An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain quinoline alkaloids.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Mercuriphenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms and one or more nitro groups. Some of these are sulfhydryl reagents which act as chromophoric probes in enzymes and other proteins.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Aldehyde oxidase-dependent marked species difference in hepatic metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic, zaleplon, between monkeys and rats. (1/144)

A marked difference in hepatic activity of aldehyde oxidase between rats and monkeys was found to be responsible for the previously reported marked species difference in the metabolism of Zaleplon in vivo. In the postmitochondrial fractions, S-9s, from liver homogenates of these animals, Zaleplon was transformed in the presence of NADPH into the side chain oxidation product, N-desethyl-Zaleplon, and the aromatic ring oxidation product, 5-oxo-Zaleplon. In the rat S-9, N-desethyl-Zaleplon and 5-oxo-Zaleplon were a major and a very minor metabolites, respectively. However, in the monkey S-9, Zaleplon was transformed into 5-oxo-Zaleplon at a much higher rate than that for N-desethyl-Zaleplon formation. N-Desethyl-Zaleplon was formed in the monkey S-9 at a rate almost equal to that in the rat S-9. N-Desethyl-5-oxo-Zaleplon was formed at a minor rate only in the monkey S-9 through N-desethyl-Zaleplon as an obligatory intermediate. The hepatic activity for the formation of 5-oxo-Zaleplon in the monkey and rat was localized in cytosol and did not require NADPH. Sensitivity to various inhibitors and requirement of water as oxygen source, using H218O, strongly suggested that the hepatic cytosolic formation of 5-oxo-Zaleplon was mediated by aldehyde oxidase. N-Desethyl-Zaleplon was formed in the presence of NADPH by microsomes from the liver of rats and monkeys, and its formation was strongly suggested using various cytochrome P-450 inhibitors to be mediated by a number of cytochrome P-450 isoforms, such as 3A, 2C, and 2D subfamilies.  (+info)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase. (2/144)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase: tissue distribution and regulation in vivo by testosterone. (3/144)

The cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase (AO), a molybdoflavoprotein, has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA is 4347 nt long and consists of an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 1333 amino acid residues, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 13 and 335 nt respectively. The apparent molecular mass of the translation product in vitro derived from the corresponding cRNA is consistent with that of the monomeric subunit of the AO holoenzyme. The cDNA codes for a catalytically active form of AO, as demonstrated by transient transfection experiments conducted in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell line. The deduced primary structure of the AO protein contains consensus sequences for two distinct 2Fe-2S redox centres and a molybdopterin-binding site. The amino acid sequence of the mouse AO has a high degree of similarity with the human and bovine counterparts, and a significant degree of relatedness to AO proteins of plant origin. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that hepatocytes, cardiocytes, lung endothelial or epithelial cells and oesophagus epithelial cells express high levels of AO mRNA. In the various tissues and organs considered, the level of AO mRNA expression is not strictly correlated with the amount of the corresponding protein, suggesting that the synthesis of the AO enzyme is under translational or post-translational control. In addition, we observed sex-related regulation of AO protein synthesis. In the liver of male animals, despite similar amounts of AO mRNA, the levels of the AO enzyme and corresponding polypeptide are significantly higher than those in female animals. Treatment of female mice with testosterone increases the amounts of AO mRNA and of the relative translation product to levels similar to those in male animals.  (+info)

Production of homo- and hetero-dimeric isozymes from two aldehyde oxidase genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. (4/144)

Polyclonal antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides or recombinant polypeptides encoded by Arabidopsis atAO-1 and atAO-2 cDNAs, which have sequences similar to maize and animal aldehyde oxidase (AO) cDNAs. Anti-atAO-1 antibodies recognized AOalpha and AObeta among the three isoforms, AOalpha, AObeta, and AOgamma, detected in Arabidopsis seedlings after native PAGE, while anti-atAO-2 antibodies reacted with AObeta and AOgamma. The polypeptide specifically recognized by each antibody was collected as the Protein-A/IgG/antigen complex. The 150- and 145-kDa polypeptides were purified by SDS-PAGE and digested with Achromobacter Protease I. From the amino acid sequences and molecular masses of the derivative peptides, it was revealed that the 150- and 145-kDa polypeptides were the products of atAO-1 and atAO-2, respectively. Molecular masses of the native forms of AOalpha, AObeta, and AOgamma were estimated as approximately 290-300 kDa. These results suggest that AOalpha and AOgamma are homodimers consisting of atAO-1 and atAO-2 products, respectively, and that AObeta is a heterodimer of the atAO-1 and atAO-2 products.  (+info)

Thioguanine administered as a continuous intravenous infusion to pediatric patients is metabolized to the novel metabolite 8-hydroxy-thioguanine. (5/144)

Thiopurine antimetabolites have been in clinical use for more than 40 years, yet the metabolism of thiopurines remains only partially understood. Data from our previous pediatric phase 1 trial of continuous i.v. infusion of thioguanine (CIVI-TG) suggested that TG was eliminated by saturable mechanism, with conversion of the drug to an unknown metabolite. In this study we have identified this metabolite as 8-hydroxy-thioguanine (8-OH-TG). The metabolite coeluted with the 8-OH-TG standard on HPLC and had an identical UV spectrum, with a lambda(max) of 350 nm. On mass spectroscopy, the positive ion, single quad scan of 8-OH-TG yielded a protonated molecular ion at 184 Da and contained diagnostic ions at m/z 167, 156, 142, and 125 Da. Incubation of TG in vitro with partially purified aldehyde oxidase resulted in 8-OH-TG formation. 8-OH-TG is the predominant circulating metabolite found in patients receiving CIVI-TG and is likely generated by the action of aldehyde oxidase.  (+info)

The mouse aldehyde oxidase gene: molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region. (6/144)

In this article, we report on the chromosome mapping and molecular cloning of the genetic locus encoding the mouse molybdo-iron/sulfur-flavoprotein aldehyde oxidase. The aldehyde oxidase locus maps to mouse chromosome 1 band C1-C2, as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments conducted on metaphase chromosomes. The gene is approximately 83 kb long and consists of 35 exons. The exon/intron boundaries are perfectly conserved relative to the corresponding human homolog and almost completely conserved relative to the mouse xanthine oxidoreductase gene. This further supports the concept that the aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase loci evolved from the same ancestral precursor by a gene duplication event. The position of a major transcription start site was defined by primer extension and RNase mapping analysis. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse aldehyde oxidase gene contains a functional and orientation-dependent promoter as well as several putative binding sites for known cell-specific and general transcription factors. Deletion analysis of the 5'-flanking region defines an approximately 470 bp DNA stretch which is necessary and sufficient for the transcription of the mouse aldehyde oxidase gene.  (+info)

Functional expression of two Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidases in the yeast Pichia pastoris. (7/144)

To investigate the biochemical and enzymatic properties of two aldehyde oxidase (AO) isoforms of Arabidopsis thaliana, we expressed AAO1 and AAO2 cDNAs in a heterologous yeast (Pichia pastoris) system and successfully obtained the proteins in active forms. The expressed AAO1 and AAO2 proteins gave activity bands with the same mobilities on native gel electrophoresis and exhibited the same substrate preferences on zymograms with 8 aldehydes as those of AOalpha and AOgamma in Arabidopsis seedlings, respectively. Furthermore, anti-AAO1 and anti-AAO2 antibodies, which specifically recognize the seedling AOalpha and AOgamma, respectively, reacted with the AAO1 and AAO2 proteins produced in P. pastoris, respectively. These results indicate that these AO proteins are accurately produced in the yeast system, as in Arabidopsis seedlings. Using AO preparations from P. pastoris, the enzymatic properties of Arabidopsis AOalpha and AOgamma were investigated. AOalpha showed a relatively wide substrate specificity for 7 aldehydes tested, with high affinity to benzaldehyde and indole-3-aldehyde, while AOgamma could most efficiently oxidize naphthaldehyde. AOalpha was strongly inhibited by iodoacetate and KCN, while AOgamma was inhibited not only by iodoacetate and KCN but also by 2-mercaptethanol, dithiothreitol, menadion, and estradiol. AOalpha and AOgamma showed the highest activity at around 65 and 50 degrees C, respectively, and exhibited pH dependence around pH 8.0. These results indicate that the two AO isoforms in Arabidopsis seedlings have different enzymatic properties and may have different physiological roles in vivo.  (+info)

Metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in perfused rat liver: involvement of hepatic aldehyde oxidase as a detoxification enzyme. (8/144)

To elucidate the toxicological relevance of hepatic aldehyde oxidase (AO) as a detoxification enzyme of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we studied the metabolism and the hepatotoxicity of MPTP in intact rat livers exhibiting different AO activities by using a recirculating perfusion method. In the perfusate during a 90-min recirculation of 1 mM MPTP, the perfused liver from Jcl:Wistar rat, a strain showing high AO activity, generated almost equal amounts of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium species (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyridone (MPTP lactam) as major metabolites, together with 4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyridone (MP 2-pyridone) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide. However, a marked decrease of MPTP lactam as well as MP 2-pyridone and a concomitant increase of MPP(+) were caused by coinfusion of 2-hydroxypyrimidine (2-OH PM), a competitive inhibitor of AO, into Jcl:Wistar rat liver. A quite similar metabolic profile was obtained on perfusion of AO-deficient WKA/Sea rat liver. Rather large amounts of MPP(+) were retained in the liver in all cases, but especially in Jcl:Wistar rat in the presence of 2-OH PM. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the perfusate from rat liver perfused with 1 mM MPTP was greater in the strain with lower AO activity, WKA/Sea, than in that with higher AO activity, Jcl:Wistar. Furthermore, inhibition of AO in Jcl:Wistar rat in the presence of 2-OH PM caused an enhancement of lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results suggest that hepatic AO is a key detoxification enzyme for MPTP.  (+info)

Aldehyde oxidase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AOX1 gene. Aldehyde oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide and, under certain conditions, can catalyze the formation of superoxide. Aldehyde oxidase is a candidate gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. MOCOS GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138356 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000063558 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: aldehyde oxidase 1. Berger R, Mezey E, Clancy KP, Harta G, Wright RM, Repine JE, Brown RH, Brownstein M, Patterson D (March 1995). Analysis of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase as possible candidate genes for autosomal recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 21 (2): 121-31. doi:10.1007/BF02255787. PMID 7570184. Human AOX1 genome location and AOX1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Wang AG, Yoon SY, Oh JH, et al. (2006). Identification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma ...
Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Aldehyde Oxidases as Enzymes in Phase I Drug Metabolism. AU - Mota, Cristiano. AU - Santos-Silva, Teresa Sacadura. AU - Terao, Mineko. AU - Garattini, Enrico. AU - Romão, Maria João. AU - Leimkühler, Silke. PY - 2019/6/27. Y1 - 2019/6/27. N2 - This chapter discusses the significance of aldehyde oxidases for the design and development of new drugs, and discusses associated problems. Aldehyde oxidases are a group of enzymes with important functions in the context of drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and xanthine oxidoreductases (XORs) are structurally and evolutionarily linked molybdoflavoproteins. AOXs and XORs are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, homologous proteins have been identified in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The C-terminal domain III is binding the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) in its sulfido-containing form. At the catalytic site, the Moco adopts an approximately square pyramidal geometry. Heterologous expression ...
Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final step of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, which is the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde (ABAld) to ABA. Gene expression analyses indicate that the stress-induced Pisum sativum PsAOγ isoform, which effectively uses ABAld as a substrate, is encoded by the PsAO3 gene. PsAO3 was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant PsAO3 protein revealed substrate preferences highly similar to the native PsAOγ protein present in the pea leaves and roots. Both proteins prefer indole-3-aldehyde and naphthaldehyde as substrates, although high activities against abscisic aldehyde and citral were also observed. The Km values of PsAO3 for naphthaldehyde and abscisic aldehyde (4.6 and 5.1 μM, respectively) were the lowest among the substrates tested. PsAO3 activity was almost completely inhibited by potassium cyanide, diphenyleneiodonium, and methanol. Rapidly imposed drought stress did not increase the level of PsAO3 mRNA or activity of any ...
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a complex molybdoflavoprotein that belongs to a family of structurally related molybdoenzymes that bind the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) (Hille, 1996). AOX is homologous to xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), another mammalian molybdoflavoenzyme, and both AOX and XOR show a remarkable degree of sequence similarity (Krenitsky, 1978; Garattini et al., 2003). AOX is active as a homodimer, and each 150-kDa monomer consists of three separate domains that bind different cofactors: the 20-kDa N-terminal domain binds two distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, the 40-kDa central domain binds the FAD cofactor, and the 80-kDa C-terminal domain binds Moco (Garattini et al., 2008). Moco-containing enzymes are divided further into three different families, the xanthine oxidase (XO) family, the sulfite oxidase family, and the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family, which are classified in accordance to the ligands at the molybdenum active site (Hille, 1996).. Members of the XOR family are characterized by ...
Aldehyde oxidase is a cytosolic drug-metabolizing enzyme that has been highlighted recently as playing a prominent role in the metabolism of heterocyclic-containing drug molecules (Pryde et al., 2010; Garattini and Terao, 2011, 2012; Hutzler et al., 2013). Numerous clinical programs have been impacted by rapid metabolism, and thus poor pharmacokinetics, because of aldehyde oxidase (Kaye et al., 1984; Dittrich et al., 2002; Akabane et al., 2011). One cause for the failure to predict the human pharmacokinetic properties of these AO substrates is the profound species differences noted for this enzyme. In particular, routine pharmacokinetic studies rat and dog in early drug discovery will likely not adequately capture AO-mediated contributions to metabolic clearance, because rats generally have low AO activity and dogs are devoid of activity (Beedham, 1987; Garattini et al., 2008). In a recently published review on aldehyde oxidase, it was reported that rhesus monkey and guinea pig may represent the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluating the disposition of a mixed aldehyde oxidase/cytochrome P450 substrate in rats with attenuated P450 activity. AU - Crouch, Rachel D.. AU - Morrison, Ryan D.. AU - Byers, Frank W.. AU - Lindsley, Craig W.. AU - Emmitte, Kyle Allen. AU - Daniels, J. Scott. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Marketed drugs cleared by aldehyde oxidase (AO) are few, with no known clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with AO inhibition, whereas cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition or induction mediates a number of clinical drug interactions. Little attention has been given to the consequences of coadministering a P450 inhibitor with a compound metabolized by both AO and P450. Upon discovering that VU0409106 (1) was metabolized by AO (to M1) and P450 enzymes (to M4-M6), we sought to evaluate the in vivo disposition of 1 and its metabolites in rats with attenuated P450 activity. Male rats were orally pretreated with the pan-P450 inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), ...
abscisic aldehyde oxidase 3 (AAO3); CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (InterPro:IPR016208), Ferredoxin (InterPro:IPR001041), Molybdopterin dehydrogenase, FAD-binding (InterPro:IPR002346), [2Fe-2S]-binding (InterPro:IPR002888), FAD-binding, type 2 (InterPro:IPR016166), CO dehydrogenase flavoprotein, C-terminal (InterPro:IPR005107), 2Fe-2S ferredoxin, iron-sulphur binding site (InterPro:IPR006058), CO dehydrogenase flavoprotein-like, FAD-binding, subdomain 2 (InterPro:IPR016169), Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead (InterPro:IPR000674), Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, molybdopterin binding (InterPro:IPR008274); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: aldehyde oxidase 4 (TAIR:AT1G04580.1); Has 18285 Blast hits to 17524 proteins in 1277 species: Archae - 409; Bacteria - 10745; Metazoa - 1018; Fungi - 113; Plants - 280; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 5720 (source: NCBI BLink ...
The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment.
Mouse Anti-Human Xanthine Oxidase / Aldehyde Oxidase Ab-2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated, Clone 145.4 from Lab Vision,In normal tissues this enzyme exists predominantly as XDH which converts hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, a critical plasma antioxidant. During ischemia, XDH is reversibly converted to the oxygen radical producing XO by oxidation of essential sulfhydryl groups or irreversibly through limite,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each ...
Aldh1l2 (untagged) - Mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L2 (Aldh1l2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Chem-Defenseâ ¢ is a nutrient blend formulated for persons with chemical sensitivities. Recent scientific research indicates that molybdenum, a trace mineral that activates the enzymes aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase, may provide necessary nutritional support for chemically sensitive individuals. Glutathione (GSH) is a key element of the livers detoxifying process, and is also the precursor for glutathione peroxidase, a major free radical-scavenging enzyme. Ribolflavin is the precursor for FAD, a coenzyme which recycles used GSH. The benefit of the sublingual form is that it is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, via the blood vessels under the tongue and in the cheeks, allowing for quick entry into the system.
As the role of AO in metabolism of new drug molecules continues to emerge, it is critical that DMPK scientists have the most updated methodologies to enable formulation of a thorough experimental plan to understand the potential implications of this metabolic pathway. Whether it is higher-than-expec …
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Induction of nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis gene, alone is sufficient to suspend germination in testa-ruptured seeds, which are at the final step of germination. Molecular consequences of NCED6 induction in imbibed seeds were investigated by RNA sequencing. The analysis identified many unknown and uncharacterized genes that were up-regulated by NCED6 induction, in addition to the major regulators of ABA signalling. Interestingly, other NCEDs were up-regulated by NCED6 induction, suggesting that the major rate-limiting enzymes in the ABA biosynthesis pathway are subject to positive-feedback regulation. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE and ABSCISIC ALDEHYDE OXIDASE3, which function upstream and downstream of NCED, were also up-regulated in seeds by NCED6 induction, which suggests that the distinct layers of positive feedback loops are coordinately operating in the NCED6-induced seeds. SOMNUS (SOM), which was also up-regulated by NCED6 induction, was the ...
