Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.AcroleinBenzaldehydesCarbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.KetonesRetinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome: An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.GlyceraldehydeMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Glycoside HydrolasesDermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.AcetalsOrganic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.EstersSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.FuraldehydeAlkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Allyl CompoundsFlushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.GlyoxalBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.SemicarbazidesOrganic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.IminesCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Identification and characterization of a DeoR-specific operator sequence essential for induction of dra-nupC-pdp operon expression in Bacillus subtilis. (1/518)

The deoR gene located just upstream the dra-nupC-pdp operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes the DeoR repressor protein that negatively regulates the expression of the operon at the level of transcription. The control region upstream of the operon was mapped by the use of transcriptional lacZ fusions. It was shown that all of the cis-acting elements, which were necessary for full DeoR regulation of the operon, were included in a 141-bp sequence just upstream of dra. The increased copy number of this control region resulted in titration of the DeoR molecules of the cell. By using mutagenic PCR and site-directed mutagenesis techniques, a palindromic sequence located from position -60 to position -43 relative to the transcription start point was identified as a part of the operator site for the binding of DeoR. Furthermore, it was shown that a direct repeat of five nucleotides, which was identical to the 3' half of the palindrome and was located between the -10 and -35 regions of the dra promoter, might function as a half binding site involved in cooperative binding of DeoR to the regulatory region. Binding of DeoR protein to the operator DNA was confirmed by a gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Moreover, deoxyribose-5-phosphate was shown to be a likely candidate for the true inducer of the dra-nupC-pdp expression.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (2/518)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase microheterogeneity in black cherry. (3/518)

The flavoprotein (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (MDL; EC 4.1.2.10), which plays a key role in cyanogenesis in rosaceous stone fruits, occurs in black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates as several closely related isoforms. Biochemical and molecular biological methods were used to investigate MDL microheterogeneity and function in this species. Three novel MDL cDNAs of high sequence identity (designated MDL2, MDL4, and MDL5) were isolated. Like MDL1 and MDL3 cDNAs (Z. Hu, J.E. Poulton [1997] Plant Physiol 115: 1359-1369), they had open reading frames that predicted a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding site, multiple N-glycosylation sites, and an N-terminal signal sequence. The N terminus of an MDL isoform purified from seedlings matched the derived amino acid sequence of the MDL4 cDNA. Genomic sequences corresponding to the MDL1, MDL2, and MDL4 cDNAs were obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA. Like the previously reported mdl3 gene, these genes are interrupted at identical positions by three short, conserved introns. Given their overall similarity, we conclude that the genes mdl1, mdl2, mdl3, mdl4, and mdl5 are derived from a common ancestral gene and constitute members of a gene family. Genomic Southern-blot analysis showed that this family has approximately eight members. Northern-blot analysis using gene-specific probes revealed differential expression of the genes mdl1, mdl2, mdl3, mdl4, and mdl5.  (+info)

Study of the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: mechanistic implications. (4/518)

Investigations of the (S)-selective hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis were performed by electrospray mass spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and with an enzyme activity assay. For the trans-cyanohydrin reaction (transcyanation) a two step reaction could be established. The results furthermore indicate a fast deactivation of the enzyme at low pH and a strong substrate dependence of its stability. They rule out an enzyme-HCN complex or a covalently bound carbonyl compound. Therefore the earlier postulated reaction intermediate as well as the proposed action of the catalytic triad have to be reevaluated. The calculated molecular mass could be confirmed by mass spectroscopy.  (+info)

Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase. (5/518)

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

An extremely thermostable aldolase from Sulfolobus solfataricus with specificity for non-phosphorylated substrates. (6/518)

Sulfolobus solfataricus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon growing optimally at 80-85 degrees C. It metabolizes glucose via a novel non-phosphorylated Entner-Doudoroff pathway, in which the reversible C(6) to C(3) aldol cleavage is catalysed by 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase (KDG-aldolase), generating pyruvate and glyceraldehyde. Given the ability of such a hyperstable enzyme to catalyse carbon-carbon-bond synthesis with non-phosphorylated metabolites, we report here the cloning and sequencing of the S. solfataricus gene encoding KDG-aldolase, and its expression in Escherichia coli to give fully active enzyme. The recombinant enzyme was purified in a simple two-step procedure, and shown to possess kinetic properties indistinguishable from the enzyme purified from S. solfataricus cells. The KDG-aldolase is a thermostable tetrameric protein with a half-life at 100 degrees C of 2.5 h, and is equally active with both d- and l-glyceraldehyde. It exhibits sequence similarity to the N-acetylneuraminate lyase superfamily of Schiff-base-dependent aldolases, dehydratases and decarboxylases, and evidence is presented for a similar catalytic mechanism for the archaeal enzyme by substrate-dependent inactivation by reduction with NaBH(4).  (+info)

Three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. (7/518)

The 3D structures of complexes between the hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis (Hb-HNL) and several substrate and/or inhibitor molecules, including trichloracetaldehyde, hexafluoracetone, acetone, and rhodanide, were determined by X-ray crystallography. The complex with trichloracetaldehyde showed a covalent linkage between the protein and the inhibitor, which had apparently resulted from nucleophilic attack of the catalytic Ser80-Ogamma. All other complexes showed the substrate or inhibitor molecule merely hydrogen bonded to the protein. In addition, the native crystal structure of Hb-HNL was redetermined at cryo-temperature and at room temperature, eliminating previous uncertainties concerning residual electron density within the active site, and leading to the observation of two conserved water molecules. One of them was found to be conserved in all complex structures and appears to have mainly structural significance. The other water molecule is conserved in all structures except for the complex with rhodanide; it is hydrogen bonded to the imidazole of the catalytic His235 and appears to affect the Hb-HNL catalyzed reaction. The observed 3D structural data suggest implications for the enzyme mechanism. It appears that the enzyme-catalyzed cyanohydrin formation is unlikely to proceed via a hemiacetal or hemiketal intermediate covalently attached to the enzyme, despite the observation of such an intermediate for the complex with trichloracetaldehyde. Instead, the data are consistent with a mechanism where the incoming substrate is activated by hydrogen bonding with its carbonyl oxygen to the Ser80 and Thr11 hydroxy groups. A hydrogen cyanide molecule subsequently replaces a water molecule and is deprotonated presumably by the His235 base. Deprotonation is facilitated by the proximity of the positive charge of the Lys236 side chain.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis yckG and yckF encode two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway used by methylotrophs, and yckH is required for their expression. (8/518)

The ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway is one of the metabolic pathways for the synthesis of compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds from one-carbon units and is found in many methane- and methanol-utilizing bacteria, which are known as methylotrophs. The characteristic enzymes of this pathway are 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (PHI), neither of which was thought to exist outside methylotrophs. However, the presumed yckG gene product (YckG) of Bacillus subtilis shows a primary structure similar to that of methylotroph HPS (F. Kunst et al., Nature 390:249-256, 1997). We have also investigated the sequence similarity between the yckF gene product (YckF) and methylotroph PHI (Y. Sakai, R. Mitsui, Y. Katayama, H. Yanase, and N. Kato, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 176:125-130, 1999) and found that the yckG and yckF genes of B. subtilis express enzymatic activities of HPS and PHI, respectively. Both of these activities were concomitantly induced in B. subtilis by formaldehyde, with induction showing dependence on the yckH gene, but were not induced by methanol, formate, or methylamine. Disruption of either gene caused moderate sensitivity to formaldehyde, suggesting that these enzymes may act as a detoxification system for formaldehyde in B. subtilis. In conclusion, we found an active yckG (for HPS)-yckF (for PHI) gene structure (now named hxlA-hxlB) in a nonmethylotroph, B. subtilis, which inherently preserves the RuMP pathway.  (+info)

*4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 2-carboxybenzaldehyde-lyase, and (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase. This enzyme participates in ... name of this enzyme class is (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names ...

