KetonesAldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Tosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.AcroleinHydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.BenzaldehydesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)EstersCyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseGalactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.IminesSilanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Coenzyme AAllyl CompoundsIridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Pentanones: 5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome: An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)GlyceraldehydeAldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.AcetalsCoenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Benzene DerivativesHypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.HydrocarbonsButylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Overproduction of Pex5p stimulates import of alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase in a Hansenula polymorpha Pex14 null mutant. (1/27)

Hansenula polymorpha Deltapex14 cells are affected in peroxisomal matrix protein import and lack normal peroxisomes. Instead, they contain peroxisomal membrane remnants, which harbor a very small amount of the major peroxisomal matrix enzymes alcohol oxidase (AO) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS). The bulk of these proteins is, however, mislocated in the cytosol. Here, we show that in Deltapex14 cells overproduction of the PTS1 receptor, Pex5p, leads to enhanced import of the PTS1 proteins AO and DHAS but not of the PTS2 protein amine oxidase. The import of the PTS1 protein catalase (CAT) was not stimulated by Pex5p overproduction. The difference in import behavior of AO and CAT was not related to their PTS1, since green fluorescent protein fused to the PTS1 of either AO or CAT were both not imported in Deltapex14 cells overproducing Pex5p. When produced in a wild type control strain, both proteins were normally imported into peroxisomes. In Deltapex14 cells overproducing Pex5p, Pex5p had a dual location and was localized in the cytosol and bound to the outer surface of the peroxisomal membrane. Our results indicate that binding of Pex5p to the peroxisomal membrane and import of certain PTS1 proteins can proceed in the absence of Pex14p.  (+info)

Bacterial SLH domain proteins are non-covalently anchored to the cell surface via a conserved mechanism involving wall polysaccharide pyruvylation. (2/27)

Several bacterial proteins are non-covalently anchored to the cell surface via an S-layer homology (SLH) domain. Previous studies have suggested that this cell surface display mechanism involves a non-covalent interaction between the SLH domain and peptidoglycan-associated polymers. Here we report the characterization of a two-gene operon, csaAB, for cell surface anchoring, in Bacillus anthracis. Its distal open reading frame (csaB) is required for the retention of SLH-containing proteins on the cell wall. Biochemical analysis of cell wall components showed that CsaB was involved in the addition of a pyruvyl group to a peptidoglycan-associated polysaccharide fraction, and that this modification was necessary for binding of the SLH domain. The csaAB operon is present in several bacterial species that synthesize SLH-containing proteins. This observation and the presence of pyruvate in the cell wall of the corresponding bacteria suggest that the mechanism described in this study is widespread among bacteria.  (+info)

Regulation and evaluation of five methanol-inducible promoters in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. (3/27)

We isolated the promoter regions of five methanol-inducible genes (P(AOD1), alcohol oxidase; P(DAS1), dihydroxyacetone synthase; P(FDH1), formate dehydrogenase; P(PMP20), Pmp20; and P(PMP47), Pmp47) from the Candida boidinii genome, and evaluated their strength and studied their regulation using the acid phosphatase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScPHO5) as the reporter. Of the five promoters, P(DAS1) was the strongest methanol-inducible promoter whose strength was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the commonly used P(AOD1) in methanol-induced cells. Although the expression of P(AOD1) and P(DAS1) was completely repressed by the presence of glucose, formate-induced expression of P(FDH1) was not repressed by glucose. Expression under P(PMP47), another methanol-inducible promoter, was highly induced by oleate. The induction kinetics of P(PMP47) and P(DAS1) revealed that methanol induces the expression of peroxisome membrane protein Pmp47, earlier than the expression of matrix enzyme dihydroxyacetone synthase (Das1p), and that this information is contained in the promoter region of the respective gene. This is the first report which evaluates several methanol-inducible promoters in parallel in the methylotrophic yeast.  (+info)

A methylotrophic pathway participates in pectin utilization by Candida boidinii. (4/27)

The methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii S2 was found to be able to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as a carbon source. When cells were grown on 1% (wt/vol) pectin, C. boidinii exhibited induced levels of the pectin-depolymerizing enzymes pectin methylesterase (208 mU/mg of protein), pectin lyase (673 mU/mg), pectate lyase (673 mU/mg), and polygalacturonase (3.45 U/mg) and two methanol-metabolizing peroxisomal enzymes, alcohol oxidase (0.26 U/mg) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (94 mU/mg). The numbers of peroxisomes also increased ca. two- to threefold in cells grown on these pectic compounds (3.34 and 2.76 peroxisomes/cell for cells grown on pectin and polygalacturonate, respectively) compared to the numbers in cells grown on glucose (1.29 peroxisomes/cell). The cell density obtained with pectin increased as the degree of methyl esterification of pectic compounds increased, and it decreased in strains from which genes encoding alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase were deleted and in a peroxisome assembly mutant. Our study showed that methanol metabolism and peroxisome assembly play important roles in the degradation of pectin, especially in the utilization of its methyl ester moieties.  (+info)

Alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase, the abundant peroxisomal proteins of methylotrophic yeasts, assemble in different cellular compartments. (5/27)

Alcohol oxidase (AO) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) constitute the bulk of matrix proteins in methylotrophic yeasts, model organisms for the study of peroxisomal assembly. Both are homooligomers; AO is a flavin-containing octamer, whereas DHAS is a thiamine pyrophosphate-containing dimer. Experiments in recent years have demonstrated that assembly of peroxisomal oligomers can occur before import; indeed the absence of chaperones within the peroxisomal matrix calls into question the ability of this compartment to assemble proteins at all. We have taken a direct pulse-chase approach to monitor import and assembly of the two major proteins of peroxisomes in Candida boidinii. Oligomers of AO are not observed in the cytosol, consistent with the proteins inability to undergo piggyback import. Indeed, oligomerization of AO can be followed within the peroxisomal matrix, directly demonstrating the capacity of this compartment for protein assembly. By contrast, DHAS quickly dimerizes in the cytosol before import. Binding and import was slowed at 15 degrees C; the effect on AO was more dramatic. In conclusion, our data indicate that peroxisomes assemble AO in the matrix, while DHAS undergoes dimerization prior to import.  (+info)

The final acylation step in taxol biosynthesis: cloning of the taxoid C13-side-chain N-benzoyltransferase from Taxus. (6/27)

The formation of several acyl groups and an amide group of Taxol is catalyzed by regioselective CoA thioester-dependent acyltransferases. Several full-length acyltransferase sequences, obtained from a cDNA library constructed from mRNA isolated from Taxus cuspidata cells induced for Taxol production with methyl jasmonate, were individually expressed in Escherichia coli, from which a cDNA clone encoding a 3'-N-debenzoyl- 2'-deoxytaxol N-benzoyltransferase was identified. This recombinant enzyme catalyzes the stereoselective coupling of the surrogate substrate N-debenzoyl-(3'RS)-2'-deoxytaxol with benzoyl-CoA to form predominantly one 3'-epimer of 2'-deoxytaxol. The product 2'-deoxytaxol was confirmed by radio-HPLC,(1)H-NMR, and chemical ionization-MS. This enzymatic reaction constitutes the final acylation in the Taxol biosynthetic pathway. The full-length cDNA coding for the N-benzoyltransferase has an ORF of 1,323 nucleotides and encodes a 441-residue protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49,040. The recombinant enzyme expressed in E. coli has a pH optimum at 8.0, a k(cat) approximately 1.5 +/- 0.3 s(-1) and K(m) values of 0.42 mM and 0.40 mM for the N-deacylated taxoid and benzoyl-CoA, respectively. In addition to improving the production yields of Taxol in genetically engineered host systems, this enzyme provides a means of attaching modified aroyl groups to taxoid precursors for the purpose of improving drug efficacy.  (+info)

Import of assembled PTS1 proteins into peroxisomes of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha: yes and no! (7/27)