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Multiple exocyclic DNA adducts arise from reactions of lipid and DNA peroxidation products with DNA bases. These endogenous lesions are mutagenic; therefore, monitoring adduct levels may provide a means of assessing genomic exposure to oxidative damage in human populations. The metabolic processing of endogenously formed exocyclic DNA adducts has now been investigated for the purpose of developing non-invasive markers of oxidative damage. The pyrimidopurinone deoxynucleoside adduct, M1dG, was found to undergo enzymatic oxidation to produce 6-oxo-M1dG. The corresponding base adduct, M1G, was subject to sequential oxidation producing first 6-oxo-M1G and then 2,6-dioxo-M1G. The enzymes xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) catalyzed the oxidation of M1dG and M1G. Additionally, the unsubstitued etheno base adduct, 1,N2-etheno-Gua, and the substituted etheno base adduct, heptanone-1,N2-etheno-Gua, were oxidized to produce 2-oxo-etheno-Gua and 2-oxo-hepatanone-etheno-Gua, ...
Mol Pharmacol 51:370-376 Israel Y, Quintanilla ME, Sapag A, Tampier L 2006 Autosomal and maternal genes influence alcohol intake in alcohol drinker and nondrinker rat lines: role of the acetaldehyde burst. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:276A Oneta CM, Lieber CS, Li J et al 2002 Dynamics of cytochrome P4502E1 activity in man: induction by ethanol and disappearance during withdrawal phase. J Hepatology 36:47-52 Person RE, Chen H, Fantel AG, Juchau MR 2000 Enzymic catalysis of the accumulation of acetaldehyde from ethanol in human prenatal cephalic tissues: Evaluation of the relative contributions of CYP2E1, alcohol dehydrogenase, and catalase/peroxidases. The generation of reactive oxygen species via oxidation of aldehyde by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including oxidative stress in the heart (Oei et al 1986), lipid peroxidation (Kato et al 1990, Kera et al 1988) and folate cleavage and release of iron (Shaw et al 1989, Shaw & ...
In recent years, aldehyde oxidase (AO) has continued to grow as an important enzyme in drug metabolism. Herein, we have focused primarily on the inhibition kinetics of AO and also developing tools to better understand AO ...
Complete information for SLC22A24 gene (Protein Coding), Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 24, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Authors: Maher Abdel Aziz El-Hashash, Ahmed Youssef Soliman, Ibrahim Essam ELSHAMY Abstract: A highly efficient and versatile synthetic approach to the synthesis of annelated phthalazine derivatives viz. 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-a]phthalazine 11a,b, 14, 18, 19a,b, 29-31, 33, 1,2,4-triazino [3,4-a]phthalazine 25a,b-28, 1,3,5-triazino[4,3-a]phthalazine 22, tetrazolo[5,1-a] phthalazine 23, imidazophthalazine 9a,b,15, and pyrimidinophthlazine 6, 10, 16, 17, 20 is presented. Moreover, acyclo C-nucleoside and double headed acyclo C-nucleoside of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine 12, 13 were obtained via heterocyclization reaction of 1-chloro-4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) phthalazine (4) with gluconic acid hydrazide and galactaric acid bis hydrazide, respectively. The new compounds were synthesized with the objective of studying their antimicrobial activity. Keywords: Triazinophthalazine, pyrazolylphthalazine, triazolophthalazine, antimicrobial activity Full Text: PDF ...
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are together with prostanoids, leukotrienes and proteases, believed to be the mediators of inflammation and responsible for the pathogenesis of tissue destruction in RA. Antioxidant (AO) activity is one of the mechanisms by which many conventional drugs used in day to day treatment of RA alleviate the painful symptoms associated with this disease. An investigation has been carried out to compare the antioxidant potentials of two polyherbal formulations, Maharasnadhi quathar (MRQ) and Weldehi choornaya (WC), used by Ayurvedic medical practitioners in Sri-Lanka for the treatment of RA patients. AO potentials of these preparations were assessed by their effects in RA patients on: (a) activities of the AO enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase; (b) lipid peroxidation (as estimated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) generation); and (c) concentrations of serum iron and haemoglobin (Hb), and the total iron ...
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The present invention relates to the use of phthalazine derivatives as inhibitors of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase or PARP (EC 2.4.2.30), to the use as inhibitors of PARP-homologous enzymes and, in particular, these phthalazine derivatives also show a selective inhibition of PARP-homologous enzymes.
WHAT DOES MOLYBDENUM DO FOR US?. There are enzymes that require molybdenum called molybdoenzymes. In humans there are three of these enzymes:. 1. Sulfite Oxidase which energizes the changing of sulfite to sulfate. This needs to be done so that sulfur containing amino acids such as methionine can be metabolized.. 2. Xanthine Oxidase starts the breakdown of nucleotides (the building blocks for DNA and RNA) which creates uric acid and uric acid is important to the bloods plasma antioxidant ability.. 3. Both Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase energize the addition of hydrogen and oxygen molecules to certain molecules and both of them are involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins in our bodies.. Only Sulfite Oxidase is absolutely necessary to human health.. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH MOLYBDENUM?. In healthy people molybdenum deficiency doesnt exist as far as we know. Although, there are known problems in places where the soil has very low levels of minerals including ...
Antennae of the tobacco hornworm moths Manduca sexta contain an aldehyde oxidase (AOX) that oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids. The enzyme, which is distinguishable from aldehyde-oxidizing activities in other tissues, is secreted into the receptor lymph that bathes the primary olfactory dendrites. First detectable about 3 d before eclosion, AOX levels increase through the first day after eclosion. This parallels the development of the antennal responsiveness to bombykal (a male attractant aldehydic pheromone produced by female M. sexta) and trans-2-hexenal (an aldehyde commonly found in leaves). The AOX is about 60% more abundant in antennae of males than in antennae of females. The antennal AOX is a dimer with Mr of 295 kDa and is capable of oxidizing a variety of aldehydes. Of all aldehydes examined, the pheromone bombykal was the best substrate with an apparent Km of 5 microM, whereas the next best substrate, benzaldehyde, had an apparent Km of 255 microM. Using kinetic parameters ...
Coadministration has not been studied but based on the metabolism and clearance a clinically significant modafinil buy online australia drug-drug interaction is unlikely as allopurinol is converted to oxipurinol by xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Perfectly composed subject matter, regards for selective information. I provigil vs generic will make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your helpful information. Pharmacy drug store, drug cost, canadian modafinil buy spain drugs without prescription, canadian pharmacies top best. If you have any sort of inquiries pertaining to where and just how to use where to buy original viagra, you can contact us at our webpage. However we do have a guarantee! Thanks for finally talking about. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Canadian online pharmacies beneficial site. Kesemua jenisnya memiliki harga dan dosis yang berbeda-beda, untuk menghindari efek samping penggunaannya mari ...
Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential therapeutic agents. The focus is on studies in humans, but animal data are mentioned when relevant to the interpretation of human data. The pathways of nicotine metabolism are described in detail. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nicotine and related compounds are reviewed. Enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism including cytochrome P450 enzymes, aldehyde oxidase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, amine N-methyltransferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are represented, as well as factors affecting metabolism, such as genetic variations in metabolic enzymes, ...
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我們利用高純度鋁片(99.9995%)進行陽極氧化處理得到奈米孔洞陣列,藉由控制陽極氧化處理的條件,可以改變陽極氧化鋁孔洞(AAO)陣列的規則性,且孔洞陣列的直徑與施加電壓以及電解液的不同有相當大的關連。將陽極氧化鋁孔洞(AAO)進行材料特性分析,在材料的發光特性上,光激螢光(Photoluminescence)光譜中看到,AAO的發光波段在藍光波段,大約是位於420nm左右,這邊我們使用He-Cd雷射當作激發光源。穿透光譜實驗部分,看到波段在400nm以前有很強的吸收。最後,以X-ray繞射光譜觀察AAO在回火以及未回火的結晶狀況,發現到兩者皆有繞射訊號(311)、(400)、(440)出現,與γ-Al2O3相似 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3B2 is localized to lipid droplets via two C-terminal tryptophan residues and lipid modification. AU - Kitamura, Takuya. AU - Takagi, Shuyu. AU - Naganuma, Tatsuro. AU - Kihara, Akio. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © The Authors Journal compilation © 2015 Biochemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyse the conversion of toxic aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids. Of the 21 ALDHs in mice, it is the ALDH3 family members (ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1, ALDH3B2 and ALDH3B3) that are responsible for the removal of lipid-derived aldehydes. However, ALDH3B2 and ALDH3B3 have yet to be characterized. In the present study, we examined the enzyme activity, tissue distribution and subcellular localization of ALDH3B2 and ALDH3B3. Both were found to exhibit broad substrate preferences from medium- to long-chain aldehydes, resembling ALDH3A2 and ALDH3B1. ...
