Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.tert-Butyl AlcoholUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.United StatesPentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.RussiaNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Benzyl CompoundsPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.BenzaldehydesPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.KetonesPancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.EstersInterview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Republic of BelarusSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.FinlandChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.CaliforniaCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (1/1378)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Alcohol-induced biphasic inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 K-EDTA-ATPase. (2/1378)

Butanol-induced inhibition of K-EDTA-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 proceeded by biphasic kinetics, consisting of rapid and slow inactivations. The extent of the rapid inactivation, which was estimated by extrapolating the process of slow inactivation to zero time of the incubation period, was saturated with butanol concentration. Recovery of activity by dilution in the rapid phase indicates that the rapid process is reversible. The slow inactivation was concomitant with a partial denaturation of the 50 kDa domain of S1, which was detected by limited tryptic digestion. Other alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and hexanol) also inhibited the K-EDTA-ATPase in the rapid phase. The Ki decreased with an increase in the number of methylene groups of alcohol. When K-EDTA-ATPase activity in the rapid phase was plotted against viscosity, surface tension or dielectric constant, the curves were different for each of the various alcohol solutions. The rapid inactivation appears to be caused by a binding of the alkyl group to S1, rather than by solvent effects. The kinetics of rapid butanol inhibitions indicate that butanol reduces the maximum activity of ATPase but enhances an apparent affinity of S1 with ATP. These indications suggest that alcohol stabilizes S1.KATP intermediate. The rapid K-EDTA-ATPase inhibition was observed at the same alcohol concentration where S1 Mg-ATPase was activated.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (3/1378)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis spore germination by various hydrophobic compounds: demonstration of hydrophobic character of the L-alanine receptor site. (4/1378)

L-Alanine-initiated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was inhibited by various kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Good correlation of inhibitory effect with hydrophobicity of the compound was demonstrated by using regression analysis in which the hydrophobic character was expressed by the partition coefficient in an octyl alcohol-water system. The correlation coefficient for 20 alcohols was 0.959, and that for 19 miscellaneous compounds was 0.906. Regression lines of the alcohols and other hydrophobic compounds were almost identical, showing that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in inhibition. Diphenylamine was one of the most effective inhibitors examined. n-Octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl alcohols were the most effective alcohols. The mode of inhibition by diphenylamine and n-octyl alcohol was a "mixed type" (competitive plus noncompetitive type) with respect to L-alanine; that by D-alanine was competitive inhibition. Sites for diphenylamine, n-octyl alcohol, and D-alanine may have overlapped. Inhibition was reversible by washing; heat resistance, stainability, and germination rate of the washed spores remained unaltered. Thus, we confirmed that the inhibition may occur before the initial trigger reaction of germination and that it may be due to the interaction between a hydrophobic compound and a hydrophobic region closely associated with the L-alanine receptor site on the spore.  (+info)

Total plasmalogens and O-(acylalkylglycerophosphoryl) ethanolamine from labelled hexadecanol and palmitate during hypoxia and anoxia in rat heart. (5/1378)

By the use of the Langendorff technique, surviving isolated rat hearts were perfused with [1-14 C] palmitate, [1-14C] hexadecanol or [1-14C,1-3H] hexadecanol under normal or anoxic conditions. After perfusion for 30min with either precursor, when oxygenated or in an hypoxic condition, or when 1mM-KCN was included in the system, the heart tissues showed no significant chemical changes in their content of total lipids, total phospholipids or total ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. Changes were observed in the ratio of alkyl-to alk-1-enyl-glycerophosphorylethanolamine in the tissue perfused with N2+CO1 plus CN-. A slight increase from 4.0+/-0.3 to 4.9+/-0.2% in alkyl derivatives and a decrease from 11.2+/-0.4 to 9.4+/-0.3% in alk-1-enyl derivatives was observed. The incorporation of the [14C] palmitate and the [14C] hexadecanol into the recovered phospholipids and plasmalogens was severely decreased in the tissues perfused with CN-: in the hypoxic state only a mild inhibition was observed compared with the oxygenated systems. Considerable 3H from [1-14C, 1-3H] hexadecanol was retained (25-35%) in the alk-1-enylether chains of plasmalogens under both the oxygenated conditions and with CN-, suggesting that the same mechanism of incorporation is operational at high or low O2 concentrations. The results are consistent with an O2-dependent, CN-sensitive step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens in the rat heart.  (+info)

Effects of short chain alkanols on the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a glial cell line. (6/1378)

1. Ethanol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in C6 glioma cells by an unknown mechanism. Because relatively high concentrations are needed for inhibition in drug-naive cells (IC50 approximately = to 150 mM), suppression due to cytotoxicity is one possible mechanism that has not been ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of ethanol and other alkanols on C6 glioma cell viability and iNOS activity to better understand the mechanism for inhibition. 2. iNOS expression was induced in cell culture with lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester treatment. Nitrite accumulation in culture medium, the in vitro conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline, and immunoblotting were used to quantify iNOS induction and activity. Trypan blue exclusion, extracellular release of lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of total cell protein were used as measures of viability. 3. Short chain alkanols, methanol through 1-heptanol, concentration-dependently inhibited nitrite accumulation. Longer chain alkanols, 1-octanol and 1-decanol, did not except at cytotoxic concentrations. Experiments indicated short chain alkanol inhibition was not due to direct actions on iNOS catalytic activity, but that it transpires during iNOS induction. Immunoblots showed reduced iNOS protein levels. 4. Correlation analysis ruled out iNOS inhibition as being due to decreased cell number, total cell protein, or cell viability. In contrast, there was significant correlation with physical measures of lipophilicity. 5. In conclusion, inhibition of iNOS expression by ethanol and other short chain alkanols is not due to cytotoxicity. Instead, the strong correlation with lipophilicity suggests the inhibition derives from an interaction with unknown hydrophobic cellular sites.  (+info)

