Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
One is a novel terpyridine synthesis, the Chichibabin pyridine synthesis. The other reactions are the Bodroux-Chichibabin ... aldehyde synthesis and the Chichibabin reaction. Chichibábin authored the two-volume Osnovnye nachala organicheskoy khimii ( ...
The aldehyde will be oxidized to a ketone for the first step of the mechanism and oxidized again to a carboxylic acid, ... It is a Lewis acid and can react with a Lewis base, such as pyridine in a non-aqueous medium such as dichloromethane (Collins ... Dichromic acid will behave the same exact way when reacting with an aldehyde or ketone. The caveat to this statement, however, ... In oxidations of alcohols or aldehydes into carboxylic acids, chromic acid is one of several reagents, including several that ...
Pyridine aldehydes are typically prepared by oxidation of the hydroxymethyl- or methylpyridines. The drug pralidoxime can be ... The other isomers are pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde. 2-Formylpyridine is a colorless oily liquid with ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... The aldehyde functional group is subject to nucleophilic attack, specifically by amines to form Schiff bases, which serve as ...
This metal-pyridine complex, a red solid, is used to oxidize primary alcohols to the aldehyde. This complex is a hygroscopic ... pyridine)2 → 3 RCHO + 3 H2O + Cr2O3 + 4 pyridine The reagent is typically used in a sixfold excess. Methylene chloride is the ... According to X-ray crystallography, the complex is 5-coordinate with mutually trans pyridine ligands. The Cr-O and Cr-N ... Primary and secondary alcohols are oxidized respectively to aldehydes and ketones in yields of 87-98%. Like other oxidations by ...
Using a strong base in this reaction would induce self-condensation of the aldehyde or ketone. The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis ... In the so-called Doebner modification the base is pyridine. For example, the reaction product of acrolein and malonic acid in ... In this reaction the carbonyl group is an aldehyde or a ketone. The catalyst is usually a weakly basic amine. The active ... Condensation of malonic acid with aromatic aldehydes via ammonia and amines]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. ...
"Copper and Secondary Amine-Catalyzed Pyridine Synthesis from O-Acetyl Oximes and α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes". Organic Syntheses ...
In the last step, the ylide goes through a five-membered ring transition state to give the desired ketone or aldehyde 8, as ... The procedure uses dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the oxidant, activated by the sulfur trioxide pyridine complex in the presence ... The Parikh-Doering oxidation is an oxidation reaction that transforms primary and secondary alcohols into aldehydes and ketones ... where the reaction transforms the hydroxyl functional group into an aldehyde. This process leads to Ohira-Bestmann homologation ...
... s generally could be obtained by boiling the aldehyde and the respective benzazolium salts in presence of pyridine or ... The first one can be by condensation of methylene bases with o-hydroxy aromatic aldehydes (or the condensation of the precursor ... The second way is by condensation of o-hydroxy aromatic aldehydes with the salts of heterocyclic cations which contains active ...
O-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones oxidize faster than p-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones in weakly basic conditions. ... it has also been applied to the synthesis of amine oxides such as pyridine-N-oxide. The Dakin oxidation is most commonly used ... In general, phenyl aldehydes are more reactive than phenyl ketones because the ketone carbonyl carbon is less electrophilic ... Catechol, for example, is synthesized from o-hydroxy and o-alkoxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones, and is used as the starting ...
The Collins oxidation is an organic reaction for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes. It is distinguished from other ... chromium oxide-based oxidations by the use of Collins reagent, a complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)89494-0. J. C. Collins, W.W. Hess (1988). "Aldehydes from Primary Alcohols by Oxidation with Chromium ...
The Sarett reagent was originally prepared in 1953 by addition of chromium trioxide to pyridine. The pyridine must be cooled ... Tojo, Gabriel; Fernández, Marcos (2006). Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones a guide to current common practice. New ... The active ingredient in both the Sarett reagent is identical to that in the so-called "Collins reagent", i.e. the pyridine ... Slowly, the brick-red CrO3 transform into the bis(pyridine) adduct. Subsequent to the conversion to the Sarett reagent, it is ...
T. N. Tekavec, J. Louie "Nickel-Catalyzed Cycloadditions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, and Ketones" J. Org. Chem. ... 2-Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Alkynes and Nitriles to Afford Pyridines: Evidence for the Formation of a Key h1-Ni(IPr)2(RCN) ... aldehydes, ketones, tropones, 3-azetidinones, and 3-oxetanones). Louie is also involved in the study and research of ... the Ni/NHC catalyst can effectively couple diynes and nitriles to create pyridines using a hetero-oxidative coupling mechanism ...
This chemical will break apart the pyridine ring of niacin to produce y-carboxy glutaconic aldehyde and joins an aromatic amine ...
This compound was synthesized from two building blocks: 2,6-diformylpyridine (a pyridine with two aldehyde groups) and a ...
... s can be prepared from aldehydes using the Corey-Fuchs reaction and from aldehydes or ketones by the Seyferth-Gilbert ... pyridine Cu ( OAc ) 2 R − ≡ − ≡ − R {\displaystyle {\ce {2R-\!{\equiv }\!-H->[{\ce {Cu(OAc)2}}][{\ce {pyridine}}]R-\!{\equiv ... The hydroboration of alkynes gives vinylic boranes which oxidize to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. In the thiol-yne ... The reaction proceeds by formation of vinyl alcohol, which undergoes tautomerizes to form the aldehyde. This reaction was once ...
Lanthanide triflates can be used to synthesize pyridine by catalysing either the condensation of aldehydes and amines, or the ... Pyridine compounds are common in biology and have many applications. Normally, pyridine is synthesized from acetaldehyde, ... La(OTf)3 catalysts have also been used for cyanations, and three-component reactions of aldehydes, amines and nucleophiles. The ... Activation of Commercial Formaldehyde Solution and Use in the Aldol Reaction of Silyl Enol Ethers with Aldehydes in Aqueous ...
... him is the Sarett Oxidation which is the oxidation of an alcohol to a ketone or an aldehyde using chromic oxide and pyridine. ... Primary alcohols will be oxidised to aldehydes and not carboxylic acids. 1964 Scheele Award 1972 Chemical Pioneer Award from ...
Pyridine}}MoO_{5}(HMPA)(pyridine)} } Due to MoOPH's steric bulk, preferential attack at the O-O bond occurs from the less ... In the case of sulfones, alpha-hydroxylation leads directly to the ketone or aldehyde. Common byproducts of the alpha- ... It contains a molybdenum(VI) center with multiple oxygen ligands, coordinated with pyridine and HMPA ligands. It is an ... MoOPH is synthesized from molybdenum trioxide by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and addition of the HMPA and pyridine ligands ...