Five patients with a combined deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase, sulphite oxidase and, possibly, also of aldehyde oxidase are described. This remarkable coincidence of three inborn errors of metabolism in a single individual was demonstrated to re
Day 327 has 12 protein-coding genes (browser view) including MOCOS (molybdenum cofactor sulfurase).. MOCOS is important to the function of the four human enzymes that contain the element molybdenum.. Click here to see all 8930365 letters of Day 327 with MOCOS underlined.. ...
But not too surprising to Dr. Karl-Hans Wurzinger, a DNA expert who testified in the case. You probably remember Dr. Wurzinger from his 1980 dissertation, Allozyme Variation in the African Freshwater Snail Genus Bulinus, if you werent already digging him after 1974s Phylogeny and Correlations of Aldehyde Oxidase, Xanthine Oxidase, Xanthine Dehydrogenase and Peroxidase in Animal Tissues, later made into a not-very-popular film. But he is also known for a 1997 paper on fraternal twins with different fathers.. Basically, this can happen if, in the course of about a week, one blessed event occurs, the female ovulates again, and then she has a second romantic partner who also hits the target. Scientists refer to it as heteropaternal superfecundation but it is known informally as Have None of These People Ever Heard of Birth Control Syndrome. Wikipedia says this is not uncommon in animals, for reasons that probably need not be explained, but Dr. Wurzinger found that it is relatively rare in ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, EC 1.2.1.3) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation (dehydrogenation) of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, an action also performed by xanthine oxidase (XO) and aldehyde oxidase (AO).. The aldehyde cinnamaldehyde commonly used as a food flavoring is rapidly oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenases into the carboxylic acid cinnamic acid.. ...
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Portions of this site are for AAO members only. If you are a member, please Log In using the form below. If you are not a member, learn how to Join AAO.. Uncertain if you are member? Please visit our Member Directory.. For complete user instructions, please visit Frequently Asked Questions.. ...
Portions of this site are for AAO members only. If you are a member, please Log In using the form below. If you are not a member, learn how to Join AAO.. Uncertain if you are member? Please visit our Member Directory.. For complete user instructions, please visit Frequently Asked Questions.. ...
Hastings JW, Presswood RP (1978). "Bacterial luciferase: FMNH2-aldehyde oxidase". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 53: ... aldehyde monooxygenase, luciferase, and Vibrio fischeri luciferase. As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved for this ... "Bacterial bioluminescence light emission in the mixed function oxidation of reduced flavin and fatty aldehyde". CRC Crit. Rev. ...
Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ... Wang X, Weiner H (Jan 1995). "Involvement of glutamate 268 in the active site of human liver mitochondrial (class 2) aldehyde ... Crabb D, Xiao Q (Jun 1998). "Studies on the enzymology of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 in genetically modified HeLa cells". ... Hempel J, von Bahr-Lindström H, Jörnvall H (May 1984). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. Primary structure of the ...
Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ... oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor. • protein binding. • metal ion ...
... is hepatically metabolized by aldehyde oxidase; minor metabolism occurs via cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). ...
aldehyde oxidase Ja 1.2.4.1 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) Ja 1.2.4.2 oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ... Aldehyde + NADPH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.3 L-Homoserine + NAD(P)+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L- ... cytochroom-c-oxidase Ja Externe links[bewerken , brontekst bewerken]. *Integrated Enzyme Database (European Bioinformatics ...
It is a selective inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. It is not a substrate of that enzyme, and is metabolized by aldehyde ... Isovanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, an organic compound and isomer of vanillin. ... Isovanillin and Protocatechuic Aldehyde with Freshly Prepared Guinea Pig Liver Slices". Cell Physiol Biochem. 15 (1-4): 89-98. ...
M2 and lenvatinib itself are oxidized by aldehyde oxidase (AO) to substances called M2' and M3', the main metabolites in the ... "Oxidative metabolic pathway of lenvatinib mediated by aldehyde oxidase". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 42 (8): 1326-33. doi: ...
those enzymes include aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase. With one exception, Mo in proteins is bound by ... sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reductase. People severely deficient in ... is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase, a molybdenum-containing enzyme. The activity of xanthine oxidase is directly proportional to ... The Relationship between Sulfite Oxidase and the Acute Toxicity of Bisulfite and SO2". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde. The rate-limiting step is hydride ... These compounds do reach the brain, although some portion of them are metabolized by monoamine oxidase enzymes (mainly MAO-A) ... There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic-acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) prevent the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters (including serotonin), and therefore ...
November 1995). "Crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from D. gigas". Science. 270 (5239 ...
GABA can also be synthesized from putrescine by diamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Traditionally it was thought that ...
... xanthine oxidase, but this action is principally carried out by aldehyde oxidase. The active metabolite of allopurinol is ... "Demonstration of a combined deficiency of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase in xanthinuric patients not forming oxipurinol ... and is an inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of ... Allopurinol is in the xanthine oxidase inhibitor family of medications. Allopurinol was approved for medical use in the United ...
"ABA3 is a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase required for activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis ...
In humans, choline is oxidized irreversibly in liver mitochondria to glycine betaine aldehyde by choline oxidases. This is ... oxidized by mitochondrial or cytosolic betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases to trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine is a necessary ...
... in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis causes absence of enzyme activity of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. ... Sulfite oxidase Reiss J, Johnson JL (June 2003). "Mutations in the molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic genes MOCS1, MOCS2, and ... Usually this leads to death within months of birth, due to the lack of active sulfite oxidase. Furthermore, a mutational block ...
... aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase in humans. MoCo containing enzymes typically catalyze the net transfer of an oxygen atom ... xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase. Symptoms of MoCo deficiency are linked to the accumulation of toxic metabolites caused ... MoCo deficiency in humans results in the combined deficiency of the MoCo-containing enzymes: sulfite oxidase, ... by the reduced activity of these molybdoenzymes, especially sulfite oxidase. Genetic defects in MoCo biosynthesis lead to MoCo ...
... a significant amount is metabolized in the small intestine by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and then aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH ... In humans, PEA is metabolized by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), monoamine oxidase ... Yang, HY; Neff, NH (1973). "Beta-phenylethylamine: A specific substrate for type B monoamine oxidase of brain". The Journal of ... intermediate product which is produced by monoamine oxidase and then further metabolized into β-phenylacetic acid by aldehyde ...
... xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Fosdenopterin was developed by José Santamaría-Araujo and Guenter Schwarz ... cPMP is a precursor to molybdopterin, which is required for the enzyme activity of sulfite oxidase, ...
... aldehyde oxidase. Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, purine hydroxylase, thiosulfate reductase. Molybdenum cofactor ... Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate ... Molybdopterin is a: Cofactor of: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, ethylbenzene ... In some enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, the metal is bound to one molybdopterin, whereas, in other enzymes, e.g., DMSO ...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1, amine oxidase A, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 and membrane copper amine oxidase. ... amine oxidase B, amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase (mitochondrial), fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, 4- ... Indole-3-acetaldehyde is a substrate for retina-specific copper amine oxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase X (mitochondrial), ... trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase (dimeric NADP-preferring), ...
... sulfite oxidase (mitochondrial precursor), aldehyde oxidase, erythropoietin receptor precursor and the ATPbinding cassette, sub ...
... monooxygenase system Flavin-containing monooxygenase system Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase Monoamine oxidase ... The reaction mechanism of the P-450 oxidases proceeds through the reduction of cytochrome-bound oxygen and the generation of a ... In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics. These modified ... One of the most common modifications is hydroxylation catalysed by the cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system ...
Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain MOCOS Xanthine oxidase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and ... Minoshima S, Wang Y, Ichida K, Nishino T, Shimizu N (1994). "Mapping of the gene for human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase) ( ... Rouquette M, Stevens C, Blake DR, Harrison R, Whish J, Whish WD (August 1997). "Expression of xanthine oxidase activity in ...
... and its half-life can be affected by substances which inhibit or induce aldehyde oxidase. Taken orally, zaleplon reaches full ... the δ-frequency band and a decrease in the energy of the θ-frequency band Zaleplon is primarily metabolised by aldehyde oxidase ...
... and elsewhere by the actions of diamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1. Several truncated transcripts and polypeptides ... October 2015). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons" (PDF). Science. ...