A low-molecular-mass protein from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is responsible for the regulation of formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in vitro. (7/1378)

An 8.6 kDa protein, which the authors call a modifin, has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and has been shown to alter the substrate specificity and kinetics of NAD+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) isolated from the same organism. Purification methods for both the modifin and FDH are presented which reliably produced pure protein for further analysis. Analysis of the molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of both FDH and the modifin indicate that they are unique proteins and show no similarity to alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes isolated from methylotrophic bacteria. Substrate specificity studies demonstrated that FDH oxidized formaldehyde exclusively in the presence of the modifin; a diverse range of aldehydes and alcohols were oxidized by FDH in the absence of the modifin. No formaldehyde oxidation was detected in the absence of the modifin. Attempts to replace the modifin with glutathione or high concentrations of methanol to stimulate formaldehyde oxidation failed. With acetaldehyde as substrate, FDH showed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics; interaction of FDH with the modifin using formaldehyde as substrate altered the kinetics of the reaction to sigmoidal. Kinetic analysis during turnover experiments indicated that the FDH may be associated with bound formaldehyde following enzyme isolation and that NAD may also be associated with the enzyme but in a form that is less tightly bound than found with the methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus. Data are presented which indicate that the modifin may play an important role in regulating formaldehyde concentration in vivo.  (+info)

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (8/1378)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

*Alcohol and sex

... deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior. The effects of alcohol are balanced ... Often, alcohol can influence the capacity for a woman to feel more relaxed and in turn, be more sexual. Alcohol may be ... Alcohol is a depressant. After consumption, alcohol causes the body's systems to slow down. Often, feelings of drunkenness are ... In women, the effects of alcohol on libido in the literature are mixed. Some women report that alcohol increases sexual arousal ...

*Mountain Goat Beer

Alcohol content: 8.3% Fancy Pants 2013, a hoppy amber ale, brewed with Galaxy and Cascade hops. Alcohol content: 5.2% ... with a higher alcohol content. The Double Hightail Ale has an alcohol content by volume of between 6.8 and 7.2% (depending on ... The alcohol volume of the Hopfweizenbock is 6.5 per cent. The brewery rotates a series of "one-off" brews, generally only ... Alcohol content: 4.5% Steam Ale, a California Commons-style steam ale, was first released 3 July 2009. This beer is certified ...

*Alcohol and pregnancy

Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy ... Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and ... Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time ... Alcohol is a cause of microcephaly. Alcohol use during pregnancy does not effect the ability to breastfeed the infant. In ...

*Ethanol metabolism

... making such organs the primary site for alcohol catabolism. Variations in genes influence alcohol metabolism and drinking ... If the body had no mechanism for catabolizing the alcohols, they would build up in the body and become toxic. This could be an ... Ethanol, an alcohol found in nature and in alcoholic drinks, is metabolized through a complex catabolic metabolic pathway. ... Thanks to enzymes in their gut, and particularly one called ADH4, they can make use of the calories in alcohol. The average ...

*ADH1B

Green RF, Stoler JM (2007). "Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B genotype and fetal alcohol syndrome: a HuGE minireview". Am. J. Obstet. ... Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH1B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... T. Muramatsu; Z. C. Wang; Y. R. Fang; K. B. Hu; H. Yan; K. Yamada; S. Higuchi; S. Harada & H. Kono (August 1995). "Alcohol and ... J. C. Burnell; L. G. Carr; F. E. Dwulet; H. J. Edenberg; T. K. Li & W. F. Bosron (August 1987). "The human beta 3 alcohol ...

*Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages

Department of Health Alcohol Advice NHS Alcohol and pregnancy Rosemary Bennett Zero - the new alcohol limit in pregnancy The ... Medicine portal Alcohol equivalence Standard drink Unit of alcohol Explanatory notes 16.9 fl oz; just over 1 US pint defined as ... Parents back alcohol free childhood 17 December 2009 BBC 'No alcohol' urged for under-15s 29 January 2009 National Health and ... The Brilliant Breastfeeding Alcohol and Breastfeeding page describes pros and cons of drinking alcohol while breastfeeding. ...

*ADH4

2004). "Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms influence alcohol-elimination rates in a male Jewish population". Alcohol. Clin. ... Alcohol dehydrogenase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH4 gene. This gene encodes class II alcohol ... It exhibits a high activity for oxidation of long-chain aliphatic alcohols and aromatic alcohols and is less sensitive to ... Li M, Edenberg HJ (1998). "Function of cis-acting elements in human alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) promoter and role of C/EBP ...

*Beer

The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the beer and the timespan ... Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. It was ... Alcohol and Heart Health American Heart Association "Alcohol Facts and Statistics". Retrieved 9 May 2015. "Drink binges 'cause ... alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following ...

