Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

Identification and characterization of a DeoR-specific operator sequence essential for induction of dra-nupC-pdp operon expression in Bacillus subtilis. (1/518)

The deoR gene located just upstream the dra-nupC-pdp operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes the DeoR repressor protein that negatively regulates the expression of the operon at the level of transcription. The control region upstream of the operon was mapped by the use of transcriptional lacZ fusions. It was shown that all of the cis-acting elements, which were necessary for full DeoR regulation of the operon, were included in a 141-bp sequence just upstream of dra. The increased copy number of this control region resulted in titration of the DeoR molecules of the cell. By using mutagenic PCR and site-directed mutagenesis techniques, a palindromic sequence located from position -60 to position -43 relative to the transcription start point was identified as a part of the operator site for the binding of DeoR. Furthermore, it was shown that a direct repeat of five nucleotides, which was identical to the 3' half of the palindrome and was located between the -10 and -35 regions of the dra promoter, might function as a half binding site involved in cooperative binding of DeoR to the regulatory region. Binding of DeoR protein to the operator DNA was confirmed by a gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Moreover, deoxyribose-5-phosphate was shown to be a likely candidate for the true inducer of the dra-nupC-pdp expression.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (2/518)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase microheterogeneity in black cherry. (3/518)

The flavoprotein (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (MDL; EC 4.1.2.10), which plays a key role in cyanogenesis in rosaceous stone fruits, occurs in black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates as several closely related isoforms. Biochemical and molecular biological methods were used to investigate MDL microheterogeneity and function in this species. Three novel MDL cDNAs of high sequence identity (designated MDL2, MDL4, and MDL5) were isolated. Like MDL1 and MDL3 cDNAs (Z. Hu, J.E. Poulton [1997] Plant Physiol 115: 1359-1369), they had open reading frames that predicted a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding site, multiple N-glycosylation sites, and an N-terminal signal sequence. The N terminus of an MDL isoform purified from seedlings matched the derived amino acid sequence of the MDL4 cDNA. Genomic sequences corresponding to the MDL1, MDL2, and MDL4 cDNAs were obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA. Like the previously reported mdl3 gene, these genes are interrupted at identical positions by three short, conserved introns. Given their overall similarity, we conclude that the genes mdl1, mdl2, mdl3, mdl4, and mdl5 are derived from a common ancestral gene and constitute members of a gene family. Genomic Southern-blot analysis showed that this family has approximately eight members. Northern-blot analysis using gene-specific probes revealed differential expression of the genes mdl1, mdl2, mdl3, mdl4, and mdl5.  (+info)

Study of the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: mechanistic implications. (4/518)

Investigations of the (S)-selective hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis were performed by electrospray mass spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and with an enzyme activity assay. For the trans-cyanohydrin reaction (transcyanation) a two step reaction could be established. The results furthermore indicate a fast deactivation of the enzyme at low pH and a strong substrate dependence of its stability. They rule out an enzyme-HCN complex or a covalently bound carbonyl compound. Therefore the earlier postulated reaction intermediate as well as the proposed action of the catalytic triad have to be reevaluated. The calculated molecular mass could be confirmed by mass spectroscopy.  (+info)

Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase. (5/518)

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

An extremely thermostable aldolase from Sulfolobus solfataricus with specificity for non-phosphorylated substrates. (6/518)

Sulfolobus solfataricus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon growing optimally at 80-85 degrees C. It metabolizes glucose via a novel non-phosphorylated Entner-Doudoroff pathway, in which the reversible C(6) to C(3) aldol cleavage is catalysed by 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase (KDG-aldolase), generating pyruvate and glyceraldehyde. Given the ability of such a hyperstable enzyme to catalyse carbon-carbon-bond synthesis with non-phosphorylated metabolites, we report here the cloning and sequencing of the S. solfataricus gene encoding KDG-aldolase, and its expression in Escherichia coli to give fully active enzyme. The recombinant enzyme was purified in a simple two-step procedure, and shown to possess kinetic properties indistinguishable from the enzyme purified from S. solfataricus cells. The KDG-aldolase is a thermostable tetrameric protein with a half-life at 100 degrees C of 2.5 h, and is equally active with both d- and l-glyceraldehyde. It exhibits sequence similarity to the N-acetylneuraminate lyase superfamily of Schiff-base-dependent aldolases, dehydratases and decarboxylases, and evidence is presented for a similar catalytic mechanism for the archaeal enzyme by substrate-dependent inactivation by reduction with NaBH(4).  (+info)

Three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. (7/518)

The 3D structures of complexes between the hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis (Hb-HNL) and several substrate and/or inhibitor molecules, including trichloracetaldehyde, hexafluoracetone, acetone, and rhodanide, were determined by X-ray crystallography. The complex with trichloracetaldehyde showed a covalent linkage between the protein and the inhibitor, which had apparently resulted from nucleophilic attack of the catalytic Ser80-Ogamma. All other complexes showed the substrate or inhibitor molecule merely hydrogen bonded to the protein. In addition, the native crystal structure of Hb-HNL was redetermined at cryo-temperature and at room temperature, eliminating previous uncertainties concerning residual electron density within the active site, and leading to the observation of two conserved water molecules. One of them was found to be conserved in all complex structures and appears to have mainly structural significance. The other water molecule is conserved in all structures except for the complex with rhodanide; it is hydrogen bonded to the imidazole of the catalytic His235 and appears to affect the Hb-HNL catalyzed reaction. The observed 3D structural data suggest implications for the enzyme mechanism. It appears that the enzyme-catalyzed cyanohydrin formation is unlikely to proceed via a hemiacetal or hemiketal intermediate covalently attached to the enzyme, despite the observation of such an intermediate for the complex with trichloracetaldehyde. Instead, the data are consistent with a mechanism where the incoming substrate is activated by hydrogen bonding with its carbonyl oxygen to the Ser80 and Thr11 hydroxy groups. A hydrogen cyanide molecule subsequently replaces a water molecule and is deprotonated presumably by the His235 base. Deprotonation is facilitated by the proximity of the positive charge of the Lys236 side chain.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis yckG and yckF encode two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway used by methylotrophs, and yckH is required for their expression. (8/518)

The ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway is one of the metabolic pathways for the synthesis of compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds from one-carbon units and is found in many methane- and methanol-utilizing bacteria, which are known as methylotrophs. The characteristic enzymes of this pathway are 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (PHI), neither of which was thought to exist outside methylotrophs. However, the presumed yckG gene product (YckG) of Bacillus subtilis shows a primary structure similar to that of methylotroph HPS (F. Kunst et al., Nature 390:249-256, 1997). We have also investigated the sequence similarity between the yckF gene product (YckF) and methylotroph PHI (Y. Sakai, R. Mitsui, Y. Katayama, H. Yanase, and N. Kato, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 176:125-130, 1999) and found that the yckG and yckF genes of B. subtilis express enzymatic activities of HPS and PHI, respectively. Both of these activities were concomitantly induced in B. subtilis by formaldehyde, with induction showing dependence on the yckH gene, but were not induced by methanol, formate, or methylamine. Disruption of either gene caused moderate sensitivity to formaldehyde, suggesting that these enzymes may act as a detoxification system for formaldehyde in B. subtilis. In conclusion, we found an active yckG (for HPS)-yckF (for PHI) gene structure (now named hxlA-hxlB) in a nonmethylotroph, B. subtilis, which inherently preserves the RuMP pathway.  (+info)

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPO-lyase) was purified 300-fold from tomatoes. The enzymatic activity appeared to be very unstable, but addition of Triton X100 and beta-mercaptoethanol to the buffer yielded an active enzyme that could be stored for several months at −80°C. The enzyme was inhibited by desferoxamine mesylate (desferal), 2-methyl-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone ... read more (metyrapone), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), n-propyl gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole, suggesting the involvement of free radicals in the reaction mechanism and the existence of a prosthetic group in the active center. However, no heme group could be demonstrated with the methods commonly used to identify heme groups in proteins. Only 13-hydroperoxides from linoleic acid (13-HPOD) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-13-HPOT) were cleaved by the tomato enzyme, with a clear preference for the latter substrate. The pH-optimum was 6.5, and for concentrations lower than 300 mu M a typical Michaelis Menten curve ...