... and aldehyde oxidases (AOX1). In histamine intolerance, the activity of DAO is limited, and histamine taken up by the diet and ... through the intestinal wall during absorption and enters the blood without coming into contact with the aldehyde oxidases ... such as diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT). In contrast, allergic reactions involving an immediate ... and measure changes in histamine and diamine oxidase levels. Rather than increase histamine during the test diet, eliminate it ...
... was catalyzed by the enzyme diamine oxidase. The aldehyde then spontaneously converts to the corresponding Schiff base, Δ1- ... The imine is then hydrolyzed to the corresponding aldehyde/amine. The primary amine is then oxidized to an aldehyde followed by ... Originally, it was thought that conversion of cadaverine to the corresponding aldehyde, 5-aminopentanal, ...
... a significant amount is metabolized in the small intestine by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and then aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH ... monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A),[5][6] monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B),[3][4][5][14] the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs ... "aldehyde dehydrogenase - Homo sapiens". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. January 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.. ... is the primary urinary metabolite of phenethylamine and is produced via monoamine oxidase metabolism and subsequent aldehyde ...
... is by diamine oxidase-catalyzed oxidation into agmatine-aldehyde, which is in turn converted by aldehyde dehydrogenase into ... NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production. Agmatine sulfate injection can increase food intake with ... Demady DR, Jianmongkol S, Vuletich JL, Bender AT, Osawa Y (January 2001). "Agmatine enhances the NADPH oxidase activity of ...
Huang DY, Furukawa A, Ichikawa Y (1999). "Molecular cloning of retinal oxidase/aldehyde oxidase cDNAs from rabbit and mouse ... Mandal SK, Datta Chaudhuri B (1987). "Enzymic oxidation of vitamin A aldehyde to vitamin A acid by rat livers of experimental ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with ... In enzymology, a retinal oxidase (EC 1.2.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction retinal + O2 + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
... detoxication of the lipid peroxide-derived reactive aldehydes". Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (12): 1445-55. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf187. ... Dihydrouracil oxidase. *Tetrahydroberberine oxidase. *Secologanin synthase. *Tryptophan alpha,beta-oxidase. *Pyrroloquinoline- ...
The oxidases xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase[31] Legumes, whole grains, nuts[25] molybdenum deficiency ... Required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase Liver, seafood, oysters, nuts, seeds; some: whole ...
l-gulonolactone oxidase, the last of the chain of four enzymes that synthesize vitamin C.[183][184] American biochemist Irwin ... The aldehyde group of this compound is reduced to a primary alcohol using the enzyme glucuronate reductase and the cofactor ... l-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO), that catalyses the last step in the biosynthesis, is highly mutated and non-functional.[117][ ... l-gulonolactone oxidase coding gene.[185] In 2008, researchers at the University of Montpellier discovered that in humans and ...
The aldehyde group of this compound is reduced to a primary alcohol using the enzyme glucuronate reductase and the cofactor ... He later developed the theory that humans possess a mutated form of the L-gulonolactone oxidase coding gene.[185] ... Nishikimi M, Kawai T, Yagi K (October 1992). "Guinea pigs possess a highly mutated gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the ... L-Gulonolactone then reacts with oxygen, catalyzed by the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase (which is nonfunctional in humans and ...
cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ... Xanthine oxidase. 1.1.4: disulfide as acceptor. *Vitamin K epoxide reductase. *Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin- ... AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ... It also participates in glucose metabolism and osmoregulation and plays a protective role against toxic aldehydes derived from ...
It was originally called retinene,[2] and renamed[3] after it was discovered to be vitamin A aldehyde.[4][5] Retinal is one of ... "KEGG ENZYME: 1.2.3.11 retinal oxidase". Retrieved 2009-03-10.. *^ Lamb, T D (1996). "Gain and kinetics of activation in the G- ... retinal + O2 + H2O → retinoic acid + H2O2 (catalyzed by retinal oxidase). catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenases[11] also known as ... BALL, S; GOODWIN, TW; MORTON, RA (1946). "Retinene1-vitamin A aldehyde". The Biochemical Journal. 40 (5-6): lix. PMID 20341217. ...
4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
The final step requires oxygen and involves the action of the enzyme ACC-oxidase (ACO), formerly known as the ethylene forming ... the ACC releases ethylene with ACC oxidase. ...
... is, along with aldehydes, part of the series of cycles of chemical reactions that form photochemical smog. It ... Carbon monoxide also binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Exposures to carbon ... Large quantities of aldehydes are produced by the hydroformylation reaction of alkenes, carbon monoxide, and H2. ...
Other proteins include enzymes, such as catalase and polyphenol oxidase, which are important for the maturation of green coffee ... Volatile compounds of green coffee beans include short-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and nitrogen-containing aromatic molecules ... reaction products between the aldehyde group of sugar and the alpha-amino group of the amino acids). Further, diketopiperazines ...
Oral cyclophosphamide is rapidly absorbed and then converted by mixed-function oxidase enzymes (cytochrome P450 system) in the ... Most of the aldophosphamide is then oxidised by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to make carboxycyclophosphamide. A ... Kohn FR, Sladek NE (1985). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity as the basis for the relative insensitivity of murine pluripotent ...
Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob GF, Cador M, Stinus L (September 2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibition ... Kataoka H, Sumida A, Makita M (1997). "Determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in cigarette smoke by gas ... beta-unsaturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke release inflammatory mediators from human macrophages". American Journal of ... "Transient behavioral sensitization to nicotine becomes long-lasting with monoamine oxidases inhibitors". Pharmacology ...
... is a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, hence blocking ... when reacted with a carbonyl compound such as an aldehyde or ketone in the presence of ammonium carbonate. ...
Formation of the collagen fibril: lysyl oxidase, an extracellular copper-dependent enzyme, produces the final step in the ... This enzyme acts on lysines and hydroxylysines producing aldehyde groups, which will eventually undergo covalent bonding ... Multiple tropocollagen molecules form collagen fibrils, via covalent cross-linking (aldol reaction) by lysyl oxidase which ...
Xanthine oxidase. 1.1.4: disulfide as acceptor. *Vitamin K epoxide reductase. *Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin- ...
O. Suzuki, T. Matsumoto, M. Oya, and Y. Katsumata (1979). "Oxidation of synephrine by type A and type B monoamine oxidase." ... followed by a Reformatskii reaction of the protected aldehyde with ethyl bromoacetate/Zn to give the expected β-hydroxy ester. ... Studies of the metabolism of synephrine by monoamine oxidases derived from rat brain mitochondria showed that synephrine was a ...
Lysyl oxidase reacts with specific lysine residues and by oxidative deamination generates reactive aldehydes and allysine. ... These reactive aldehydes and allysines can react with lysine and other allysine residues to crosslink and form desmosine, ... Elastic fibers stain well with aldehyde fuchsin, orcein,[4] and Weigert's elastic stain in histological sections. ... and Marfan's syndrome have been associated with defects in copper metabolism and lysyl oxidase or defects in the microfibril ( ...
... releasing HCl and ammonia to form an aldehyde.[35] The aldehyde group can further react with another amino group to form a ... Later studies[38] revealed that Ubiquinol oxidase activity ceases first, and the still-active cytochromes reduce the remaining ... damage to Escherichia coli ubiquinol oxidase". Biochemistry. 28 (7): 3031-6. doi:10.1021/bi00433a044. PMID 2545243.. ... "Myeloperoxidase-mediated damage to the succinate oxidase system of Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 15004-15010.. CS1 ...
gymnosperm).[43] Ratios of carboxylic acid (Ad) to aldehyde (Al) forms of the lignols (Ad/Al) reveal diagenetic information, ... The reaction has two alternative routes catalysed by two different oxidative enzymes, peroxidases or oxidases. ...
... via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The conversion to formate via ALDH proceeds completely, with no detectable formaldehyde ... remaining.[10] Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing hypoxia at the cellular level, ...
Babior BM (March 1999). "NADPH oxidase: an update". Blood. 93 (5): 1464-76. PMID 10029572.. ... Phosphorylation of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase, a large membrane-bound, multi-protein enzyme present in ...
Thus cytochrome oxidase, which has two A hemes (heme a and heme a3) in its structure, contains two moles of heme A per mole ... In two sequential reactions a 17-hydroxyethylfarnesyl moiety is added at the 2-position and an aldehyde is added at the 8- ... Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase.[13] ... PPOX: protoporphyrinogen oxidase (deficiency causes variegate porphyria)[42]. *UROD: uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (deficiency ...
Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes Gallic, salicylic acids 8 C6-C2 1 Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic acids 3- ... There is a risk that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) degrades the phenolic content of the sample therefore there is a need to use PPO ... Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) uses an aromatic alcohol and NADP+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADPH and H+. ... Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses an aromatic alcohol and NAD+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADH and H+. ...