*Heineken brands

Cruzcampo Sin, Alcohol Free. Cruzcampo Navidad (Brewed only in Christmas) Cruzcampo Light, 2.4% ABV Big Cruzcampo. El León. ... In France a beer called Amstel Free, with minimal alcohol content - about 1% abv, is produced. Beamish & Crawford in Cork brews ... External link in ,work= (help) "Heineken USA Recalls Buckler Non-Alcohol Brew". Fda.gov. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2012-09-24. ... alcohol, including: Żywiec Full a pale lager Żywiec Porter a Baltic porter Żywiec Full Light a pale lager Królewskie (English ...

*Disease theory of alcoholism

Edwards, G (1994). "D.L. Davies and 'Normal drinking in recovered alcohol addicts': the genesis of a paper". Drug and Alcohol ... Since the consumption of alcohol is necessary to develop alcoholism, the availability of and attitudes towards alcohol in an ... These rats preferred drinking alcohol over other liquids, resulting in a tolerance for alcohol and exhibited a physical ... of alcohol addiction. See the discussion in the ADHS Forum in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs: An Interdisciplinary ...

*Alcohol dehydrogenase

... is also involved in the toxicity of other types of alcohol: For instance, it oxidizes methanol to produce ... The alcohol dehydrogenases comprise a group of several isozymes that catalyse the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols ... For example, young women are unable to process alcohol at the same rate as young men because they do not express the alcohol ... It is interesting to note that yeast can produce and consume their own alcohol. The main alcohol dehydrogenase in yeast is ...

*Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

... is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of ... Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in ... Chronic alcohol misuse and kindling via multiple alcohol withdrawals may lead to permanent alterations in the GABAA receptors. ... "Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome". WebMD. WebMD, LLC. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. ...

*Alcohol

... "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on ... Enol Ethanol fuel Fatty alcohol Index of alcohol-related articles Polyol Rubbing alcohol Sugar alcohol Transesterification " ... The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main ... Long-chain alcohols (also known as fatty alcohols) have alkyl chains of 8-21 carbons, and very long-chain alcohols have alkyl ...

*Isopropyl alcohol

... , sec-butyl alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol are, however, permissible (see Rule C-201.3) because the radicals ... Isopropyl alcohol, synonymous with 2-propanol, sec-propyl alcohol, IPA, isopropanol, or rubbing alcohol is miscible in water, ... as do the other alcohols. Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, and has a ... Isopropyl alcohol is often sold in aerosol cans as a windshield or door lock deicer. Isopropyl alcohol is also used to remove ...

*Amyl alcohol

An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H11OH. A mixture of amyl alcohols (also called amyl alcohol) can be ... These are the 8 structural isomers of alcohols with molecular formula C5H12O: Three of these alcohols, active amyl alcohol (2- ... Amyl alcohol has an oral LD50 of 200 mg/kg in mice, suggesting that it is significantly more toxic than ethanol. On passing the ... Amyl alcohol is used as a solvent and in esterfication, by which is produced amyl acetate and other important products. The ...

*Primary alcohol

Alcohol (especially Nomenclature section for discussion on Secondary and Tertiary alcohols.) Oxidation of primary alcohols to ... A primary alcohol is an alcohol which has the hydroxyl group connected to a primary carbon atom. It can also be defined as a ... Examples of primary alcohols include ethanol and butanol. Some sources include methanol as a primary alcohol, including the ... In contrast, a secondary alcohol has a formula "-CHROH" and a tertiary alcohol has a formula "-CR2OH", where "R" indicates a ...

*Rubbing alcohol

The term "rubbing alcohol" has become a general non-specific term for either isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) or ethyl alcohol ( ... ethyl rubbing alcohols are based on denatured alcohol, which is a combination of ethyl alcohol and one or more bitter poisons ... All rubbing alcohols are unsafe for human consumption: isopropyl rubbing alcohols do not contain the ethyl alcohol of alcoholic ... The term "rubbing alcohol" came into prominence in North America in the mid-1920s. The original rubbing alcohol was literally ...

*Alcohol (journal)

Alcohol is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on the health effects of alcohol consumption. It was established ... "Alcohol". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website. ... The editor-in-chief is David Lovinger (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). According to the Journal Citation ...

*Isoamyl alcohol

... (also known as isopentyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless alcohol with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH. It is one of ... It is also used as an antifoaming agent in the Chloroform:Isomyl Alcohol reagent. Isoamyl alcohol is used in a phenol- ... "Isoamyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety ... several isomers of amyl alcohol. It is a main ingredient in the production of banana oil, an ester found in nature and also ...

*Salicyl alcohol

"2-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol". chemicalbook.com. "salicylic alcohol". chemspider.com. ... Salicyl alcohol (saligenin) is precursor of salicylic acid and is formed from salicin by enzymatic hydrolysis by Salicyl- ... alcohol beta-D-glucosyltransferase or by acid hydrolysis. " ...

*Furfuryl alcohol

... furfuryl alcohol). Hydrogenation of furfuryl alcohol can proceed to give hydroxymethyl derivative of tetrahydrofuran and 1,5- ... Furfuryl alcohol is an organic compound containing a furan substituted with a hydroxymethyl group. It is a colorless liquid, ... As such furfuryl alcohol may be considered a green chemical. It undergoes many reactions including Diels-Alder additions to ... Furfuryl alcohol has been used in rocketry as a fuel which ignites hypergolically (immediately and energetically in contact) ...