Previously, Waterham et al. [EMBO J. 12 (1993) 4785] reported that cytosolic oligomeric alcohol oxidase (AO) is not incorporated into peroxisomes after reassembly of the organelles in the temperature-sensitive peroxisome-deficient mutant pex1-6(ts) of Hansenula polymorpha shifted to permissive growth conditions. Here, we show that the failure to import assembled AO protein is not exemplary for other folded proteins because both an artificial peroxisomal matrix protein, PTS1-tagged GFP (GFP.SKL), and the endogenous dimeric PTS1 protein dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) were imported under identical conditions. In vitro receptor-ligand binding studies using immobilised H. polymorpha Pex5p and crude extracts of methanol-induced pex1-6(ts) cells, showed that AO octamers did not interact with the recombinant PTS1 receptor, at conditions that allowed binding of folded GFP.SKL and dimeric DHAS. This shows that import of oligomeric proteins is not a universal pathway for peroxisomal matrix proteins.  (+info)

Transcriptional down-regulation of peroxisome numbers affects selective peroxisome degradation in Hansenula polymorpha. (8/27)

We have isolated and characterized a novel transcription factor of Hansenula polymorpha that is involved in the regulation of peroxisomal protein levels. This protein, designated Mpp1p, belongs to the family of Zn(II)2Cys6 proteins. In cells deleted for the function of Mpp1p the levels of various proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis (peroxins) and function (enzymes) are reduced compared with wild type or, in the case of the matrix protein dihydroxyacetone synthase, fully absent. Also, upon induction of mpp1 cells on methanol, the number of peroxisomes was strongly reduced relative to wild type cells and generally amounted to one organelle per cell. Remarkably, this single organelle was not susceptible to selective peroxisome degradation (pexophagy) and remained unaffected during exposure of methanol-induced cells to excess glucose conditions. We show that this mechanism is a general phenomenon in H. polymorpha in the case of cells that contain only a single peroxisome.  (+info)