One use of this reagent is to convert pyridine-N-oxides into 2-cyanopyridine. This transformation is best done in ... for example in an aldehyde, to form a new carbon-carbon bond: RCH=O + (CH3)3SiC≡N → N≡C-CHR-OSi(CH3)3 The product is an O- ...
In the catalytic cycle for this reaction the amine and the aldehyde first form an iminium ion, then proton transfer is followed ... The proton donor is oxidized to the pyridine form and resembles the biochemically relevant coenzyme NADH. ... beta-unsaturated aldehydes". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 43 (48): 6660-6662. doi:10.1002/anie.200461816 ...
Pyridine (1) is reduced with sodium borohydride in presence of benzyl chloroformate to the Cbz protected dihydropyridine 2. The ... "Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ethers as Efficient Organocatalysts for the Asymmetric Michael Reaction of Aldehydes and Nitroalkenes". ... asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction with acrolein 3 is carried out with the McMillan catalyst to the aldehyde 4 as the endo isomer ... approach published in 2007 like Corey's starts by an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction this time with starting materials pyridine ...
... so-called Zincke aldehydes in which the pyridine ring is ring-opened with the terminal iminium group hydrolyzed to an aldehyde ... The Zincke reaction is an organic reaction in which a pyridine is transformed into a pyridinium salt by reaction with 2,4- ... This variation has been applied in the synthesis of novel indoles: with cyanogen bromide mediated pyridine activation. In 2006 ...
Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride (after an acidic workup). Another ... esters are made by reaction of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine. Primary alcohols (R-CH2OH) can be ... Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of ... The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is ...
The activated aldehyde group of 3-dimethylaminoacrolein reacts quantitatively with dialkyl sulfates such as dimethyl sulfate. ... such as pyridines, pyrimidines, pyrroles or pyrazoles. 3-Dimethylaminoacrolein is obtained by the addition of dimethylamine to ... 529-536 P. Perlmutter (2001), "Propargyl Aldehyde", E-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, doi:10.1002/ ... aldehydes: Synthesis and Chemical Reactivity of Mesoxalaldehyde 2-Arylhydrazones and of Ethyl 2-Arylhydrazono-3-oxopropionates ...
... discovered Chichibabin pyridine synthesis, Bodroux-Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis and Chichibabin reaction Lev Chugaev, ...
... and pyridine to 24 and then triphosgene to 25 in order to facilitate the oxidation of the primary alcohol group to the aldehyde ... The next part constructed the C ring starting from aldehyde 26, which was extended by one carbon atom to homologue 27 in a ... Reaction with Eschenmoser's salt placed a methylene group (C20 in the Taxol framework) in the alpha position of the aldehyde to ... DMAP and pyridine and nucleophilic substitution with inversion of configuration with lithium bromide to bromide 42. Because the ...
... and aldehyde or ketone in a retro-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The oxide and aldehyde or ketone react again in a 1,3-dipolar ... so pyridine is sometimes used to buffer the reaction. Dichloromethane is often used as a 1:1 cosolvent to facilitate timely ... Alkenes can be oxidized with ozone to form alcohols, aldehydes or ketones, or carboxylic acids. In a typical procedure, ozone ... Recently, the use of amine N-oxides has been reported to produce aldehydes directly. Other functional groups, such as benzyl ...
It is also a commonly used catalyst for the preparation of acetals and ketals from aldehydes and ketones. David A. Evans (2005- ... Pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (PPTS) is a salt of pyridine and p-toluenesulfonic acid. It is a colourless solid. In organic ...
Bouveault aldehyde synthesis or Bodroux-Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis. Hydroformylation Hydroacylation Olah, G. A.; Ohannesian ... Benzene will react under aggressive conditions but deactivated rings such as pyridine are difficult to formylate effectively. ... Aldehydes are strongly deactivating and as such phenols typically only react once, however certain reactions, such as the Duff ... This method synthetizes aromatic aldehydes using hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide (or another metallic cyanide as such ...
The acyloin condensation is a reductive coupling of esters The benzoin condensation is condensation reaction between aldehydes ... pyridine and hexamethylphosphoramide. Enolates can be oxidized by sulfonyloxaziridines. The enolate reacts by nucleophilic ... and thus an aldehyde not a ketone) IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online ...
From aldehydes[edit]. The cyclisation of an amino alcohol and an aldehyde produces an intermediate oxazolidine which can be ... and Pyridine Bis(oxazoline) Ligands". Synlett (15): 2321-2324. doi:10.1055/s-2005-872672.. ... The method has been shown to be effective for a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes however electron rich aromatic R ... Ishihara, Midori; Togo, Hideo (2007). "Direct oxidative conversion of aldehydes and alcohols to 2-imidazolines and 2-oxazolines ...
Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or eluant is the "carrier" portion of the mobile phase. It moves the ... Aldehydes and Ketones. Alcohols. Acids and Bases (Amines) Eluting Power (Least Eluting Power → Greatest Eluting Power) ...
An amide ion is different from an amide in organic chemistry. The amide ion is made by deprotonating ammonia. This is ammonia acting as an acid, although a very weak one. Amides made by deprotonating ammonia are very strong bases. Sodium amide is an example. ...
It is a Lewis acid and can react with a Lewis base, such as pyridine in a non-aqueous medium such as dichloromethane (Collins ... In oxidations of alcohols or aldehydes into carboxylic acids, chromic acid is one of several reagents, including several that ... For example, nickel(II) salts catalyze oxidations by bleach (hypochlorite).[14] Aldehydes are relatively easily oxidised to ... Aldehydes, and α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids". J. Org. Chem. 71 (25): 9291-9296. doi:10.1021/jo0612574. PMID 17137354.. ...
An amine is a molecule which has a nitrogen atom that can behave as a base. An amine can be thought of coming from ammonia. The difference is that the three hydrogens in ammonia are changed to any group or atom. If only one of the hydrogens is changed, the amine is called primary. If two are changed, the amine is called secondary. If all three are changed then it is called tertiary. Sometimes, a fourth group can be added to the nitrogen. This is called a quaternary ammonium cation. This is not an amine but is a salt. If one of the groups on the nitrogen is a carbonyl group, then the molecule is called amide. This has very different properties. Amines are used a lot in chemistry. Since the nitrogen has a lone pair, it can do many reactions. It can take protons away from some acids. It can also be a nucleophile. It can be changed into imines and other functional groups. Amines are also found in many proteins. They are a part of every amino acid. ...