*Alcohol (medicine)

Types of alcohol used include ethanol, denatured ethanol, 1-propanol, and isopropyl alcohol. It is effective against a range of ... In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about 3.90 GBP per liter of 99% denatured alcohol. Commercial formulations of alcohol ... Ethanol, when used for toxicity, competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, lessening metabolism into ... Alcohol has been used as an antiseptic as early as 1363 with evidence to support its use becoming available in the late 1800s. ...

*Sugar alcohol

Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived ... Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. Sugar alcohols have the general formula HOCH2(CHOH)nCH2OH ... Both disaccharides and monosaccharides can form sugar alcohols; however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. ... Sugar alcohols are not metabolized by oral bacteria, and so they do not contribute to tooth decay. They do not brown or ...

*Cetyl alcohol

... /ˈsiːtəl/, also known as hexadecan-1-ol and palmityl alcohol, is a fatty alcohol with the formula CH3(CH2)15OH. ... People who suffer from eczema can be sensitive to cetyl alcohol, though this may be due to impurities rather than cetyl alcohol ... Cetyl alcohol is used in the cosmetic industry as an opacifier in shampoos, or as an emollient, emulsifier or thickening agent ... Cetyl alcohol was discovered in 1817 by the French chemist Michel Chevreul when he heated spermaceti, a waxy substance obtained ...

*Surrogate alcohol

Besides alcohol, there are many other toxic substances in surrogate alcohol such as hydrogen peroxide, antiseptics, ketones, as ... In December 2016, 62 people died from drinking surrogate alcohol in the Russian city of Irkutsk. Harm reduction#Alcohol ... and thus can lead to alcohol poisoning, along with other symptoms of alcohol abuse such as vertigo, impaired coordination, ... Surrogate alcohol is a term for any substance containing ethanol that is intentionally consumed by humans but is not meant for ...
The transformation of various grains, fruits, and vegetables into ethanol or alcohol can only be achieved through fermentation and complete fermentation of yeast is crucial for alcohol production. Active yeast starts the metabolism process within the mixture of water and other ingredients that result in the conversion of sugars into alcohol.. Yeast is classified as micro-organisms from the fungi family. These yeasts are available in a wide range and they contribute greatly in the creation of various alcohols ranging from mild ones such as beer to medium ones such as wine to stronger ones such as vodka. Thus, brewers yeast such as saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast or ale yeast as it is also known is used to ferment beer. Similarly, yeast saccharomyces is used to ferment lager beer. On the other hand wine is fermented using wine yeast while strong distillers yeast such as vodka yeast is used to produce strong spirits such as vodka. Even before the addition of yeast into the mixture, other processes ...
There are several vital processes that need to be completed before any type of alcoholic drink is produced but transformation of alcohol sugars is vital for alcohol production. This transformation is bought about by fermentation where these sugars are transformed into alcohol with varying proof levels.. Beer, vodka, wine, whiskey, and rum, among several other heady drinks all fall into the category of alcohols and spirits. There are different types of natural raw materials required to make various alcoholic beverages. These include ingredients that contain lots of starches that can be converted into fermentable sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc. These raw materials include corn, cane, barley, rye, wheat, corn, apples, grapes, and many more that have high levels of starch.. For the manufacture of beer, malted barley along with water are firstly mixed together before the mixture is dried and roasted to encourage enzymes including different types of amylase to transform the starch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sugar uptake and subsequent ester on higher alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Stewart, Graham George. AU - Younis, O S. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article. VL - 104. SP - 255. EP - 264. JO - Journal of the Institute of Brewing. JF - Journal of the Institute of Brewing. SN - 0046-9750. ER - ...
The biological activity of nucleic acids is correlates strongly with their physico-chemical properties, in particular their thermodynamic properties. The thermal stability of nucleic acids depends strongly on the properties of intracellular environment s
The hydroxyl group generally makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds. This hydrogen bonding means that alcohols can be used as protic solvents. Two opposing solubility trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to promote solubility in water, and of the carbon chain to resist it. Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more carbons (Pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chains dominance. All simple alcohols are miscible in organic solvents. (Wikipedia 2008 ...
Abstract: : Purpose: The physiological barriers of the eye limit drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye via topical or systemic administration. Intravitreal administration has proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of various vitreoretinal diseases. Elimination of drugs from the vitreous body can be via aqueous drainage or through the retina. Drugs eliminating predominantly through the aqueous pathway have higher half-lives and results in prolonged therapeutic action in the posterior segment of the eye. Therefore it is important to study the effect of physicochemical properties of the drugs on their elimination characteristics from the vitreous. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lipophilicity on vitreous disposition of short-chain aliphatic alcohols. Methods: Radiolabeled (C14) methanol, 1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-heptanol with log Pc values ranging from -0.77 to 2.7 were studied. New Zealand albino rabbits weighing 2-2.5 kg were used. ...
Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate are metabolites of ethanol (alcohol) that may be present in urine after ingestion of, or exposure to, drinks, foods, medication or other products containing ethyl alcohol. Incidental exposure to alcohol-containing products such as mouthwash or hand sanitizer have also been shown to produce positive alcohol metabolites test results. LC-MS/MS testing detects EtG and EtS regardless of the source. Therefore, we encourage you to interpret alcohol metabolite test results in light of the clinical picture.
United States Prevention, Pesticides EPA 738-F Environmental Protection and Toxic Substances June 2007 Agency (7508P) Aliphatic Alcohols Facts Pesticide Registration All pesticides sold or distributed
How long after you drink alcohol can you pass a urine test? The KGB Agent answer: Not Medical Advice: EtG urine test can detect alcohol in the body up to 80 hrs after intake.
Turning to Israels southern border, some 35 rockets and mortar shells were fired at Israel in 2017 by terrorists inside the Gaza Strip . "While some damage occurs by chance, our findings suggest that drinking alcohol can increase the risk of this damage". The first line of defence is a family of enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). The body does produce certain enzymes which can help in the process of breaking down acetaldehyde, and thus mitigating the damage it causes to ones DNA. This paper provides very strong evidence that an alcohol metabolite causes DNA damage [including] to the all-important stem cells that go on to make tissues. But they dont always work and some people carry mutations which mean their cells arent able to carry out these repairs effectively.. "Its important to remember that alcohol clearance and DNA fix systems are not flawless, and alcohol can still cause cancer in different ways - even in people whose defence mechanisms are intact", Patel said.. The ...
So with such glaring instances of the impacts of alcohol use on Americans, and young people in particular, surely drug policy officials and politicians are aggressively pursuing legislation to engage in a full on War on Alcohol, like they have with the War on Drugs, right?. Well… not so much.. It may come as a shock, but U.S. federal and state officials seem to think banning alcohol is out of the question! Citing the past attempts at alcohol prohibition as a major failure that instigated higher crime rates, while also claiming the vital part alcohol production and sales play in the economy, lawmakers seem content with allowing the drug to remain in circulation.. Thankfully officials are still willing to provide emergency response services to individuals who have overdosed on alcohol or been injured in alcohol-related accidents. While city officials are fighting for the option to deny the overdose antidote Narcan to opioid users who overdose multiple times, none of these officials seem to ...
We know (or I do anyway) that when the alcohol production is increased, temperature is increased and we become warm pretty much all of the time. I had a funny moment earlier this year when one of my favorite clients (**** Ill add his name if he doesnt mind) told me that his his wife had passed comment that he always used to be warm. Id long suspected that my client was undernourished and I had all the evidence I needed for him to start repairing his liver and pancreas (which he is doing an excellent job of as we speak). Equally when our alcohol level goes down, our heat goes down and people tend to feel cold all of the time. Just by using a few simple tests I can guess what they are feeling like and what organs arent functioning optimally. Women tend to eat calorie controlled meals more than mean do, and they also seem to suffer with the greater prevalence to cold than men ...
Short-chain alcohols are small enough to penetrate the hair shaft but tend to be drying for textured hair. Fatty alcohols or long-chain alcohols are derived from natural resources like coconut oil and are too big to penetrate the hair shaft.
Alcohol can affect a persons memory in significant ways. A person that experiences a blackout will not typically remember events from the night before.
Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) chemistry has been extended to include acid-catalysed reactions of different aliphatic alcohols and phenols. For the first time, p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA), H2SO4, AlCl3 and FeCl3 have been shown to aid carboxymethylation for primary aliphatic alcohols at catalytic loadings with q
You may also wish to search for items by Mercer-Chalmers. 14 matching references were found. Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Schnabel, S.; Heintz, A., Application of the ERAS model to HE and VE of 1-alkanol + 1-alkene and 1- alkanol + 1-alkyne mixtures, Fluid Phase Equilib., 1995, 112, 131-49. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Govender, U.P.; Radloff, S., Excess molar enthalpies and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of 1- alkenes with 1-propanol and 2-propanol, Thermochim. Acta, 1993, 224, 33-8. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Bean, B.A.J.; Battino, R., Excess molar volumes and excess molar enthalpies of [x{0.5CH3(CH2)k-2CH3 + 0.5CH3(CH2)l-2CH3} + (1 - x)CH3(CH2)m-2CH3] at the temperature 298.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1992, 24, 1229-32. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Prasad, A.K., Excess molar enthalpies of mixtures of a cycloalkane and an alkanol, Thermochim. Acta, 1991, 188, 157-62. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J., Excess ...
The bromide ion functions as the nucleophile and attacks to displace the good leaving group, neutral alcohol molecule, by cleaving the C-O bond. This results in the formation of an alkyl bromide and an alcohol ...
Introduction. THE APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN INDUSTRY AND MEDICINE Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy for a reaction to take place. Enzymes have many advantageous qualities that allow them to be used in industry and medicine: * Enzymes are not used up in reactions; each molecule repeatedly carries out the same process. This makes enzyme technology very efficient as enzymes can be reused. * They have specificity. One type of enzyme will decompose one substrate into a particular product therefore there is no wastage of resources. * Enzymes are biodegradable; therefore there is little pollution in this industry. * Enzymes function at moderate temperatures, pressure and pH so energy is saved. Until recently most biotechnology involved whole organisms therefore many enzyme pathways were involved but now isolated enzymes can be used. There is still a lot of biotechnology taking place using whole organisms though e.g. yeast used in baking and alcohol production. ...read ...
The IKA ULTRA-TURRAX line of dispersing tools and homogenizer instrumentation produces homogenous, uniform sample preparations for a variety of applications, including: particle reduction, emulsifications, reaction enhancements in chemical, pharmaceutical, and food research, tissue homogenization for biological and medical research, alcohol production, homogenization of marine samples for bacterial separation and heavy metal analysis.
Drinking alcohol increases risk of developing some cancers, particularly of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, bowel, liver and breast. Find More Information.
Volatile off-flavor compounds are present in beef. Using purge and trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, some volatile compounds were shown to have different concentrations in normal-flavored beef, compared to samples with liver-like off-flavor. Most of the compounds, like pentanol, hexanal, hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and nonanol, are associated with lipid oxidation. The compounds, β-pinene and 1-octen-3-ol were in higher concentration in the liver-like samples in all muscles tested. Several, small, unidentified peaks also differed between samples. Determination of the possible origins of these compounds may improve the quality and consistency of beef products.
A trace amount of metal carbonate, acetate or borate significantly boosts gold nanocatalysts in selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols under mild solvent-free conditions.
2-C-branched methyl glycosides react with various alcohols under gold catalysis to transglycosylated products. The method is applicable for the convenient synthesis of disaccharides. Without nucleophile a selective anomerization occurs, giving first access to alpha-configured 2-C-nitromethyl glycosides. The results are interesting for the mechanism of gold-catalyzed glycosidations ...
A novel colloid-active synthetic detergent composition containing microspheres which comprises an alkanol amide prepared by the condensation of a coconut fatty acid with an alkanol amine, isooctylphen
This database and website are updated and enhanced by Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA). The project is made possible by our Sponsors and by PANNA general funds. We need your support to maintain and improve this system. Please support the database and website - donate to PANNA ...
We all love a tipple, but the drink driving limit is in place to keep everyone safe. Heres how much alcohol you can legally drink before driving.
If you drink more alcohol than you want to or should, you're not alone. A nationwide survey by the National Institutes of Health found that 28 percent
People with a family history of cancer should seriously consider stopping drinking alcohol altogether experts have warned in response to new research which show
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
For people who drink moderately, this is another indication that they are not doing any harm. And for those who dont, if they dont simply out of health concerns, they might want to rethink that position," said Meir Stampfer, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health, who was not involved in the study.. ...
New York: Men, who consume alcohol have a greater risk of contracting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, a study said. HPV is a common sexually transmitted virus, with over six million new cases reported in US each year.
During pregnancy, your baby is growing inside your womb. Food and beverages you consume will be consumed by your baby as well, and of course this can affect your baby. Consuming alcohol can interfere with infant growth, such as causing physical disruption and permanent behavior. ...
During pregnancy, your baby is growing inside your womb. Food and beverages you consume will be consumed by your baby as well, and of course this can affect your baby. Consuming alcohol can interfere with infant growth, such as causing physical disruption and permanent behavior. ...
What is a homologous series - a series of compounds where each consecutive member differs from one particular unit is called a homologous series
Older Adults and Alcohol Use You may not think twice about having a drink now and then as you get older. But alcohol can be a serious problem for older adults, especially if you take certai... more ...
Older Adults and Alcohol Use You may not think twice about having a drink now and then as you get older. But alcohol can be a serious problem for older adults, especially if you take certai... more ...
There are many contradictions when it comes to drinking alcohol and the potential positive or negative consequences it can bring. Drinking alcohol can
You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells. Alcohol can make you more dizzy, increase flushing and rapid heartbeats. Avoid alcoholic drinks.. ...
You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this drug affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells. Alcohol can make you more drowsy and dizzy. Avoid alcoholic drinks.. ...
Alcohol can have a protective effect when it comes to heart disease. But the list of negatives far outweighs the positives. Heres what to watch out for...
Time for moar photographic evidence to prove that women and alcohol are possibly the greatest combination ever - Its like the perfect blend of cutie chemistry.
Family time, homemade goodies and lots of alcohol are all a part of the joys of the holidays. They can also lead to a roiling stomach.
0020] As for the alcohols as the D) component, any of alcohols including one hydroxyl group and polyhydric alcohols including two or more hydroxyl groups can be used without limitation if these alcohols have a boiling point of 110° C. or more. Examples of preferable alcohols can be 1-butanol, t-butyl alcohol, 1-pentanol, isoamyl alcohol, s-amyl alcohol, t-amyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 4- methyl-2-pentanol, isohexyl alcohol, methyl-1-pentanol, s-hexanol, 1-heptanol, isoheptyl alcohol, 2,3-dimethyl-1-pentanol, 1-octanol, 2-ethyl hexanol, isooctyl alcohol, 2-octanol, 3-octanol, 1-nonanol, isononyl alcohol, 3,5,5-trimethylhexanol, 1-decanol, isodecyl alcohol, 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, isododecyl alcohol, higher alcohol having 6 to 11 carbons, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1,3 propanediol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 2-methyl-2,4 pentanediol, ...
2-Methyl-1-pentanol 105-30-6 MSDS report, 2-Methyl-1-pentanol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 2-Methyl-1-pentanol safety information specifications ect.
A series of aliphatic alcohols was examined for possible developmental toxicology effects due to their widespread use as industrial solvents. Structure activity relationships were investigated among the primary alcohols with carbon chain lengths from 1 to 10. Some branched chain derivatives were also included. Results were presented of tests with 14,000mg/m3 1-pentanol (71410), 3500mg/m3 1-hexanol
A process for preparing a stable and anhydrous solid dispersion, containing from 20 to 95 weight percent of a fatty body, constituted of 10 to 50 weight percent of at least one wax having a melting point greater than 55° C., and from 4 to 50 weight percent of a polyhydric alcohol, involves heating the fatty body and the polyhydric alcohol to a temperature between 65° and 95° C. and mixing the heated components in a turbine rotating at a speed greater than 1500 rpm. The resulting dispersion is employed in the production of cosmetics in stick form.
Mixing alcohol, even in moderation, with any controlled substance is dangerous. A controlled substance in the United States is defined by its schedule according to the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule I drugs are illicit and have no medical purpose; Schedule II substances are addictive and often abused but can still be prescribed for limited medical reasons; and so on. Schedules help the government define how addictive a substance is versus how important it is for medical purposes and how easy it should be for the public to have access to the drug.. However, any of the drugs scheduled per the CSA can be dangerous or cause serious side effects when mixed with alcohol. For example, benzodiazepines are Schedule IV, so they are not considered very dangerous; however, they can greatly enhance the effects of alcohol on the body, leading to extreme intoxication, dangerous side effects, and a higher risk of alcohol poisoning after fewer drinks.. Alcohol and illicit drugs like cocaine or marijuana can ...
Sulfated zirconia catalysts obtained by employing chlorosulfuric acid show significantly higher activity in the esterification of fatty acids with different alcohols compared with catalysts made using sulfuric acid. The superior performance results from higher sulfur content, larger pores and stronger acid sites. These catalysts are robust and do not leach out sulfonic groups. Catalyst performance depends strongly on the sulfation reagent and the calcination conditions of the intermediate zirconium hydroxide. A series of kinetic experiments was carried out with lauric acid and various alcohols (methanol, 2-ethylhexanol, propanols and butanols). The new catalysts are ca. five times faster when using primary alcohols independent of the alcohol chain length. When using secondary and tertiary alcohols the reaction rate drops considerably. This is explained by a linear free energy relationship of substituent reactivity. The kinetic investigation shows that chlorosulfated zirconia is suitable as a ...
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH4 gene. This gene encodes class II alcohol dehydrogenase 4 pi subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class II alcohol dehydrogenase is a homodimer composed of 2 pi subunits. It exhibits a high activity for oxidation of long-chain aliphatic alcohols and aromatic alcohols and is less sensitive to pyrazole. This gene is localized to chromosome 4 in the cluster of alcohol dehydrogenase genes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198099 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037797 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide". Human ADH4 genome location and ADH4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
If i drink beer everyday will it affect how long alcohol can b detected n my urine once i stop drinking? The KGB Agent answer: Not Medical Advice: Alcohol can be detected in a urine test, up to around 48 hours after a person has ingested alcohol. Drink moderately.
An overview of the newly-revised 2010 U.S. Dietary Guidelines and the science underlying the alcohol guideline. The Guidelines, released jointly every five years by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Health and Human Services (HHS), serve as the basis for nutrition policy in the United States.. ◦According to the Guidelines, "The consumption of alcohol can have beneficial or harmful effects, depending on the amount consumed, age and other characteristics of the person consuming the alcohol.". ◦The 2010 Guidelines define moderate drinking as consuming up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. ◦The Guidelines define a standard drink as 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol) distilled spirits, 5 ounces of wine (12% alcohol), or 12 ounces of regular beer (5% alcohol). Each of these standard drinks contains 0.6 ounces of alcohol. ◦Moderate evidence suggests that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages is not associated with weight gain.. ◦The potential ...
This chapter begins with a discussion on alcohol, its uses, and its effects, both positive and negative, followed by a review of the recent research on its cumulative effects on health. The history of alcohol as a public health issue is also briefly reviewed. Although the new public health approach gained ground among researchers from the 1970s onwards, it has often been resisted in the policy process. Seven main strategies to prevent or control alcohol problems are described, and their effectiveness briefly assessed. The chapter concludes with a consideration of paths forward in public health action on alcohol policy. At the international level, an international convention on alcohol control or scheduling of alcohol under the drug treaties could counter the influence of trade agreements and the globalization of alcohol production, distribution, and promotion. At national and local levels substantially reducing alcohol-related problems will require political will and coordinated action.
Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with ...
The primary materials in alcohol production have to effectively pass by means of a few procedures which includes fermentation and appropriate fermentation of sugar is necessary for excellent alcohol. Nonetheless, there are numerous techniques just before alcohol fermentation that persuade fermentable sugars to be turned into hard alcohol.. All alcohols and spirits will have to get changed from important items which includes grains, fruits or vegetables into ethanol or alcohol, as it is more commonly known before they can be consumed. These ingredients are rich in starch and they will have to firstly get modified into sugars before they can be fermented with the help of appropriate yeast. Thus, main constituents like wheat, barley, grapes, apples, corn, rice, potatoes, maize, etc, based upon the alcoholic beverage that finally requires to be made are first mixed with water. This mixture is typically dried and milled in order to strengthen the surface area of the components, specifically in the ...
We conducted a solvent screening study aimed at identifying greener alternatives for the commonly used solvent dichloromethane in N-oxy catalysed bleach oxidations of various alcohol substrates. We found that environmentally acceptable ester solvents, notably isopropyl acetate and methyl acetate, gave result
... is a thoughtful condition. Do you have What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar or are you at risk for What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. But if you treat it carefully you can provent What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. But bont worry about What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar? Youve come to the right place. This quick guide for What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. These tutorial will get you started.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-129976, 2-Methyl-3-pentanol for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Looking for TCI AMERICAS (S)-(+)-3-Methyl-1-Pentanol,5mL (20DR73)? Graingers got your back. Price:$552.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
355-80-6 - JUGSKHLZINSXPQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-Octafluoro-1-pentanol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Looking for TCI AMERICAS 1H,1H-Nonafluoro-1-Pentanol,1g (20EV90)? Graingers got your back. Price:$207.50. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeal lies from the decision of an Examining Division, posted on 28 December 1993, refusing European patent application No. 90 300 938.9, published as EP-A-0 381 434.. II. The Examining Division held that the sets of claims according to the then pending requests did not meet the requirement of inventive step, since the claimed subject-matter was obvious in the light of the teachings of documents. (1) EP-A-0 171 175 and. (2) EP-A-0 142 566.. III. More particularly, the Examining Division considered that it was not credibly demonstrated that the conversion rate of the prochiral ketone into the asymmetric alcohol was improved by the claimed process, because comparison was not made with what in view of T 181/82 (OJ EPO, 1984, 401) should be considered as the closest state of the art, namely one of the examples given in document (2).. Consequently, the problem to be solved by the claimed process could only be seen in providing a further process for preparing ...
Oppenauer oxidation, named after Rupert Viktor Oppenauer, is a gentle method for selectively oxidizing secondary alcohols to ketones. The reaction is the opposite of Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. The alcohol is oxidized with aluminium isopropoxide in excess acetone. This shifts the equilibrium toward the product side. The oxidation is highly selective for secondary alcohols and does not oxidize other sensitive functional groups such as amines and sulfides. Though primary alcohols can be oxidized under Oppenauer conditions, primary alcohols are seldom oxidized by this method due to the competing aldol condensation of aldehyde products. The Oppenauer oxidation is still used for the oxidation of acid labile substrates. The method has been largely displaced by oxidation methods based on chromates (e.g. pyridinium chlorochromate) or dimethyl sulfoxide (e.g. Swern oxidation) or Dess-Martin oxidation due to its use of relatively mild and non-toxic reagents (e.g. the reaction is run in ...
129932-48-5 - ZRGXCWYRIBRSQA-BMVMOQKNSA-N - Phenethyl alcohol xylopyranosyl-(1-6)-glucopyranoside - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
When the sodium and DNA molecules start precipitating more and more of these molecules start sticking together. It is almost as if the precipitated molecules grab onto other sodium and DNA -pulling them out of solution. This is called flocculation. As the slimy looking combined Na DNA molecules clump together they push up into the alcohol. This is because they are not soluble in the alcohol. Unlike being in water, where the Na and DNA ions are solvated by water molecules, the two ions bond remain bonded to each other in the alcohol. The alcohol molecules float around the precipitated clump of Na DNA.. 5. Mixture Method of Extracting DNA: What would happen if the alcohol and aqueous filtrate were mixed together?. If there is about 1 part isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) and 2 parts aqueous filtrate, The sodium + DNA molecule will not dissolve in it. There will be more DNA precipitate in this mixture but there will also be other precipitates. This means the DNA extract will not be very ...
Ethyl alcohol and n-butyl alcohol give out a positive result because both of them are primary alcohols. Sec-butyl alcohol also shows a positive result because it is a secondary alcohol. Tert-butyl alcohol doesnt show any reaction because it is a tertiary alcohol ...
Obtenga esto de una biblioteca. Alcohol can be a gas. [David Blume] -- Hear David Blume extol the virtues of Ethanol Fuel in this 2-hour lecture originally given to the Green Party of Nevada City, California. In this video you₂ll learn the history of Gasoline and how ...
Alcohol in the Liver Unlike foods, which needs a digestion period, alcohol gets metabolized very quickly. In fact, it mainly at the head of the class when it comes to being absorbed and metabolized prior to most other nutrients. About one-fifth of alcohol gets absorbed in the stomach where it breaks down. This, and the fact that another 10% of alcohol gets expelled via the urine and breath, means that about 30% of the alcohol does not enter the blood.. The blood that contains alcohol makes its way to the liver through the veins and capillaries of the digestive tracts. This impacts just about every liver cell. Thats because the liver cells are the only ones that are able to produce enough alcohol dehydrogenase which oxidizes alcohol at a quick rate.. While alcohol affects other organs, the liver bears the brunt of the impact. Fatty livers develop because the liver cells metabolize alcohol first which allows other fatty acids the liver is supposed to metabolize to accumulate. Eventually, this ...
Drinking just once causes a bunch of changes in the brain that usually go away once the alcohol wears off. Alcohol slows down a part of the brain called the frontal lobes. The frontal lobes help us make good decisions and stay out of trouble. Drinking alcohol increases the chances we will make bad decisions and get in trouble. Alcohol turns on a part of the brain called the reward system. This is what makes alcohol feel good for some people. Alcohol slows down an area called the amygdala. This area helps tell us when we are in danger. By slowing this area down we often fail to recognize when we could be in danger and makes it easier to make bad choices. Alcohol also shuts down a part of the brain called the hippocampus, which helps us make memories. Drinking too much alcohol can make it harder for us to make memories and even cause blackouts. These are blank spots in our memories that prevent us from remembering what happened while we were drinking alcohol. Finally, alcohol can slow ...
HEALTH ISSUES RELATED TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE. Alcohol Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses significantly impair the judgment and coordination required to drive a car safely, increasing the likelihood that the driver will be involved in an accident. Low to moderate doses of alcohol also increase the incidence of a variety of aggressive acts, including spouse and child abuse. Moderate to high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in higher mental functions, severely altering a persons ability to learn and remember information. