Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.DextranaseGlucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.LaunderingPolygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Aldose-Ketose Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.Laundry Service, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all activities pertaining to the hospital laundry service.Glycoside HydrolasesOligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Molluscum Contagiosum: A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)Molluscum contagiosum virus: A species of MOLLUSCIPOXVIRUS causing skin lesions in humans. It is transmitted by direct contact or from non-living reservoirs (fomites), such as books or clothing.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.IgG Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.

Overproduction of Pex5p stimulates import of alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase in a Hansenula polymorpha Pex14 null mutant. (1/27)

Hansenula polymorpha Deltapex14 cells are affected in peroxisomal matrix protein import and lack normal peroxisomes. Instead, they contain peroxisomal membrane remnants, which harbor a very small amount of the major peroxisomal matrix enzymes alcohol oxidase (AO) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS). The bulk of these proteins is, however, mislocated in the cytosol. Here, we show that in Deltapex14 cells overproduction of the PTS1 receptor, Pex5p, leads to enhanced import of the PTS1 proteins AO and DHAS but not of the PTS2 protein amine oxidase. The import of the PTS1 protein catalase (CAT) was not stimulated by Pex5p overproduction. The difference in import behavior of AO and CAT was not related to their PTS1, since green fluorescent protein fused to the PTS1 of either AO or CAT were both not imported in Deltapex14 cells overproducing Pex5p. When produced in a wild type control strain, both proteins were normally imported into peroxisomes. In Deltapex14 cells overproducing Pex5p, Pex5p had a dual location and was localized in the cytosol and bound to the outer surface of the peroxisomal membrane. Our results indicate that binding of Pex5p to the peroxisomal membrane and import of certain PTS1 proteins can proceed in the absence of Pex14p.  (+info)

Bacterial SLH domain proteins are non-covalently anchored to the cell surface via a conserved mechanism involving wall polysaccharide pyruvylation. (2/27)

Several bacterial proteins are non-covalently anchored to the cell surface via an S-layer homology (SLH) domain. Previous studies have suggested that this cell surface display mechanism involves a non-covalent interaction between the SLH domain and peptidoglycan-associated polymers. Here we report the characterization of a two-gene operon, csaAB, for cell surface anchoring, in Bacillus anthracis. Its distal open reading frame (csaB) is required for the retention of SLH-containing proteins on the cell wall. Biochemical analysis of cell wall components showed that CsaB was involved in the addition of a pyruvyl group to a peptidoglycan-associated polysaccharide fraction, and that this modification was necessary for binding of the SLH domain. The csaAB operon is present in several bacterial species that synthesize SLH-containing proteins. This observation and the presence of pyruvate in the cell wall of the corresponding bacteria suggest that the mechanism described in this study is widespread among bacteria.  (+info)

Regulation and evaluation of five methanol-inducible promoters in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. (3/27)

We isolated the promoter regions of five methanol-inducible genes (P(AOD1), alcohol oxidase; P(DAS1), dihydroxyacetone synthase; P(FDH1), formate dehydrogenase; P(PMP20), Pmp20; and P(PMP47), Pmp47) from the Candida boidinii genome, and evaluated their strength and studied their regulation using the acid phosphatase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScPHO5) as the reporter. Of the five promoters, P(DAS1) was the strongest methanol-inducible promoter whose strength was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the commonly used P(AOD1) in methanol-induced cells. Although the expression of P(AOD1) and P(DAS1) was completely repressed by the presence of glucose, formate-induced expression of P(FDH1) was not repressed by glucose. Expression under P(PMP47), another methanol-inducible promoter, was highly induced by oleate. The induction kinetics of P(PMP47) and P(DAS1) revealed that methanol induces the expression of peroxisome membrane protein Pmp47, earlier than the expression of matrix enzyme dihydroxyacetone synthase (Das1p), and that this information is contained in the promoter region of the respective gene. This is the first report which evaluates several methanol-inducible promoters in parallel in the methylotrophic yeast.  (+info)

A methylotrophic pathway participates in pectin utilization by Candida boidinii. (4/27)

The methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii S2 was found to be able to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as a carbon source. When cells were grown on 1% (wt/vol) pectin, C. boidinii exhibited induced levels of the pectin-depolymerizing enzymes pectin methylesterase (208 mU/mg of protein), pectin lyase (673 mU/mg), pectate lyase (673 mU/mg), and polygalacturonase (3.45 U/mg) and two methanol-metabolizing peroxisomal enzymes, alcohol oxidase (0.26 U/mg) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (94 mU/mg). The numbers of peroxisomes also increased ca. two- to threefold in cells grown on these pectic compounds (3.34 and 2.76 peroxisomes/cell for cells grown on pectin and polygalacturonate, respectively) compared to the numbers in cells grown on glucose (1.29 peroxisomes/cell). The cell density obtained with pectin increased as the degree of methyl esterification of pectic compounds increased, and it decreased in strains from which genes encoding alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase were deleted and in a peroxisome assembly mutant. Our study showed that methanol metabolism and peroxisome assembly play important roles in the degradation of pectin, especially in the utilization of its methyl ester moieties.  (+info)

Alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase, the abundant peroxisomal proteins of methylotrophic yeasts, assemble in different cellular compartments. (5/27)

Alcohol oxidase (AO) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) constitute the bulk of matrix proteins in methylotrophic yeasts, model organisms for the study of peroxisomal assembly. Both are homooligomers; AO is a flavin-containing octamer, whereas DHAS is a thiamine pyrophosphate-containing dimer. Experiments in recent years have demonstrated that assembly of peroxisomal oligomers can occur before import; indeed the absence of chaperones within the peroxisomal matrix calls into question the ability of this compartment to assemble proteins at all. We have taken a direct pulse-chase approach to monitor import and assembly of the two major proteins of peroxisomes in Candida boidinii. Oligomers of AO are not observed in the cytosol, consistent with the proteins inability to undergo piggyback import. Indeed, oligomerization of AO can be followed within the peroxisomal matrix, directly demonstrating the capacity of this compartment for protein assembly. By contrast, DHAS quickly dimerizes in the cytosol before import. Binding and import was slowed at 15 degrees C; the effect on AO was more dramatic. In conclusion, our data indicate that peroxisomes assemble AO in the matrix, while DHAS undergoes dimerization prior to import.  (+info)

The final acylation step in taxol biosynthesis: cloning of the taxoid C13-side-chain N-benzoyltransferase from Taxus. (6/27)

The formation of several acyl groups and an amide group of Taxol is catalyzed by regioselective CoA thioester-dependent acyltransferases. Several full-length acyltransferase sequences, obtained from a cDNA library constructed from mRNA isolated from Taxus cuspidata cells induced for Taxol production with methyl jasmonate, were individually expressed in Escherichia coli, from which a cDNA clone encoding a 3'-N-debenzoyl- 2'-deoxytaxol N-benzoyltransferase was identified. This recombinant enzyme catalyzes the stereoselective coupling of the surrogate substrate N-debenzoyl-(3'RS)-2'-deoxytaxol with benzoyl-CoA to form predominantly one 3'-epimer of 2'-deoxytaxol. The product 2'-deoxytaxol was confirmed by radio-HPLC,(1)H-NMR, and chemical ionization-MS. This enzymatic reaction constitutes the final acylation in the Taxol biosynthetic pathway. The full-length cDNA coding for the N-benzoyltransferase has an ORF of 1,323 nucleotides and encodes a 441-residue protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49,040. The recombinant enzyme expressed in E. coli has a pH optimum at 8.0, a k(cat) approximately 1.5 +/- 0.3 s(-1) and K(m) values of 0.42 mM and 0.40 mM for the N-deacylated taxoid and benzoyl-CoA, respectively. In addition to improving the production yields of Taxol in genetically engineered host systems, this enzyme provides a means of attaching modified aroyl groups to taxoid precursors for the purpose of improving drug efficacy.  (+info)

Import of assembled PTS1 proteins into peroxisomes of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha: yes and no! (7/27)