*Threonine aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...

*2-dehydro-3-deoxyglucarate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-glucarate tartronate-semialdehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-glucarate tartronate-semialdehyde-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in ...

*Tagatose-bisphosphate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 6-bisphosphate triosephosphate lyase. This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure has ... name of this enzyme class is D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). This ...

*Rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate lactaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions and ... name of this enzyme class is L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate (S)-lactaldehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). Other names in ...

*Propioin synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 4-hydroxy-3-hexanone propanal-lyase. Morimoto S, Azuma K, Oshima T, Sakamoto M (1988). "Purification and properties of a ... name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxy-3-hexanone propanal-lyase (propanal-forming). Other names in common use include 4- ...

*Fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase, and (phosphate-acetylating). This ... name of this enzyme class is D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase (adding phosphate; acetyl-phosphate-forming ...

*Hydroxynitrilase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... acetone-cyanhydrin lyase [mis-spelt], acetone-cyanohydrin acetone-lyase, oxynitrilase, 2-hydroxyisobutyronitrile acetone-lyase ... and acetone-cyanohydrin lyase. Xu LL, Singh BK, Conn EE (1988). "Purification and characterization of acetone cyanohydrin lyase ... Other names in common use include alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase, hydroxynitrile lyase, ...

*Trimethylamine-oxide aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include trimethylamine N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase, trimethylamine N-oxide aldolase, trimethylamine N- ... oxide demethylase, and trimethylamine-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in methane metabolism. Large PJ ( ... name of this enzyme class is trimethylamine-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase (dimethylamine-forming). ...

*Benzoin aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include benzaldehyde lyase, and 2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethanone benzaldehyde-lyase. It employs one ... Gonzalez B, Vicuna R (1989). "Benzaldehyde lyase, a novel thiamine PPi-requiring enzyme, from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I ... name of this enzyme class is 2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethanone benzaldehyde-lyase (benzaldehyde-forming). ...

*Lactate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... lactate acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism. Gulyi MF, Silonova NV (1987). "[Various metabolic ... name of this enzyme class is (S)-lactate acetaldehyde-lyase (formate-forming). Other names in common use include lactate ...

*Phenylserine aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threo-3-phenylserine benzaldehyde-lyase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. As of late ... name of this enzyme class is L-threo-3-phenylserine benzaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...

*Hydroxymandelonitrile lyase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Sorghum hydroxynitrile lyase, and (S)-4-hydroxymandelonitrile hydroxybenzaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in cyanoamino ... In enzymology, a hydroxymandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-4- ... 8. On the requirement of hydroxynitrile lyase for flavin". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (19): 4457-62. PMID 5922969. Molecular and ...

*2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. It is used in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase ( ... 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-6-phosphate aldolase 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase KDPG ...

*Dimethylaniline-N-oxide aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase. Machinist JM, Orme-Johnson WH, Ziegler DM (1966). "Microsomal oxidases. II. ... name of this enzyme class is N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase (N-methylaniline-forming). Other names in common ...

*Fucosterol-epoxide lyase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... fucosterol-epoxide acetaldehyde-lyase. Prestwich GD, Angelastro M, De Palma A, Perino MA (1985). "Fucosterol epoxide lyase of ... In enzymology, a fucosterol-epoxide lyase (EC 4.1.2.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (24R,24'R)-fucosterol ... name of this enzyme class is (24R,24'R)-fucosterol-epoxide acetaldehyde-lyase (desmosterol-forming). This enzyme is also called ...

*Indole-3-glycerol-phosphate lyase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... indole-3-glycerolphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase, indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase, IGL, BX1, (1S,2R)-1-C-(indol- ... In enzymology, an indole-3-glycerol-phosphate lyase (EC 4.1.2.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (1S,2R)-1-C ... 3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate, and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase. This enzyme participates in benzoxazinone biosynthesis. ...

*Sphinganine-1-phosphate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... sphinganine-1-phosphate alkanal-lyase, sphinganine-1-phosphate lyase, and sphinganine-1-phosphate palmitaldehyde-lyase. This ... sphinganine-1-phosphate alkanal-lyase)". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 350 (10): 1233-41. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1969.350.2.1233 ... name of this enzyme class is sphinganine-1-phosphate palmitaldehyde-lyase (phosphoethanolamine-forming). Other names in common ...

*5-dehydro-2-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and malonate-semialdehyde-lyase. Anderson WA, Magasanik B (1971). "The pathway of myo-inositol degradation in Aerobacter ... name of this enzyme class is 5-dehydro-2-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate malonate-semialdehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming ...

*Ketotetrose-phosphate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and erythrulose-1-phosphate formaldehyde-lyase. CHARALAMPOUS FC, MUELLER GC (1953). "Synthesis of erythrulose phosphate by a ... name of this enzyme class is erythrulose-1-phosphate formaldehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). Other names in common ...

*Phosphoketolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include D-xylulose-5-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase, and (phosphate-acetylating). This ... name of this enzyme class is D-xylulose-5-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (adding phosphate; acetyl-phosphate- ...

*2-dehydropantoate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydropantoate formaldehyde-lyase. McIntosh EN, Purko M, Wood WA (1957). "Ketopantoate formation by a hydroxymethylation ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydropantoate formaldehyde-lyase (3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate-forming). Other names in common use ...

*Dihydroneopterin aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and dihydropteridine glycolaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in folate biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 13 structures have ... 8-dihydropt eridine glycolaldehyde-lyase (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine-forming). Other names in ...

*17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include C-17/C-20-lyase, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in ... name of this enzyme class is 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase (4-androstene-3,17-dione-forming). ...

*2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate glycolaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate glycolaldehyde-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...