Chan MK, Mukund S, Kletzin A, Adams MW, Rees DC (March 1995). "Structure of a hyperthermophilic tungstopterin enzyme, aldehyde ... Cytochrome oxidase Ferrous or Ferric. Catalase. Cytochrome (via Heme). Nitrogenase. Hydrogenase Magnesium. Glucose 6- ... tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus,[18] and even cadmium in ...
A putrescine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) that specifically recognizes methylated putrescine catalyzes the deamination of this ... A cytochrome P450 classified as Cyp80F1[4] oxidizes and rearranges littorine to hyoscyamine aldehyde. ...
Aldehyde oxidase is very concentrated in the liver, where it oxidizes multiple aldehydes and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds ... Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybdenum flavoprotein family and has a very complex evolutionary profile-as the genes of ... Aldehyde oxidase is thought to have a significant impact on pharmacokinetics. AO is capable of oxidizing many drugs in the ... Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a metabolizing enzyme, located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many organisms. AO catalyzes ...
Aldehyde oxidase genes in vertebrates. The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected ... Phylogeny of eukaryotic aldehyde oxidases. A rooted dendrogram was obtained by the Phylip method after CLUSTAL-W computer-aided ... Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal ... The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.. Garattini E1, Fratelli M, Terao M. ...
In enzymology, an aryl-aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aromatic aldehyde + ... Crawford DL, Sutherland JB, Pometto AL, Miller JM (June 1982). "Production of an aromatic aldehyde oxidase by Streptomyces ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aryl-aldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase. ...
Aldehyde oxidase (EC:1.2.3.1) catalyses the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and ... Aldehyde oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead (IPR000674). Short name: Ald_Oxase/Xan_DH_a/b ... The aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain [PMID: ... Crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from D. gigas.. Science 270 1170-6 1995 ...
Aldehyde oxidase as a cell marker for internal organs in Drosophila melanogaster.. Janning W. ...
... Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013 Feb;9(2): ... Introduction: Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a drug-metabolizing molybdo-flavoenzyme with profound species differences in expression ...
Antennae of the tobacco hornworm moths Manduca sexta contain an aldehyde oxidase (AOX) that oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic ... A pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidase in the antennae of the moth Manduca sexta. R Rybczynski, J Reagan and MR Lerner ... A pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidase in the antennae of the moth Manduca sexta ... A pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidase in the antennae of the moth Manduca sexta ...
The goals of this study were to determine the role of aldehyde oxidase in the metabolism of methotrexate to 7-hydroxy … ... Rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase was used for purposes of comparison. In-vitro aldehyde oxidase from the liver of man catalyses ... potent inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase. Allopurinol (100 microM) had a negligible inhibitory effect on liver aldehyde oxidase ... Aldehyde oxidase-catalysed oxidation of methotrexate in the liver of guinea-pig, rabbit and man J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;51( ...
aldehyde oxidase 2. Synonyms: Aox3l1. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations are updated ...
Aldehyde Oxidase Ab-2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated, Clone 145.4 from Lab Vision,In normal tissues this enzyme ... Mouse Anti-Human Xanthine Oxidase / Aldehyde Oxidase Ab-2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated, Clone 145.4 from Lab ... Mouse Anti-Human Xanthine Oxidase / Aldehyde Oxidase Ab-2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated, Clone 145.4 from Lab ... Mouse Anti-Human Xanthine Oxidase / Aldehyde Oxidase Ab-2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated, Clone 145.4. ...
... determine potency versus various classes of aldehyde oxidase-catalyzed reactions, determine specificity for aldehyde oxidase ... Aldehyde oxidase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics that possess aldehyde and ... Aldehyde oxidase converts aldehydes to carboxylic acids and azaheterocyclic compounds to lactams using molecular oxygen as an ... However, raloxifene had only small effects on xanthine oxidase, an enzyme related to aldehyde oxidase. In addition, several ...
Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdenum enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes and azaheterocyclic derivatives to ... aldehyde oxidase. DDI. drug-drug interaction. FMO. flavin-containing monooxygenase. GSH. glutathione. HPLC. high-performance ... 2010) Aldehyde oxidase: an enzyme of emerging importance in drug discovery. J Med Chem 53:8441-8460. ... 2008) Aldehyde oxidase activity and inhibition in hepatocytes and cytosolic fractions from mouse, rat, monkey and human. Drug ...
The reaction mechanism for the palladium and amine cocatalyzed carbocyclization of aldehydes with alkynes has been investigated ...
... the mitochondrial isozyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AHD-A2) and aldehyde oxidase isozymes (AOX-l; AOX-2)... ... Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Oxidase Isozymes in the Mouse. In: Thurman R.G. (eds) Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing ... Inbred Strain Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Aldehyde Oxidase Codominant Allele Female Reproductive Tissue These keywords were added by ... Genetic Regulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Oxidase Isozymes in the Mouse. ...
... and NADH oxidase (NOD) on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres with varying functional group densities. The ... Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalytic co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase, on ... aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres. Twala, BV; Sewell, BT; Jordaan, J URI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ ...
Recombinant Protein and Aldehyde oxidase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Aldehyde oxidase GLOX. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX ELISA Kit. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX Recombinant. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX Antibody ... Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1 ELISA Kit. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1 Recombinant. Aldehyde oxidase GLOX1 Antibody ... Aldehyde oxidase 1. Aldehyde oxidase 1 ELISA Kit. Aldehyde oxidase 1 Recombinant. Aldehyde oxidase 1 Antibody ...
An aldehyde + H(2)O + O(2) <=> a carboxylate + H(2)O(2). ... N-heterocycles and aldehydes and the reduction of N-oxides, ...
... oxidase Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Thiouracil, Raloxifene, Aldehyde. Check the full list of possible causes and ... 3,663 Possible Causes for 4,, Aldehyde, mouse, oxidase Did you mean: 4, Aldehyde, morus, oxidase ... The mediation of oxidases glucose oxidase (GOx), lactate oxidase (LOx) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) by a new electron ... primarily to differences of aldehyde oxidase activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] investigated the hypothesis if raloxifene, a ...
Aromatic alcohol oxidase, aldehyde oxidase and mannitol oxidase in terrestrial gastropods. Authors:. Large, Andrew. Publisher: ... Aromatic alcohol oxidase, aldehyde oxidase and mannitol oxidase in terrestrial gastropods. en. ...
Digestion and absorption of bovine milk xanthine oxidase and its role as an aldehyde oxidase. The Journal of Nutrition ... Xanthine oxidase activity and immunologically detectable protein in the C57B1/6 mouse. (opens in new tab) ... The role of xanthine oxidase in platelet activating factor induced intestinal injury in the rat. (opens in new tab) ... The effects of acidic and intestinal proteolytic environments on bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in ...
Скачать презентацию Mo MOLYBDENUM TUNGSTEN Nitrogenase Xanthine oxidase Aldehyde Oxidoreductase MOP 19-Mo Ni Mn Со Биохимия ... Mo MOLYBDENUM/TUNGSTEN Nitrogenase Xanthine oxidase Aldehyde Oxidoreductase (MOP) Dimethylsulfoxide Reductase Trimethylamine N- ... Reductase Formaldehyde Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Aldehyde Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Formate Dehydrogenase H Sulfite Oxidase CO ...
Cattle Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) ELISA Kit, Cat#EKU02229. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... The concentration of Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the ... Cattle Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) ELISA Kit, Cat#EKU02229. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ( ... The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1). Standards ...
Cloning of the cDNAs coding for two novel molybdo-flavoproteins showing high similarity with aldehyde oxidase and xanthine ... Cloning of the cDNAs coding for two novel molybdo-flavoproteins showing high similarity with aldehyde oxidase and xanthine ...
Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ... Wang X, Weiner H (Jan 1995). "Involvement of glutamate 268 in the active site of human liver mitochondrial (class 2) aldehyde ... Crabb D, Xiao Q (Jun 1998). "Studies on the enzymology of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 in genetically modified HeLa cells". ... Hempel J, von Bahr-Lindström H, Jörnvall H (May 1984). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. Primary structure of the ...
Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ... oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor. • protein binding. • metal ion ...
New tasks for old enzymes: xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidoreductase. Maia, L. B. L. (Speaker) ...
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a xanthine oxidase (XO)-related enzyme with emerging importance due to its role in the metabolism of ... Fu C, Di L, Han X, Soderstrom C, Snyder M, Troutman MD, Obach RS, Zhang H. Aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) in human liver cytosols: ... Characterization of aldehyde oxidase enzyme activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Feb;40(2):267- ... Rashidi MR, Smith JA, Clarke SE, Beedham C. In vitro oxidation of famciclovir and 6-deoxypenciclovir by aldehyde oxidase from ...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon ... Other articles where Aldehyde dehydrogenase is discussed: alcohol consumption: Processing in the liver: …acted upon by another ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase. enzyme. Alternative Title: aldehyde oxidase. Learn about this topic in these articles:. alcohol ... acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ...