Previously, Waterham et al. [EMBO J. 12 (1993) 4785] reported that cytosolic oligomeric alcohol oxidase (AO) is not incorporated into peroxisomes after reassembly of the organelles in the temperature-sensitive peroxisome-deficient mutant pex1-6(ts) of Hansenula polymorpha shifted to permissive growth conditions. Here, we show that the failure to import assembled AO protein is not exemplary for other folded proteins because both an artificial peroxisomal matrix protein, PTS1-tagged GFP (GFP.SKL), and the endogenous dimeric PTS1 protein dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) were imported under identical conditions. In vitro receptor-ligand binding studies using immobilised H. polymorpha Pex5p and crude extracts of methanol-induced pex1-6(ts) cells, showed that AO octamers did not interact with the recombinant PTS1 receptor, at conditions that allowed binding of folded GFP.SKL and dimeric DHAS. This shows that import of oligomeric proteins is not a universal pathway for peroxisomal matrix proteins.  (+info)

Transcriptional down-regulation of peroxisome numbers affects selective peroxisome degradation in Hansenula polymorpha. (8/27)

We have isolated and characterized a novel transcription factor of Hansenula polymorpha that is involved in the regulation of peroxisomal protein levels. This protein, designated Mpp1p, belongs to the family of Zn(II)2Cys6 proteins. In cells deleted for the function of Mpp1p the levels of various proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis (peroxins) and function (enzymes) are reduced compared with wild type or, in the case of the matrix protein dihydroxyacetone synthase, fully absent. Also, upon induction of mpp1 cells on methanol, the number of peroxisomes was strongly reduced relative to wild type cells and generally amounted to one organelle per cell. Remarkably, this single organelle was not susceptible to selective peroxisome degradation (pexophagy) and remained unaffected during exposure of methanol-induced cells to excess glucose conditions. We show that this mechanism is a general phenomenon in H. polymorpha in the case of cells that contain only a single peroxisome.  (+info)

*Acetolactate synthase

... which is classified under the transferases that transfer aldehyde or ketone residues. In this case, acetolactase synthase is a ... These act on a ketone (pyruvate) and can go back and forth in the metabolic chain. These are found in humans, animals, plants, ...

*Transferase

Enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups and included in EC 2.2. This category consists of various transketolases and ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency (or SCOT deficiency) leads to a buildup of ketones. Ketones are created upon ... Transaldolase, the namesake of aldehyde transferases, is an important part of the pentose phosphate pathway. The reaction it ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ...

*Flavin adenine dinucleotide

MAO oxidizes primary, secondary and tertiary amines, which nonenzymatically hydrolyze from the imine to aldehyde or ketone. ... Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases. Monoamine ... to form an isoprenoid aldehyde and the freed cysteine residue on the protein target. The FAD is non-covalently bound to PCLase ...

*Isomerase

All entries presently include: A classic example of ring opening and contraction is the isomerization of glucose (an aldehyde ... Chorismate mutase is an intramolecular transferase and it catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, used as a ... with a six-membered ring) to fructose (a ketone with a five-membered ring). The conversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate to D- ... Phosphotransferases (EC 5.4.2) were categorized as transferases (EC 2.7.5) with regeneration of donors until 1983. This sub- ...

*Epothilone

Ozonolysis of the silyl ether and Lindgren-Pinnick oxidation of the aldehyde afforded the keto acid. Ketone 2 was constructed ... while the second methyl group was integrated by a C-methyl-transferase domain. Discodermolide Rosenberg, Steven; DeVita, ... Ozonolysis, the last step of the Enders alkylation, was followed by reduction of the aldehyde and silylation of the resulting ... Asymmetric allylboration of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and protection of the hydroxy group gave the silyl ether, whose the ...

*Phenols

These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP ... Metabolism Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses an aromatic alcohol and NAD+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADH and H+. Aryl- ... base catalysed reaction with epichlorohydrin to epoxi resin components by reaction with acetone/ketones to e.g. Bisphenol A, an ... glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase can be monitored. A prophenoloxidase can also be recovered from the insect ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 --- omega-crystallins MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.311 --- aldehyde oxidase ... glutathione transferase MeSH D08.811.913.225.500.500 --- glutathione S-transferase pi MeSH D08.811.913.225.575 --- ... ketone oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.750 --- ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.750.500 ... adp ribose transferases MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.180 --- cholera toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.220 --- diphtheria ...