*Olfactory receptor

The G protein (Golf and/or Gs) in turn activates the lyase - adenylate cyclase - which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). The ... Araneda RC, Peterlin Z, Zhang X, Chesler A, Firestein S (March 2004). "A pharmacological profile of the aldehyde receptor ... of a population of native aldehyde receptors. Phantosmia Receptor Trace amine-associated receptor Odorant Pseudogenes Gene ...
Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPO-lyase) was purified 300-fold from tomatoes. The enzymatic activity appeared to be very unstable, but addition of Triton X100 and beta-mercaptoethanol to the buffer yielded an active enzyme that could be stored for several months at −80°C. The enzyme was inhibited by desferoxamine mesylate (desferal), 2-methyl-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone ... read more (metyrapone), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), n-propyl gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole, suggesting the involvement of free radicals in the reaction mechanism and the existence of a prosthetic group in the active center. However, no heme group could be demonstrated with the methods commonly used to identify heme groups in proteins. Only 13-hydroperoxides from linoleic acid (13-HPOD) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-13-HPOT) were cleaved by the tomato enzyme, with a clear preference for the latter substrate. The pH-optimum was 6.5, and for concentrations lower than 300 mu M a typical Michaelis Menten curve ...
In this Communication the authors characterized the decarbonylation reaction catalyzed by cyanobacterial aldehyde decarbonylase (cAD) as being independent of oxygen. Further experiments have now led the conclusion that the possibility that the observed activity was due to trace amounts of oxygen in the reaction buffer cannot be excluded.. The difficulties in establishing the dependence of the reaction on molecular oxygen stem, in part, from the very low activity of the enzyme under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. It was found that oxygen scrubbing systems that are routinely employed to remove oxygen from biochemical reactions, such as sodium dithionite, glucose oxidase/glucose and protocatechuate dioxygenase/protocatechuate, are ineffective at decreasing the activity of cAD using the assay conditions described in this Communication, even when included in large excess. Although these observations support the initial assertion that oxygen was not involved, when the assays were performed in ...
Press Release issued Aug 16, 2016: Acetone cyanohydrin is manufactured by the reaction of acetone and hydrogen cyanide in presence of water solutions such as KOH and NaOH. Tthe intermediate product however, is unstable in alkaline solution and hence is treated with sulphuric acid until its pHreaches 1-2. Acetone cyanohydrin is used as an intermediate product for manufacturing methylacrylates, methacrylamide, methacrylic acid and methacrylonitrile among others. Acetone cyanohydrin is majorly consumed in the manufacture of methylmethacrylates (MMA). Methylmethacrylates are used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate. In addition, acetone cyanohydrin finds applications in manufacturing of insecticides, flavoring agents and pharmaceuticals among others.
The global Acetone Cyanohydrin Market is one amongst the enormously classified markets. The global Acetone Cyanohydrin market report offers information related to import and export, along with the current business chain in the market at the global level. It also delivers a plan regarding the expansion of supply and demand of the generated products and offering services compared with the key market players Mitsubishi Rayon, Dow, Arkema, BASF, Evonik, Kuraray, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, Formosa Plastics, Sumitomo Chemical, Asahi Kasei, Sinopec of the Acetone Cyanohydrin market globally.. Apply here for the sample copy of the report @: www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-acetone-cyanohydrin-market-data-survey-report-2013-471219#RequestSample. A deep investigation of the Acetone Cyanohydrin market depends on global patterns, which have been recently incorporated into the study, is also included in the report. Furthermore, The report presents a detailed segmentation Agriculture Grade, ...
Shop Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Plants continuously have to defend themselves against life threatening events such as drought, mechanical damage, temperature stress and potential pathogens. A main component of the plant defense mechanism is the lipoxygenase pathway. Products of this pathway are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, signaling, or ... read more have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The first step in the lipoxygenase pathway is the reaction of linoleic or linolenic acids with molecular oxygen, catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase. The formed hydroperoxy fatty acids are highly reactive and dangerous for the plant, and are therefore further metabolized by other enzymes such as allene oxide synthase, hydroperoxide lyase, peroxygenase or divinyl ether synthase. Hydroperoxide lyases are heme-containing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 class (CYP74B). They cleave the C-C bond adjacent to the hydroperoxy group in the lipoxygenase products, resulting in the formation of w-oxo acids and volatile C6- and ...
Looking for Ethylene Cyanohydrin? Find out information about Ethylene Cyanohydrin. C3H5ON A colorless liquid that is miscible with water and boils at 221°C. , HOCH2CH2CN, a colorless, viscous liquid.Ethylene cyanohydrin has a melting point... Explanation of Ethylene Cyanohydrin
Complete information for SGPL1 gene (Protein Coding), Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 2v9o: L-Rhamnulose-1-Phosphate Aldolase From Escherichia Coli ( Mutant A87M-T109F-E192A)
1GXS: Crystal Structure of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Sorghum Bicolor in Complex with the Inhibitor Benzoic Acid: A Novel Cyanogenic Enzyme
Bifidobacterium ruminantium strain DSM 6489 putative xylulose5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (xfp) gene, partial ...
1FY6: Substrate and metal complexes of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase from Aquifex aeolicus at 1.9-A resolution. Implications for the condensation mechanism.
Fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya), an immunosuppresive agent with activity purported to be mediated by binding of its phosphorylated derivative to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), was approved earlier in the year as the first orally administered disease modifying therapy for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Activation of S1P1 induces internalisation and degradation of the…
A. Trimethylsilyl cyanide. A 1-L, round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, nitrogen inlet, and a 60-mL addition funnel is charged with 5.0 g (0.624 mol) of lithium hydride (Note 1) and 500 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (Note 2). The stirred suspension is cooled in an ice bath and 42.6 g of acetone cyanohydrin (45.7 mL, 0.501 mol) (Note 3) is added dropwise over 15 min. After the addition is complete, the ice bath is removed and the mixture stirred for 2 hr at room temperature (Note 4). The magnetic stirring bar is removed and the solvent evaporated as completely as possible on a rotary evaporator. The white lithium cyanide is then dried in vacuo for 3 hr (Note 5) and (Note 6). The lithium cyanide is freed from the sides of the flask and broken up with a spatula (Note 7). A 250-mL round-bottomed flask equipped with an ice bath, magnetic stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet is charged with 54.32 g (63.46 ml, 0.500 mol) of trimethylchlorosilane (Note 8) and 100 mL of ...
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A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds in which a cyano and a hydroxy group are attached to the same carbon atom. The general formula is R2C(OH)CN, where R is H, alkyl, or aryl. Cyanohydrins are industrially important precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Cyanohydrins can be formed by the cyanohydrin reaction, which involves treating a ketone or an aldehyde with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the presence of excess amounts of sodium cyanide (NaCN) as a catalyst: RRC=O + HCN → RRC(OH)CN In this reaction, the nucleophilic CN− ion attacks the electrophilic carbonyl carbon in the ketone, followed by protonation by HCN, thereby regenerating the cyanide anion. Cyanohydrins are also prepared by displacement of sulfite by cyanide salts: Cyanohydrins are intermediates in the Strecker amino acid synthesis. Acetone cyanohydrin, (CH3)2C(OH)CN is the cyanohydrin of acetone. It is generated as an intermediate in the industrial production of methyl methacrylate. In the ...
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase. Reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O = 3-deoxy-D-arabino-hept-2-ulosonate 7-phosphate + phosphate. For diagram click here and mechanism here.. Other name(s): 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphoheptonate aldolase; 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-2-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptolosonate-7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase; 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonate D-erythrose-4-phosphate lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); 7-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonate D-erythrose-4-phosphate lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase; D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); DAH7-P synthase; DAHP synthase; DS-Co; DS-Mn; KDPH synthase; KDPH synthetase; deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase; phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase; ...
In organic chemistry, mandelonitrile is the cyanohydrin derivative of benzaldehyde. Small amounts of mandelonitrile occur in the pits of some fruits. Mandelonitrile is the aglycone part of the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The naturally occurring (R)-(+) enantiomer finds use as an intermediate in the preparation of optically active α-hydroxy carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy aldehydes, α-hydroxy ketones, and 2-amino alcohols. Mandelonitrile can break down into cyanide and benzaldehyde, a reaction that can be catalyzed by the enzyme mandelonitrile lyase. Racemic mandelonitrile may be prepared similar to many other cyanohydrins. In a one pot reaction, benzaldehyde is reacted with sodium bisulfite to give the corresponding adduct, which further reacts with aqueous sodium cyanide to give the racemic product: Sigma-Aldrich product page The Merck Index (12th ed.). 1996. Kruse, C.G. In Collins, A.N. Sheldrake, G.N. Crosby, J., Eds. Chirality in Industry Chichester, UK , (1992), 279 Corson, ...
Looking for online definition of 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate or what 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate stands for? 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Evidence for the presence of the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Helicobacter pylori was obtained using 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bacterial lysates generated 6-phosphogluconate and NADH or NADPH in incubations with glucose-6-phosphate and NAD+ or NADP+, indicating the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Formation of pyruvate was observed in time courses of incubations of bacterial lysates with 6-phosphogluconate as the only substrate, suggesting the presence of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase activities. The existence of these enzymes and of triose phosphate isomerase was confirmed by observing the appearance of dihydroxyacetone phosphate in time courses of bacterial lysates incubated with 6-phosphogluconate. Aldolase activity was measured by the production of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in lysates incubated with 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate as the sole substrate. Dehydrogenase,
Looking for online definition of cyanohydrin in the Medical Dictionary? cyanohydrin explanation free. What is cyanohydrin? Meaning of cyanohydrin medical term. What does cyanohydrin mean?
Did you know that the humble black cherry is actually a member of the rose family? Black cherries are more than just wonderful in jams, ice cream, pies, and as a garnish in your favorite cocktail: they are an excellent source of powerful antioxidants that help to neutralize the damaging, age-accelerating effects of free radicals.**. Black cherries may supply far more nutritional benefits than antioxidant activity alone, however. New research into the health benefits of black cherries has discovered that there are certain properties of all cherries which seem to help modulate inflammation and inhibit inflammatory pathways. A 2003 study found that black cherry was associated with a reduction of CRP (C-reactive protein) in the bloodstream, which is an inflammatory bio-marker.**. Black cherries have been found to support joint comfort, thanks to their inflammation-modulating and antioxidant properties. A high concentration of antioxidants known as anthocyanins, which give black cherries their deep, ...
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S cerevisiae Fol1 protein: possesses dihydropteroate synthetase, dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphokinase, and dihydroneopterin aldolase activities; has been sequenced
Results S1PL expression was upregulated in fibrotic lung tissues and primary lung fibroblasts isolated from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. TGF-β increased the expression of S1PL in human lung fibroblasts via activation and binding of Smad3 transcription factor to Sgpl1 promoter. Overexpression of S1PL attenuated TGF-β-induced and S1P-induced differentiation of human lung fibroblasts through regulation of the expression of LC3 and beclin 1. Knockdown of S1PL (Sgpl1+/−) in mice augmented bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and patients with IPF reduced Sgpl1 mRNA expression in PBMCs exhibited higher severity of fibrosis and lower survival rate. ...
We demonstrate ResBoosts control over the sensitivity/specificity trade-off using the enzyme 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase, a bacterial and plant enzyme needed
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum strain DSM 20092 putativexylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (xfp) gene,partial ...
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that mediates the irreversible degradation of the bioactive lipid S1P. We have previously reported that overexpressed SPL displays anti-influenza viral activity; however, the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that SPL functions as a positive regulator of IKKε to propel type I IFN-mediated innate immune responses against viral infection. Exogenous SPL expression inhibited influenza A virus replication, which correlated with an increase in type I IFN production and IFN-stimulated gene accumulation upon infection. In contrast, the lack of SPL expression led to an elevated cellular susceptibility to influenza A virus infection. In support of this, SPL-deficient cells were defective in mounting an effective IFN response when stimulated by influenza viral RNAs. SPL augmented the activation status of IKKε and enhanced the kinase-induced phosphorylation of IRF3 and the synthesis of type I ...
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0184]Nitriles compounds listed in the CRC Handbook (pages 344-368) can be used in this invention include but not limited to the followings: Cyanoacetylene, Cyanoacetaldehyde, Acrylonitrile, Fluoroacetonitrile, Acetonitrile (or Cyanomethane), Trichloroacetonitrile, Methacrylonitrile (or α-Methylacrylonitrile), Proionitrile (or Cyanoethane), Isobutyronitrile, Trimethylacetonitrile (or tert-Butylcyanide), 2-Ethyacrylonitrile, Dichloroacetonitrile, α Chloroisobutyronitrile, n-Butyronitrile (or 1-Cyanopropane), trans-Crotononitrile, Allycyanide, Methoxyacetonitrile, 2 Hydroxyisobutyronitrile (or Acetone cyanohydrins), 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile, 2-Methylbutyronitrile, Chloroacetonitrile, Isovaleronitrile, 2,4-Pentadienonitrile, 2-Chlorocrotononitrile, Ethoxyacetonitrile, 2-Methycrotononitrile, 2-Bromoisobutyronitrile, 4-Pentenonitrile, Thiophene-2,3-dicarbonitrile (or 2,3-Dicyanothiophene), 3,3-Dimethylacrylonitrile, Valeronitrile (or 1 Cyanobutane), 2-Chlorobutyronitrile, Diethylacetonitrile, ...
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There is not much extensive research when it comes to benefits of black cherry, But there are some amazing uses. Want to know what are they? Read on more!
Before you buy CLIF Bar® Black Cherry Almond Energy Bars 12 ct Box, check out 41 Influenster reviews. Vivi D. said Amazing!!!! If you havent tried try it....
One of the metabolic fates of 3-deoxyglucosone, a product of protein deglycation and a potent glycating agent, is to be oxidized to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate, but the enzyme that catalyses this reaction is presently unknown. quantitatively a more important substrate than retinaldehyde for ALDH1A1. at 4C. The supernatant was neutralised with 3 M K2CO3 and 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate was […]. ...
Nagoya, Japan - In the production of pharmaceuticals, it is extremely important to produce molecules that have the right kind of symmetry. Even products that have the same composition, but are mirror images of each other, can have different effects in the body. Considerable interest has been generated by a recent advance made by scientists at Nagoya University, which was reported online in the journal Angewandte Chemie. Specifically, these researchers managed to modify molecules called ketones by adding new chemical groups in a way that produces more of a single mirror image of the same type of molecule ...
1fua: Refined high-resolution structure of the metal-ion dependent L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (class II) from Escherichia coli.
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Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase, YrbI family (TIGR01670; EC 3.1.3.45; HMM-score: 18.2) ...
Looking for online definition of fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase in the Medical Dictionary? fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase explanation free. What is fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase? Meaning of fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase medical term. What does fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase mean?
In the presence of a metal catalyst such as a samarium compound, an enol ester compound shown by the formula (1) is reacted with a carbonyl compound shown by the formula (3) and a cyanogenation agent to produce an .alpha.-cyanohydrin ester shown by the formula (4): ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1, R.sup.7, and R.sup.8 are the same or different from each other, each representing a non-reactive atom or a non-reactive organic group; R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 are the same or different from each other, each representing a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms.By hydrolyzing the obtained compound, the corresponding .alpha.-hydroxy acid or a salt thereof can be obtained. According to the above processes, an .alpha.-cyanohydrin ester and an .alpha.-hydroxy acid can be obtained in high yields.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF ...
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ID A0A1V1RDQ8_9ACTN Unreviewed; 293 AA. AC A0A1V1RDQ8; DT 07-JUN-2017, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 07-JUN-2017, sequence version 1. DT 31-JUL-2019, entry version 7. DE SubName: Full=3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1}; GN Name=aroA {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1}; GN ORFNames=emb_1d0058 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1}; OS Coriobacteriaceae bacterium EMTCatB1. OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Coriobacteriia; Coriobacteriales; OC Coriobacteriaceae. OX NCBI_TaxID=1927122 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=EMTCatB1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAV30768.1}; RA Kobayashi H., Fu Q., Maeda H., Sato K.; RT "Draft genome sequence of a novel Coriobacteriaceae sp. strain RT EMTCatB1 reconstructed from the metagenome of a thermophilic RT electromethanogenic biocathode."; RL Submitted (DEC-2016) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC -!- CAUTION: The sequence shown here is ...
Prunus serotina? The cherries are edible... Dave The fruit of the choke cherry and wild black cherry is edible. But not the pits. May be somewhat tart but that can vary from year to year. makes a great cherry sauce for desserts On Tue, 15 Jul 2003 00:15:44 GMT, V_coerulea
Black Cherry: In the United States the harvest of cherry wood for fine furniture is restricted to the Allegheny plateau and to a portion of the Appalachian highlands but the range black cherry extends from central regions of the Ontario province in Canada to the southern regions of Mexico. This raises some interesting questions about the genetics of this species and timber quality. Are the trees in the Allegheny genetically superior or is timber quality a factor of the environment? In addition, trees in the northern regions of the species range are subjected to a very short growing season and have a long period of meristem dormancy while trees in the southern parts of the species range have warm winters. These characteristics make black cherry an interesting system for genetic analysis. Part of this research is to establish a system to examine the genetic structure and dynamics of black cherry populations in Pennsylvania ...
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In the box you get a well built PC and different power adapters. After connecting the Ockel to a screen and mouse-keyboard, it took about 10 minutes to finish the installation process. Windows 10 comes installed but you just need to go through the usual process of setting up a new Windows machine. The Black Cherry has Wifi so its fairly easy to connect to the internet.. The first test were promising, although I have to say that it takes a while to load heavy pages with a lot of ads. Maybe another browser would solve this- I was testing on Microsoft Edge. Dont get your hopes up for hardcore gaming, this device wont run any games that are new. I didnt install Steam, but I tried some games on Miniclip. For example Agar.io, which is fun and popular, runs smoothly. I did have some lag issues, but that was due to my internet speed.. ...
Gestrinone is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Gestrinone is available on the Drugs.com website.
Synonyms for Ah Bing in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ah Bing. 2 words related to bing cherry: black cherry, sweet cherry. What are synonyms for Ah Bing?
Black Gumballs are perfect for your black candy buffet or holiday candy display. With their shiny shells and black cherry flavor, these Black Gumballs will be a big crowd-pleaser at your event.
Im naturally brunette, but right now the black that I dyed it last year is still growing out but I recently dyed it a dark red. It actually looks like its done on purpose. With the red on top and fading to almost a black cherry at the bottom ...
Beverly International - GLUTAMINE SELECT 552GM Synergistic Formula for Building Muscle Size and Strength Black Cherry Flavored Die...
Extreme departure from standard care is acts that are so egregious that any physician with some sense of training should know. Even if Mr. Jackson self administered, the level of care provided by Dr. Murray was substandard. Even if Murray left the room and Mr. Jackson overdosed, it still doesnt change these deviations. Moreover, this would create an additional extreme deviation. If Dr. Murray thought that his patient was forming an addiction, if he knew that Mr. Jackson liked to push Propofol himself, its safe to assume that we have a high-risk patient. So if the patient isnt satisfied with the amount you gave him, there is a potential that he may reach for Propofol when you leave the room. This is same as leaving a syringe full of heroin with a heroin addict. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution giving optically active cyanohydrins. T2 - use of silica-supported ammonium hydroxide and porous ceramic-immobilized lipase. AU - Sakai, Takashi. AU - Wang, Kefei. AU - Ema, Tadashi. PY - 2008/2/25. Y1 - 2008/2/25. N2 - Synthetically useful cyanohydrin acetates, ArCH(OAc)CN (Ar=C6H5, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl, 4-Me-C6H4, 4-Cl-C6H4, 4-F-C6H4, 4-CF3-C6H4), were successfully synthesized in high enantiomeric purities (79-93% ee) via the lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of cyanohydrins synthesized in situ from the corresponding aldehydes and acetone cyanohydrin. The combined use of silica-supported BTAH (benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide) and porous ceramic-immobilized lipase under the optimized reaction conditions enabled the remarkable acceleration of the enantioselective DKR reactions.. AB - Synthetically useful cyanohydrin acetates, ArCH(OAc)CN (Ar=C6H5, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl, 4-Me-C6H4, 4-Cl-C6H4, 4-F-C6H4, ...
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en] A new Bifidobacterium species is described based on the study of ten Gram-positive strains with fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. They are part of a phenotypic group comprising 141 strains isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses in French raw milk cheese factories. This group was separated by a numerical analysis based on API 50CH, API 32A tests and growth at 46 degrees C. A strong similarity of 16S rRNA sequences (99.8%) was shown between strain FR62/b/3(T) and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum LMG 21775(T). However, low DNA-DNA relatedness was observed between their DNAs (31%). The new isolates are able to grow at low temperatures (all ten strains up to 5 degrees C) and strain FR62/b/3(T) grows under aerobic conditions, as does B. psychraerophilum. However, contrary to B. psychraerophilum, they do not ferment L-arabinose, D-xylose, arbutin or melezitose, but they do acidify lactose. The DNA G+C content of FR62/b/3(T) is 56.4mol%. Therefore, the name Bifidobacterium ...
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Accepted name: N-acylneuraminate-9-phosphate synthase. Reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + N-acyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate + H2O = N-acylneuraminate 9-phosphate + phosphate. For diagram of reaction click here and mechanism click here.. Other name(s): N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase; N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic acid 9-phosphate synthase; N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate synthetase; N-acylneuraminate-9-phosphate pyruvate-lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); sialic acid 9-phosphate synthetase. Systematic name: phosphoenolpyruvate:N-acyl-D-mannosamine-6-phosphate 1-(2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl)transferase. Comments: Acts on N-glycoloyl and N-acetyl-derivatives.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-58-7. References:. 1. Roseman, S., Jourdian, G.W., Watson, D. and Rood, R. Enzymatic synthesis of sialic acid 9-phosphates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 47 (1961) 958-961.. 2. Watson, D.R., Jourdian, G.W. and Roseman, S. The sialic acids. 8. Sialic acid ...
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In this thesis, the synthesis of enantioenriched compounds using novel methodologies that employ metal- and biocatalysis is described.. In the first part, the synthesis of enantioenriched cyanohydrins, which are highly versatile synthetic intermediates, is described. A minor enantiomer recycling methodology, which uses a catalytic system consisting of a titanium salen dimer and a lipase, was highly successful in yielding the desired products, often in essentially enantiopure form. Alternatively, when the minor enantiomer recycling method gave unsatisfactory results, the same two catalysts were used in a sequential two-step process. The minor enantiomer recycling procedure was used to synthesize three different β-adrenergic antagonists with very high enantiomeric excesses via the corresponding O-acetylated cyanohydrins. With the same cyclic process, O-(α-bromoacyl) cyanohydrins were synthesized and subsequently transformed to aminofuranones via an intramolecular Blaise reaction. In addition, ...
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5 sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that adds one nucleotide to the 3 end of the arising single-nucleotide gap. Conducts gap-filling DNA synthesis in a stepwise distributive fashion rather than in a processive fashion as for other DNA polymerases (By similarity).