Zewail Alabaster Alan G MacDiarmid Alan J Heeger Albertus Magnus Albite alchemical symbol alchemist Alchemy alcohol aldehyde ... diagram Praseodymium Prehnite Promethium Propane Protactinium Protein Proton Pumice Pumicite Purine Putrescine Pyridine ...
Paul György stelt dan de namme pyridoksine út, fanwege de strukturele besibbens oan pyridine.[2] Yn 1945 toande Esmond Emerson ... Pyridoksal (PL) (it aldehyde) en pyridoksal-5-fosfaat (PLP). Foar pyridoksine oer is by pyrodoksal de CH2OH-groep ferfongen ...
... including aldehydes and acids such as vanillin, vanillic acid, and syringaldehyde.[26] Distillers will sometimes age their ... The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.[88] The sulfur compounds include thiophenes and polysulfides ...
The A ring is now complete with the aldehyde group and de sulfide group in place for anchoring with ring C forming ring B. The ... Prior to tail addition the TES protective group was removed in 5.8 (hydrogen fluoride pyridine) and replaced by a TROC ( ... The piv protecting group was then replaced by a TIPS group in 1.14 after protecting the aldehyde as the aminal 1.13 and as this ... The THP group was removed with TsOH to 1.9 and the formed alcohol oxidized by Swern oxidation to aldehyde 1.10. The TIPS silyl ...
An ester is a carbonyl with an ether group on the carbon atom. The group can be written as COOR. They can be made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol with some acid. Esters are a very important functional group. They can be found in many substances. They are very common in fats and oils. They sometimes have a very strong, nice smell. They can be used to make perfumes. Polyesters are found in plastics. Esters can also do many reactions. It is very easy to change the ether part of the molecule with another similar one. It is also possible to reduce the ester to a ketone or an alcohol, which can do many different reactions. Nucleophilic addition is also a good reaction, though a bit more difficult than with ketones. There are many ways to find out if a molecule has an ester group. Infrared spectroscopy gives very sharp signals, which are different from other carbonyls. Carbon NMR spectroscopy has similar characteristics. ...
Polycyclic condensed pyridine derivatives Actinidine, gentianine, pediculinine [80] Sesquiterpene pyridine derivatives ... Schiff bases can be obtained by reacting amines with ketones or aldehydes.[188] These reactions are a common method of ... Simple derivatives of pyridine Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [78] Trigonelline, ricinine, ... Polycyclic noncondensing pyridine derivatives Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine [76][79] ...
In chemistry, alcohol is a general term which refers to many organic compounds used in industry and science as reagents, solvents, and fuels. Alcohols are carbohydrates which are made of an alkyl group with one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups bound to its carbon atoms. Alcohol is colorless, and also transparent. ...
Aldehydes[edit]. A usually desired consecutive reaction is the hydrogenation of the aldehydes to alcohols. Higher temperatures ... The reactions work best when the solvent is basic (such as pyridine).[17][18] ... It is important because aldehydes are easily converted into many secondary products. For example, the resulting aldehydes are ... Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from ...
... releasing HCl and ammonia to form an aldehyde.[35] The aldehyde group can further react with another amino group to form a ... A second slower reaction that results in cleavage of the pyridine ring occurs when excess HClO is present. NAD+ is inert to ... employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of reactive aldehydes. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ...
Aldehyde. Aldehyde RCHO formyl- (-COH). or. oxo- (=O). -al Acetaldehyde. (Ethanal) Acyl halide. Haloformyl RCOX ... pyridine Nicotine Carbamate ester Carbamate. RO(C=O)NR2. (-carbamoyl)oxy-. -carbamate Chlorpropham. (Isopropyl (3-chlorophenyl) ...
Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis, Hantzsch pyridine synthesis. *Hantzsch pyridine synthesis, Gattermann-Skita synthesis, ... Grundmann aldehyde synthesis. *Gryszkiewicz-Trochimowski and McCombie method. *Guareschi-Thorpe condensation. *Guerbet reaction ...
A ketone is an organic compound that has a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom (this is called carbonyl functional group). This carbon atom must also have single bonds to two other carbon atoms. A ketone can be produced by oxidating a secondary alcohol. A ketone will show a strong peak between 1690 and 1715cm-1 using infrared spectroscopy.[1] ...
Chan MK, Mukund S, Kletzin A, Adams MW, Rees DC (March 1995). "Structure of a hyperthermophilic tungstopterin enzyme, aldehyde ... Warburg O, Christian W (1936). "Pyridin, the hydrogen-transferring component of the fermentation enzymes (pyridine nucleotide ... tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus,[18] and even cadmium in ... "The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides-small molecules with a multitude of functions". Biochem. J. 402 (2): 205-18. doi ...
... pyridine. Use of the Fe(C5Ph5) Group in Asymmetric Catalysis". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119 (6): 1492-1493. doi:10.1021/ja963835b.. ... The vinylferrocene can be made by a Wittig reaction of the aldehyde, a phosphonium salt, and sodium hydroxide.[79] The vinyl ... The substituted ferrocene shown at right (a 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine derivative) has been shown to be effective when used for ...
Bisht, R.; Chattopadhyay, B. (2016). "Formal Ir-Catalyzed Ligand-Enabled Ortho and Meta Borylation of Aromatic Aldehydes via in ... "Total Synthesis of (+)-Complanadine A Using an Iridium-Catalyzed Pyridine C−H Functionalization". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (17): ... Roush, William R.; Walts, Alan E.; Hoong, Lee K. (December 1985). "Diastereo- and enantioselective aldehyde addition reactions ... Reactions with achiral aldehydes". Tetrahedron Letters. 29 (44): 5579-5582. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)80816-3.. ...
Pyridines Zincke aldehydes formed in a reaction variation. Stephen aldehyde synthesis Nitriles Hydrolysis of an iminium salt ... Some aldehydes are substrates for aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes which metabolize aldehydes in the body. There are toxicities ... IUPAC names for aldehydes[edit]. The common names for aldehydes do not strictly follow official guidelines, such as those ... Naturally occurring aldehydes[edit]. Traces of many aldehydes are found in essential oils and often contribute to their ...
For example, the Julia olefination uses a sulfone to make an alkene from an aldehyde. They are also sometimes used as solvents. ...
Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes. Gallic, salicylic acids. 8. C6-C2. 1. Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic ... copper chloride in pyridine [35] ... to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADH and H+. ... Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) uses an aromatic alcohol and NADP+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADPH and H+. ...
Aldehydes react with acetic anhydride in the presence of an acidic catalyst to give geminal diacetates.[15] A former industrial ... Often a base such as pyridine is added to function as catalyst. In specialized applications, Lewis acidic scandium salts have ...
Protection: Triethylsilyl chloride and pyridine. Deprotection: Hydrolysis using hydrofluoric acid, pyridine and tetrahydrofuran ... Aldehyde 2.6 served as a starting point for the construction of ring B (Scheme 4, compound 4.2). The A ring synthesis (Scheme 3 ... pyridine, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, and dicholoromethane Deprotection: Potassium carbonate in methanol and water solvent ... Aldehyde 6 was obtained from allyl alcohol (4) by protection as the tert-butyldiphenylsilyl ether (5) followed by ozonolysis. ...
The anaerobic decay products of amino acids, monosaccharides, phenols and aldehydes combined to fulvic acids. Fats and waxes ... Sims, Gerald K.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Crawford, Ronald L. (1989). "Degradation of pyridines in the environment". Critical ... Though crude oil is predominantly composed of various hydrocarbons, certain nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, such as pyridine, ...
Research accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic ... Ammonia Organic Chemistry Aldehyde Pyridine Polytechnic Institute Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. ... accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes ...
... one of which contained a pyridine N-oxide group. When the pyridine N-oxide Supramolecular chemistry in OBC ... bearing pyridine N-oxide pendants were synthesized by ternary copolymerization of a d-glucose-bound diethynyl compound with two ... Synthesis of helical π-conjugated polymers bearing pyridine N-oxide pendants and asymmetric allylation of aldehydes in the ... Synthesis of helical π-conjugated polymers bearing pyridine N-oxide pendants and asymmetric allylation of aldehydes in the ...
In its general form, the reaction can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl ... The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis (/ˈtʃiːtʃiːˌbeɪbiːn/) is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings. ... 5-trisubstituted pyridine ratios of a Chichibabin pyridine synthesis involving phenylacetaldehyde. They concluded with relative ... Alkyl-substituted pyridines show widespread uses among multiple fields of applied chemistry, including the polymer and ...
One drawback of the Zincke Aldehyde synthesis is the need for 2 equivalents of the amine in the initial pyridine ring opening ... Michels, T.; Rhee, J. U.; Vanderwal, C. D. (2008). "Synthesis of δ-Tributylstannyl Unsaturated Aldehydes from Pyridines". Org. ... forming Zincke aldehydes in which the pyridine ring is ring-opened with the terminal iminium group hydrolyzed to an aldehyde. ... Zincke aldehydes, or 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienals, are the product of the reaction of a pyridinium salt with two equivalents of any ...
... are very common proteins involved in the oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding… ... Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Function in the Homeostasis of Pyridine Nucleotides in Arabidopsis thaliana (OA) June 15, 2018. /in ... Rep. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (ALDHs) are very common proteins involved in the oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic ... agree with an interdependency between pyridine nucleotides, cellular redox and photosynthesis and suggests a role of ALDHs as ...
Preferred precursors include ethylene oxide; 2-vinyl pyridine; N-vinylpyrrolidone and acrylic acid and its salts; acrylamide ... aldehydes. These monomers may be formed into homopolymers or block or random copolymers. The use of oligomers of these monomers ... 2-vinyl pyridine; N-vinylpyrrolidone; polyethylene glycol acrylates such as mono-alkoxy polyethylene glycol mono(meth) ... 2-vinyl pyridine; N-vinylpyrrolidone; polyethylene glycol acrylates such as mono-alkoxy polyethylene glycol mono(meth) ...
pyridine-2,6-dialdehyde,. biphenyl-4-aldehyde;. organic phosphonic acids such as:. 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzene-phosphonic acid ... phosgenated product of aniline-aldehyde condensation, phosgenated product of aniline-aldehyde condensation, phosgenated product ... polyphenylpolymethyleneisocyanates obtained by aniline aldehyde or ketone condensation followed by phosgenation, commercially ...
Spectrophotometric studies on pyridine aldehyde semicarbazone PAS in presence of certain metal ions a study of the colour ...
... methoxy-4-biphenylamine and aromatic heterocyclic aldehydes has been... ... Entropy Enthalpy Benzene Aldehyde Pyridine This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... methoxy-4-biphenylamine and aromatic heterocyclic aldehydes has been prepared. The ability of each compound to form a liquid ...
Other names: Picolinaldehyde; 2-Pyridinealdehyde; Pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde; Pyridine-2-aldehyde; 2-Pyridylaldehyde; 2- ... Pyridinecarbaldehyde; «alpha»-Picolinaldehyde; o-Nicotinaldehyde; Picolinal; Picolinic aldehyde; 2-Formylpyridine; 2- ... Picolinaldehyde; 2-Picolinealdehyde; 2-Pyridaldehyde; 2-Pyridylcarboxaldehyde; NSC 8951; pyridine-2-carbaldehyde ...
0 (Aldehydes); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Pyridines); 11062-77-4 (Superoxides); EC 1.6.3.- (NADPH Oxidase 4); EC 1.6.3.- (NOX4 ... Cyanobacterial aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (cADO) is a nonheme diiron enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aldehyde to ... 0 (Aldehydes); 0 (Isoenzymes); EC (ALDH2 protein, human); EC (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial). ... Calculated Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Aldehyde-Deformylating Oxygenase: Asymmetric Aldehyde Activation by a Symmetric Diiron ...
6.7.2 Switches Driven by Reactions of Pyridines 609. 6.7.3 Switches Driven by Protection of Aldehydes 610 ...
Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines Halogenated Polymers ... Pyridine-2-aldehyde. *Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde. *2-Formylpyridine. *2-Pyridinealdehyde. *2-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde ...
Scheme 2 a Reagents and conditions: (a) 4 M HCl in ethyl acetate, rt; (c) substituted pyridine aldehyde, NaBH4, MeOH, rt; (b) ... reductive amination of the amines 8a and 8b with various substituted benzaldehydes or pyridine aldehydes using NaBH4 gave the ... pyridine and 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazoles.22-27N1-[(1R, 2S)-2-phenylcyclopropyl]cyclohexane-1,4-diamine dihydrochlorideORY-1001 ...