*Metabolism

Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with many hydroxyl groups attached, that can exist as straight chains or rings. ... Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley V, Dowd C (November 2001). "Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: ... As a result, after long-term starvation, vertebrates need to produce ketone bodies from fatty acids to replace glucose in ... In humans, these include cytochrome P450 oxidases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and glutathione S-transferases. This system of ...
Peroxisomes are massively induced when methylotrophic yeasts are cultured in medium containing methanol. These organelles contain enzymes that catalyze the initial steps of methanol assimilation. In Candida boidinii, a methylotrophic yeast, the peroxisomal matrix (internal compartment) is composed almost exclusively of two proteins, alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase; catalase is present in much lower abundance. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are available against peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins. These were utilized to correlate the induction of specific proteins with the morphological changes occurring during peroxisomal proliferation. Cells cultured in glucose-containing medium contain two to five small microbodies, which are identifiable by catalase staining and immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody against PMP47, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein. Three stages of proliferation can be distinguished when cells are switched to methanol as the carbon ...
La formaldeide transchetolasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle transferasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: D-xilulosio 5-fosfato + formaldeide ⇄ gliceraldeide 3-fosfato + glicerone Si tratta di un enzima contenente tiamina pirofosfato, differente dalla transchetolasi (numero EC 2.2.1.1). È in grado di convertire lidrossipiruvato e la formaldeide in glicerone e CO2. ^ (EN) 2.2.1.1, in ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database, IUBMB. Kato, N., Higuchi, T., Sakazawa, C., Nishizawa, T., Tani, Y. and Yamada, H., Purification and properties of a transketolase responsible for formaldehyde fixation in a methanol-utilizing yeast, Candida boidinii (Kloeckera sp.) No. 2201, in Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 715, 1982, pp. 143-150, Entrez PubMed 7074134. Bystrykh, L.V., Sokolov, A.P. and Trotsenko, Yu.A., Separation of transketolase and dihydroxyacetone synthase from methylotrophic yeasts, in Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR., vol. 258, 1981, pp. 499-501, Entrez PubMed 7249920. Waites, M.J. and Quayle, J.R., ...
The flavoprotein alcohol oxidase from the yeast Candida boidinii catalyzes the oxidation of primary alcohols to aidehydes with transfer of the electrons to molecular oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of alcohol oxidase with beta substituted ethanois as substrates has been examined using kinetic isotope effects, structure-reactivity correlations, and pH effects. Initial velocity line patterns for ethanol and bromoethanol as substrates for alcohol oxidase showed parallel lines, consistent with an irreversible step between the binding of the alcohol and oxygen, whereas methoxyethanol, fluoroethanol, chloroethanol, iodoethanol, and trifluoroethanol showed intersecting line patterns, consistent with a reversible step between the binding of the alcohol and oxygen. The effects of substituents in beta substituted ethanois on V/K values showed a good correlation with the a, value of the substituent after correction for steric, and hydrophobic effects, with a p value of-1.24. This value is ...
Purchase high purity recombinant enzyme Formate dehydrogenase (C. boidinii) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
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Insulin peptide hormone. Important drug in treatment of diabetes. Space-filling model with conventional colour coding. - Stock Image F019/2376
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Glycoengineering of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha for the production of glycoproteins with trimannosyl core N-glycan by blocking core oligosaccharide assembly / Doo-Byoung Oh; J S Park; Moo Woong Kim; Seon Ah Cheon; Eun Jung Kim; Hye Yun Moon; Oh Suk Kwon; Sang Ki Rhee; Hyun Ah Kang , 2008 ...
Saraya, R., Gidijala, L., Veenhuis, M., & van der Klei, I. J. (2014). Tools for genetic engineering of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. In V. Mapelli (Ed.), Yeast Metabolic Engineering: Methods and Protocols (Vol. 1152, pp. 43-62). (Springer Protocols; Vol. 1152). Springer Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0563-8_3 ...
Author Summary Genome duplication in eukaryotes initiates at loci called replication origins. Origins in most budding and fission yeasts are A/T-rich DNA sequences, while metazoan origins are G/C-rich and are often associated with promoters. Here we have globally mapped replication origins and nucleosome positions in an industrially important methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. We show that P. pastoris has two general classes of origins-A/T-rich origins resembling those of most other yeasts, and a novel, G/C-rich class, that appear more robust and are associated with promoters. P. pastoris is the first known species using two kinds of origins and the first known budding yeast to use a G/C-rich origin motif. Additionally, the G/C-rich motif matches one of the motifs annotated as binding sites of the human Hsf1 transcriptional regulator suggesting that in this species there may be a link between transcriptional regulation and DNA replication initiation.
Genetic Evidence for the Role of the Vacuole in Supplying Secretory Organelles with Ca2 in Hansenula polymorpha. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Alcohol Oxidase, 10 mg. Alcohol Oxidase (AOX) is a homooctameric flavoprotein consisting of eight identical subunits of ~74 kD, each containing a flavin adenine dinucleotide molecule (FAD) as a prosthetic group (van der Klei et al.
In a recent AJKD article, Kraut reviews some of the pearls and pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of methanol intoxication. The clinical manifestations of methanol poisoning are mostly due to one of its metabolites: formic acid. The rate-limiting enzyme in methanol metabolism to formic acid is alcohol dehydrogenase, which is currently the target of…
We identified two proteins, Pex25 and Rho1, which are involved in reintroduction of peroxisomes in peroxisome-deficient yeast cells. These are, together with Pex3, the first proteins identified as essential for this process. Of the three members of t
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This report describes the microinjection of a purified peroxisomal protein, alcohol oxidase, from Pichia pastoris into mammalian tissue culture cells and the subsequent transport of this protein into vesicular structures. Transport was into membrane-enclosed vesicles as judged by digitonin-permeabilization experiments. The transport was time and temperature dependent. Vesicles containing alcohol oxidase could be detected as long as 6 d after injection. Coinjection of synthetic peptides containing a consensus carboxyterminal tripeptide peroxisomal targeting signal resulted in abolition of alcohol oxidase transport into vesicles in all cell lines examined. Double-label experiments indicated that, although some of the alcohol oxidase was transported into vesicles that contained other peroxisomal proteins, the bulk of the alcohol oxidase did not appear to be transported to preexisting peroxisomes. While the inhibition of transport of alcohol oxidase by peptides containing the peroxisomal targeting ...
Dihydroxyacetone definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Jadhav, V., Hackl, M., Druz, A., Shridhar, S., Chung, C-Y., Heffner, K.M., Kreil, D.P., Betenbaugh, M., Joseph Shiloach, J., Niall Barron, N., Grillari, J., Borth, N. (2013) CHO microRNA engineering is growing up: Recent successes and future challenges. Biotechn. Advances, 31:8:1501-1513. Jadhav, V., Hackl, M., Klanert, G., Hernandez Bort, J.A., Kunert, R., Borth, N., Grillari, J. (2014) Stable overexpression of miR-17 enhances recombinant protein production of CHO cells. J Biotechn 175, 38-44. Klug, L., Tarazona, P., Gruber, C., Grillitsch, K., Gasser, B., Trötzmüller, M., Köfeler, H., Leitner, E., Feussner, I., Mattanovich, D., Altmann, F., Daum, G., (2013) The lipidome and proteome of microsomes from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 215-226. Klavins, K., Neubauer, S., Al Chalabi, A., Sonntag, D., Haberhauer-Troyer, C., Russmayer, H., Sauer, M., Mattanovich, D., Hann, S., Koellensperger, G. (2013) Interlaboratory comparison for quantitative primary ...
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Hierarchical zeolites containing tin were obtained, characterized and used in a reaction of catalytic isomerization of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid and alkyl lactates. These catalysts are characterized by preserved crystallinity and primary microporosity with the simultaneous existence of secondary porosity regarding mesopores, which facilitates access of large molecules of reagents to active centers. Creation of additional porosity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption studies. The reaction of dihydroxyacetone isomerization was conducted in different reaction media such as methanol, ethanol or water with the use of two heating methods: microwave radiation and conventional heating. The application of microwave radiation enabled to reduce the reaction time to 1 h and achieve dihydroxyacetone conversion of >90% and high yields of the desired reaction products.
This report details the work Ricardo Consulting Engineers did in the designing, building and calibrating an engine for methanol utilization incorporating a Ricardo high compression ratio, compact chamber (HRCC) combustion system. Recommendations for further work are also included ...
Fragments ofCandida boidinii chromosomal DNA were inserted into the integrative vector YIp-kanr and examined for the presence of sequences promoting autonomous replication of plasmids inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Restriction maps of two plasmids, designated S6/4 and S6/5, originating from the sameS. cerevisiae transformant, were constructed. Southern hybridization data confirmed that the plasmids carry sequences from theC. boidinii chromosome. Both plasmids transformS. cerevisiae strains at 4-5-fold higher frequency than cloning vectors based on the replication origin of the 2μm plasmid. Mitotic stability of the constructed plasmids is similar to that of the 2μ-based vector pNF2 inS. cerevisiae.
Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Used in self-tanning products for coloring the skin through a "browning reaction". Additional uses include intermediate, emulsifier, humectant, plasticizers and fungicides.. ...

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One-pot biocatalytic amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for aqueous formation of amides from aldehydes or ketones. ... amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for the formation of amides from the corresponding aldehydes and ketones in aqueous ... An enzymatic one-pot one-step cascade was developed for the formation of amides from aldehydes in water that gave 97% ... Amine transaminases are promising catalysts due to their ability to perform reductive amination of ketones with excellent ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A920159

Transketolase
     Summary Report | CureHunterTransketolase Summary Report | CureHunter

An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ... Transferases: 4296*Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases*Transketolase: 290*Craterostigma plantagineum Tkt10 protein. *Craterostigma ... An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD014174-Transketolase.do

EP2051590B1 - Enzyme granules for animal feed 
        - Google PatentsEP2051590B1 - Enzyme granules for animal feed - Google Patents

a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. *b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6).. A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ... transferases (EC 2.-.-.-), hydrolases (EC 3.-.-.-), lyases (EC 4.-.-.-), isomerases (EC 5.-.-.-) and ligases (EC 6.-.-.-). ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2051590B1/en

Recent questions in Transferases - lookformedical.comRecent questions in Transferases - lookformedical.com

Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally ... Transferases (3) * Acyltransferases (1) * Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases (0) * Alkyl and Aryl Transferases (1) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/questions/chemicals-and-drugs/enzymes-and-coenzymes/enzymes/transferases

US20070104794A1 - Enzyme granules 
        - Google PatentsUS20070104794A1 - Enzyme granules - Google Patents

a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1); * b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... Preferred transferases are transferases in any of the following sub-classes: * * ... The types of enzymes which may be incorporated in granules of the invention include oxidoreductases (EC 1.-.-.-), transferases ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20070104794

List of protein families with GO categories currently covered by SVMProtList of protein families with GO categories currently covered by SVMProt

EC2.2 Transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues. GO:0016744. 83.87. 99.7. 89.66. 99.23. 0.87. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. ... EC2.6 Transferases transferring nitrogenous groups. GO:0016769. 70.09. 99.03. 60.48. 98.42. 0.64. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ... EC2.7 Transferases transferring phosphorus-containing groups. GO:0016772. 81.66. 89.05. 79.76. 86.5. 0.70. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ... EC1.2 Oxidoreductases acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors. GO:0016903. 78.96. 98.46. 77.08. 97.25. 0.77. -. -. -. -. ...
more infohttp://bidd2.nus.edu.sg/html/svmprot/proteinfunc.html

Transferase - WikipediaTransferase - Wikipedia

Enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups and included in EC 2.2. This category consists of various transketolases and ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency (or SCOT deficiency) leads to a buildup of ketones. Ketones are created upon ... Transaldolase, the namesake of aldehyde transferases, is an important part of the pentose phosphate pathway. The reaction it ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transferase

Acetolactate synthase - wikidocAcetolactate synthase - wikidoc

... which is classified under the transferases that transfer aldehyde or ketone residues. In this case, acetolactase synthase is a ... These act on a ketone (pyruvate) and can go back and forth in the metabolic chain. These are found in humans, animals, plants, ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Acetolactate_synthase

Indian Patents. 257922:A PROCESS FOR INCORPORATING ENZYMES INTO LAUNDRY BAR AND A LAUNDRY BAR OBTAINED THEREFROMIndian Patents. 257922:A PROCESS FOR INCORPORATING ENZYMES INTO LAUNDRY BAR AND A LAUNDRY BAR OBTAINED THEREFROM

a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6). A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... Preferred transferases are. transferases in any of the following sub-classes:. ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and. ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/257922-a-process-for-incorporating-enzymes-into-laundry-bar-and-a-laundry-bar-obtained-therefrom

S cerevisiae TKL1 protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterS cerevisiae TKL1 protein Summary Report | CureHunter

Transferases: 4296*Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases*Transketolase: 290*S cerevisiae TKL1 protein. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC084088-S-cerevisiae-TKL1-protein.do

Acetolactate synthase - WikipediaAcetolactate synthase - Wikipedia

... which is classified under the transferases that transfer aldehyde or ketone residues. In this case, acetolactase synthase is a ... These act on a ketone (pyruvate) and can go back and forth in the metabolic chain. These are found in humans, animals, plants, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetolactate_synthase

TOPICAL METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES AND CONDITIONS - Patent applicationTOPICAL METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES AND CONDITIONS - Patent application

0062]Transferases transferring one carbon, alkyl, aryl, nitrogenous, aldehyde or ketone groups; transferases; acyltransferases ... 0061]Oxidoreductases acting on the CH, CH2, CH--OH, aldehyde, oxo, CH--CH, CH--NH2, CH--NH, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic or heme ... 0064]Isomerases such as racemases and epimerases; oxidoreductases; intramolecular transferases or intramolecular lyases; and [ ... glycosyltransferases; transferases transferring phosphorus-, selenium- or sulfur-containing groups; [0063]Lyases such as carbon ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100286065

Glutathione-S-Transferase and Thiol Stress in patients with acute renal failure  - CogprintsGlutathione-S-Transferase and Thiol Stress in patients with acute renal failure - Cogprints

... of side-chain alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins results in the loss of side-chains as aldehydes and ketones. Free Radic ... Prakash, M and Kedage, V and Muttigi, MS and Nataraj, K and Baig, WW and Attur, RP (2010) Glutathione-S-Transferase and Thiol ... Glutathione-S-transferase; thiol stress; acute renal failure; urine thiols. Subjects:. JOURNALS , Online Journal of Health and ... Glutathione-S-transferases and thiol concentrations in embryonic and early fetal tissues. Human Reproduction 2001;16:2445-2450 ...
more infohttp://cogprints.org/7009/index.html

MULTIPLEX Q-PCR ARRAYS - Patent applicationMULTIPLEX Q-PCR ARRAYS - Patent application

... glutathione-S-transferase), aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, phosphates, hydrophobic groups (e.g., phenyl, cholesterol), ... Examples of such surfaces include NHS-esters, aldehyde, epoxide, acyl halide, and thio-ester. Most proteins, peptides, ... Examples of chemical surface modifiers include N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) groups, amines, aldehydes, epoxides, carboxyl groups ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120077692

Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis on the basis of the csaB gene reflects host source.

 |...Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis on the basis of the csaB gene reflects host source. |...

Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Selection, Genetic ; Sequence ...
more infohttps://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal:140705

T3DB: CinnamaldehydeT3DB: Cinnamaldehyde

... beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones with human glutathione S-transferase P1-1. Chem Biol Interact. 1997 Dec 12;108(1-2):67- ... Cinnamaldehyde is the aldehyde that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor. Cinnamaldehyde occurs naturally in the bark of cinnamon ... 1. Glutathione S-transferase P. General Function:. S-nitrosoglutathione binding. Specific Function:. Conjugation of reduced ... These are organic aromatic compounds containing a cinnamlaldehyde moiety, consisting of a benzene and an aldehyde group to form ...
more infohttp://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D4985

TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE (CAS 9027-67-2) Market Research Report 2018TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE (CAS 9027-67-2) Market Research Report 2018

The report generally describes terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, examines its uses, production methods, patents. TERMINAL ... Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines Halogenated Polymers ... Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase prices in other regions. 7. TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase market forecast. 6. TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Terminal ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/terminal_deoxynucleotidyl_transferase_9027-67-2_market_research_report.html

Chemopreventive Effects of α-Santalol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 and SENCAR Mice | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &...Chemopreventive Effects of α-Santalol on Skin Tumor Development in CD-1 and SENCAR Mice | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &...