The original version of the Kiliani-Fischer synthesis proceeds through cyanohydrin and aldonic acid lactone intermediates. The first step is to react the starting sugar with aqueous cyanide (typically NaCN); the cyanide undergoes nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group of the sugar (while sugars tend to exist mainly as cyclic hemiacetal, they are always in chemical equilibrium with their open-chain aldehyde or ketone forms, and in the case of these aldoses it is that aldehyde form that reacts in this synthesis). The cyanohydrin resulting from this addition is heated in water, which hydrolyzes the cyanide into a carboxylic acid group that quickly reacts with itself to form a more stable lactone. Now there are two diastereomeric lactones in the reaction mixture. They are separated (by chromatography, partition into different solvents, or any of the numerous other separation methods) and then the desired lactone is reduced with a sodium amalgam. As illustrated below, D-arabinose is converted to ...
Looking for hexulose? Find out information about hexulose. A ketose made from a six-carbon-chain monosaccharide Explanation of hexulose
Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Spicy Red Bell Pepper Soup based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Peppers, sweet, red, fresh, Olive Oil, White Rice, long grain, cooked, Chicken Broth, Carrots, raw and the other ingredients in this recipe.
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Medical definition of desmolase: an enzyme (as aldolase) capable of breaking or forming a carbon-to-carbon bond in a molecule and playing a role in…
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If you think that physiotherapy is mostly indicated to people who need to prevent or treat medical affections, you are wrong. In …. ...
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N-methylimidazole-N-methylimidazole-N-methylpyrrole-aminobutyric acid- N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-alanine- ...
Bell peppers can improve an individuals immunity owing to their high content of vitamin C. the vitamin plays a significant role in the human immune system by activating immune cells among other contributions (10). Vitamin C supports immune responses by increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which are crucial in effective immune responses (10).. In addition, regular consumption of bell peppers can improve immunity owing to their vitamin E content. Studies have shown that vitamin E, like vitamin C, activates the bodys immune responses and enhances the effectiveness of white blood cells (17). Research has also shown that vitamin E intake from dietary sources enhances the bodys antibody response to a number of different vaccines (17). It has also been demonstrated that vitamin E enhances the resistance in elderly individuals to viral infections (17).. Another component of bell peppers, vitamin A, has also been shown to improve immune response in both animal and human models (26, ...
Black cherry juice may help gout sufferers avoid ongoing attacks. A study at Boston University Medical Center involving 633 participants concluded that eating a minimum of 10 cherries a day kept gout...
Red Peppers are a superfood because they contain one of the highest concentrations of antioxidants found in vegetables. Research shows that they lower levels of many kinds of cacner, heart disease, stroke and cataracts. One quarter of a red bell pepper contains more than twice the recommended daily value of Vitamin C! All peppers are high in Vitamin C, however red bell peppers are the ones rich in beta-carotenes.. I absolutely love red bell peppers. Theyre by far one of my favorite vegetables. The downside is they can be expensive, especially when you buy them organic, however its best to buy them organic because you eat the skin. Theyre also much sweeter! Jarred roasted red bell peppers are much cheaper to buy, though I dont find they taste quite as good, theyre a great substitute in the winter or when organic bell peppers are unavilable. To showcase red bell peppers, I made one of my favorite dishes, Fajita Pasta!. ...
Bell Pepper, Big Bertha Bell Pepper, Red Bell Pepper). The name Big Bertha says it all; this is one giant pepper! A high-performing pepper in yields and disease resistance, Big Bertha bears giant blocky sweet bell pepper fruits that ripen from green to medium red. Peppers are produced around 72 days after planting. The plants are compact and high-yielding.. Native to tropical America, bell peppers are annuals or short-lived perennials that were grown and selected for millenia by Native Americans. Their specific region of origin is still unknown.... ...
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Tomatoes, bell peppers and gutsy chipotle peppers are the key ingredients in this tasty ragout. The addition of kidney beans makes it a whole meal.
Sow your bell pepper seeds in a modular seed tray containing good quality soil-based compost such as John Innes Seed and Cutting at a rate of one seed per module and set them 1/2 inch deep. Gently water them in. Its important that the seeds remain moist until they germinate and as such will need good ventilation to reduce the incidence of fungal rots. If ventilation is poor you may need to spray your newly germinating seedlings with a liquid fungicide once a week to protect them ...
This is a detailed article about bell peppers and their health effects. Nutrient content, plant compounds, health benefits, adverse effects and more.
Read Whole Livings Power Foods: Bell Peppers article. Also find healthy breakfast, lunch, snack, dinner & dessert recipes, plus heart healthy food & weight loss recipe ideas at WholeLiving.com.
Dearest peeps Of Sagacious Wit and Science Niceness and Sharing Your Knowledge Luff !! This is a nice selection of Bell Peppers: [ Invalid Attachment ]...
Scrumptiously Easy Bell Pepper Egg Bake Recipe http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/03/26/bell-pepper-egg-bake-recipe.aspx
Calveras, J., Egido-Gabás, M., Gómez, L., Casas, J., Parella, T., Joglar, J., Bujons, J. and Clapés, P. (2009), Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate Aldolase Catalyzed Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Polyhydroxylated Pyrrolidine Derivatives and Evaluation of their Glycosidase Inhibitory Properties. Chem. Eur. J., 15: 7310-7328. doi: 10.1002/chem.200900838 ...
Janipha aipi (Pohl) J.Presl Janipha manihot (L.) Kunth Jatropha aipi (Pohl) A.Moller Jatropha diffusa (Pohl) Steud. Jatropha digitiformis (Pohl) Steud. Jatropha dulcis J.F.Gmel. Jatropha flabellifolia (Pohl) Steud. Jatropha glauca A.Rich. Jatropha janipha Lour. Jatropha loureiroi (Pohl) Steud. Jatropha manihot L. Jatropha mitis Rottb. Jatropha mitis Sessé & Moç. Jatropha paniculata Ruiz & Pav. ex Pax Jatropha silvestris Vell. Jatropha stipulata Vell. Mandioca aipi (Pohl) Link Mandioca dulcis (J.F.Gmel.) D.Parodi Mandioca utilissima (Pohl) Link Manihot aipi Pohl Manihot aipi var. lanceolata Pohl Manihot aipi var. latifolia Pohl Manihot aipi var. lutescens Pohl Manihot aypi Spruce Manihot cannabina Sweet Manihot cassava Cook & Collins Manihot diffusa Pohl Manihot digitiformis Pohl Manihot dulcis (J.F.Gmel.) Baill. Manihot dulcis var. aipi (Pohl) Pax Manihot dulcis var. diffusa (Pohl) Pax Manihot dulcis var. flabellifolia (Pohl) Pax Manihot edule A.Rich. Manihot esculenta subsp. alboerecta Cif. ...
D-arabino-3-Hexulose 6-phosphate was prepared by condensation of formaldehyde with ribulose 5-phosphate in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase from methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus. The 3-hexulose phosphate was unstable in solutions of pH greater than 3, giving a mixture of products in which, after dephosphorylation, allulose and fructose were detected. A complete conversion of d-ribulose 5-phosphate and formaldehyde into d-fructose 6-phosphate was demonstrated in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (prepared from methane-grown M. capsulatus). d-Allulose 6-phosphate was prepared from d-allose by way of d-allose 6-phosphate. No evidence was found for its metabolism by extracts of M. capsulatus, thus eliminating it as an intermediate in the carbon assimilation process of this organism. A survey was made of the enzymes involved in the regeneration of pentose phosphate during C1 assimilation via a modified pentose phosphate cycle. On the basis ...
Two cyanogenic glycosides are found in black cherry. Amygdalin and prunasin are found in the leaves, twigs, and seeds (Cheeke and Schull 1985). Hydrogen cyanide is formed when the glycosides are hydrolyzed by plant enzymes after damage or by rumen organisms. Majak et al. (1990) found that cyanide production is most rapid in cattle that had been starved for a day. High rates of cyanide production were obtained in the rumen after the animal ingested fresh alfalfa and cubed alfalfa hay.. ...
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) mediates the conversion of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides to unstable allene epoxides, which supply the precursors for the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). In this study the characterization of AOS gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum) is reported. AOS was constitutively expressed in different organs of flax plants. Additionally, AOS gene expression was enhanced after mechanical wounding in both the directly damaged leaves and in the systemic tissue located distal to the treated leaves. This wound-induced accumulation of AOS required the de novo biosynthesis of other unknown proteins involved in the signaling pathway modulating wound-induced AOS gene expression. Furthermore, the wound-induced AOS mRNA accumulation was correlated with the increase in the levels of JA. Both JA and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, activated AOS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, JA could activate its own biosynthetic pathway ...

Purification, stabilization and characterization of tomato fatty acid hydroperoxide lyasePurification, stabilization and characterization of tomato fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase

In addition to the aldehydes, 12-oxo-9Z-dodecenoic acid was found by GC/MS analysis. To a small extent, isomerization to 12-oxo ... Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPO-lyase) was purified 300-fold from tomatoes. The enzymatic activity appeared to be very ... Headspace analysis showed that tomato HPO-lyase formed hexanal from 13-HPOD and 3Z-hexenal from alpha-13-HPOT. A trace of the ... Purification, stabilization and characterization of tomato fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase. DSpace/Manakin Repository. ...
more infohttps://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/5554

Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis | Plant...Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis | Plant...

Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis. E.W. Chehab, G ... HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL) genes encode enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides into aldehydes and ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/141/1/121.full

KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.2.45KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.2.45

Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Aldehyde-lyases. Sysname. (3E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate hydro-lyase. ... The enzyme catalyses a retro-aldol reaction in vitro, and it accepts a broad range of aldehydes and 4-substituted 2-oxobut-3- ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?ec:4.1.2.45

KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.2.55KEGG ENZYME: 4.1.2.55

Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Aldehyde-lyases. Sysname. 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?ec:4.1.2.55

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (HMDBP00978)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (HMDBP00978)

lyase activity. carbon-carbon lyase activity. aldehyde-lyase activity. fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity. ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP00978

Fructose Intolerance
      - Intolerance, Fructose
     Summary Report | CureHunterFructose Intolerance - Intolerance, Fructose Summary Report | CureHunter

Aldehyde-LyasesIBA 01/01/1974 - "Studies on liver aldolases in hereditary fructose intolerance.". 09/15/2000 - "Our results ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD005633-Fructose-Intolerance-Intolerance--Fructose.do

araD - L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase AraD - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - araD gene & proteinaraD - L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase AraD - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - araD gene & protein

aldehyde-lyase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P08203

Glutamate decarboxylase - WikipediaGlutamate decarboxylase - Wikipedia

4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GAD_antibodies

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase - WikipediaFructose-bisphosphate aldolase - Wikipedia

4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldolase

EMBL: CP000434EMBL: CP000434

... aldehyde-lyase activity; FT GO_process: GO:0005975 - carbohydrate metabolism; FT GO_process: GO:0006207 - de novo pyrimidine ... "aldehyde dehydrogenase" FT /EC_number="1.2.1.-" FT /note="GO_function: GO:0004029 - aldehyde dehydrogenase FT (NAD) activity; ... acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as FT acceptor; GO_process: GO:0008152 - metabolism" FT /db_xref=" ... "aldehyde dehydrogenase" FT /EC_number="1.2.1.3" FT /note="GO_function: GO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity; FT GO_process: GO: ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-ac?query=CP000434&db=EMBL&ident=ACNUC7421

Aldolase | definition of aldolase by Medical dictionaryAldolase | definition of aldolase by Medical dictionary

1. Generic term for aldehyde-lyase. 2. Name sometimes applied to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aldolase

Novel expression profiles of microRNAs suggest that specific miRNAs regulate gene expression for the sexual maturation of...Novel expression profiles of microRNAs suggest that specific miRNAs regulate gene expression for the sexual maturation of...