The global Acetone Cyanohydrin Market is one amongst the enormously classified markets. The global Acetone Cyanohydrin market report offers information related to import and export, along with the current business chain in the market at the global level. It also delivers a plan regarding the expansion of supply and demand of the generated products and offering services compared with the key market players Mitsubishi Rayon, Dow, Arkema, BASF, Evonik, Kuraray, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, Formosa Plastics, Sumitomo Chemical, Asahi Kasei, Sinopec of the Acetone Cyanohydrin market globally.. Apply here for the sample copy of the report @: www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-acetone-cyanohydrin-market-data-survey-report-2013-471219#RequestSample. A deep investigation of the Acetone Cyanohydrin market depends on global patterns, which have been recently incorporated into the study, is also included in the report. Furthermore, The report presents a detailed segmentation Agriculture Grade, ...
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Shop Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure-guided redesign of d-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from E. coli: Remarkable activity and selectivity towards acceptor substrates by two-point mutation. AU - Gutierrez, Mariana. AU - Parella, Teodor. AU - Joglar, Jesús. AU - Bujons, Jordi. AU - Clapés, Pere. PY - 2011/5/28. Y1 - 2011/5/28. N2 - Structure-guided re-design of the acceptor binding site of d-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from E. coli leads to the construction of FSA A129S/A165G double mutant with an activity between 5- to ,900-fold higher than that of wild-type towards N-Cbz-aminoaldehyde derivatives. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.. AB - Structure-guided re-design of the acceptor binding site of d-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from E. coli leads to the construction of FSA A129S/A165G double mutant with an activity between 5- to ,900-fold higher than that of wild-type towards N-Cbz-aminoaldehyde derivatives. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.. U2 - 10.1039/c1cc11069a. DO - ...
Plants continuously have to defend themselves against life threatening events such as drought, mechanical damage, temperature stress and potential pathogens. A main component of the plant defense mechanism is the lipoxygenase pathway. Products of this pathway are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, signaling, or ... read more have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The first step in the lipoxygenase pathway is the reaction of linoleic or linolenic acids with molecular oxygen, catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase. The formed hydroperoxy fatty acids are highly reactive and dangerous for the plant, and are therefore further metabolized by other enzymes such as allene oxide synthase, hydroperoxide lyase, peroxygenase or divinyl ether synthase. Hydroperoxide lyases are heme-containing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 class (CYP74B). They cleave the C-C bond adjacent to the hydroperoxy group in the lipoxygenase products, resulting in the formation of w-oxo acids and volatile C6- and ...
Looking for Ethylene Cyanohydrin? Find out information about Ethylene Cyanohydrin. C3H5ON A colorless liquid that is miscible with water and boils at 221°C. , HOCH2CH2CN, a colorless, viscous liquid.Ethylene cyanohydrin has a melting point... Explanation of Ethylene Cyanohydrin
Complete information for SGPL1 gene (Protein Coding), Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TY - JOUR. T1 - S1P lyase. T2 - A novel therapeutic target for ischemia reperfusion injury of the heart. AU - Bandhuvula, Padmavathi. AU - Honbo, Norman. AU - Wang, Guan Ying. AU - Jin, Zhu Qiu. AU - Fyrst, Henrik. AU - Zhang, Meng. AU - Borowsky, Alexander D. AU - Dillard, Lisa. AU - Karliner, Joel S.. AU - Saba, Julie D.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contributes to ischemic preconditioning. S1P lyase (SPL) is a stress-activated enzyme responsible for irreversible S1P catabolism. We hypothesized that SPL contributes to oxidative stress by depleting S1P pools available for cardioprotective signaling. Accordingly, we evaluated SPL inhibition as a strategy for reducing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We measured SPL expression and enzyme activity in murine hearts. Basal SPL activity was low in wild-type cardiac tissue but was activated in response to 50 min of ischemia (n = 5, P , 0.01). ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 2v9o: L-Rhamnulose-1-Phosphate Aldolase From Escherichia Coli ( Mutant A87M-T109F-E192A)
1GXS: Crystal Structure of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Sorghum Bicolor in Complex with the Inhibitor Benzoic Acid: A Novel Cyanogenic Enzyme
Bifidobacterium ruminantium strain DSM 6489 putative xylulose5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (xfp) gene, partial ...
1FY6: Substrate and metal complexes of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase from Aquifex aeolicus at 1.9-A resolution. Implications for the condensation mechanism.
Fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya), an immunosuppresive agent with activity purported to be mediated by binding of its phosphorylated derivative to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), was approved earlier in the year as the first orally administered disease modifying therapy for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Activation of S1P1 induces internalisation and degradation of the…
A. Trimethylsilyl cyanide. A 1-L, round-bottomed flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, nitrogen inlet, and a 60-mL addition funnel is charged with 5.0 g (0.624 mol) of lithium hydride (Note 1) and 500 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (Note 2). The stirred suspension is cooled in an ice bath and 42.6 g of acetone cyanohydrin (45.7 mL, 0.501 mol) (Note 3) is added dropwise over 15 min. After the addition is complete, the ice bath is removed and the mixture stirred for 2 hr at room temperature (Note 4). The magnetic stirring bar is removed and the solvent evaporated as completely as possible on a rotary evaporator. The white lithium cyanide is then dried in vacuo for 3 hr (Note 5) and (Note 6). The lithium cyanide is freed from the sides of the flask and broken up with a spatula (Note 7). A 250-mL round-bottomed flask equipped with an ice bath, magnetic stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet is charged with 54.32 g (63.46 ml, 0.500 mol) of trimethylchlorosilane (Note 8) and 100 mL of ...