Aldehyde Oxidases as Enzymes in Phase I Drug Metabolism. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Aldehyde Oxidase Medicine ... Aldehyde oxidases are a group of enzymes with important functions in the context of drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Aldehyde ... Aldehyde oxidases are a group of enzymes with important functions in the context of drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Aldehyde ... Aldehyde oxidases are a group of enzymes with important functions in the context of drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Aldehyde ...
  • Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a metabolizing enzyme, located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an aryl-aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aromatic aldehyde + O2 + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } an aromatic carboxylic acid + H2O2 The 3 substrates of this enzyme are aromatic aldehyde, O2, and H2O, whereas its two products are aromatic carboxylic acid and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with oxygen as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is aryl-aldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity is often found in a bifunctional enzyme with xanthine oxidase ( EC:1.1.3.22 ) activity too. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme can be converted from the dehydrogenase form to the oxidase form irreversibly by proteolysis or reversibly through oxidation of sulphydryl groups. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme, which is distinguishable from aldehyde-oxidizing activities in other tissues, is secreted into the receptor lymph that bathes the primary olfactory dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, raloxifene had only small effects on xanthine oxidase, an enzyme related to aldehyde oxidase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics that possess aldehyde and azaheterocyclic substituents, among others ( Beedham, 2002 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, compared with the cytochrome P450 family, the number of drugs for which aldehyde oxidase is the major enzyme responsible for clearance is few. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although both lenvatinib and M2 were substrates for aldehyde oxidase, an enzyme kinetic study indicated that M2 was a much more favorable substrate than lenvatinib. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The enzyme from liver exhibits a broad substrate specificity, and is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the oxidation of N-heterocycles and aldehydes and the reduction of N-oxides, nitrosamines, hydroxamic acids, azo dyes, nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and sulfoxides. (expasy.org)
  • The effects of acidic and intestinal proteolytic environments on bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in order to evaluate the extent to which this enzyme was absorbed in biologically active form. (meta.org)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (biomatik.com)
  • acted upon by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and converted to acetate, most of which enters the bloodstream and is ultimately oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. (britannica.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a xanthine oxidase (XO)-related enzyme with emerging importance due to its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. (proteopedia.org)
  • Characterization of aldehyde oxidase enzyme activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. (proteopedia.org)
  • Substrate specificity of human liver aldehyde oxidase toward substituted quinazolines and phthalazines: a comparison with hepatic enzyme from guinea pig, rabbit, and baboon. (proteopedia.org)
  • The alcohol oxidase enzyme activity has broadly similar properties (Km values, substrate specificity, pH, and heat stability) to yeast enzymes. (edu.au)
  • This enzyme is necessary for the normal function of xanthine dehydrogenase, described above, and another enzyme called aldehyde oxidase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The enzyme is also responsible for the oxidation of retinal, an activity that was initially attributed to a distinct enzyme ( EC 1.2.3.11 , retinal oxidase) [5,7]. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 2. Knox, W.E. The quinine-oxidizing enzyme and liver aldehyde oxidase. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Type II xanthinuria is characterized by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase and a related enzyme, aldehyde oxidase. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, molybdenum is a cofactor for three enzyme classes-sulfiteoxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and xanthine oxidase (Kisker et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain Gordon AH, Green DE, Subrahmanyan V (May 1940). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain [ PMID: 7502041 , PMID: 10430865 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ahd-1 (encoding AHD-A 2 ) was found on chromosome 4 near Gpd-1 (encoding the liver isozyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), whereas the aldehyde oxidase loci (Aox-1, Aox-2) were closely linked on chromosome 1 near Id-1 (encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase). (springer.com)
  • Holmes, R. S., 1977, The genetics of a-hydroxyacid oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the mouse: evidence for multiple gene loci and linkage between Hao-2 and Adh-3, Genetics 87:709. (springer.com)
  • Holmes, R.S., 1978b, Genetics and ontogeny of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: localization of Ahd-1 encoding the mitochondrial isozymes on chromosome 4, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Here we describe the immobilisation of two biocatalytically relevant co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADH oxidase (NOD) on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres with varying functional group densities. (csir.co.za)
  • These included genes predicted to encode acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1) and alcohol oxidase (Aox1). (edu.au)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase all form oxygen radicals as part of their mechanisms of action. (scirp.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase converts dopamine into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and forms oxygen radi-cals.Aldehyde dehydrogenase oxidizes the aldehyde and forms oxygen radicals and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. (scirp.org)
  • Mutations in the MOCOS gene prevent xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase from being turned on (activated). (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are only a few Moco enzymes known in eukaryotes: xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) in purine catabolism, aldehyde oxidase (AldOx), sulfite oxidase, the mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing components mARC1 and mARC2, and nitrate reductase [ 3 , 4 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • The distinction between the 2 types is based on the ability or inability to oxidize allopurinol, a substrate for xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. (medscape.com)
  • This condition is inherited recessively and is caused by a congenital defect of a molybdenum-containing cofactor essential for the function of 3 distinct enzymes (ie, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase). (medscape.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and xanthine oxidoreductases (XORs) are structurally and evolutionarily linked molybdoflavoproteins. (unl.pt)
  • The sequence alignment of different aldehyde oxidase AOX isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine oxidoreductases XOR. (duhnnae.com)
  • In vertebrates, aldehyde oxidases constitute the small sub-family of molybdo-flavoenzymes, along with the evolutionarily and structurally related protein, xanthine oxidoreductase. (nih.gov)
  • Aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (DgAOR) is a homodimeric molybdenum-containing protein that catalyzes the hydroxylation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids and contains a Mo-pyranopterin active site and two FeS centers called FeS 1 and FeS 2. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Biochemical/spectroscopic characterization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a new aldehyde oxidoreductase isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774. (genome.jp)
  • Aldehyde oxidoreductase activity in Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 EPR assignment of the proximal [2Fe-2S] cluster to the Mo site. (genome.jp)
  • Molybdenum cofactor is a cofactor required for the activity of enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, and aldehyde oxidase. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is a member of a family of enzymes referred to as molybdenum cofactor-containing enzymes that also includes xanthine oxidase, due to the presence of the unique molybdopterin prosthetic group. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, as a target of drug-drug interactions, the importance of aldehyde oxidase is substantially less than that of cytochrome P450 enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These enzymes are members of the larger class of aldehyde dehydrogenases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidases are a group of enzymes with important functions in the context of drug and xenobiotic metabolism. (unl.pt)
  • Belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes. (genome.jp)
  • Here we show that odorants with functional groups such as aldehydes and esters are targets of metabolic enzymes secreted in the mouse mucus, resulting in their conversion to the corresponding acids and alcohols. (jneurosci.org)
  • Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tungsten-using enzymes typically reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthinuria is only a marker in this setting because (1) the clinical presentation is overshadowed by neurologic manifestations and (2) death in the first year of life is caused by the deficiency of sulfite oxidase, which is the final step in cysteine metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, a single aldehyde oxidase gene ( AOX1 ) and two pseudogenes clustering on a short stretch of chromosome 2q are known. (nih.gov)
  • AOX1: Aldehyde oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide and, under certain conditions, can catalyze the formation of superoxide. (mybiosource.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (biomatik.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (biomatik.com)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1). (biomatik.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1). (biomatik.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1). (biomatik.com)
  • The concentration of Aldehyde Oxidase 1 (AOX1) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (biomatik.com)
  • Fu C, Di L, Han X, Soderstrom C, Snyder M, Troutman MD, Obach RS, Zhang H. Aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) in human liver cytosols: quantitative characterization of AOX1 expression level and activity relationship. (proteopedia.org)
  • The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family. (nih.gov)
  • AO catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyzes the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antennae of the tobacco hornworm moths Manduca sexta contain an aldehyde oxidase (AOX) that oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidase converts aldehydes to carboxylic acids and azaheterocyclic compounds to lactams using molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids by coupling the reaction to the reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide. (mybiosource.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidases have broad substrate specificity and catalyse the hydroxylation of N-heterocycles and the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acid. (nih.gov)
  • In order to elucidate factors that determine substrate specificity and activity of mammalian molybdo-flavoproteins we performed site directed mutagenesis of mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 mAOX3. (duhnnae.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidase is very concentrated in the liver, where it oxidizes multiple aldehydes and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds, such as anti-cancer and immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goals of this study were to determine the role of aldehyde oxidase in the metabolism of methotrexate to 7-hydroxymethotrexate in the liver and to study the effects of inhibitors and other substrates on the metabolism of methotrexate. (nih.gov)
  • Methotrexate, (+/-)-methotrexate and (-)-methotrexate were incubated with partially purified aldehyde oxidase from the liver of rabbit, guinea-pig and man and the products analysed by HPLC. (nih.gov)
  • Rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase was used for purposes of comparison. (nih.gov)
  • In-vitro aldehyde oxidase from the liver of man catalyses the oxidation of methotrexate to 7-hydroxymethotrexate, but the turnover is low. (nih.gov)
  • However, formation of 7-hydroxy-methotrexate from all forms of methotrexate by the liver in guinea-pig and man was significantly inhibited in the presence of 100 microM menadione and chlorpromazine, potent inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • Allopurinol (100 microM) had a negligible inhibitory effect on liver aldehyde oxidase from guinea-pig and man. (nih.gov)
  • By employing potent selective inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase, menadione and chlorpromazine, we have demonstrated for the first time that liver aldehyde oxidase from man is minimally involved in methotrexate oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • The selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, has been demonstrated as a potent uncompetitive inhibitor of human liver aldehyde oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of phthalazine, vanillin, and nicotine-Δ1′(5′)-iminium ion, with K i values of 0.87 to 1.4 nM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In a previous report, over 200 frequently prescribed drugs and other compounds were tested as inhibitors of human liver cytosolic aldehyde oxidase activity (O. Obach, et al. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The most potent inhibitor observed was the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM 1 ), raloxifene, which demonstrated an extremely low IC 50 value of 2.9 nM for phthalazine oxidase in human liver cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Evidence for substrate-dependent inhibition profiles for human liver aldehyde oxidase. (proteopedia.org)
  • Rashidi MR, Smith JA, Clarke SE, Beedham C. In vitro oxidation of famciclovir and 6-deoxypenciclovir by aldehyde oxidase from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and rat liver. (proteopedia.org)
  • We hypothesised that fatty liver improvement by MNA would be further enhanced by suppressing its rapid metabolism by aldehyde oxidase in the liver. (elsevier.com)
  • Banks RB, Cooke RT Jr (1986) Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. (springer.com)
  • Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybdenum flavoprotein family and has a very complex evolutionary profile-as the genes of AO varies according to animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "This chapter discusses the significance of aldehyde oxidases for the design and development of new drugs, and discusses associated problems. (unl.pt)
  • The objectives of the present study are to further characterize the inhibition of human aldehyde oxidase by raloxifene. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Marketed drugs cleared by aldehyde oxidase (AO) are few, with no known clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with AO inhibition, whereas cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition or induction mediates a number of clinical drug interactions. (unthsc.edu)
  • The formation of M3′ from lenvatinib occurred independently of NADPH and was effectively inhibited by typical inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase, indicating the involvement of aldehyde oxidase, but not P450s, in this pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It can also catalyze the oxidation of both cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) intermediate products. (wikipedia.org)
  • As efforts in drug design strive to reduce or remove cytochrome P450 metabolic lability, new drugs will be cleared by other mechanisms, such as aldehyde oxidase-mediated metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • COX-2 mRNA expression decreases significantly, while human mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit IImRNA expression increases significantly in HIEC treated with CO. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The hemolytic potential in mouse erythrocytes was also tested for 1-3. (symptoma.com)
  • Although heme C is found in many cytochrome c and c1 proteins, heme A is the cofactor of only one known protein, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). (symptoma.com)
  • 6. Yoshihara, S. and Tatsumi, K. Purification and characterization of hepatic aldehyde oxidase in male and female mice. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Also known as Aldehyde oxidase 4 (Aldehyde oxidase homolog 2) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase 4) (Retinal oxidase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Retinal oxidase. (expasy.org)
  • Molecular cloning of retinal oxidase/aldehyde oxidase cDNAs from rabbit and mouse livers and functional expression of recombinant mouse retinal oxidase cDNA in Escherichia coli. (genome.jp)
  • In other mammals, a variable number of structurally conserved aldehyde oxidase genes has been described. (nih.gov)
  • The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected vertebrates for which complete or almost complete genomic sequence data are available. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant analyses and 13 C NMR studies also confirmed that the soxBDAG genes, predicted to encode a sarcosine oxidase, are required for sarcosine catabolism. (asm.org)
  • Degradation primarily by xanthine oxidase. (drugbank.ca)
  • Copper oxidases for cellulose degradation. (york.ac.uk)
  • Aldehyde oxidase is a candidate gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (mybiosource.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Cloning and expression analysis of an aldehyde oxidase gene in Arachis hygogaea L. (who.int)
  • Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a drug-metabolizing molybdo-flavoenzyme with profound species differences in expression and activity toward various substrates. (nih.gov)
  • No inhibitory activities of lenvatinib, M2′, or M3′ and no significant inhibitory activities of M2 or M3 on aldehyde oxidase were observed, suggesting a low possibility of drug-drug interactions in combination therapy with substrates of aldehyde oxidase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both proteins prefer indole-3-aldehyde and naphthaldehyde as substrates, although high activities against abscisic aldehyde and citral were also observed. (usda.gov)
  • The Km values of PsAO3 for naphthaldehyde and abscisic aldehyde (4.6 and 5.1 μM, respectively) were the lowest among the substrates tested. (usda.gov)
  • Other substrates that are oxidized by aldehyde oxidase, such as pyrazinamide and N -methylnicotinamide, can be used to distinguish between types I and II. (medscape.com)
  • In Corynebacterium ( 8 , 37 ) and Arthrobacter ( 24 ), a heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase converts sarcosine into glycine. (asm.org)
  • Crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related aldehyde oxido-reductase from D. gigas. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Notably, the latent Pd(0)/Pd(II) catalytic redox cycle of this metal/organo cooperative catalytic reaction can be merged with catalytic direct aerobic alcohol oxidation (Pd oxidase catalysis). (diva-portal.org)
  • These results identify alcohol oxidase as a novel pathogenicity factor and are discussed in relation to peroxisomal metabolism of fungal pathogens during growth in planta. (edu.au)
  • Recombinant ABA2 protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibits a K m value for xanthoxin of 19 μM and catalyzes in a NAD-dependent manner the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde, as determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. (plantcell.org)
  • Purification and characterization of an aldehyde oxidase from Pseudomonas sp. (genome.jp)
  • Cloning and molecular characterization of plant aldehyde oxidase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The antennal AOX is a dimer with Mr of 295 kDa and is capable of oxidizing a variety of aldehydes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Also may catalyze nitric oxide (NO) production via the reduction of nitrite to NO with NADH or aldehyde as electron donor. (mybiosource.com)
  • The reaction mechanism for the palladium and amine cocatalyzed carbocyclization of aldehydes with alkynes has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations and experiments. (diva-portal.org)
  • Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Raloxifene has also been shown to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of an aldehyde oxidase-catalyzed reduction reaction of a hydroxamic acid-containing compound, with a K i of 51 nM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Structural insights into xenobiotic and inhibitor binding to human aldehyde oxidase. (proteopedia.org)
  • To test this, hydralazine (HYD), a potent aldehyde oxidase inhibitor, was administered orally to NAFL model rats. (elsevier.com)
  • EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final step of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, which is the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde (ABAld) to ABA. (usda.gov)
  • The results of this work are discussed in the context of previous genetic and biochemical evidence regarding ABA biosynthesis, confirming the xanthoxin→abscisic aldehyde→ABA transition as the last steps of the major ABA biosynthetic pathway. (plantcell.org)
  • AO catalyzes the conversion of an aldehyde in the presence of oxygen and water to an acid and hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily to differences of aldehyde oxidase activity. (symptoma.com)
  • Distribution of aldehyde oxidase activity in larval tissues of closely related species reveals differences in tissue-specific expression which must be regulatory. (ucf.edu)
  • The loss of aldehyde oxidase activity does not appear to cause any health problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldehyde Oxidase Activity and Stability in Water-Miscible Organic Solvents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • however, allopurinol is not converted in patients with type II, who lack aldehyde oxidase activity. (medscape.com)
  • AO has a higher affinity for aldehydes than purines, but produces O in a manner very similar to XO because both oxidases possess nearly identical internal electron transport systems. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Drugs for which aldehyde oxidase plays the predominant role in metabolic clearance are few. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The involvement of the NADPH oxidase system, nitric oxide synthase system, and xanthine oxidase system are also described. (symptoma.com)
  • In Arthrobacter globiformis , DMG demethylation to sarcosine is catalyzed by a DMG oxidase with similarity to eukaryotic DMG dehydrogenases ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Also known as Aldehyde oxidase (Aldehyde oxidase 1) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase). (mybiosource.com)
  • The relevance of these data to the mechanistic understanding of aldehyde oxidase catalysis, as well as to the potential for raloxifene to cause drug interactions with agents for which aldehyde oxidase-mediated metabolism is important, such as zaleplon or famciclovir, is discussed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aldehyde oxidase (AO) has been detected histochemically in selected larval tissues and imaginal discs of ten picture-winged Hawaiian Drosophila species chosen to represent four cytological subgroups. (ucf.edu)