Alcuronium: A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to TUBOCURARINE. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant.Toxiferine: A curare alkaloid that is a very potent competitive nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction.Gallamine Triethiodide: A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)N-Methylscopolamine: A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A syndrome of ORTHOSTATIC INTOLERANCE combined with excessive upright TACHYCARDIA, and usually without associated ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. All variants have in common an excessively reduced venous return to the heart (central HYPOVOLEMIA) while upright.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Coproporphyria, Hereditary: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of COPROPORPHYRINOGEN OXIDASE in the LIVER, the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, 5-AMINOLEVULINATE and COPROPORPHYRINS.Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Porphyrias, Hepatic: A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.Porphyrias: A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Porphyrinogens: Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)p-Hydroxyamphetamine: Amphetamine metabolite with sympathomimetic effects. It is sometimes called alpha-methyltyramine, which may also refer to the meta isomer, gepefrine.Curare: Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.South AmericaAmerican Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.

Interactions of alcuronium, TMB-8, and other allosteric ligands with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: studies with chimeric receptors. (1/14)

A series of ligands that allosterically modulate the binding of classical ligands to muscarinic receptors was evaluated at wild-type and chimeric receptors. All of the ligands studied had highest affinity toward the M(2) subtype and lowest affinity toward the M(5) subtype. The chimeric receptors were mostly M(5) sequence; the amount of M(2) sequence ranged from about 6 to just under 30%. Alcuronium and TMB-8 had much higher affinity for the chimeric receptor that included the M(2) second outer loop of the receptor plus flanking regions of TM4 and TM5 than for any of the other chimeric receptors (the affinities of which remained similar to that of the M(5) subtype). However, this chimera retained the negative cooperativity between alcuronium and the classical antagonist N-methylscopolamine that is characteristic of M(5) (these ligands are positively cooperative at M(2)). Verapamil, tetrahydroaminoacridine, and d-tubocurarine were also sensitive to that chimeric substitution, although verapamil and tetrahydroaminoacridine had even higher affinity for a chimera with M(2) sequence in TM7. None of these ligands shared gallamine's sensitivity to a region of the third outer loop, but studies in which obidoxime reversed the allosteric effects of gallamine and other ligands suggested that they nevertheless compete for a common site. In summary, although the present data are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that allosteric ligands bind to the outermost regions of muscarinic receptors, it appears that different allosteric ligands may derive subtype selectivity from different regions of the receptor.  (+info)

Changes of cooperativity between N-methylscopolamine and allosteric modulators alcuronium and gallamine induced by mutations of external loops of muscarinic M(3) receptors. (2/14)

To clarify the involvement of specific domains of muscarinic receptors in the action of allosteric modulators, muscarinic M(3) receptors (on which allosteric interactions are weak) were genetically modified to become more similar to M(2) receptors (on which allosteric interactions are strong) and were expressed in COS-7 cells. Affinity for allosteric modulator gallamine was enhanced 25- to 50-fold by modifications of the third external loop (o3) and the negative effect of gallamine on the affinity for classical antagonist N-[(3)H]methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) was augmented. Affinity for alcuronium became 3-fold higher after the o3 loop of M(3) receptors was made identical with the o3 loop of M(2) receptors, and alcuronium acquired positive influence on the affinity for [(3)H]NMS. This is the first instance of inducing positive cooperativity on muscarinic receptors by genetic manipulation. Transferring whole o2 loop from M(2) to M(3) receptors substantially enhanced affinities for gallamine and alcuronium without augmenting their negative action on [(3)H]NMS binding. In contrast, effects of simply adding two negative charges into the o2 loop of M(3) receptors were small. Removal of Arg from o1 loop abolished the negative effect of gallamine but not of alcuronium on [(3)H]NMS binding at equilibrium. Data point to an important role of o3 loop in the mechanism of the positive and negative cooperativity between [(3)H]NMS and alcuronium and gallamine, respectively, and in the binding of both modulators to M(2) receptors and reveal independence between mutation-induced changes in the affinity for a modulator and in the magnitude and direction of the allosteric effect of the modulator.  (+info)

Allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptor signaling: alcuronium-induced conversion of pilocarpine from an agonist into an antagonist. (3/14)