SGPL1兔多克隆抗体(ab105183)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - CONF. T1 - Enzyme Catalysed Cyanohydrin Formation from Heterocyclic Ketones. AU - Fechter, Martin. AU - Avi, Manuela. AU - Pöchlauer, P. AU - Griengl, Herfried. PY - 2003/6/28. Y1 - 2003/6/28. M3 - (Old data) Lecture or Presentation. ER - ...
Enzimler E-kitap okumak için tıklayın İçindekiler Enzimlerin kimyasal yapıları Enzimlerin tesir mekanizması Aktivatörler Spesifik İon Aktivatörleri Koenzimler İnhibitörler Non kompetetif inhibitörler Kompetitif inhibitörler Diğer inhibitörler Enzimatik reaksiyonların hızı üzerine tesir eden faktörler Enzim konsantrasyonu Substrat konsantrasyonu pH hidrogen ion konsantrasyonu Isı Reaksiyon ürünleri Kofaktör konsantrasyonu ve diğer fiziksel faktörler Zaman Enzimatik […]. ...
Phospho-4EBP1 (Thr36, Thr45), eFluor 660, clone: V3NTY24, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; eFluor 660 Phospho-4EBP1 (Thr36, Thr45), eFluor 660, clone: V3NTY24,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and functional analysis of hydroxynitrile lyase from Baliospermum montanum with crystal structure, molecular dynamics and enzyme kinetics. AU - Nakano, Shogo. AU - Dadashipour, Mohammad. AU - Asano, Yasuhisa. N1 - Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/12. Y1 - 2014/12. N2 - Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze degradation of cyanohydrins to hydrogen cyanide and the corresponding ketone or aldehyde. HNLs can also catalyze the reverse reaction, i.e., synthesis of cyanohydrins. Although several crystal structures of S-selective hydroxynitrile lyases (S-HNLs) have been reported, it remains unknown whether and how dynamics at the active site of S-HNLs influence their broad substrate specificity and affinity. In this study, we analyzed the structure, dynamics and function of S-HNL from Baliospermum montanum (BmHNL), which has an α/β hydrolase fold. Two crystal structures of BmHNL, apo1 and apo2, were determined at 2.55 and 1.9Å, respectively. ...
A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds in which a cyano and a hydroxy group are attached to the same carbon atom. The general formula is R2C(OH)CN, where R is H, alkyl, or aryl. Cyanohydrins are industrially important precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Cyanohydrins can be formed by the cyanohydrin reaction, which involves treating a ketone or an aldehyde with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the presence of excess amounts of sodium cyanide (NaCN) as a catalyst: RRC=O + HCN → RRC(OH)CN In this reaction, the nucleophilic CN− ion attacks the electrophilic carbonyl carbon in the ketone, followed by protonation by HCN, thereby regenerating the cyanide anion. Cyanohydrins are also prepared by displacement of sulfite by cyanide salts: Cyanohydrins are intermediates in the Strecker amino acid synthesis. Acetone cyanohydrin, (CH3)2C(OH)CN is the cyanohydrin of acetone. It is generated as an intermediate in the industrial production of methyl methacrylate. In the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition. AU - Chwa, Jun Won. AU - Kim, Wook Jin. AU - Sim, Sang Jun. AU - Um, Youngsoon. AU - Woo, Han Min. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2. However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase ...
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In organic chemistry, mandelonitrile is the cyanohydrin derivative of benzaldehyde. Small amounts of mandelonitrile occur in the pits of some fruits. Mandelonitrile is the aglycone part of the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The naturally occurring (R)-(+) enantiomer finds use as an intermediate in the preparation of optically active α-hydroxy carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy aldehydes, α-hydroxy ketones, and 2-amino alcohols. Mandelonitrile can break down into cyanide and benzaldehyde, a reaction that can be catalyzed by the enzyme mandelonitrile lyase. Racemic mandelonitrile may be prepared similar to many other cyanohydrins. In a one pot reaction, benzaldehyde is reacted with sodium bisulfite to give the corresponding adduct, which further reacts with aqueous sodium cyanide to give the racemic product: Sigma-Aldrich product page The Merck Index (12th ed.). 1996. Kruse, C.G. In Collins, A.N. Sheldrake, G.N. Crosby, J., Eds. Chirality in Industry Chichester, UK , (1992), 279 Corson, ...
Looking for online definition of 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate or what 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate stands for? 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Evidence for the presence of the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Helicobacter pylori was obtained using 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bacterial lysates generated 6-phosphogluconate and NADH or NADPH in incubations with glucose-6-phosphate and NAD+ or NADP+, indicating the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Formation of pyruvate was observed in time courses of incubations of bacterial lysates with 6-phosphogluconate as the only substrate, suggesting the presence of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase activities. The existence of these enzymes and of triose phosphate isomerase was confirmed by observing the appearance of dihydroxyacetone phosphate in time courses of bacterial lysates incubated with 6-phosphogluconate. Aldolase activity was measured by the production of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in lysates incubated with 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate as the sole substrate. Dehydrogenase,
Looking for online definition of cyanohydrin in the Medical Dictionary? cyanohydrin explanation free. What is cyanohydrin? Meaning of cyanohydrin medical term. What does cyanohydrin mean?
Did you know that the humble black cherry is actually a member of the rose family? Black cherries are more than just wonderful in jams, ice cream, pies, and as a garnish in your favorite cocktail: they are an excellent source of powerful antioxidants that help to neutralize the damaging, age-accelerating effects of free radicals.**. Black cherries may supply far more nutritional benefits than antioxidant activity alone, however. New research into the health benefits of black cherries has discovered that there are certain properties of all cherries which seem to help modulate inflammation and inhibit inflammatory pathways. A 2003 study found that black cherry was associated with a reduction of CRP (C-reactive protein) in the bloodstream, which is an inflammatory bio-marker.**. Black cherries have been found to support joint comfort, thanks to their inflammation-modulating and antioxidant properties. A high concentration of antioxidants known as anthocyanins, which give black cherries their deep, ...
Shop Probable fructose-6-phosphate aldolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable fructose-6-phosphate aldolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Save Time. 44. Schweppes Black Cherry Sparkling Water Beverage - 20 fl oz Bottle. Product Title Schweppes Caffeine-Free Ginger Ale, 7.5 Fl. Learn more here. 61. Featured Items. Fette 67g --/ 67g übrig. Schweppes Black Cherry Sparkling . Schweppes Black Cherry Seltzer Water. Located in Aisle 18; Nutrition . Kalorienziel 2,000 cal. Artificial blueberry, but good. Perfect sweetness for a seltzer, with a pleasing aftertaste. Nice flavor, almost a cocktail! 7. Experience a crisp twist on the ordinary with Schweppes Black Cherry Sparkling Seltzer Water. A natural born dreamer and amateur scientist, Jacob Schweppe is often credited with giving birth to the soft drink industry. Black Cherry Sparkling Water Beverage. oz. The smell of the drink is distinctly cherry, however, the taste is more subtle. Unfortunately I can not consume any soda so having different brand seltzer … Browse our wide selection of Sparkling & Seltzer for Delivery or Drive Up & Go to pick up at the store! Schweppes Black ...
S cerevisiae Fol1 protein: possesses dihydropteroate synthetase, dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphokinase, and dihydroneopterin aldolase activities; has been sequenced
Description : 25.9 C1-metabolism.dihydroneopterin aldolase Encodes an enzyme that can act as a aldolase or an epimerase for 7,8-dihydroneopterin and 7,8-dihydromonapterin in vitro. It is likely to act in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis in vivo. FOLB1. Condition specificity: Pericarp, Barbera, berries beginning to touch (SPM: 0.23, entropy: 3.61, tau: 0.52) ...
We demonstrate ResBoosts control over the sensitivity/specificity trade-off using the enzyme 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase, a bacterial and plant enzyme needed
Discovery of Potent Inhibitors of Dihydroneopterin Aldolase Using CrystaLEAD High-Throughput X-ray Crystallographic Screening and Structure-Directed Lead Optimization ...
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum strain DSM 20092 putativexylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (xfp) gene,partial ...
AraD is a masked class II aldolase. [More information is available at EcoGene: EG10055]. L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase catalyzes the third step in the pathway for degradation of L-arabinose, the epimerization at the C4 carbon to form D-xylulose-5-phosphate, which enters the ,FRAME: [More information is available at EcoCyc: EG10055 ...
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0184]Nitriles compounds listed in the CRC Handbook (pages 344-368) can be used in this invention include but not limited to the followings: Cyanoacetylene, Cyanoacetaldehyde, Acrylonitrile, Fluoroacetonitrile, Acetonitrile (or Cyanomethane), Trichloroacetonitrile, Methacrylonitrile (or α-Methylacrylonitrile), Proionitrile (or Cyanoethane), Isobutyronitrile, Trimethylacetonitrile (or tert-Butylcyanide), 2-Ethyacrylonitrile, Dichloroacetonitrile, α Chloroisobutyronitrile, n-Butyronitrile (or 1-Cyanopropane), trans-Crotononitrile, Allycyanide, Methoxyacetonitrile, 2 Hydroxyisobutyronitrile (or Acetone cyanohydrins), 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile, 2-Methylbutyronitrile, Chloroacetonitrile, Isovaleronitrile, 2,4-Pentadienonitrile, 2-Chlorocrotononitrile, Ethoxyacetonitrile, 2-Methycrotononitrile, 2-Bromoisobutyronitrile, 4-Pentenonitrile, Thiophene-2,3-dicarbonitrile (or 2,3-Dicyanothiophene), 3,3-Dimethylacrylonitrile, Valeronitrile (or 1 Cyanobutane), 2-Chlorobutyronitrile, Diethylacetonitrile, ...
JACC 053 Vol II : Cyanides of Hydrogen, Sodium and Potassium, and Acetone Cyanohydrin (CAS No. 74-90-8, 143-33-9, 151-50-8 and 75-86-5), Volumes I […]. ...
JACC 053 Vol II : Cyanides of Hydrogen, Sodium and Potassium, and Acetone Cyanohydrin (CAS No. 74-90-8, 143-33-9, 151-50-8 and 75-86-5), Volumes I […]. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1ofa.1. Crystal structure of the tyrosine-regulated 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from saccharomyces cerevisiae in complex with phosphoenolpyruvate and cobalt(ii)
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One of the metabolic fates of 3-deoxyglucosone, a product of protein deglycation and a potent glycating agent, is to be oxidized to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate, but the enzyme that catalyses this reaction is presently unknown. quantitatively a more important substrate than retinaldehyde for ALDH1A1. at 4C. The supernatant was neutralised with 3 M K2CO3 and 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate was […]. ...
Effect: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
Nagoya, Japan - In the production of pharmaceuticals, it is extremely important to produce molecules that have the right kind of symmetry. Even products that have the same composition, but are mirror images of each other, can have different effects in the body. Considerable interest has been generated by a recent advance made by scientists at Nagoya University, which was reported online in the journal Angewandte Chemie. Specifically, these researchers managed to modify molecules called ketones by adding new chemical groups in a way that produces more of a single mirror image of the same type of molecule ...
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Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase, YrbI family (TIGR01670; EC 3.1.3.45; HMM-score: 18.2) ...
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4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 2-carboxybenzaldehyde-lyase, and (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase. Barnsley EA (April 1983). " ... name of this enzyme class is (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-glucarate tartronate-semialdehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-glucarate tartronate-semialdehyde-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 6-bisphosphate triosephosphate lyase. This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure has ... name of this enzyme class is D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). This ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate lactaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions and ... name of this enzyme class is L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate (S)-lactaldehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 4-hydroxy-3-hexanone propanal-lyase. Morimoto S, Azuma K, Oshima T, Sakamoto M (1988). "Purification and properties of a ... name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxy-3-hexanone propanal-lyase (propanal-forming). Other names in common use include 4- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase, and (phosphate-acetylating). This ... name of this enzyme class is D-fructose-6-phosphate D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase (adding phosphate; acetyl-phosphate-forming ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... acetone-cyanhydrin lyase [mis-spelt], acetone-cyanohydrin acetone-lyase, oxynitrilase, 2-hydroxyisobutyronitrile acetone-lyase ... and acetone-cyanohydrin lyase. Xu LL, Singh BK, Conn EE (1988). "Purification and characterization of acetone cyanohydrin lyase ... Other names in common use include alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase, hydroxynitrile lyase, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include trimethylamine N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase, trimethylamine N-oxide aldolase, trimethylamine N- ... oxide demethylase, and trimethylamine-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in methane metabolism. Large PJ ( ... name of this enzyme class is trimethylamine-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase (dimethylamine-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include benzaldehyde lyase, and 2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethanone benzaldehyde-lyase. It employs one ... Gonzalez B, Vicuna R (1989). "Benzaldehyde lyase, a novel thiamine PPi-requiring enzyme, from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I ... name of this enzyme class is 2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethanone benzaldehyde-lyase (benzaldehyde-forming)-the systematic name of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... lactate acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism. Gulyi MF, Silonova NV (1987). "[Various metabolic ... name of this enzyme class is (S)-lactate acetaldehyde-lyase (formate-forming). Other names in common use include lactate ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. It is used in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase ( ... 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-6-phosphate aldolase 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase KDPG ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threo-3-phenylserine benzaldehyde-lyase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. As of late ... name of this enzyme class is L-threo-3-phenylserine benzaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase. Machinist JM, Orme-Johnson WH, Ziegler DM (1966). "Microsomal oxidases. II. ... name of this enzyme class is N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide formaldehyde-lyase (N-methylaniline-forming). Other names in common ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... sphinganine-1-phosphate alkanal-lyase, sphinganine-1-phosphate lyase, and sphinganine-1-phosphate palmitaldehyde-lyase. This ... sphinganine-1-phosphate alkanal-lyase)". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 350 (10): 1233-41. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1969.350.2.1233 ... name of this enzyme class is sphinganine-1-phosphate palmitaldehyde-lyase (phosphoethanolamine-forming). Other names in common ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and malonate-semialdehyde-lyase. Anderson WA, Magasanik B (1971). "The pathway of myo-inositol degradation in Aerobacter ... name of this enzyme class is 5-dehydro-2-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate malonate-semialdehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and erythrulose-1-phosphate formaldehyde-lyase. CHARALAMPOUS FC, MUELLER GC (1953). "Synthesis of erythrulose phosphate by a ... name of this enzyme class is erythrulose-1-phosphate formaldehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). Other names in common ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. It ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydropantoate formaldehyde-lyase. McIntosh EN, Purko M, Wood WA (1957). "Ketopantoate formation by a hydroxymethylation ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydropantoate formaldehyde-lyase (3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and dihydropteridine glycolaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in folate biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 13 structures have ... 8-dihydropt eridine glycolaldehyde-lyase (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... Other names in common use include C-17/C-20-lyase, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in ... name of this enzyme class is 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase (4-androstene-3,17-dione-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate glycolaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate glycolaldehyde-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate D-arabinose-lyase. Ghalambor MA, Heath EC (1966). "The biosynthesis of cell wall ... name of this enzyme class is 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate D-arabinose-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... acetaldehyde can be replaced with other small aldehydes or acetone; and a variety of aldehydes can be used in place of D- ... Amongst aldolases, DERA is unique as it is the only enzyme to afford two aldehydes as products. Crystallography shows that the ... DERA has also been used to perform tandem aldol reactions with three aldehyde substrates, with reaction equilibrium driven by ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and L-fuculose-1-phosphate lactaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. As of late 2007, 20 ... name of this enzyme class is L-fuculose-1-phosphate (S)-lactaldehyde-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming). Other names in common ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... vanillin lyase, and (acetyl-CoA-forming). Narbad A, Gasson MJ. "Metabolism of ferulic acid via vanillin using a novel CoA- ... name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA vanillin-lyase (acetyl-CoA-forming). Other ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase. This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have ... name of this enzyme class is 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (pyruvate-forming ...
... which cleave by hydroperoide lyase into the corresponding cis-aldehydes. Consistent with this mechanism, the odor of muskmelons ...
Some glycosylase-lyases can further perform δ-elimination, which converts the 3' aldehyde to a 3' phosphate. The first crystal ... β-Elimination of an AP site by a glycosylase-lyase yields a 3' α,β-unsaturated aldehyde adjacent to a 5' phosphate, which ... Aguis, F.; Kapoor, A; Zhu, J-K (2006). "Role of the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 in active DNA demethylation". Proc. ... Monofunctional glycosylases have only glycosylase activity, whereas bifunctional glycosylases also possess AP lyase activity ...
... detoxication of the lipid peroxide-derived reactive aldehydes". Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (12): 1445-55. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf187. ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ... AR belongs to the aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, with a widely expression in human organs including the kidney, lens, ... It also participates in glucose metabolism and osmoregulation and plays a protective role against toxic aldehydes derived from ...
16, 1869: Valerian aldehyde and Oenanth aldehyde - M. Borodin," The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, 20 : 286. ... In the glyoxylate cycle of plants and some prokaryotes, isocitrate lyase produces glyoxylate and succinate from isocitrate. ... aldehydes, and many other carbonyl compounds. The electrophilic partner is usually an aldehyde or ketone (many variations, such ... The R group of the ketone and the R' group of the aldehyde are aligned in a "zig zag" pattern in the plane of the paper (or ...
EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
ATP citrate lyase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fatty acid synthesis/. Fatty acid synthase. *Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase ...
Wang X, Weiner H (Jan 1995). "Involvement of glutamate 268 in the active site of human liver mitochondrial (class 2) aldehyde ... Crabb D, Xiao Q (Jun 1998). "Studies on the enzymology of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 in genetically modified HeLa cells". ... Hempel J, von Bahr-Lindström H, Jörnvall H (May 1984). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. Primary structure of the ... Vallari RC, Pietruszko R (May 1982). "Human aldehyde dehydrogenase: mechanism of inhibition of disulfiram". Science. 216 (4546 ...
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor. • protein binding. • metal ion ... carboxy-lyase activity. • 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring) activity. • alpha-ketoacid ...
Brennan DF, Barford D; Barford (2009). "Eliminylation: a post-translational modification catalyzed by phosphothreonine lyases ... "Oxidative Stress and Covalent Modification of Protein with Bioactive Aldehydes". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (32): ...
1qtn: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF CASPASE-8 WITH THE TETRAPEPTIDE INHIBITOR ACE-IETD-ALDEHYDE ...
There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as ... Fatty aldehyde. *List of saturated fatty acids. *List of unsaturated fatty acids ...
l-histidinal, an amino aldehyde. In the last step, l-histidinal is converted to l-histidine.[14][15] ... The enzyme histidine ammonia-lyase converts histidine into ammonia and urocanic acid. A deficiency in this enzyme is present in ...
ATP citrate lyase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fatty acid synthesis/. Fatty acid synthase. *Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase ...
The ensuing loss of both flavor and sweetness can be prevented by protecting the aldehyde as an acetal. ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase. *Stevia. References[edit]. *^ Budavari S, ed. (1989). "861. Aspartame". The Merck Index (11th ed ... the amine in aspartame can undergo a Maillard reaction with the aldehyde groups present in certain aroma compounds. ...
Chan MK, Mukund S, Kletzin A, Adams MW, Rees DC (March 1995). "Structure of a hyperthermophilic tungstopterin enzyme, aldehyde ... tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus,[18] and even cadmium in ...
The aldehyde then departs as formic acid and a double bond is simultaneously introduced to yield the demethylated product.[7] ...
The aldehyde groups of the triose sugars are oxidised, and inorganic phosphate is added to them, forming 1,3- ... Excess citrate is exported from the mitochondrion back into the cytosol, where ATP citrate lyase regenerates acetyl-CoA and ... There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as ...
EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
His4 catalyzes the oxidation of L-histidinol to form L-histidinal, an amino aldehyde. In the last step, L-histidinal is ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase.[22] ... Cystathionine-β-lyase (in mammals, this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S- ...
Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... Category:EC 1.2 (act on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.2.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) * ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ...
Irreversible inhibitors often contain reactive functional groups such as nitrogen mustards, aldehydes, haloalkanes, alkenes, ... Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ... EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
lyase activity. • identical protein binding. • oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • oxidoreductase activity. • 3 ...
Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain. *Alkylglycerone phosphate synthase ... 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase. *2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase ...
The phenylalanine undergoes a non-oxidative deamination by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) to trans-cinnamic acid. Afterwards ... which is used to create vaginol or vaginidiol with an isopropyl Grignard reagent and commercially available epoxy aldehydes. ... 3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2-hydroxylalkylbenzofurans from epoxy aldehydes. One-step syntheses of brosimacutin G, vaginidiol, vaginol ...
The G protein (Golf and/or Gs) in turn activates the lyase - adenylate cyclase - which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). The ... Araneda RC, Peterlin Z, Zhang X, Chesler A, Firestein S (March 2004). "A pharmacological profile of the aldehyde receptor ... of a population of native aldehyde receptors. Phantosmia Receptor Trace amine-associated receptor Odorant Pseudogenes Gene ...
After that, it is converted to 3-hydroxy propionic acid and finally to malonic semi-aldehyde. As soon as malonic semi aldehyde ... Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (which can also be called MCD and malonyl-CoA carboxyl-lyase) is found from bacteria to humans, has ... The enzyme malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) functions as an indirect via of conversion from malonic semi aldehyde to acetyl-CoA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically amine lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. It can be isolated ... A Schiff base forms between secologanin's aldehyde-group and tryptamine's amine group, from which Glu309 deprotonates ... strictosidine tryptamine-lyase. Originally isolated from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant widely used in ... strictosidine tryptamine-lyase (secologanin-forming). Other names in common use include strictosidine synthetase, STR, and 3- ...
Although the structure of glyoxylic acid is described as having an aldehyde functional group, the aldehyde is only a minor ... The glyoxylate cycle is initiated through the activity of isocitrate lyase, which converts isocitrate into glyoxylate and ... the aldehyde structure has as a major conformer a cyclic hydrogen-bonded structure with the aldehyde carbonyl in close ... They are generally formed from reactive aldehydes, such as those present on reducing sugars and alpha-oxoaldehydes. In a study ...
Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis. E.W. Chehab, G ... HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL) genes encode enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides into aldehydes and ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis ...
GO:0016832: aldehyde-lyase activity (Molecular function). Catalysis of the cleavage of a C-C bond in a molecule containing a ... hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group to form two smaller molecules, each being an aldehyde or a ketone. [http://www.mercksource ...
aldehyde-lyase activity. id: GO:0016832. name: aldehyde-lyase activity. namespace: molecular_function. type: go. obsolete: ... each being an aldehyde or a ketone. ... mandelonitrile lyase activity. GO:0047438. 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-L- ...
4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ...
4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases. 4.1.2 Aldehyde lyases. 7. aldolase. 4.2 Carbon-oxygen lyases ...
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); EC 4.1.2.- (Aldehyde-Lyases); EC 4.1.2.22 (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase). ... Aldehyde-Lyases); EC 4.1.2.22 (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase). ...
Aldehyde-Lyases / chemistry* * Aldehyde-Lyases / genetics * Aldehyde-Lyases / metabolism* * Amino Acid Sequence ...
Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Aldehyde-lyases. Sysname. (3E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate hydro-lyase. ... The enzyme catalyses a retro-aldol reaction in vitro, and it accepts a broad range of aldehydes and 4-substituted 2-oxobut-3- ...
Lyases;. Carbon-carbon lyases;. Aldehyde-lyases. Sysname. 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D ...
Aldehyde-Lyases / genetics * Aldehyde-Lyases / metabolism * Amino Acid Sequence * Base Sequence * Chemical Engineering / ...
enables aldehyde-lyase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
C6-Aldehyde Formation by Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide Lyase in the Brown Alga Laminaria angustata. Boonprab, Kangsadan / Matsuia, ...
aldehyde-lyase activity Source: InterPro. *sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate glyceronetransferase activity ...
aldehyde-lyase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic ...
4.1.2: Aldehyde-lyases. *Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase *Aldolase A. *Aldolase B. *Aldolase C ... is a lyase enzyme (EC 4.1.1.28). ... 4.1.3: Oxo-acid-lyases. *Isocitrate lyase. *3-hydroxy-3- ...
EC 4.1.2 Aldehyde-Lyases. EC 4.1.2.1 deleted, included in EC 4.1.3.16. EC 4.1.2.2 ketotetrose-phosphate aldolase. EC 4.1.2.3 ... EC 4.2.2.7 heparin lyase. EC 4.2.2.8 heparin-sulfate lyase. EC 4.2.2.9 pectate disaccharide-lyase. EC 4.2.2.10 pectin lyase. EC ... EC 4.3.2 Amidine-Lyases. EC 4.3.2.1 argininosuccinate lyase. EC 4.3.2.2 adenylosuccinate lyase EC 4.3.2.3 ureidoglycolate lyase ... EC 4 Lyases. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.1 Carboxy-Lyases. EC 4.1.1.1 pyruvate decarboxylase. EC 4.1.1.2 oxalate ...
Aldehyde-LyasesIBA 01/01/1974 - "Studies on liver aldolases in hereditary fructose intolerance.". 09/15/2000 - "Our results ...
Hydroperoxide Lyase and Leaf Aldehyde Formation can be Greatly Increased in Leaves ...
Aldehyde-lyase activity. 0.04. lmo1600. GO:0004106. Chorismate mutase activity. 0.02. lmo2524. GO:0016836. Hydro-lyase activity ...
... aldehyde-lyase activity; FT GO_process: GO:0005975 - carbohydrate metabolism; FT GO_process: GO:0006207 - de novo pyrimidine ... "aldehyde dehydrogenase" FT /EC_number="1.2.1.-" FT /note="GO_function: GO:0004029 - aldehyde dehydrogenase FT (NAD) activity; ... acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as FT acceptor; GO_process: GO:0008152 - metabolism" FT /db_xref=" ... "aldehyde dehydrogenase" FT /EC_number="1.2.1.3" FT /note="GO_function: GO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity; FT GO_process: GO: ...
lyase activity. carbon-carbon lyase activity. aldehyde-lyase activity. fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity. ...
4. Lyases. 4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases. 4.1.2 Aldehyde-lyases. 4.1.2.51 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate aldolase. K18127 kdgA; 2- ...
1. Generic term for aldehyde-lyase. 2. Name sometimes applied to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... 2-carboxybenzaldehyde-lyase, and (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase. Barnsley EA (April 1983). " ... name of this enzyme class is (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ... This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ... name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). ...
Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis E.W. Chehab, G. ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis E.W. Chehab, G. ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis E.W. Chehab, G. ... Rice HYDROPEROXIDE LYASES with Unique Expression Patterns Generate Distinct Aldehyde Signatures in Arabidopsis E.W. Chehab, G. ...
Aldh for aldehyde dehydrogenase; Fhl for formate hydrogen lyase; FrdABCD for fumarate reductase; FumB for fumarase B (anaerobic ... 2006). Pyruvate formate-lyase and a novel route of eukaryotic ATP synthesis in Chlamydomonas mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 281, ... The pyruvate can be converted to formate and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl; Wolfe, 2005; Figure ... 2012). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics. Planta 237, 189-210. ...
HcaA, a bifunctional hydratase/lyase (13), converts the thioester derivative to an aldehyde intermediate. HcaB, an aldehyde ... Sensitivity of strain ADP8085 (ΔhcaA1) cells to hydroxycinnamates.A deletion in the hydratase/lyase gene, ΔhcaA1, eliminates ... Given the toxigenic nature of nonmetabolizable hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters and the possible toxicity of aldehyde ... but a knockout of enoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase in each of the other species resulted in a ferulate-negative phenotype. It may be ...
Citral lyase has a Km of 0.058 mM and a Vmax of 52.6 U·mg-1. Enzyme activity was optimal at 20°C and pH 7.6. The enzyme has a ... strong preference for the trans isomer of citral (geranial). Citral lyase also converts other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes ( ... Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. This ... A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was ...
The hydroperoxide lyase cleaves the hydroperoxide to produce a C-6 unsaturated aldehyde. Then aldehyde isomerase, when present ... a hydroperoxide lyase and an oxidoreductase).The lipoxygenasecatalysed oxidation of fatty acids containing a 1,4-pentadiene ... in the environment and under certain conditions, catalyses the formation of an aldehyde which is transformed into an alcohol by ...
  • HcaB, an aldehyde dehydrogenase, transforms the aldehyde to a carboxylated derivative that serves as a substrate for downstream catabolic pathways. (asm.org)
  • Then aldehyde isomerase, when present in the environment and under certain conditions, catalyses the formation of an aldehyde which is transformed into an alcohol by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase , BADH , betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase , and BetB . (academic.ru)
  • A gene on chromosome 17p11.2 that encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase that plays a major role in detoxifying alcohol-derived acetaldehyde, metabolising corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters and in lipid peroxidation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in their adhE genes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. (asm.org)
  • The adhE2 gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AADH), was characterized from molecular and biochemical points of view. (asm.org)
  • The aad gene of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (referred to as adhE in strain DSM 792) is part of the sol operon, and it encodes a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AADH) ( 13 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The present invention provides nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of acetyl CoA synthetase (ACS), plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (pPDH), ATP citrate lyase (ACL), Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), specifically ALDH-2 and ALDH-4. (energy.gov)
  • subunit of pPDH, the E2 subunit of pPDH, mitochondrial pyurvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) or a ribozyme that can cleave an RNA molecule encoding PDC, E1.sub. (energy.gov)
  • The mutants have been classified on the basis of their α-pinene monooxygenase, α-pinene oxide lyase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Below are the list of possible Aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • GLYOXALASE I (GLO-1), a lactoylglutathione lyase also known as methylglyoxalase, aldoketomutase, ketone-aldehyde mutase, and (R)-S-lactoylglutathione methylglyoxal-lyase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal adducts which are formed in spontaneous reactions between glutathionyl groups and aldehydes. (bioassaysys.com)
  • The enzyme catalyses a retro-aldol reaction in vitro, and it accepts a broad range of aldehydes and 4-substituted 2-oxobut-3-enoates as substrates [4]. (genome.jp)
  • Aromatic L -amino acid decarboxylase ( AADC or AAAD ), also known as DOPA decarboxylase ( DDC ), tryptophan decarboxylase , and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase , is a lyase enzyme ( EC 4.1.1.28 ). (wikidoc.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3Z)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate 2-formylbenzoate-lyase (pyruvate-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of three cloned and expressed 13-hydroperoxide lyase isoenzymes from alfalfa with unusual N-terminal sequences and different enzyme kinetics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde , NAD + , and H 2 O , whereas its 3 products are betaine , NADH , and H + . (academic.ru)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductase s, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. (academic.ru)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase . (academic.ru)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (MtbICL) is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle that catalyzes the cleavage of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate and is a potential antituberculosis drug target. (bireme.br)
  • In enzymology, a mandelonitrile lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:mandelonitrile↔ hydrogen cyanide + benzaldehyde. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Mandelonitrile lyase is a cyanogenic enzyme. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • The enzyme from monocots is also able to act as tyrosine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.25), converting tyrosine to p-coumaric acid directly, (therefore without the 4-hydroxylation step), but with a lower efficiency. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • In vitro assays and a crystal structure suggest betaine aldehyde targets the gut microbial enzyme choline TMA-lyase (CutC). (bvsalud.org)
  • deoC This gene encodes an aldehyde lyase enzyme involved in pentose phospate pathway, an important metabolic pathway similar to glycolysis. (e80boot.org)
  • Enzymatic preparations obtained from young plants and cell cultures of capulin were screened for hydroxynitrile lyase activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • They can be conveniently synthesized in enantiomerically pure form via chemoenzymatic hydrogen cyanide addition onto the corresponding aldehyde using hydroxynitrile lyase. (akjournals.com)
  • HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ( HPL ) genes encode enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides into aldehydes and oxoacids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The biosynthetic pathway to the green notes is present in many plant tissues such as leaves, fruits, and vegetables and involves the action of three enzymes (a lipoxygenase, a hydroperoxide lyase and an oxidoreductase).The lipoxygenasecatalysed oxidation of fatty acids containing a 1,4-pentadiene sequence into positionally specific acyl hydroperoxides is a well-documented enzymatic reaction. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • Furthermore, although a Schiff base between C2-AP and endonuclease III can be chemically trapped, the location of the 3'-phosphate alpha with respect to the aldehyde prevents beta-elimination associated with the lyase activity of type I base excision repair enzymes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 5 - 9 )) The three enzymes and one non-enzymic factor involved in the pathway are lipolytic acyl hydrolase(LAH), lipoxygenase, fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (hydroperoxide lyase) and an isomerization factor (Fig. 1). (springer.com)
  • 7 , 10 , 11 ) Among these enzymes lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase are the most important. (springer.com)
  • The substrate specificities and the product specificities of these enzymes determine the composition of volatile aldehydes formed from linoleic acid and linolenic acid. (springer.com)