This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" was a major or minor topic of these publication ...
Peroxisomes are massively induced when methylotrophic yeasts are cultured in medium containing methanol. These organelles contain enzymes that catalyze the initial steps of methanol assimilation. In Candida boidinii, a methylotrophic yeast, the peroxisomal matrix (internal compartment) is composed almost exclusively of two proteins, alcohol oxidase and dihydroxyacetone synthase; catalase is present in much lower abundance. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are available against peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins. These were utilized to correlate the induction of specific proteins with the morphological changes occurring during peroxisomal proliferation. Cells cultured in glucose-containing medium contain two to five small microbodies, which are identifiable by catalase staining and immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody against PMP47, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein. Three stages of proliferation can be distinguished when cells are switched to methanol as the carbon ...
A Comparative Study on VOCs and Aldehyde-Ketone Emissions from a Spark Ignition Vehicle Fuelled on Compressed Natural Gas and Gasoline
Objective: Methanol-induced optic neuropathy is a visual impairment that results from damage to the optic nerve fibers caused by methanol. It is frequently bilateral with permanent visual deterioration. According to the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT), methanol-poisoned patients who present with ocular manifestations should be treated with fomepizole, ethanol, or hemodialysis, which do not remove the metabolites from the optic nerve. High-dose intravenous steroid treatment has been proposed in several studies to salvage vision because of its anti-inflammatory effect. This article examines the existing literature on the efficacy of high-dose intravenous steroid treatment in patients with methanol-induced optic neuropathy. ...
Methylotrophic yeast species (e.g. Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris) can grow on methanol as sole source of carbon and energy. These organisms are important cell factories for the production of recombinant proteins, but are also used in fundamental research as model organisms to study peroxisome biology. During exponential growth on glucose, cells of H. polymorpha typically contain a single, small peroxisome that is redundant for growth while on methanol multiple, enlarged peroxisomes are present. These organelles are crucial to support growth on methanol, as they contain key enzymes of methanol metabolism. In this study, changes in the transcriptional profiles during adaptation of H. polymorpha cells from glucose- to methanol-containing media were investigated using DNA-microarray analyses. Two hours after the shift of cells from glucose to methanol nearly 20% (1184 genes) of the approximately 6000 annotated H. polymorpha genes were significantly upregulated with at least a two-fold differential
Purchase high purity recombinant enzyme Formate dehydrogenase (C. boidinii) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis.
Insulin peptide hormone. Important drug in treatment of diabetes. Space-filling model with conventional colour coding. - Stock Image F019/2376
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Glycoengineering of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha for the production of glycoproteins with trimannosyl core N-glycan by blocking core oligosaccharide assembly / Doo-Byoung Oh; J S Park; Moo Woong Kim; Seon Ah Cheon; Eun Jung Kim; Hye Yun Moon; Oh Suk Kwon; Sang Ki Rhee; Hyun Ah Kang , 2008 ...
Nitrogen assimilation during growth of Candida boidinii on methylated amines as sole nitrogen source involves NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. Changes in enzyme activities during the adaptation of the yeast from growth on ammonium to growth on trimethylamine were examined. No ammonia, dimethylamine or monomethylamine could be detected in the medium during growth on trimethylamine. When two methylated amines were supplied together, they were used simultaneously, although monomethylamine was metabolized more quickly than the others. When cells were grown on a low concentration of ammonium plus higher concentrations of di- or trimethylamine, the ammonium was used first. NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was the first enzyme to be derepressed, followed by methylamine oxidase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Di- and trimethylamine mono-oxygenase activities only appeared when the ammonium concentration fell below 0.5 mM. At this point amine utilization could be detected and no diauxic lag was
Genetic Evidence for the Role of the Vacuole in Supplying Secretory Organelles with Ca2 in Hansenula polymorpha. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Alcohol Oxidase, 10 mg. Alcohol Oxidase (AOX) is a homooctameric flavoprotein consisting of eight identical subunits of ~74 kD, each containing a flavin adenine dinucleotide molecule (FAD) as a prosthetic group (van der Klei et al.
In a recent AJKD article, Kraut reviews some of the pearls and pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of methanol intoxication. The clinical manifestations of methanol poisoning are mostly due to one of its metabolites: formic acid. The rate-limiting enzyme in methanol metabolism to formic acid is alcohol dehydrogenase, which is currently the target of…
Dihydroxyacetone definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Steudel A., Nitzsche C.: The nad-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase of methylotrophic yeasts - an electrophoretic study (i). Acta Biotechnol. 1991, 11, 57. ,https://doi.org/10.1002/abio.370110117 ...
Jadhav, V., Hackl, M., Druz, A., Shridhar, S., Chung, C-Y., Heffner, K.M., Kreil, D.P., Betenbaugh, M., Joseph Shiloach, J., Niall Barron, N., Grillari, J., Borth, N. (2013) CHO microRNA engineering is growing up: Recent successes and future challenges. Biotechn. Advances, 31:8:1501-1513. Jadhav, V., Hackl, M., Klanert, G., Hernandez Bort, J.A., Kunert, R., Borth, N., Grillari, J. (2014) Stable overexpression of miR-17 enhances recombinant protein production of CHO cells. J Biotechn 175, 38-44. Klug, L., Tarazona, P., Gruber, C., Grillitsch, K., Gasser, B., Trötzmüller, M., Köfeler, H., Leitner, E., Feussner, I., Mattanovich, D., Altmann, F., Daum, G., (2013) The lipidome and proteome of microsomes from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 215-226. Klavins, K., Neubauer, S., Al Chalabi, A., Sonntag, D., Haberhauer-Troyer, C., Russmayer, H., Sauer, M., Mattanovich, D., Hann, S., Koellensperger, G. (2013) Interlaboratory comparison for quantitative primary ...
A novel organocatalyst was developed that effectively catalyzed the reactions of unprotected or protected dihydroxyacetone with a variety of aldehydes to provide syn-aldol products with good yields and ee values up to >99%. Significantly, this amide catalyst was effective with a variety of nonaromatic aldehyde acceptors that had proven difficult in the presence of other catalysts. Reactions of protected dihydroxyacetone proceeded in aqueous media without addition of organic solvents ...
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Hierarchical zeolites containing tin were obtained, characterized and used in a reaction of catalytic isomerization of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid and alkyl lactates. These catalysts are characterized by preserved crystallinity and primary microporosity with the simultaneous existence of secondary porosity regarding mesopores, which facilitates access of large molecules of reagents to active centers. Creation of additional porosity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption studies. The reaction of dihydroxyacetone isomerization was conducted in different reaction media such as methanol, ethanol or water with the use of two heating methods: microwave radiation and conventional heating. The application of microwave radiation enabled to reduce the reaction time to 1 h and achieve dihydroxyacetone conversion of >90% and high yields of the desired reaction products.
This report details the work Ricardo Consulting Engineers did in the designing, building and calibrating an engine for methanol utilization incorporating a Ricardo high compression ratio, compact chamber (HRCC) combustion system. Recommendations for further work are also included ...
Fragments ofCandida boidinii chromosomal DNA were inserted into the integrative vector YIp-kanr and examined for the presence of sequences promoting autonomous replication of plasmids inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Restriction maps of two plasmids, designated S6/4 and S6/5, originating from the sameS. cerevisiae transformant, were constructed. Southern hybridization data confirmed that the plasmids carry sequences from theC. boidinii chromosome. Both plasmids transformS. cerevisiae strains at 4-5-fold higher frequency than cloning vectors based on the replication origin of the 2μm plasmid. Mitotic stability of the constructed plasmids is similar to that of the 2μ-based vector pNF2 inS. cerevisiae.
Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Used in self-tanning products for coloring the skin through a "browning reaction". Additional uses include intermediate, emulsifier, humectant, plasticizers and fungicides.. ...
Notes: i) Alcohol oxidase is non-specific towards ethanol. This assay will also detect other low molecular weight alcohols, e.g. methanol.. ii) Primary calibrating standards, 0.1 - 40 %VV are available separately, as required.. ...
MAO oxidizes primary, secondary and tertiary amines, which nonenzymatically hydrolyze from the imine to aldehyde or ketone. ... Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases. Monoamine ... to form an isoprenoid aldehyde and the freed cysteine residue on the protein target. The FAD is non-covalently bound to PCLase ...
... which is classified under the transferases that transfer aldehyde or ketone residues. In this case, acetolactase synthase is a ... These act on a ketone (pyruvate) and can go back and forth in the metabolic chain. These are found in humans, animals, plants, ...
Enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups and included in EC 2.2. This category consists of various transketolases and ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency (or SCOT deficiency) leads to a buildup of ketones. Ketones are created upon ... Transaldolase, the namesake of aldehyde transferases, is an important part of the pentose phosphate pathway. The reaction it ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ...
All entries presently include: A classic example of ring opening and contraction is the isomerization of glucose (an aldehyde ... Chorismate mutase is an intramolecular transferase and it catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, used as a ... with a six-membered ring) to fructose (a ketone with a five-membered ring). The conversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate to D- ... Phosphotransferases (EC 5.4.2) were categorized as transferases (EC 2.7.5) with regeneration of donors until 1983. This sub- ...
Category:EC 2.2 (transfer aldehyde or ketone groups)Edit. *Category:EC 2.2.1 *Transketolase EC 2.2.1.1 ... Category:Transferases (EC 2) (Transferase)Edit. *Glutathione S-transferase. Category:EC 2.1 (transfer one-carbon groups, ... 2 Category:Transferases (EC 2) (Transferase) *2.1 Category:EC 2.1 (transfer one-carbon groups, Methylase) ... Category:EC 1.2 (act on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.2.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) * ...
Ozonolysis of the silyl ether and Lindgren-Pinnick oxidation of the aldehyde afforded the keto acid. Ketone 2 was constructed ... while the second methyl group was integrated by a C-methyl-transferase domain. Discodermolide Rosenberg, Steven; DeVita, ... Ozonolysis, the last step of the Enders alkylation, was followed by reduction of the aldehyde and silylation of the resulting ... Asymmetric allylboration of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and protection of the hydroxy group gave the silyl ether, whose the ...
1qdu: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF CASPASE-8 WITH THE TRIPEPTIDE KETONE INHIBITOR ZEVD-DCBMK ... 1qtn: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF CASPASE-8 WITH THE TETRAPEPTIDE INHIBITOR ACE-IETD-ALDEHYDE ... EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP ... Metabolism Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses an aromatic alcohol and NAD+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADH and H+. Aryl- ... base catalysed reaction with epichlorohydrin to epoxi resin components by reaction with acetone/ketones to e.g. Bisphenol A, an ... glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase can be monitored. A prophenoloxidase can also be recovered from the insect ...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 --- omega-crystallins MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.311 --- aldehyde oxidase ... glutathione transferase MeSH D08.811.913.225.500.500 --- glutathione S-transferase pi MeSH D08.811.913.225.575 --- ... ketone oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.750 --- ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.750.500 ... adp ribose transferases MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.180 --- cholera toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.220 --- diphtheria ...
Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with many hydroxyl groups attached, that can exist as straight chains or rings. ... Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley V, Dowd C (November 2001). "Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: ... As a result, after long-term starvation, vertebrates need to produce ketone bodies from fatty acids to replace glucose in ... In humans, these include cytochrome P450 oxidases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and glutathione S-transferases. This system of ...
... dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding alcohol. The involvement in ... EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ... dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding alcohol. It also participates ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ...
Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes Gallic, salicylic acids 8 C6-C2 1 Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic acids 3- ... Raspberry ketone. a compound with an intense raspberry smell Salicylic acid. precursor compound to Aspirin (chemical synthesis ... These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP ... and other bisphenols produced from ketones and phenol / cresol BHT. (butylated hydroxytoluene) - a fat-soluble antioxidant and ...
... thereby preventing the breakdown of toxic levels of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones.[40] While ethanol produced by decaying ... a member of the omega class glutathione S-transferases". The Biochemical Journal. 398 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1042/BJ20060424. PMC ... "Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation". The Biochemical Journal. 329 ...
Raspberry ketone. a compound with an intense raspberry smell. Salicylic acid. precursor compound to Aspirin (chemical synthesis ... Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes. Gallic, salicylic acids. 8. C6-C2. 1. Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic ... These reactions are catalysed by a large group of broad-specificity transferases. UGT1A6 is a human gene encoding a phenol UDP ... Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) uses an aromatic alcohol and NADP+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADPH and H+. ...
"Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" was a ... "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases*Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases. *Aldehyde Ketone Transferases. *Transferases, Aldehyde-Ketone ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases" by people in Profiles. ...
One-pot biocatalytic amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for aqueous formation of amides from aldehydes or ketones. ... amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for the formation of amides from the corresponding aldehydes and ketones in aqueous ... An enzymatic one-pot one-step cascade was developed for the formation of amides from aldehydes in water that gave 97% ... Amine transaminases are promising catalysts due to their ability to perform reductive amination of ketones with excellent ...
Enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups and included in EC 2.2. This category consists of various transketolases and ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency (or SCOT deficiency) leads to a buildup of ketones. Ketones are created upon ... Transaldolase, the namesake of aldehyde transferases, is an important part of the pentose phosphate pathway. The reaction it ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ...
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ... Transferases: 4296*Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases*Transketolase: 290*Craterostigma plantagineum Tkt10 protein. *Craterostigma ... An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ...
MAO oxidizes primary, secondary and tertiary amines, which nonenzymatically hydrolyze from the imine to aldehyde or ketone. ... Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases. Monoamine ... to form an isoprenoid aldehyde and the freed cysteine residue on the protein target. The FAD is non-covalently bound to PCLase ...
a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. *b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6).. A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ... transferases (EC 2.-.-.-), hydrolases (EC 3.-.-.-), lyases (EC 4.-.-.-), isomerases (EC 5.-.-.-) and ligases (EC 6.-.-.-). ...
ProSpecs Transferases include: ACAT2 Human, BHMT Human, HMTase Human, PRMT1 Human, PRMT1 Mouse, TDT Human ... Aldehyde and ketone transferases are also heavily involved in reactions that include aldehydes and ketones. Transferase enzymes ... Transferase function. The role of transferases spans a wide variety of domains. Single carbon transferases are involved in the ... About Transferase:. Transferases are a particular class of enzymes that transfer a specific functional group from a donor to an ...
a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1); * b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... Preferred transferases are transferases in any of the following sub-classes: * * ... The types of enzymes which may be incorporated in granules of the invention include oxidoreductases (EC 1.-.-.-), transferases ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and ...
Other constitutes of oil are aldehydes, ketones, isovaleric aldehyde, santanone, esters, and free acids (40 , 41) . Banerjee et ... Banerjee S., Ecavade A., Rao A. R. Modulatory influence of sandalwood oil on mouse hepatic glutathione-s-transferase activity ... al. (42) reported that p.o. feeding of SW oil caused an increase in glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble ...
... of side-chain alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins results in the loss of side-chains as aldehydes and ketones. Free Radic ... Prakash, M and Kedage, V and Muttigi, MS and Nataraj, K and Baig, WW and Attur, RP (2010) Glutathione-S-Transferase and Thiol ... Glutathione-S-transferase; thiol stress; acute renal failure; urine thiols. Subjects:. JOURNALS , Online Journal of Health and ... Glutathione-S-transferases and thiol concentrations in embryonic and early fetal tissues. Human Reproduction 2001;16:2445-2450 ...
One-pot biocatalytic amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for aqueous formation of amides from aldehydes or ketones2016 ... amine transaminase/acyl transferase cascade for the formation of amides from the corresponding aldehydes and ketones in aqueous ... An enzymatic one-pot one-step cascade was developed for the formation of amides from aldehydes in water that gave 97% ...
... which is classified under the transferases that transfer aldehyde or ketone residues. In this case, acetolactase synthase is a ... These act on a ketone (pyruvate) and can go back and forth in the metabolic chain. These are found in humans, animals, plants, ...
Aldehyde-ketone Transferases * Mycobacterium Tuberculosis * Time Factors * Animals * Tuberculosis, Pulmonary * Cdc1551 * ...
Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases (0) * Alkyl and Aryl Transferases (1) * Glycosyltransferases (1) * N-Acetylhexosaminyltransferases ...
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally ... Transferases (5) * Acyltransferases (1) * Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases (0) * Alkyl and Aryl Transferases (1) ...
EC2.2 Transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues. GO:0016744. 83.87. 99.7. 89.66. 99.23. 0.87. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. ... EC2.6 Transferases transferring nitrogenous groups. GO:0016769. 70.09. 99.03. 60.48. 98.42. 0.64. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ... EC2.7 Transferases transferring phosphorus-containing groups. GO:0016772. 81.66. 89.05. 79.76. 86.5. 0.70. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ... EC1.2 Oxidoreductases acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors. GO:0016903. 78.96. 98.46. 77.08. 97.25. 0.77. -. -. -. -. ...
a Transferases transferring one-carbon groups (EC 2.1);. b transferases transferring aldehyde or ketone residues (EC 2.2); ... e transferases transferring nitrogeneous groups (EC 2.6). A most preferred type of transferase in the context of the invention ... Preferred transferases are. transferases in any of the following sub-classes:. ... d transferases transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other that methyl groups (EC 2.5); and. ...
0062]Transferases transferring one carbon, alkyl, aryl, nitrogenous, aldehyde or ketone groups; transferases; acyltransferases ... 0061]Oxidoreductases acting on the CH, CH2, CH--OH, aldehyde, oxo, CH--CH, CH--NH2, CH--NH, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic or heme ... 0064]Isomerases such as racemases and epimerases; oxidoreductases; intramolecular transferases or intramolecular lyases; and [ ... glycosyltransferases; transferases transferring phosphorus-, selenium- or sulfur-containing groups; [0063]Lyases such as carbon ...
EC 2.2 includes enzymes that transfer aldehyde or ketone groups. *EC 2.3 includes acyltransferases ... Transferases[edit]. *EC 2.1 includes enzymes that transfer one-carbon groups (methyltransferase) ... EC 4.1 includes lyases that cleave carbon-carbon bonds, such as decarboxylases (EC 4.1.1), aldehyde lyases (EC 4.1.2), oxo acid ... Transferases catalyze group transfer reactions. The transfer occurs from one molecule that will be the donor to another ...
The report generally describes terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, examines its uses, production methods, patents. TERMINAL ... Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines Halogenated Polymers ... Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase prices in other regions. 7. TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase market forecast. 6. TERMINAL DEOXYNUCLEOTIDYL TRANSFERASE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Terminal ...
Teil 1: Retentionsindices aliphatischer Halogenide, Alkohole, Aldehyde und Ketone. Helvetica Chimica Acta 41: 1915-1932. ... Implications for the catechol-O-methyl transferase-mediated detoxication of catechol estrogens. Drug Metab Dispos 24: 588-594. ...
Transferases: 4296*Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases*Transketolase: 290*S cerevisiae TKL1 protein. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and ...
transferase. This reaction converts ADP to ATP by an enzymatic transfer of a phosphate to ADP; it is an example of substrate- ... The change in structure is observed through a redox reaction, in which the aldehyde has been reduced to an alcohol, and the ... adjacent carbon has been oxidized to form a ketone. While this reaction is not normally favorable, it is driven by a low ... transferase. The energy expenditure of a second ATP in this step is justified in two ways: the glycolytic process (up to this ...
... aldehyde, or ketone group. The sub-subclasses of the oxidoreductases are numbered according to the type of hydrogen (electron) ... In the transferases, the third digit indicates the type of groups transferred; for example, the monocarbonic group may be ... Transferases catalyze the transfer of a particular chemical group from one substance to another. Thus, transaminases transfer ... The transferase class, which includes enzymes that catalyze transfer reactions, is divided into eight subclasses according to ...
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke potential therapeutic effects in cases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including psychiatric diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • General aspects of metabolism The flavouring agents evaluated at the present meeting share a number of functional groups, e.g. linear, branched, alicyclic, and unsaturated alkyl chains and alcohol, ester, and ketone groups. (inchem.org)
  • This will illustrate the elaborate mechanisms that keep unwanted lipoxygenation at arm's length and also show that the enzymes such as glutathione- S -transferases, epoxide hydrolases, and carrier proteins that are commonly thought of as biosynthetic also belong to families that are generally considered to play a role in detoxification. (jci.org)
  • Mechanistically, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction would be a transferase: X g r o u p + Y → t r a n s f e r a s e X + Y g r o u p {\displaystyle Xgroup+Y{\xrightarrow[{transferase}]{}}X+Ygroup} In the above reaction, X would be the donor, and Y would be the acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1953, the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was shown to be a transferase, when it was found that it could reversibly produce UTP and G1P from UDP-glucose and an organic pyrophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (curehunter.com)
  • Thermotolerance is closely correlated with the production of toxic acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from membrane trienoic fatty acids under heat stress, and it is possible to produce thermotolerant plants with reduced trienoic fatty acid contents. (els.net)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • This same action by the transferase can be illustrated as follows: methylamine + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } NH3 + N-methyl-L-glutamate However, other accepted names are more frequently used for transferases, and are often formed as "acceptor grouptransferase" or "donor grouptransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. The method according to claim 10, wherein said at least one other pharmaceutically active ingredient is chosen from the group consisting of: levodopa, carbidopa-levodopa, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and mixture thereof. (sumobrain.com)
  • Many efforts have also been devoted to the design of strategies that expand the range of suitable reaction partners beyond the traditional aldehydes and to the discovery of novel umpolung catalytic systems. (chemweb.com)
  • In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield increased to 127 % of the control in the presence of p -coumaric acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymatic Responses to Alcohol and Tobacco Nicotine-Derived Nitrosamine Ketone Exposures in Long Evans Rat Livers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are organic aromatic compounds containing a cinnamlaldehyde moiety, consisting of a benzene and an aldehyde group to form 3-phenylprop-2-enal. (t3db.ca)
  • Systematic names of transferases are constructed in the form of "donor:acceptor grouptransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory compounds is a form of stress response and a detoxification process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this research, an improved method for preparation of optically pure β-hydroxy-α-amino acids, catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyl transferase with threonine aldolase activity, is reported. (springer.com)
  • Another example of historical significance relating to transferase is the discovery of the mechanism of catecholamine breakdown by catechol-O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)