Previous studies on allosteric interactions at muscarinic receptors have often focused on ligand-receptor binding interactions, because ligand binding seemed to reflect functional consequences. The prototypal allosteric agent alcuronium is known to bind with similar affinity to the M(2) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors whether or not the receptors are occupied by the agonist pilocarpine. To determine allosteric modulation of receptor signaling by alcuronium, the effects of pilocarpine were measured in contracting guinea pig left atria and on G-protein coupling in M(2)-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes. Alcuronium dose-dependently suppressed pilocarpine-induced reduction of isometric contraction force in atria (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.63) without any effect on the EC(50) of pilocarpine, consistent with an allosteric mechanism. In contrast, alcuronium shifted the concentration-effect curve of the agonist oxotremorine M to the right without affecting the maximal effect, in a formally competitive manner (pK(A, Alc) = 5.54). If pilocarpine remained receptor bound in the presence of alcuronium, this indicates that pilocarpine can no longer act as an agonist. In support of this hypothesis, pilocarpine acted as a competitive antagonist against oxotremorine M in the presence of 10 microM alcuronium. Measuring guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding in CHO-M(2) membranes yielded similar results. Alcuronium suppressed pilocarpine-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (pIC(50, Alc) = 5.47) without shift in EC(50), whereas it competitively shifted the response to oxotremorine M (pK(A, Alc) = 5.97). [(3)H]Oxotremorine M binding data corresponded with the functional findings. In conclusion, alcuronium converted the agonist pilocarpine into an antagonist-a novel type of functional allosteric interaction.  (+info)

Regulation of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and signaling by prolonged exposure to allosteric modulators. (4/14)

The effects of prolonged exposure of M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, to the allosteric modulators gallamine, alcuronium, and heptane-1,7-bis (dimethyl-3'-phthalimidopropyl)-ammonium bromide (C(7)/3'-phth) were compared with the effects of the agonist carbachol (CCh) and antagonists atropine and N-methylscopolamine (NMS). Intact cell saturation binding assays using [(3)H]NMS found that pretreatment of the cells for 24 h with CCh caused a significant down-regulation of receptor number, whereas atropine, NMS, and all three allosteric modulators caused receptor up-regulation. Functional assays using a cytosensor microphysiometer to measure whole-cell metabolic rate found no acute effects of gallamine on receptor signaling, whereas atropine seemed to behave as an inverse agonist. Pretreatment of the cells with gallamine (20 microM) or atropine (20 nM) resulted in a significant enhancement of the maximal effect evoked by CCh. In contrast, CCh (100 microM) pretreatment resulted in a significant reduction in maximal receptor signaling capacity. Time-course experiments revealed that the effects of atropine and gallamine on receptor up-regulation are only visualized after at least 12-h ligand exposure, compared with the more rapid effects of CCh, which achieve steady-state down-regulation within 90 min. Additional experiments monitoring CCh-mediated M(2) mAChR internalization in the presence of gallamine revealed that part of the mechanism underlying the effects of the modulator on receptor expression may involve a change in receptor internalization properties. These findings suggest that, like orthosteric ligands, G protein-coupled receptor allosteric modulators also are able to mediate long-term effects on receptor regulation.  (+info)

Interaction of competitive antagonists: the anti-curare action of hexamethonium and other antagonists at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. (5/14)

1. In the rat isolated diaphragm preparation hexamethonium and other low potency competitive antagonists of acetylcholine (ACh), including gallamine and hyoscine butylbromide, reverse block by the potent antagonists tubocurarine, pancuronium and alcuronium. 2. In the presence of tubocurarine, hexamethonium increases the amplitude of the end-plate potential without increasing the quantal content. It enhances the response to ACh applied iontophoretically to the end-plate but does not enhance the response to ACh applied in the bath. 3. The anti-curare effect of hexamethonium is abolished in the diaphragm of the rat, guinea-pig and mouse by inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. The effect is not observed in the indirectly stimulated toad sartorius muscle. 4. The effect is explained if tubocurarine does not dissociate appreciably in the time taken for ACh to achieve high occupancy of receptors, so that a fraction of receptors is completely excluded from occupation by ACh. Equilibration with hexamethonium reduces the fraction excluded by tubocurarine and the transmitter now competes with hexamethonium for more receptors and produces a larger response. 5. On the basis of this explanation the half-time for dissociation of tubocurarine must be about 1 millisecond. It follows that tubocurarine does not act competitively with ACh at synapses when transmitter action is sufficiently brief, and that its binding to the receptor is probably diffusion-limited.  (+info)

The impact of orthosteric radioligand depletion on the quantification of allosteric modulator interactions. (6/14)


Measurement of functional residual capacity by sulfur hexafluoride washout. (7/14)

Measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) by the open-circuit multiple breath tracer gas washout technique is an established method. A system based upon washout of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) during mechanical ventilation is described. The central unit in the system is a sensitive and rapid-response infrared SF6 analyzer. SF6 is washed in until the alveolar concentration of SF6 is 0.5%, a concentration so low that the supply of other gases is hardly influenced. During washout, the flow of SF6 from the lungs is calculated by a computer every 10 ms from signals representing expiratory flow and SF6 concentration. The total volume of SF6, washed out, is calculated by integration of SF6 flow. Since the alveolar concentration at the end of washin is known, the lung volume may be obtained. The measurement procedure is highly automated and the result is presented by the computer immediately after washout. Accurate and reproducible results in model lung tests were obtained during air and N2O/O2 ventilation. Comparison with body plethysmography (FRCBOX) in eight sitting healthy subjects gave the following: FRCSF6 = 7 ml + 0.98 X FRCBOX, r = 0.99. Comparison with nitrogen washout (FRCN2) in five postoperative patients gave the following: FRCSF6 = 59 ml + 0.97 X FRCN2, r = 0.97. FRCSF6 during N2O/O2 ventilation was the same as during air/O2 ventilation in a group of paralyzed patients. The measurement system has not been tested in patients with obstructive lung disease.  (+info)

Alcuronium kinetics in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (8/14)

1 The disposition of alcuronium was investigated in 10 patients undergoing surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and compared with results from a group of non-cardiac patients studied previously. 2 After intravenous administration of a combined bolus and infusion dosage regimen, plasma concentrations fell in a bi-exponential fashion to a mean value of 0.55 micrograms/ml immediately before the start of extracorporeal circulation. 3 During CPB an apparent steady-state of alcuronium was reached immediately after commencement of CPB, however plasma concentrations were some 50% higher than those noted prior to commencement of CPB and those predicted using previous pharmacokinetic data from normal surgical patients. 4 Once CPB was completed and the alcuronium infusion terminated, post-infusion alcuronium plasma concentrations again appeared to decline bi-exponentially with time. 5 Of the pharmacokinetic parameters which were calculated model-independently, the apparent volume of distribution (Vss) was unchanged (329 vs 313 ml/kg) and the elimination half-life (t1/2,z) (532 vs 199 min) was prolonged and the plasma clearance (CL) (0.8 vs 1.34 ml min-1kg-1) markedly reduced in these patients compared to non-cardiac surgical patients. 6 As a result of these changes in alcuronium concentration during CPB and the diminished elimination of alcuronium following CPB, a closer monitoring of neuromuscular function may be necessary in cardiac patients undergoing CPB.  (+info)

  • The replacement of both the N-methyl groups with N-allyl moieties yielded N,N-diallyl-bis-nortoxiferine, now recognized as alcuronium (and at one time marketed as the proprietary agent called Alloferin). (
  • Inclusion of the allylic functions presented an enhanced potential area of biotransformation, and thus alcuronium is observed to have a much shorter duration of neuromuscular blocking action than its parent C-toxiferine I. It also has a more rapid onset of action, and is ~1.5 times as potent as tubocurarine. (
  • Functional studies were conducted on guinea pig atrial muscarinic acetylcholine M 2 receptors with the allosteric modulators heptane-1,7- bis(dimethyl-3'-phthalimidopropyl)ammonium bromide (C 7 /3'-phth), gallamine and alcuronium to determine whether these ligands are able to recognize a common accessory site. (
  • When used in combination, C 7 /3'-phth and gallamine or C 7 /3'-phth and alcuronium gave dose ratios that were either additive or underadditive. (
  • The data could be reconciled with a model involving a ternary complex between (1) the receptor, (2) carbachol, N- methylscopolamine or atropine acting at the orthosteric binding site and (3) C 7 /3'-phth, alcuronium or gallamine acting at a common, allosteric site with varying degrees of heterotropic cooperativity. (
  • The major disadvantage of alcuronium is that it elicits a vagolytic effect produced by a selective atropine-like blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors. (
  • In contrast, the combinations of C 7 /3'-phth or alcuronium with the competitive antagonists, N-methylscopolamine or atropine, yielded supra-additive dose ratios. (