severalfold in human liver cells after 1 day of exposure to 100 units/ml TNF-alpha. An increase in AR transcripts was also observed in human liver cells after 3 h of TNF-alpha treatment, reaching a maximum level of 11-fold at 48 h. Among the three inflammatory cytokines: TNF-alpha, interleukin-1, and interferon-gamma, TNF-alpha (100 units/ml) gave the most induction of AR. Differences in the pattern of AR induction were observed in human liver, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha. A similar pattern of AR promoter response was observed between TNF-alpha and osmotically stressed human liver cells. The deletion of the osmotic response element (ORE) abolished the induction by TNF-alpha and osmotic stress. A point mutation that converts ORE to a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) sequence abolished the osmotic response but maintained the TNF-alpha response. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays showed two NF-kappaB proteins, p50 and p52, capable of binding ORE sequence, and gel shift Western assay detected NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p65 in the ORE complex. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling, lactacystin, and MG132 abolished the AR promoter response to TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Comparisons of genomic structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse aldose reductase and aldose reductase-like genes. (6/765)

Aldose reductase (AR), best known as the first enzyme in the polyol pathway of sugar metabolism, has been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions and in the etiology of diabetic complications. We have determined the structures and chromosomal locations of the mouse AR gene (Aldor1) and of two genes highly homologous to Aldor1: the fibroblast growth factor regulated protein gene (Fgfrp) and the androgen regulated vas deferens protein gene (Avdp). The number of introns and their locations in the mouse Aldor1 gene are identical to those of rat and human AR genes and also to those of Fgfrp and Avdp. Mouse Aldor1 gene was found to be located near the Cald1 (Caldesmon) and Ptn (Pleiotropin) loci at the proximal end of chromosome 6. The closely related genes Fgfrp and Avdp were also mapped in this region of the chromosome, suggesting that these three genes may have arisen by a gene duplication event.  (+info)

Aldose reductase functions as a detoxification system for lipid peroxidation products in vasculitis. (7/765)

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting large and medium-sized arteries. Inflammatory infiltrates in the arterial wall induce luminal occlusion with subsequent ischemia and degradation of the elastic membranes, allowing aneurysm formation. To identify pathways relevant to the disease process, differential display-PCR was used. The enzyme aldose reductase (AR), which is implicated in the regulation of tissue osmolarity, was found to be upregulated in the arteritic lesions. Upregulated AR expression was limited to areas of tissue destruction in inflamed arteries, where it was detected in T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The production of AR was highly correlated with the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde and downstream product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro exposure of mononuclear cells to HNE was sufficient to induce AR production. The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat. Inhibition of AR increased HNE adducts twofold and the number of apoptotic cells in the arterial wall threefold. These data demonstrate that AR has a tissue-protective function by preventing damage from lipid peroxidation. We propose that AR is an oxidative defense mechanism able to neutralize the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation and has a role in limiting the arterial wall injury mediated by reactive oxygen species.  (+info)

Hypertonicity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in papillary interstitial cells. (8/765)

BACKGROUND: Medullary cells of the concentrating kidney are exposed to high extracellular solute concentrations. It is well established that epithelial cells in this kidney region adapt osmotically to hypertonic stress by accumulating organic osmolytes. Little is known, however, of the adaptive mechanisms of a further medullary cell type, the papillary interstitial cell [renal papillary fibroblast (RPF)]. We therefore compared the responses of primary cultures of RPFs and papillary collecting duct (PCD) cells exposed to hypertonic medium. METHODS: In RPFs and PCD cells, organic osmolytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography; mRNA expression for organic osmolyte transporters [Na+/Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter (BGT), Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT)], and the sorbitol synthetic and degrading enzymes [aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), respectively] was determined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Exposure to hypertonic medium (600 mOsm/kg by NaCl addition) caused intracellular contents of glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol, but not free amino acids, to increase significantly in both RPFs and PCD cells. The rise in intracellular contents of these organic osmolytes was accompanied by enhanced expression of mRNAs coding for BGT, SMIT, and AR in both RPFs and PCD cells. SDH mRNA abundance, however, was unchanged. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization studies on sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, normally concentrating kidneys showed strong expression of BGT, SMIT, and AR mRNAs in interstitial and collecting duct cells of the papilla, whereas expression of SDH mRNA was much weaker in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both RPFs and PCD cells use similar strategies to adapt osmotically to the high interstitial NaCl concentrations characteristic for the inner medulla and papilla of the concentrating kidney.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of aldehyde reductase by aldose reductase inhibitors. AU - Sato, Sanai. AU - Kador, Peter F.. PY - 1990/9/1. Y1 - 1990/9/1. N2 - A broad group of structurally diverse aldose reductase inhibitors including flavonoids, carboxylic acids and hydantoins, have been examined for their ability to inhibit rat kidney aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.19, EC 1.1.1.20) versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some extent both in the reductive reaction as determined with glyceraldehyde as substrate and NADPH as coenzyme, and in the oxidative reaction where l-gulonic acid was oxidized to d-glucuronic acid in the presence of NADP+ Of the inhibitors examined, 2,7-dinuorospirofluorene-9,5′-imidazolidine-2′,4′-dione (A11576) was the most potent inhibitor requiring only concentrations in the 10-8 M range to inhibit 50% of the in vitro activity of rat kidney aldehyde reductase (ic50 value), whereas ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-dependent prevention of sugar cataracts in galactose-fed dogs by the aldose reductase inhibitor M79175. AU - Sato, Sanai. AU - Mori, Kazuhiko. AU - Wyman, Milton. AU - Kador, Peter F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Sugar cataracts rapidly develop in dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose. While studies on the formation and progression of these sugar cataracts suggest that they are osmotic in nature and are linked to aldose reductase, sugar cataract formation in the dog to date has not been completely prevented by the administration of aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil and M79175. To demonstrate that the formation and progression of sugar cataracts in galactose-fed dogs can be dose-dependently inhibited by the administration of aldose reductase inhibitors, 9-month old male beagles were placed on diet containing 30% galactose with/without 10 or 16 mg kg-1 day-1 of M79175 for up to 39 months. Cataract progression in all dogs was followed by periodic slit lamp examination ...
Low apparent aldose reductase activity, as measured by NADPH oxidation, can be produced by the spontaneous autoxidation of monosaccharides. NADPH is oxidized to metabolically active NADP+ in a solution of autoxidizing DL-glyceraldehyde at rates of up to 15 X 10(-4) A340/min. The close parallelism between the effects of buffer salt type and concentration, monosaccharide structure and temperature activation on autoxidation and NADPH oxidation imply that autoxidation is a prerequisite for the NADPH oxidation, probably via the hydroperoxy radical. Nucleotide-binding proteins enhanced NADPH oxidation induced by DL-glyceraldehyde, up to 10.6-fold with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glutathione reductase-catalysed NADPH oxidation in the presence of autoxidizing monosaccharide showed many characteristics of the aldose reductase reaction. Aldose reductase inhibitors acted as antioxidants in inhibiting this NADPH oxidation. These results indicate that low apparent aldose reductase activities may be ...
1ADS: AN UNLIKELY SUGAR SUBSTRATE SITE IN THE 1.65 ANGSTROMS STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN ALDOSE REDUCTASE HOLOENZYME IMPLICATED IN DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS
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Methods and Results-Atherosclerosis development was quantified in 2 lines of transgenic mice expressing human AR (hAR) crossed on the apolipoprotein E knockout background. The transgenes were used to increase the normally low levels of this enzyme in wild-type mice. Both generalized hAR overexpression and hAR expression via the Tie 2 promoter increased lesion size in streptozotocin diabetic mice. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of AR reduced lesion size.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aldose reductase inhibition on nerve conduction and morphometry in diabetic neuropathy. AU - Greene, Douglas A.. AU - Arezzo, Joseph C.. AU - Brown, M. B.. PY - 1999/8/11. Y1 - 1999/8/11. N2 - Objective: To determine whether the aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) zenarestat improves nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and nerve morphology in diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPN). Methods: A 52-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multiple-dose, clinical trial with the ARI zenarestat was conducted in patients with mild to moderate DPN. NCV was measured at baseline and study end. Contralateral sural nerve biopsies were obtained at 6 weeks and at the studys end for nerve sorbitol measurement and computer-assisted light morphometry to determine myelinated nerve fiber density (number of fibers/mm2 cross-sectional area) in serial bilateral sural nerve biopsies. Results: Dose-dependent increments in sural nerve zenarestat level and sorbitol suppression were ...
Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (AKR1B10), a cancer-related oxidoreductase, is expressed in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, AKR1B10 levels are minimal in normal liver tissues (NLs), similar to the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) and glypican-3. Moreover, the role of AKR1B10 in chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, which are considered preneoplastic conditions for HCC, has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AKR1B10, HSP70, and glypican-3 in 61 HCC tissue samples compared to corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues (NTs), comprising 42 chronic hepatitis and 19 cirrhosis cases to clarify the significance of molecular changes at the preneoplastic stages of HCC. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the median expression levels of AKR1B10 were higher in HCCs than in NTs (p < 0.001) and higher in NTs than NLs (p < 0.001) with 54.8%, 2.1%, and 0.3% expression in HCCs, NTs, and NLs, respectively. HSP70
Aldose (or aldehyde) reductase is inhibited by several substances, including isoliquiritigenin (which Ive been discussing in connection with licorice) and rutin (which interestingly is in tea - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/elan.200603496/abstract). Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibition include spinach, cumin, fennel, lemon, basil, and black pepper. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114390) Aldose reductase is most known for its role in glucose metabolism, but it has other functions including in norepinephrine metabolism (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P15121 ...
Aldose reductase is an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of a variety of aldehydes and carbonyls, including monosaccharides. It is primarily known for catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol, the first step in polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. The aldose reductase reaction, in particular the sorbitol produced, is important for the function of various organs in the body. Aldose reductase inhibitors are a class of drugs being studied as a way to prevent eye and nerve damage in people with diabetes.
1PWM: Ultrahigh resolution drug design. II. Atomic resolution structures of human aldose reductase holoenzyme complexed with Fidarestat and Minalrestat: implications for the binding of cyclic imide inhibitors
Ranirestat (also known as AS-3201) is an aldose reductase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and PharmaKyorin. It has been granted orphan drug status. The drug is to be used orally. A Canadian Phase III clinical trial has been completed. Phase III trials in Europe and the US started in June 2009 and are expected to complete in April 2013. Ranirestat is aldose reductase inhibitor that acts by reducing sorbitol accumulation in cells. Aldose reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes one of the steps in sorbitol (polyol) pathway which is responsible for formation of fructose from glucose. Aldose reductase activity is increased, parallel to glucose blood levels, in tissues that are not insulin sensitive, including lenses, peripheral nerves and renal glomeruli. Sorbitol does not diffuse through cell membranes easily and therefore accumulates in these tissues, causing osmotic damage, leading to retinopathy and neuropathy. Results from a Canadian ...
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Purpose: : Diabetic dogs rapidly form bilateral sugar cataracts within one year of diagnosis. Similar cataracts rapidly form in galactosemic dogs where they can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner with the aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) 6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-(2R,4S)-spiro[4H-1-benzo-pyran-4,4-imidazolidine]-2,5-dione (2MS). Since this compound is not commercially available, the compound is obtained in 3% overall yield through an established 11 step synthesis. The purpose of this study was to develop a more rapid synthesis of this compound and evaluate the ability of this compound to reduce sugar cataract when topically applied to diabetic dogs. Methods: : Starting with the synthetic procedures as outlined by Ueda et al (Fr. Demande, 1982), and Dirlam et al. (J.Org. Chem., 1987) synthetic modifications were conducted by replacing chymotrypsin resolution with a selective crystallization. A new stereochemical synthesis was subsequently developed which utilized a catalytic ...
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease. One of the key pathways activated in DN is the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol (a relatively non-metabolizable sugar) by the enzyme aldose reductase (AR). Shunting of glucose into this pathway causes disruption to glucose metabolism and subsequently damages the tissues via increased oxidative stress, protein kinase c activation and production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the kidney. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the AR enzyme structure, substrate specificity and topology in normal physiology; to elaborate on the deleterious effects of AR activation in DN; and to summarize the potential therapeutic benefits and major challenges associated with AR inhibition in patients with DN ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of human erythrocyte, brain, aorta, muscle, and ocular tissue aldose reductase. AU - Srivastava, Satish. AU - Ansari, Naseem. AU - Hair, Gregory A.. AU - Awasthi, Sanjay. AU - Das, Ballabh. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Based upon kinetic, structural, and immunologic properties, we have demonstrated that human tissues have three major forms of aldo-keto reductases: aldose reductase (AR), and aldehyde reductases I (AR I) and II (AR II). The proposed subunit compositions are AR, alpha; AR I, alpha-beta; and AR II, delta. Only AR can effectively reduce glucose to sorbitol. The beta subunits in AR I alter the substrate specificity of AR and prevent conformational changes required for the activation of alpha subunits. Partially purified AR (by DE-52) from human erythrocytes expresses biphasic kinetics with glucose and glyceraldehyde. The enzyme can be activated with glucose + glucose-6-P + NADPH and is strongly inhibited by sorbinil, alrestatin, and quercetrin, and by ADP, ...
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011 ...
In the present study, we determined the expression and localization of porcine AKR1C1 in the ovary and uterine endometrium through RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blotting, and immunohistochemistry during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by using the GenBank database revealed that porcine AKR1C1 cDNA belongs to the AKR family. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the porcine AKR1C1 cloned in this study showed high homology with those of bovine (86/82%), goat (80/78%), rat (76/66), mouse (76/68%), and human (81/76%) 20α-HSD. Based on the results of 3-RACE, we detected a stop codon in a different site from that of porcine AKR1C1 reported previously [7]. Several conserved sequence patterns were found in the porcine AKR1C1 cloned in the present study. A catalytic tetrad, such as that consisting of Asp 50, Tyr 55, Lys 84, and His 117, is a common feature of the AKR family [1]. Other amino acids such as Gly 22, Gly 45, Asp 112, Pro 119, Gly 164, Asn 167, ...
Other lines of investigation have demonstrated that aldose reductase exhibits broad substrate specificity for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic aldehydes. Aldose reductase and the structurally related enzyme in the aldo-keto reductase family, aldehyde reductase, both catalyze the reduction of biogenic aldehydes derived from the catabolism of the catecholamines and serotonin by the action of monoamine oxidase (Turner and Tipton, 1972; Tabakoff et al., 1973;Wermuth et al., 1982). These two enzymes also catalyze the reduction of isocorticosteroids, intermediates in the catabolism of the corticosteroid hormones (Wermuth and Monder, 1983). Recently, aldose reductase in the adrenal gland was reported to be a major reductase for isocaproaldehyde, a product of sidechain cleavage of cholesterol (Matsuura et al., 1996).. Apart from these findings, molecular cloning of bovine testicular 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase cDNA incidentally revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme is ...
Exposure of harvested grapefruit to UV-C (254 nm) irradiation was previously found to induce resistance against the green mold decay caused by Penicillium digitatum. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of this UV-induced resistance we initiat
Diabetes increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease as well as the complications of myocardial infarction. Studies using animal models of diabetes have demonstrated that the metabolic alterations occurring at the myocyte level may contribute to the severity of ischemic injury in diabetic hearts. Of the several mechanisms being investigated to understand the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, the increased metabolism of glucose via the polyol pathway has received considerable attention. Deviant metabolic regulation due to increased flux through aldose reductase in diabetic hearts may influence the ability of the myocardium to withstand ischemia insult. To determine if aldose reductase inhibition improves tolerance to ischemia, hearts from acute type I diabetic and nondiabetic control rats were isolated and retrograde perfused. Each group was exposed to 1 μmol/l zopolrestat, a specific inhibitor of aldose reductase, for 10 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia and 60 min of ...
Coconut oil (CO), the primary choice of cooking purposes in the south Asian countries, is rich in medium chain saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid (50-52%).. The oil has high medicinal use in Ayurvedic system and known to contain polyphenolic antioxidants.. Studies have reported that CO improves insulin sensitivity and shows hypoglycemic effect. However, there is no information regarding its effect on chronic diabetic complications including retinopathy and nephropathy is available.. The secondary diabetic complications are mediated by the activation of polyol pathway, where aldose reductase (AR) plays crucial role.. In this study, in silico analysis has been used to screen the effect of CO as well as its constituents, MCFAs and phenolic compounds, for targeting the molecules in polyol pathway.. The study revealed that lauric acid (LA) interacts with AR and DPP-IV of polyol pathway and inhibits the activity of these enzymes. Validation studies using animal models confirmed the ...
Oroxylin A Suppresses the Development and Growth of Colorectal Cancer through Reprogram of HIF1α-Modulated Fatty Acid Metabolism Researchers investigated the metabolism-modulating effects of oroxylin A on the fatty acid metabolism in colon cancer cells under hypoxia. They found that HIF1α upregulated adipophilin, fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and downregulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, resulting in the promoted lipid uptake and transport, increased de novo fatty acid synthesis and suppressed fatty acid oxidation. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Increases Doxorubicin-Sensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells and Decreases Cardiotoxicity Scientists showed that treatment of colorectal cancer cells with fidarestat increases the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced death in HT-29 and SW480 cells and in nude mice xenografts. Aldose reductase inhibition resulted in higher intracellular accumulation of DOX and decreased the expression of ...
Lidorestat Lidorestat (IDD-676) is a potent, selective and orally active aldose reductase inhibitor with an IC50 of 5 nM. Lidorestat can be used for chronic diabetes complications. Lidorestat also improves nerve conduction and reduces cataract formation.. ...
AKR1A1 - AKR1A1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase) (AKR1A1), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
In women of reproductive age, the surgeon should consider endometriosis as a differential diagnosis in case of various gastrointestinal symptoms. The step affected seems to be the elongation of polypeptide chains. It was not possible to differentiate between the muscarinic receptors involved in the different parts of the enteric nervous system on the basis of our results. At diagnosis, external eating behaviour and emotional eating behaviour are associated with high-energy intake and restrained eating behaviour with low-energy intake. Molecular hybridization of potent generic cialis walmart fragments has been widely used as a rational drug discovery strategy. Clonal cultures derived from single founder cells identified by marker genes generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, confirming the multipotent nature of the parent cell.. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Unlike hybrids between MalE and other proteins, MalE-Lzp was quite stable exhibiting ...
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Seo KS, Naidansuren P, Kim SH, Yun SJ, Park JJ, Sim BW, Park CW, Nanjidsuren T, Kang MH, Seo H, Ka H, Kim NH, Hwang SY, Yoon JT, Yamanouchi K, Min KS; Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.; Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia ...
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The other day I posted all the issues associated with paralysis that I have personally gone through. At that time I said that I thought I could be the "paralysis secondary complications" poster boy. ...
Soltesova Prnova, J. Ballekova, M. Majekova, M. Stefek, Antioxidant action of 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid, an efficient aldose reductase inhibitor, in a 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and in the cellular system of isolated erythrocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Redox Rep. 2015 vol. 20, pp. 282-288. (2014 IF: 1.522 ...
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Differential proteomic analysis of caveolin-1 KO cells reveals Sh2b3 and Clec12b as novel interaction partners of caveolin-1 and Capns1 as a potential mediator of caveolin-1-induced apoptosis ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
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Yıl:2 Sayı:5 Ocak-Haziran 2012 Year:2 Issue:5 January-June 2012 Elbi den yepyeni bir seri. Sınırları kaldırın! Sınırları kaldırın! Moda Stila, sınırları kaldırıyor. Stila nın tek bir çerçevede birden fazla
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... regarding the Post Finasteride Syndrome and peristent 5AR inhibitor induced side effects (Propecia, Proscar, Dutateride)
Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. 1975. Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain.. Biochem Pharmacol. 24(20):1865-9. ...
long-chain-fatty-acyl-CoA reductase Ja 1.2.3.1 aldehyde oxidase Ja ... L-xylulose reductase Ja 1.1.1.11 D-arabitol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-xylulose + NADH + H+ D-arabitol 4- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ... Aldehyde + NADPH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.3 L-Homoserine + NAD(P)+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L- ...
AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Robinson B, Hunsaker LA, Stangebye LA, Vander Jagt DL (December 1993). "Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ...
Turner, A. J.; Hick, P. E. (1975-09-15). "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase by acidic metabolites of the biogenic amines". ...
Methylglyoxal reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase convert methylglyoxal into lactaldehyde and, eventually, L-lactate. If ... Methylglyoxal is, however, a reactive aldehyde that is very toxic to cells, it can inhibit growth in E. coli at milimolar ...
The role of aldehyde reductase tyrosine phenol group is to serve as a general acid to provide proton to the reduced aldehyde ... The mechanism involves a tyrosine residue in the active site of aldehyde reductase. The hydrogen atom on NADH is transferred to ... Aldose reductase is the first enzyme in the sorbitol-aldose reductase pathway responsible for the reduction of glucose to ... Aldose reductase inhibitors, which are substances that prevent or slow the action of aldose reductase, are currently being ...
Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR7A2 gene. Aldo-keto reductases, such ... "Entrez Gene: AKR7A2 aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)". Human AKR7A2 genome location and ... evidence that the major 2-carboxybenzaldehyde reductase from human liver is a homologue of rat aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase ... Praml C, Savelyeva L, Perri P, Schwab M (1998). "Cloning of the human aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase gene at 1p35-1p36.1 in a ...
Oksidoreduktase alkohol:NAD+ (bahasa Inggris: aldehyde reductase; alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD); aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenase ... NADH-aldehyde dehydrogenase; primary alcohol dehydrogenase; yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD+ oxidoreductase, ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) ...
Aldehyde-based and carboxylate inhibitors are effective but toxic because the functional activity of aldehyde reductase is ... halogen bond that contributes to the large potency of this inhibitor for human aldose reductase rather than aldehyde reductase ... Carboxylate and aldehyde inhibitors were shown to hydrogen bond with Trp 111, Tyr 48, and His 110. The "specificity pocket," ... An example of this assertion in drug design is the substrate specificity for the binding of IDD 594 to human aldose reductase. ...
Bosron, W.F. & Prairie, R.L. (1972). „Triphosphopyridine nucleotide-linked aldehyde reductase. I. Purification and properties ... Purification and characterization of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked aldehyde reductase from brain ...
Within this group are the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) such as hGSTA4-4 and hGST5.8, aldose reductase, and aldehyde ... 4-HNE has 3 reactive groups: an aldehyde, a double-bond at carbon 2, and a hydroxy group at carbon 4. It is found throughout ... Although they are the most studied ones, in the same process other oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (OαβUAs) are generated ... Increased activity of the mitochondrial enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has been shown to have a protective effect ...
Other names in common use include retinal reductase, aldehyde reductase (NADPH/NADH), and alcohol dehydrogenase [NAD(P)]. This ... an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are alcohol, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are aldehyde, ...
... function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 also known as 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and ... This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. ... These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH ...
LuxAB codes for luciferase while luxCDE codes for a fatty-acid reductase complex that is responsible for synthesizing aldehydes ... With the exception of the Photorhabdus operon type, all variants of the lux operon contain the flavin reductase-encoding luxG ... Nevertheless, all bio-luminescent bacteria share a common gene sequence: the enzymatic oxidation of Aldehyde and reduced Flavin ... For bacterial bio-luminescence specifically, the biochemical reaction involves the oxidation of an aliphatic aldehyde by a ...
... respiratory arsenate reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase. Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, ... Molydopterin is a: Cofactor of: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, ethylbenzene ... Tungsten-using enzymes typically reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes. The first tungsten-requiring enzyme to be ... Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate ...
In enzymology, aldose reductase (or aldehyde reductase) (EC 1.1.1.21) is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that ... The reaction mechanism of aldose reductase in the direction of aldehyde reduction follows a sequential ordered path where NADPH ... Barski OA, Gabbay KH, Bohren KM (September 1999). "Characterization of the human aldehyde reductase gene and promoter". ... AKR1B1 Aldo-keto reductase Petrash JM (April 2004). "All in the family: aldose reductase and closely related aldo-keto ...
... aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. ... aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity. • L-glucuronate reductase activity. • glucuronolactone reductase activity. • retinol ... "The role of aldehyde reductase AKR1A1 in the metabolism of γ-hydroxybutyrate in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. ". Chem Biol ... "Structures of human and porcine aldehyde reductase: an enzyme implicated in diabetic complications. ". Acta Crystallogr D Biol ...
... ferredoxin-nitrite reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.750.500 --- nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163 --- aldehyde ... aldehyde reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.237 --- d-xylulose reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.400 --- ... gmp reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.500 --- nitrate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.124 --- nitrate reductase MeSH D08.811. ... 682.655.500.200 --- nitrate reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.249 --- nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D08.811.682.655. ...
... aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. People severely deficient in molybdenum have poorly functioning ... those enzymes include aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase. In some animals, and in humans, the oxidation of ...
L-glucuronate reductase EC 1.1.1.20: glucuronolactone reductase EC 1.1.1.21: aldehyde reductase EC 1.1.1.22: UDP-glucose 6- ... artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase EC 1.3.1.93: very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase EC 1.3.1.94: polyprenol reductase ... flavin reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.37: FAD reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.38: FMN reductase (NADPH) EC 1.5.1.39: FMN reductase (NAD(P) ... zeatin reductase EC 1.3.1.70: D14-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.71: D24(241)-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.72: D24-sterol reductase EC ...
Other names in common use include aldehyde reductase, L-hexonate:NADP dehydrogenase, TPN-L-gulonate dehydrogenase, aldehyde ... reductase II, NADP-L-gulonate dehydrogenase, D-glucuronate dehydrogenase, D-glucuronate reductase, and L-glucuronate reductase ... In enzymology, a glucuronate reductase (EC 1.1.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-gulonate + NADP+ ⇌ {\ ...
... carbonyl reductase, nonspecific NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase, aldehyde reductase 1, and carbonyl reductase (NADPH). This ... Other names in common use include aldehyde reductase 1, prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase, xenobiotic ketone reductase, NADPH- ... In enzymology, a carbonyl reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.1.1.184) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction R-CHOH-R' + NADP+ ... Wermuth B (1981). "Purification and properties of an NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase from human brain. Relationship to ...
... such as aldehyde reductase, aldose reductase, prostaglandin F synthase, xylose reductase, rho crystallin, and many others. All ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9547-51. PMID 2498333 ... The aldo-keto reductase family is a family of proteins that are subdivided into 16 categories; these include a number of ... Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM (December 1992). "The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex". J. ...
... which blocks the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (likely causing hypothrombinemia) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (causing ...
The aldehyde group of this compound is reduced to a primary alcohol using the enzyme glucuronate reductase and the cofactor ...
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl alcohol or ... Coniferyl-aldehyde dehydrogenase uses coniferyl aldehyde, H2O, NAD+, and NADP+ to produce ferulate, NADH, NADPH, and H+. ... Coniferyl aldehyde is a low molecular weight phenolic compound susceptible to be extracted from cork stoppers into wine. ... Coniferyl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses coniferyl alcohol and NADP+ to produce coniferyl aldehyde, NADPH, and H+. ...
... detoxication of the lipid peroxide-derived reactive aldehydes". Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (12): 1445-55. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf187. ... In enzymology, a 2-alkenal reductase (EC 1.3.1.74) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... A new role for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (44): 40803-10. doi ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2-alkenal_reductase&oldid=950717434" ...
Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase (EC 1.3.1.92, Dbr2) is an enzyme with systematic name artemisinic aldehyde:NADP+ ... Artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13)-reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "The molecular cloning of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase and its role in glandular trichome-dependent biosynthesis of ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (11R)-dihydroartemisinic aldehyde + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
Crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase at 2.0 angstrom resolution: Modeling an inhibitor in the active site of the ...
Inhibition of rat kidney aldehyde reductase at 0.1 mM after 20 mins by spectrometric analysis. ...
Category: Aldehyde Reductase. Posted on June 20, 2017. Targeted toxins, referred to as immunotoxins or cytotoxins also, are ...
admin January 19, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase hSNF2b, Probucol supplier Maintenance of genome honesty via repair of DNA damage is a ... admin January 6, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase Felypressin Acetate, RG7112 CLEC14a (C-type lectin website family 14 member) is a ... admin September 4, 2017 Aldehyde Reductase a member of the integrin a chain family with 165 kDa MW. which is expressed on NK ... admin February 16, 2018 Aldehyde Reductase 856866-72-3, DNM1 We present optimum perfusion conditions for the growth of ...
... reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes of Artemisia annua L., Plant Molecular Biology" ... Artemisinic aldehyde is reduced into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde by DBR2. Artemisinic aldehyde can also be oxidized by amorpha- ... Overexpression of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase gene-enhanced artemisinin and its relative metabolite biosynthesis in ... The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin... Yang, Ke; Monafared, ...
At least 24 aldehyde reductases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterized and most function in in situ ... Functions of aldehyde reductases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors and their ... GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from ... cerevisiae as aldehyde reductases provides a guideline for their practical applications in in situ detoxification of aldehyde ...
Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis. Peter ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ... Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis ...
Aldehyde reductases - sub set of CESK-6000 (standard format) - We offer a range of biocatalysts in easy-to-use kits. Click here ...
What is aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit? Meaning of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol ... What does aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit mean? ... aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of aldehyde reductase class-I alcohol dehydrogenase, beta subunit in the Medical Dictionary? ...
Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic semialdehyde to gamma- ... Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 from Human, Recombinant. Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 from Human, ... Has NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase activity towards 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyridine-2-aldehyde (in ... AFB1 aldehyde reductase 1; AFB1-AR 1; Aldoketoreductase 7; Succinic semialdehyde reductase ...
SpecificityC TerminusStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 13-residue peptide matching a sequence from the C Terminus of Human AKR1A1 See Accession Number s NP_006057 1 NP_697021 1 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS
... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of your skin may be the most Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of your skin may be the ... Aldehyde Reductase Open in another window The molecular chaperone Hsp90 requires the help Open in another window The molecular ... Aldehyde Reductase Although caspase-2 is thought to be involved with death receptor-mediated apoptosis, Although caspase-2 is ... Aldehyde Reductase Goal: To investigate whether the conjugation of magainin II (MG2), an Goal: To investigate whether the ...
Has NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase activity towards 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyridine-2-aldehyde (in ... Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase (AKR7A2) was confirmed to be only highly expressed in pancreatic cancer, not in normal ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldo/keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and AKR7 family, which are involved in ... The human aldo-keto reductase AKR7A2 has been proposed previously to catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic ...
Category: Aldehyde Reductase. In response to tension cells must reprogram gene expression to adjust and survive quickly ...
Category: Aldehyde Reductase. Posted on June 16, 2017. IMPORTANCE Obtained neuromyotonia is regarded as an autoimmune disorder ...
Structure of aldehyde reductase in ternary complex with coenzyme and the potent 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor ... Structure of aldehyde reductase in ternary complex with coenzyme and the potent 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > Aldo/keto reductase * Occurring in:. *Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > ... Aldo/keto reductase, conserved site * Occurring in:. *Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1. > NADP-dependent oxidoreductase ...
... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ... versus rat lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). All aldose reductase. inhibitors examined inhibited aldehyde reductase to some ...
Category: Aldehyde Reductase. The transforming growth factor isoforms, TGF-1, -2, and -3, are small. Published on March 25, ...
Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase. / Mizoguchi, T.; Itabe, H.; Kador, P. ... Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase. Advances in experimental medicine and ... title = "Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase", ... T1 - Reactivity of enzyme modification reagents with aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase ...
Crystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii. Applied and ... Crystal structure and biophysical analysis of furfural detoxifying aldehyde reductase from clostridium beijerinkii ... Many aldehydes such as furfural are present in high quantities in lignocellulose lysates and are fermentation inhibitors that ... Cbei_3974 has recently been identified as an aldo-keto reductase responsible for partial furfural resistance in Clostridium ...
aldehyde reductase DEFINITION: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reduction of aldoses to form alditols, ... In galactosemia due to galactokinase deficiency, catalysis of the reduction of galactose to galactitol by aldehyde reductase in ... aldehyde reductase 6 and p8 were decreased in the AQP1 null mice. Uroplakin 1A, carboxylesterase 3, matrilin 2 and lipocalin 2 ... aldehyde reductase 6 and p8 were decreased in the AQP1 null mice. Uroplakin 1A, carboxylesterase 3, matrilin 2 and lipocalin 2 ...
long-chain-fatty-acyl-CoA reductase Ja 1.2.3.1 aldehyde oxidase Ja ... L-xylulose reductase Ja 1.1.1.11 D-arabitol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-xylulose + NADH + H+ D-arabitol 4- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ... Aldehyde + NADPH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.3 L-Homoserine + NAD(P)+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L- ...
Aldehyde Reductase/chemistry*. *Aldehyde Reductase/isolation & purification*. *Candida tropicalis/enzymology*. *Crystallization ... Xylose reductase (XR), which requires NADPH as a co-substrate, catalyzes the reduction of D-xylose to xylitol, which is the ... Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis.. ... Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis ...
Aldehyde reductase. February, 2006. Mcgonigle et al.. 20070031415. Regulation of interaction between rapl and rap1. February, ...
  • Typical turnover numbers for aldehyde reduction by CtAR (15-20 s(-1)) are up to 100-fold higher than corresponding values for hAR, probably reflecting an overall faster dissociation of NAD(P)(+) in the reaction catalyzed by the yeast enzyme. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The fatty acid elongation process has been shown to proceed through a series of four reactions: condensation of the C2 carbon moiety to acyl-CoA by 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A synthase (KCS), reduction of KCS by 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A reductase (KCR), dehydration of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (PAS2), and reduction of trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA by trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (ECR). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Two genes whose expression is likely to be altered during diabetes mellitus are aldose reductase (AD) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). We proposed that gene expression of AD is increased in vascular smooth muscle during diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, while IGF-I expression is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetes and elevated in insulin-resistant diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, verapamil is significantly effective in inhibiting lens aldose reductase dependent polyol synthesis, an action simultaneous with its effect on calcium penetration. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the relationship between metabolic and vascular factors, especially polyol pathway and platelet aggregation, in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, the effects of a novel potent aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT ((5-(3-thienyl) tetrazol-1-yl) acetic acid monohydrate) on adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, polyol contents in platelets, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), and sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF) were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (elsevier.com)
  • These observations suggest that increased polyol pathway activity plays an important role in platelet aggregation in the development of diabetic neuropathy and that aldose reductase inhibitor is useful for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy from the viewpoint not only of metabolic factors but also of vascular factors. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. (elsevier.com)
  • The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants expressing aldose reductase, XvAld1 isolated from Xerophyta viscosa under the control of a stress-inducible promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (nih.gov)
  • The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In studies conducted in young normal control and streptozotocin diabetic rats (100 g) treated with and without the aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) imirestat, experimental periodontitis was induced in one side of the mouth by 3 injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli 055:B5 9 into the palatal gingiva between the first and second maxillary molars at 48-hour intervals. (nebraska.edu)
  • An aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT, reduces ADP-induced platelet hyperaggregation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with neuropathy. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor, statil, on glomerular synthesis of heparan sulfate and albuminuria in male Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The present studies have demonstrated that verapamil's effect against cataract could also be partially related to its aldose reductase inhibitory activity, in addition to the Ca++ channel blocking activity. (nih.gov)