  • Standard numbering schemes have been successfully implemented for several protein families, including lactamases and antibodies, whereas a numbering scheme for the structural family of thiamine-diphosphate (ThDP) -dependent decarboxylases, a large subfamily of the class of ThDP-dependent enzymes encompassing pyruvate-, benzoylformate-, 2-oxo acid-, indolpyruvate- and phenylpyruvate decarboxylases, benzaldehyde lyase, acetohydroxyacid synthases and 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD) is still missing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the exception of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, the enzymes which act downstream of phenylalanine ammonia lyase are encoded by small gene families in all species analyzed so far. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • accessdate = ] It is a Lactoylglutathione lyase. (academic.ru)
  • 3, 5] In animals cleavage of the intermediate hydroperoxy fatty acids is achieved by a dual function of LOXes, while plants and algae rely often on hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) to produce shorter chain oxylipins. (docme.ru)
  • The workflow we establish for identifying and characterizing betaine aldehyde provides a framework for developing additional inhibitors of gut microbial choline metabolism, including therapeutic candidates. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present report describes occurrence of, and substrate and product specificities of, lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in leaves, particularly in tea leaves. (springer.com)
  • Communications Bioorganic Chemistry Unprecedented Lipoxygenase/Hydroperoxide Lyase Pathways in the Moss Physcomitrella patens** Thomas Wichard, Cornelia Gbel, Ivo Feussner, and Georg Pohnert* Lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are involved in the production of important signal and defensive metabolites in mammals, higher plants, and algae. (docme.ru)
  • Discovery of a Choline Utilization Gene Cluster in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Identification of a Candidate Choline TMA-Lyase. (pnas.org)
  • In all plant species investigated, several copies of phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene are found, copies that probably respond differentially to internal and external stimuli. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Here, we describe the discovery that betaine aldehyde inhibits TMA production from choline by human gut bacterial isolates and a complex gut community. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chemical and enzymatic properties of LOX have been characterized, and the LOX capability of oxygenating free and esterified unsaturated fatty acids into C6 volatile aldehydes has been confirmed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • macerates, the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin undergoes stepwise degradation to HCN catalyzed by amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase, and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (MDL). (usda.gov)
  • Mandelonitrile lyase from almonds has been used in a study to assess the apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Aldehyde measurements in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plants overexpressing individual Os HPL-GFP fusions indicate that all rice HPLs are functional in a heterologous system, and each of them generates a distinct signature of the metabolites. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. (tudelft.nl)
  • Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. (tudelft.nl)
  • When assessing S1P lyase enzymatic activity, the estimation of fatty aldehyde stability during the reaction is required. (avantilipids.com)
  • Guava fruit was identified as a particularly rich source of 13-hydroperoxide lyase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of the AP site cleavage in whole cell extracts of wild-type and mutant strains showed that the AP lyase activity of Nth1 represents the major AP site incision activity in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alterations in conformational topology and interaction dynamics caused by L418A mutation leads to activity loss of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase. (bireme.br)
  • In mushrooms (R)-1 is derived from linoleic acid, which is transformed by a 10-LOX and a lyase activity to give (E)-10-oxodec-8-enoic acid as a second fragment. (docme.ru)
  • The PFL deactivase activity catalyzes the quenching of the pyruvate-formate-lyase catalyst in an iron, NAD, and CoA dependent reaction (By similarity). (mybiosource.com)
  • Fatty aldehydes are enzymatically converted to fatty alcohols and fatty acids. (avantilipids.com)
  • Since (2 E )-hexenal (leaf aldehyde) and (3 Z )-hexenol (leaf alcohol) were first found in some bushes and tea leaves( 1 - 3 ), many early works have been reported that these C 6 -volatile compounds are originating from plant tissues and largely responsible for the characteristic odor of various fruits and green leaves of vegetables and trees. (springer.com)
  • Ethanol and butanol are produced from acetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA, respectively, in two reductive steps catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenases and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). (asm.org)
  • The lipases catalysed kinetic resolution of chiral secondary alcohol, or chiral carboxylic acids and the HNLs catalysed asymmetric addition of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes. (lu.se)
  • By contrast, the HPL branch pathway responsible for production of aldehydes and corresponding alcohols is not fully characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Volatile C 9 -aldehydes are formed by a similar pathway. (springer.com)
  • The enzymatic carboligation of aldehydes (C-C bond formation) catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase ( BAL ) affords chiral α-hydroxy-ketones under mild reaction conditions in aqueous media. (rsc.org)
  • Barofsky A, Pohnert G (2007) Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated short chain aldehydes in the diatom Thalassiosira rotula . (springer.com)
  • The ALDH3A1 gene product forms a homodimer that preferentially oxidises aromatic and medium-chain (6 carbons or more) saturated and unsaturated aldehyde substrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Yanase T, Sanders D, Shibata A, Matsui N, Simpson E, Waterman M. Combined 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency due to a 7-basepair duplication in the N-terminal region of the cytochrome P45017 alpha (CYP17) gene. (labome.org)
  • The method describing the details of the use of both (2E)-hexadecenal(d5) and (2E)-hexadecenal for LC/MS/MS-based characterization of S1P lyase reaction is in preparation for publication by Berdyshev et al. (avantilipids.com)
  • Catalysis of the cleavage of a C-C bond in a molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group to form two smaller molecules, each being an aldehyde or a ketone. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We suggest that the main function of Apn2 in BER is to remove the resulting 3'-blocking termini following AP lyase cleavage by Nth1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Among the oxylipin branch pathways, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are considered to be the two major critical plant stress response pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Unprecedented LipoxygenaseHydroperoxide Lyase Pathways in the Moss Physcomitrella patens. (docme.ru)
  • Certain mosses are known to release unbranched unsaturated C8 and C9 alcohols and aldehydes, but until now the pathways to and function of these metabolites have not been addressed. (docme.ru)
  • both metabolic pathways proceed via aldehyde intermediates, propionaldehyde in the case of Pdu and acetaldehyde in the case of Eut ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • HcaA, a bifunctional hydratase/lyase ( 13 ), converts the thioester derivative to an aldehyde intermediate. (asm.org)
  • This applies, for example, to the two cholinesterases, EC 3.1.1.7 and 3.1.1.8, the two citrate hydro-lyases, EC 4.2.1.3 and 4.2.1.4, and the two amine oxidases, EC 1.4.3.4 and 1.4.3.6. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). (bvsalud.org)
  • Citral lyase also converts other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (farnesal, methyl-crotonaldehyde, decenal and cinnemaldehyde). (tudelft.nl)
  • Interestingly, these aldehydes were only detectable in leaves, but not in roots, despite similar levels of Os HPL-GFP proteins in both tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Boonprab K, Matsui K, Yoshida M, Akakabe Y, Chirapart A, Kajiwara T (2003b) C6-aldehyde formation by fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase in the brown alga Laminaria angustata . (springer.com)