GO:0016832//aldehyde-lyase activity. GO:0006007//glucose catabolic process. gi,226475766,emb,CAX71973.1,/0/Aldolase ... and adenylosuccinate lyase [5], among others, are often detected in females. These up-regulated genes in paired females are ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-7-177

Mode of interactions of human aldolase isozymes with cytoskeletons<...Mode of interactions of human aldolase isozymes with cytoskeletons<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mode of interactions of human aldolase isozymes with cytoskeletons. AU - Kusakabe, Takahiro. AU - Motoki, Kiyohisa. AU - Hori, Katsuji. PY - 1997/8/1. Y1 - 1997/8/1. N2 - Three isoforms of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were found to bind specifically to the actin-containing filament of the cytoskeleton and to show tissue-specific binding patterns. Aldolase A (muscle type) bound more tightly to the skeletal muscle cytoskeleton among the three isozymes, while aldolase B (liver type) preferred the liver cytoskeleton to those of other tissues. The specific binding of aldolase A to the skeletal muscle eytoskeleton was inhibited strongly by the substrates fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate. Several mutant aldolases A were examined to identify the amino acid residues or regions that play a role in specific binding. Among the mutant aldolases tested, A-E34D, A-K41N, and A-Y363S exhibited remarkably reduced binding activities. Experiments using FITC-labeled enzymes ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/ja/publications/mode-of-interactions-of-human-aldolase-isozymes-with-cytoskeleton

CA2426774A1 - Method for generating a library of oligonucleotides comprising a controlled distribution of mutations 
      -...CA2426774A1 - Method for generating a library of oligonucleotides comprising a controlled distribution of mutations -...

102000003677 Aldehyde-Lyases Human genes 0 description 1 * 108090000072 Aldehyde-Lyases Proteins 0 description 1 ... 108090000489 Carboxy-Lyases Proteins 0 description 1 * 102000007132 Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases Human genes 0 ... 108090000673 Ammonia-Lyases Proteins 0 description 1 * AVKUERGKIZMTKX-NJBDSQKTSA-N Ampicillin Chemical compound data:image/svg+ ... 108090000453 Intramolecular Lyases Proteins 0 description 1 * 108010084764 Intramolecular Oxidoreductases Proteins 0 ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/CA2426774A1/en

EP2390256A1 - Plant artificial chromosomes, uses thereof and methods of preparing plant artificial chromosomes 
        -...EP2390256A1 - Plant artificial chromosomes, uses thereof and methods of preparing plant artificial chromosomes -...

102000003677 Aldehyde-Lyases Human genes 0 description 1 * 235000005254 Allium ampeloprasum Nutrition 0 description 1 ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2390256A1/en

Subject: messenger RNA / Subject: complementary DNA - PubAg Search ResultsSubject: 'messenger RNA' / Subject: complementary DNA - PubAg Search Results

messenger RNA, etc ; Pinus serotina; cyanogenesis; hydrolases; nitriles; aldehyde-lyases; complementary DNA; DNA libraries; DNA ... Modes of expression and common structural features of the complete phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in parsley ... Temporal and spatial expression of amygdalin hydrolase and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase in black cherry seeds ... The biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) after GA12-aldehyde involves a series of oxidative steps that lead to the formation of ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?f%5Bsubject_term%5D%5B%5D=complementary+DNA&page=306&q=%22messenger+RNA%22&search_field=subject

Distribution of aldolase-1 in extracellular, invading,  | Open-iDistribution of aldolase-1 in extracellular, invading, | Open-i

Aldehyde-Lyases/metabolism. *Animals. *Cell Membrane/metabolism. *Cells, Cultured. *Energy Metabolism/physiology ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2563030_ppat.1000188.g005&req=4

4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate aldolase - Wikipedia4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate aldolase - Wikipedia

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 2-carboxybenzaldehyde-lyase, and (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase. This enzyme participates in ... name of this enzyme class is (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate_aldolase

Threonine aldolase - WikipediaThreonine aldolase - Wikipedia

This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threonine_aldolase

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Aldehyde-Lyases, metabolism, Aldose-Ketose Isomerases, Archaeal Proteins, Formaldehyde, Open Reading Frames, Pentose Phosphate ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Journal+of+Bacteriology+188%EA%B6%8C+13%ED%98%B8

Zeitschrift für Naturforschung CZeitschrift für Naturforschung C

C6-Aldehyde Formation by Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide Lyase in the Brown Alga Laminaria angustata. Boonprab, Kangsadan / Matsuia, ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/znc.2003.58.issue-3-4/issue-files/znc.2003.58.issue-3-4.xml

AtREG498AtREG498

glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: aldehyde-lyase activity, oxidoreductase activity, ... lactoylglutathione lyase family protein / glyoxalase I family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lactoylglutathione lyase activity; ... lactoylglutathione lyase family protein / glyoxalase I family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lactoylglutathione lyase activity; ... Pectin lyase fold/virulence factor (InterPro:IPR011050), Glycoside hydrolase, family 28 (InterPro:IPR000743), Pectin lyase fold ...
more infohttp://ppdb.agr.gifu-u.ac.jp/ppdb/cgi-bin/tag_list.cgi?organism=At&tag=AtREG498

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Aldehyde-Lyases, genetics, metabolism, Animals, Cell Line, Cell Movement, Drosophila Proteins, Drosophila melanogaster, Female ... Mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase cause nephrosis with ichthyosis and adrenal insufficiency. 2017 Svjetlana Lovric et ... Mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase cause nephrosis with ichthyosis and adrenal insufficiency.. 2017 Svjetlana Lovric et ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=JOURNAL+OF+CLINICAL+INVESTIGATION+127%EA%B6%8C+3%ED%98%B8

Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the...Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the...

oleracea (Additional file 6) included transferase activity (transferring acyl groups), aldehyde-lyase activity and ... members performing aldehyde-lyase activity (Bra028543, Bra017233, Bra009517, Bra019639 and Bra006960), and the TPMs for these ... encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase, plays an important role in oxidizing both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, reducing the ... 3-chloroallyl aldehyde dehydrogenase/ aldehyde dehydrogenase (Bra010553, Bra017753, Bra011674, Bra018090, Bra024619 and ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-14-26
  • This list contains a list of EC numbers for the fourth group, EC 4 , lyases , placed in numerical order as determined by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (chemeurope.com)