Other constitutes of oil are aldehydes, ketones, isovaleric aldehyde, santanone, esters, and free acids (40 , 41) . Banerjee et ... Banerjee S., Ecavade A., Rao A. R. Modulatory influence of sandalwood oil on mouse hepatic glutathione-s-transferase activity ... al. (42) reported that p.o. feeding of SW oil caused an increase in glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble ...
more infohttps://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/12/2/151.full

Structural Biochemistry/Specific Enzymes and Catalytic Mechanisms/Enzyme Classification - Wikibooks, open books for an open...Structural Biochemistry/Specific Enzymes and Catalytic Mechanisms/Enzyme Classification - Wikibooks, open books for an open...

EC 2.2 includes enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups. *EC 2.3 includes acyltransferases ... Transferases[edit]. *EC 2.1 includes enzymes that transfer one-carbon groups (methyltransferase) ... EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1), aldehyde lyases (EC 4.1.2), oxo acid ... Transferases catalyze group transfer reactions. The transfer occurs from one molecule that will be the donor to another ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Specific_Enzymes_and_Catalytic_Mechanisms/Enzyme_Classification

Catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields less toxic products |...Catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields less toxic products |...

In addition, we hypothesize also that alcohol acetyl transferases and alcohol dehydrogenases play active roles in the ... after which phenolic alcohols and ketones were formed. Similarly, in the case of ferulic acid, an isomer of ferulic acid was ... The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to ferulic acid may require the activity of a coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme ... 2). Coniferyl aldehyde may have favored an increased ethanol yield (Fig. 6a), however we do not yet fully understand the ...
more infohttps://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12934-015-0338-x

Frontiers | Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders:...Frontiers | Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders:...

Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone ... Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone ... Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ... such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00363/full

Frontiers | Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders:...Frontiers | Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders:...

Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone ... Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone ... Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ... such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00363/full?fbclid=IwAR0gda7rtHI4KHWqHCoUKQXvbZo7q8E2CuYarTORyLz7SjB1e6-fHvBgvj4

Enzyme | Article about enzyme by The Free DictionaryEnzyme | Article about enzyme by The Free Dictionary

... aldehyde, or ketone group. The sub-subclasses of the oxidoreductases are numbered according to the type of hydrogen (electron) ... In the transferases, the third digit indicates the type of groups transferred; for example, the monocarbonic group may be ... Transferases catalyze the transfer of a particular chemical group from one substance to another. Thus, transaminases transfer ... The transferase class, which includes enzymes that catalyze transfer reactions, is divided into eight subclasses according to ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Enzyme

Uricolytic enzyme | Article about uricolytic enzyme by The Free DictionaryUricolytic enzyme | Article about uricolytic enzyme by The Free Dictionary

... aldehyde, or ketone group. The sub-subclasses of the oxidoreductases are numbered according to the type of hydrogen (electron) ... In the transferases, the third digit indicates the type of groups transferred; for example, the monocarbonic group may be ... Transferases catalyze the transfer of a particular chemical group from one substance to another. Thus, transaminases transfer ... The transferase class, which includes enzymes that catalyze transfer reactions, is divided into eight subclasses according to ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/uricolytic+enzyme
  • General aspects of metabolism The flavouring agents evaluated at the present meeting share a number of functional groups, e.g. linear, branched, alicyclic, and unsaturated alkyl chains and alcohol, ester, and ketone groups. (inchem.org)
  • Prolonged exposure to sunlight or florescent light of vegetable oils contained in transparent vessels are susceptible to photo-induced oxidation that results in formation of potentially toxic peroxides, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acid. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke potential therapeutic effects in cases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including psychiatric diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory compounds is a form of stress response and a detoxification process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current information on ketone supplementation as a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)