Use of pyridine aldehydes for the prevention and treatment of acne vulgaris. 1980-02-19. Klosa. ... In the examples immediately below, the term pyridines refers to derivatives of the C5H5N ring (pyridine) bearing alkyl (R), ... Polyunsaturated linear aldehydes and their derivatives with anti-radical and anti-tumoral activity. 2005-08-11. Stradi et al.. ... Fatty aldehydes and acids in the treatment of neurological and inflammatory diseases. 1986-09-23. Horrmann. ...
7.10 Electrophilic substitution of pyridine 135. 7.11 Electrophilic substitution of pyrrole, furan and thiophene 136 ... 8 Carbonyl compounds: aldehydes and ketones 139. 8.1 Structure 139. 8.2 Reactivity 140 ...
The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. The reactions can be ... This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic ... Any suitable aldehyde can be employed, i.e., any aldehyde having a ##STR6## group except acetaldehyde. This includes aldehydes ... We have discovered novel substituted pyridines and a method for their preparation which comprises reacting an aldehyde, an ...
... pyridine carboxaldehydes (PCALs), MASAL (methyl ester of adipic semialdehyde), BAL (betaine aldehyde) chloride together with ... Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell ... mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; P6C, Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate; PCAL, pyridine carboxaldehyde; PsALDH, ALDH from Pisum ... 1998) Human aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. Eur. J. Biochem. 251:549-557, doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510549.x, pmid: ...
... pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; ... b-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl ... aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; ... alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and ...
Also reduces pyridine-3-aldehyde and 2,3-butanedione. Acetaldehyde, 2-dehydroglucose (glucosone) and glucuronate are poor ...
Help with Aldehyde and Ketone Synthesis. Includes full solutions and score reporting. ... SOCl2, pyridine, and triethylamine. Diethyl ether, organometallic compound, and H3O+ ... Organic Chemistry Help » Reactions by Product » Carbonyl Products » Help with Aldehyde and Ketone Synthesis ... Organic Chemistry : Help with Aldehyde and Ketone Synthesis. Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Organic ...
Alcohols, ketones, glycols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, and pyridines are substitutions for a hydrogen group. Organic solvents ... The biotransformation of p-xylene to a toxic aldehyde. Drug Metab Dispos. 1978 Jul-Aug. 6(4):368-74. [Medline]. ...
... in which the dip contains an alkaline aqueous dispersion of a mixture of a major amount by weight of a rubbery vinyl pyridine/ ... Lignin, phenol, and aldehyde condensation process and product US3300426A (en) * 1963-08-05. 1967-01-24. Goodyear Tire & Rubber ... Examples of suitable vinyl pyrdines are 2-vinyl pyridine, 4-vinyl pyridine, 2-methyl-5-vinyl pyridine, and 5-ethyl-2-vinyl ... Lignin, phenol, and aldehyde condensation process and product US3167523A (en) * 1960-11-14. 1965-01-26. West Virginia Pulp & ...
Natural aldehyde extraction and direct preparation of new blue light-emitting imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine fluorophores. ...
Synthesis of aldehyde 14. a, TBS trifluoromethanesulfonate, 4 Å MS, CH2Cl2, 23°C, 15 min, 84%; b, tetrabutylammonium fluoride, ... pyridine, DMSO, i-Pr2NEt, CH2Cl2, 0°C, 15 min, 66%; f, DDQ, CH2Cl2/pH 7 buffer, 0°C, 4 h; g, Ac2O, Et3N, DMAP, CH2Cl2; h, ... pyridine, DMSO, i-Pr2NEt, CH2Cl2, 0°C, 30 min; f, i-Pr2NEt, LiCl, CH3CN (1 mM), 23°C, 19 h, 75%, (E)/(Z) = ≥95:5, ds = 73:12:9: ... pyridine, DMSO, i-Pr2NEt, CH2Cl2, 0°C, 30 min, 91%; d, Et2Zn (1 M in hexanes), (-)-N,N-dibutylnorephedrine, toluene, 0°C → 23°C ...
Intermediate II can be prepared by Method 3). Strecker reaction between amine IV and aldehydes affords intermediate V. ... To a solution of 5-bromo-pyridin-3-ylamine (7.00 g, 40.5 mmol) and pyridine-2-carbaldehyde (5.20 g, 48.6 mmol) in DME (50 mL) ... 5-dibromo-pyridine and amino-phenyl-acetic acid affords intermediate III. The reaction can be carried out in the presence of a ...
The lubricative fluid contains water, pyridine, squalene, urea, acetic acid, lactic acid, complex alcohols and glycols, ketones ... and aldehydes. It can vary in consistency, texture, taste, color, and odor, depending on sexual arousal, the phase of the ...
Separation of pyridine-4-aldehyde and C1-C3 carbonyl-DNPH derivatives was achieved using an Ascentis RP-Amide column (565322-U ... Ozone in the air sample is trapped in the BPE-coated silica bed and produces pyridine-4-aldehyde. Carbonyls in the air sample ... Solvent passing through the BPE-DNPH cartridge washes DNPH into the BPE bed where it reacts with pyridine-4-aldehyde and forms ... The eluate from the BPE-DNPH cartridge contains hydrazones of the sampled carbonyls including pyridine-4-aldehyde formed from ...
kcat is 9 min(-1) with pyridine-3-aldehyde as substrate. kcat is 7.3 min(- 1) with hexanal as substrate. kcat is 9 min(-1) with ... 2.9 uM for pyridine-3-aldehyde {ECO:0000269 PubMed:26222439}; KM=3.1 uM for hexanal {ECO:0000269 PubMed:26222439}; KM=36 uM for ... Isoform 1]: Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of carbonyl substrates, like aromatic aldehydes, alkenals, ... Isoform 1]: Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of carbonyl substrates, like aromatic aldehydes, alkenals, ...
  • In its general form, the reaction can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, or any combination of the above, in ammonia or ammonia derivatives. (
  • In the case of asymmetric ketones), abstraction of the non-preferred β-Hydrogen 4.Enolate ion attack of the enamine or imine carbon 5.Enolate ion attack of an unintended aldehyde- or keto-carbonyl Pyridine synthesis step 6. (
  • Other examples of the pyridine class can be formed by the reaction of 1,5-di ketones with ammonium acetate in acetic acid followed by oxidation. (
  • Isoform 1]: Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of carbonyl substrates, like aromatic aldehydes, alkenals, ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (PubMed:26222439, PubMed:21276782). (
  • In general, phenyl aldehydes are more reactive than phenyl ketones because the ketone carbonyl carbon is less electrophilic than the aldehyde carbonyl carbon. (
  • O-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones oxidize faster than p-hydroxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones in weakly basic conditions. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldo/keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and AKR7 family, which are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes and ketones. (
  • He developed a method of obtaining pyridine derivatives by the condensation of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia. (
  • The use of borane-pyridine as a reducing agent for the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones with primary aromatic and aliphatic amines was studied. (
  • The overall process is fast, general, and high-yielding route to aldehydes and/or ketones. (
  • For this reason, pyridine has a dipole moment and a weaker resonant stabilization than benzene (resonance energy) Production[edit] Chichibabin synthesis In its general form, the reaction can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, or any combination of the above, in ammonia or ammonia derivatives. (
  • Shymanska M. Neurotropic activity of thiosemicarbazones of pyridine aldehydes and ketones. (
  • Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones. (
  • The procedure commenced with selective directed ortho metalation of 2‐ and 3‐bromopyridine, followed by reaction with aldehydes or ketones. (
  • The enhanced formation of aldehydes or ketones was not observed for ozonolyses in the presence of an alcohol nucleophile, which resulted in the typical formation of hydroperoxyacetals. (
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (ALDHs) are very common proteins involved in the oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids, using NAD and NADP as electron acceptors. (
  • The reaction of anilide 4 with aromatic aldehydes yielded 10a,b. (
  • Also, when anilide 4 was reacted with a mixture of aromatic aldehydes, urea or thiourea afforded the pyrimidines 11a,b. (
  • This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. (
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P) + -dependent enzymes that catalyse irreversible oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids. (
  • There are now many methods in industry and in the laboratory for the synthesis of pyridine and its derivatives. (
  • Separation of pyridine-4-aldehyde and C1-C3 carbonyl-DNPH derivatives was achieved using an Ascentis RP-Amide column ( 565322-U , 15 cm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm). (
  • An important precursor to pyridine derivatives, pentaerythritol and crotonaldehyde. (
  • Kaupp, G., Metwally, M.A., Fathy, A.A. and Abdel Latif, E. (2003) Quantitative Gas-Solid Diazotization of 3- Aminopyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives and Azo Dye Syntheses by Means of Solid-Solid Reactions. (
  • Imine attack at an enamine or imine carbon In the case of simple aldehydes, and particularly in the case of α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, polymerization of starting materials can occur frequently and is shown to significantly decrease yields. (
  • Ozonolysis in the presence of pyridine involves an unprecedented organocatalyzed decomposition of carbonyl oxides via the formation and fragmentation of zwitterionic peroxyacetals. (
  • Pyridine N -oxide pendants arranged inside the helical cavity of poly-1(NO) 0.10 exhibited catalytic activity for the asymmetric allylation of benzaldehydes, producing the corresponding allyl alcohols with up to 43% ee. (
  • Pyridine-sulfur trioxide, C 5 H 5 NSO 3 (mp 175 °C), is a sulfonation agent used to convert alcohols to sulfonates, which in turn undergo C-O bond scission (break-up) upon reduction with hydride agents. (
  • Ozonolysis is widely used to transform alkenes into oxygen‐rich functional groups (e.g.- alcohols, aldehydes, and acids). (
  • 5. The process of claim 1 wherein the organic compound containing at least 2 isocyanate radicals is selected from the group consisting of tolylene diisocyanate, phosgenated product of aniline-aldehyde condensation, phosgenated product of aniline-aldehyde condensation, phosgenated product of aniline-ketone condensation, isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer and mixtures thereof. (
  • A redox-neutral, [3+3]-type condensation of O -acetyl ketoximes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that is synergistically catalyzed by a copper(I) salt and a secondary ammonium salt (or amine), allows modular synthesis of a variety of substituted pyridines under mild conditions with tolerance of a broad range of functional groups. (
  • Shymanska M. Catalytic condensation of pyridine aldehydes with acetonitrile. (
  • Research accomplished in the Yaroslav Polytechnic Institute on the synthesis of pyridine bases by the reaction of aliphatic aldehydes with ammonia is correlated. (
  • Does anyone here know a good synthesis of pyridine from extremly OTC-chemicals like B6, nicotine or similar things? (
  • In all fairness to SpeechDiscussionTalk, we do not have a good thread on the synthesis of pyridine or the acquisition from common OTC chemicals. (
  • Any suitable aldehyde can be employed, i.e., any aldehyde having a ##STR6## group except acetaldehyde. (
  • By substituting other aldehydes for acetaldehyde, one can obtain alkyl and aryl substituted pyridines. (
  • Figure 1 shows the HPLC separation of pyridine-4-aldehyde (PA), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA) and acetone (AC) 2,4-DNPhydrazones in the solutions extracted from air samplers on the Ascentis RP-Amide column. (
  • A mixture of pyridine-4-aldehyde-DNPhydrazone, formaldehyde-DNPhydrazone, acetaldehyde-DNPhydrazone and acetone-DNPhydrazone (0.5 μg/L each) was analysed. (
  • Pyridine is produced industrially by the reaction of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and ammonia at elevated temperature and pressure over a catalyst. (
  • Zincke aldehydes, or 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienals, are the product of the reaction of a pyridinium salt with two equivalents of any secondary amine, followed by basic hydrolysis. (
  • Using secondary amines (as opposed to primary amines) the Zincke reaction takes on a different shape forming Zincke aldehydes in which the pyridine ring is ring-opened with the terminal iminium group hydrolyzed to an aldehyde. (
  • A variation of the Zincke reaction has been applied in the synthesis of novel indoles: with cyanogen bromide mediated pyridine activation (König method). (
  • More recently, an interesting rearrangement of Zincke aldehydes to Z-unsaturated amides was discovered serendipitously while trying to do an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. (
  • Also in 2009, the first reports of Zincke aldehydes undergoing a Pictet-Spengler reaction appeared from the group of Christian Marazano. (
  • One drawback of the Zincke Aldehyde synthesis is the need for 2 equivalents of the amine in the initial pyridine ring opening reaction. (
  • Chichibabin reaction Gattermann-Skita synthesis Hantzsch pyridine synthesis Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement Frank, R. L. (
  • Rubber compounds are readily bonded to reinforcing elements, particularly tire cords of glass fibers, using a one-step dip process in which the dip contains an alkaline aqueous dispersion of a mixture of a major amount by weight of a rubbery vinyl pyridine/styrene/butadiene terpolymer and a lignin sulfonate-resorcinol-formaldehyde reaction product. (
  • Pyridine is protonated by reaction with acids and forms a positively charged aromatic polyatomic ion called a pyridinium cation . (
  • The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis is a multicomponent reaction involving formaldehyde, a keto-ester and a nitrogen donor. (
  • This reaction is called the "Kröhnke pyridine synthesis. (
  • Nucleophilic aromatic substitution takes place at C2 and C4 for example in the Chichibabin reaction of pyridine with sodium amide to 2-aminopyridine. (
  • In the Emmert reaction (B. Emmert, 1939) pyridine is reacted with a ketone in presence of aluminium or magnesium and mercuric chloride to the carbinol also at C2. (
  • The Dakin oxidation (or Dakin reaction) is an organic redox reaction in which an ortho- or para-hydroxylated phenyl aldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) or ketone reacts with hydrogen peroxide in base to form a benzenediol and a carboxylate. (
  • He was the first to produce ct-aminopyridine, by the action of sodium amide on pyridine (Chichibabin reaction). (
  • The title compound, C 27 H 22 N 2 O 2 , was synthesized by the reaction of indole-3-carb-aldehyde with 4-methoxyaceto-phenone and ammonium acetate in glycol under microwave irradiation. (
  • A reaction sequence involving a Wittig reaction, a Staudinger reaction, an aza-Wittig reaction, a 6π-3-azatriene electrocyclization, and a 1,3-H shift enables a quick one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted pyridines in very good yields from aldehydes, phosphorus ylides, and propargyl azide. (
  • Results were encouraging, suggesting that borane-pyridine in acidic media could be developed into a useful practical reagent for this reaction. (
  • Similarly, anilide 1 was reacted with cyanoacetamide under the same reaction conditions to yield 4-methyl-2-oxo-6-p-tolylamino-1,2-dihydro-pyridine-3-carbonitrile 13 in quantitative yield. (
  • One pot three-component reaction of 2-amino pyridines, aldehydes and isocyanides in the presence of silicasupported perchloric acid (HClO4-SiO2), produces 3-aminoimidazo[1,2-a] pyridines in excellent yields. (
  • To achieve a more accurate method of monitoring ozone (10028156) exposure among approximately 975,000 workers in 157 different occupations, three ozonolysis reactions were tested in the solid phase for reproducibility and quantitative yield of an aldehyde reaction product. (
  • Using this assay we showed, for the first time, that Kvβ2 can catalyze a slow aldehyde dismutation reaction using 4-nitrobenzaldehyde as substrate and have identified the products of this reaction. (
  • The ability of Kvβ2 to carry out both an aldehyde reduction and a dismutation reaction is discussed in the light of current thinking on the role of redox chemistry in channel modulation. (
  • Mechanistic Dichotomy in the Asymmetric Allylation of Aldehydes with Allyltrichlorosilanes Catalyzed by Chiral Pyridine N-Oxides. (
  • Importance of an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Polymorphism in Preventive Medicine]. (
  • Unlike genetic alterations in other aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, a defective ALDH2 polymorphism (rs671), which is carried by almost half of East Asians, does not show a clear phenotype such as a shortened life span. (
  • Screening and characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Halomonas salina strain AS11. (
  • Extrapolating from an in-vitro elastin model under physiological conditions, the researchers found that the ratios of IDP to DESP corresponded extremely closely with values based on both a calculation of a theoretical Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of 3 mol allysine and 1 mol ammonia, and reported ratios of 2,3,5- to 3,4,5-trisubstituted pyridine ratios of a Chichibabin pyridine synthesis involving phenylacetaldehyde. (
  • They concluded with relative certainty that the pyridine cross-links found in elastin were, in fact, due to an in-vivo Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of ammonia and allysine. (
  • Aliphatic aldehydes proved to be poor substrates. (
  • As a result, aldehyde and ketone concentrations show lower results compared to DNPH alone and the BPE-DNPH cartridge ( Table 2 ). (
  • The Japanese chemotype of Houttuynia cordata instead contains the related chemicals lauryl aldehyde, caprylic aldehyde and methyl nonyl ketone as well as a number of other biologically active pyridine alkaloids, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. (
  • However, we did observe that ozonolysis in the presence of pyridine greatly furnished significant amounts of aldehyde or ketone products at the expense of the expected ozonide. (
  • Addition of Grignard reagents to pyridine N -oxides in THF at room temperature and subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride at 120 C afforded 2-substituted pyridines in good yields. (
  • By exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N -oxides were obtained, enabling the synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted pyridines. (
  • The presence of pyridine was found to always enhance the selectivity for oxidative cleavage of the more electron‐rich alkene. (
  • Azizollah Habibi, Zahra Tarameshloo, Shahnaz Rostamizadeh and Ali M. Amani, " Efficient Synthesis of 3-Aminoimidazo[1,2-a] Pyridines Using Silica-Supported Perchloric Acid (HClO4-SiO2) as a Novel Heterogenous Catalyst", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2012) 9: 155. (
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. (
  • It just may be nitrogen-containing compounds that make bacon smell like nothing else in the universe," the video's narrator says, referring to compounds called pyridines and pyrazines. (
  • But combine them with hydrocarbons, aldehydes and other odor compounds, and they become the major contributor to bacon-y goodness. (
  • Chichibabin's main works are devoted to the chemistry of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, primarily pyridine. (
  • Chichibabin is also known for his work on free aromatic radicals and his method of synthesizing aldehydes by means of organomagnesium compounds. (
  • This index lists the names of all compounds found in the 'IR - Aldehydes - Bio‑Rad Sadtler' spectral database. (
  • 3. A compounds according to claim 1 or 2 in which at least one of A, B, D and E is a group other than hydrogen and that it is in a position on the pyridine ring ortho to the substituent W. (
  • The presence of an electron withdrawing group at the position para to the aldehyde in aromatic compounds facilitated reduction. (
  • Because this lone pair is not delocalized into the aromatic system of "pi" electrons, pyridine is basic , with chemical properties similar to those of tertiary amines. (
  • A novel four-component bicyclization strategy has been established, allowing a flexible and practical approach to 37 examples of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from low-cost and readily accessible arylglyoxals, pyrazol-5-amines, aromatic amines, 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and cyclohexane-1,3-diones. (
  • One of the chief limitations of practical application of the traditional Chichibabin pyridine synthesis is its consistently low product yield. (
  • The terminal alcohol function has been converted into aldehyde with CrO 3 -pyridine in good yield. (
  • The optimized methods were developed for all three isomers of hydroxyalkyl‐substituted pyridines, which were synthesized in 28-84 % overall yield (20 examples). (
  • Kvβ2 was found to catalyse the reduction of aromatic aldehyde substrates such as 2, 3 and 4-nitrobenzaldehydes, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, pyridine 2-aldehyde and benzaldehyde. (
  • In organic reactions, pyridine behaves as a tertiary amine with protonation, alkylation, acylation and N-oxidation at the nitrogen atom. (
  • Pyridine is useful indeed, many wonderful complexes can be made from it (oxidizing agents, halogenating agents) and it also serves a catalytic function in many reactions. (
  • As ALDH2 is responsible for the detoxification of endogenous aldehydes, a negative effect of this polymorphism is predicted, but bidirectional effects have been actually observed and the mechanisms underlying such influences are often complex. (
  • One reason for this complexity may be the existence of compensatory aldehyde detoxification systems and the secondary effects of these systems. (
  • A broad range of functional pyridines were prepared in good yields using this metal-free protocol. (
  • None was stable in the solid phase, and aldehyde yields were unpredictable. (
  • Several elements affected the reproducibility of aldehyde yields, including variability of olefin loading on the solid support, sample flow rate and sampling duration, varied ozone concentrations, time of sample elution and sample storage, and different elution solvents. (
  • The yields of aldehyde from sampling ozone in air, with corrections made for blank amounts, were much too large to be accounted for by ozone alone. (
  • The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis (/ˈtʃiːtʃiːˌbeɪbiːn/) is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings. (
  • In order to ascertain the effect of heterocyclic rings on liquid crystal stability, a series of Schiff bases derived from 4′-methoxy-4-biphenylamine and aromatic heterocyclic aldehydes has been prepared. (
  • Pyridine can be classified as a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound . (
  • Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. (
  • Starting olefins were coated on a variety of solid substrates, exposed to known ozone concentrations, and then analyzed for aldehydes. (
  • When the pyridine N -oxide content in the copolymer was 10 mol% (poly-1(NO) 0.10 ), the polymer backbone formed a one-handed helical structure in acetonitrile. (
  • In homogenates of bovine, human and rat ventricles the primary pyridine coenzyme-linked metabolism of HNE was associated with NADPH oxidation. (
  • Aldehydes, which are highly reactive molecules, are toxic at high concentrations. (
  • We investigated the influence of pyridine and related molecules on the selectivity of ozonolysis for four dienes: citronellene, limonene, geranyl acetate, and 4‐vinyl‐1‐cyclohexene. (
  • There have been a number of anecdotal accounts describing the favorable influence of added pyridine on selective ozonolysis within polyunsaturated systems. (
  • Alkyl-substituted pyridines show widespread uses among multiple fields of applied chemistry, including the polymer and pharmaceutical industries. (
  • This, in concert with the high prevalence of byproducts, which would require a multitude of purification steps to isolate pure pyridine product, render unaltered forms of Chichibabin's method unsuitable for applied chemistry. (
  • Each molecule of pyridine is a six-membered ring related to the structure of benzene -one CH group in the benzene ring is replaced by a nitrogen atom. (
  • The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. (
  • The sorbents were not stable over time as large blank concentrations of the aldehyde occurred. (
  • The ligands contain ortho substituted pyridines (H, CH3, OCH3, fluorophenyl) and varying substituents (H, CH3) at the Schiff base linkage. (
  • All of the hydrazones derived from airborne carbonyls and pyridine-4-aldehyde (derived from ozone) are completely separated and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. (
  • The eluate from the BPE-DNPH cartridge contains hydrazones of the sampled carbonyls including pyridine-4-aldehyde formed from ozone. (
  • Thus AR might constitute an antioxidative enzyme involved in myocardial protection against endogenous and exogenous cytotoxic aldehydes and against oxidative stress. (
  • Pyridine is a fundamentally important chemical compound with the formula C 5 H 5 N . It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid, fishy odor. (
  • The Vanderwal group has also reported the synthesis of 4-stannyldienals from Zincke aldehydes by addition of tributylstannyl anion and quenching with acetyl chloride. (
  • Solvent passing through the BPE-DNPH cartridge washes DNPH into the BPE bed where it reacts with pyridine-4-aldehyde and forms the corresponding hydrazone derivative. (
  • The aldehyde has been masked as the corresponding dithiane derivative, obtainable as a stable crystalline solid. (
  • therefore, prenatal health effects of environmental aldehyde exposure are of concern for ALDH2*2-carrying fetuses. (
  • The use of the dinitrophenyl group for pyridine activation was first reported by Theodor Zincke. (
  • The use of cyanogen bromide for pyridine activation was independently reported by W. König: The synthesis and utility of Zincke aldehydes has been reviewed. (
  • In 2009, the Vanderwal group reported another interesting rearrangement of Zincke aldehydes. (
  • Tryptamine-derived Zincke aldehydes are heated with strong base to give the rearranged enal as shown below. (
  • This solution has greatly simplified the production and purification of complex Zincke aldehydes. (
  • The decarboxylation of niacin seems to be a good method to make pyridine. (
  • Ozone in the air sample is trapped in the fi rst bed by the BPE-coated silica particles and reacts to form pyridine-4-aldehyde. (
  • Ozone in the air sample is trapped in the BPE-coated silica bed and produces pyridine-4-aldehyde. (
  • The reported findings, together with a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the double mutant, agree with an interdependency between pyridine nucleotides, cellular redox and photosynthesis and suggests a role of ALDHs as contributors to the cellular redox homeostasis. (
  • Therefore, ALDHs play a crucial role in detoxifying aldehydes produced by various metabolic pathways. (
  • Pires, A. Thermal behavior and electrical conductivity of poly (vinyl pyridine)/copper complexes. (
  • Catalytically active chiral π-conjugated polymers (poly-1(NO) r ) bearing pyridine N -oxide pendants were synthesized by ternary copolymerization of a D -glucose-bound diethynyl compound with two types of thieno[3,4- b ]thiophene comonomer, one of which contained a pyridine N -oxide group. (
  • Pyridine-borane, C 5 H 5 NBH 3 (m.p. 10-11°C), is a mild reducing agent with improved stability compared to sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in protic solvents and improved solubility in aprotic organic solvents. (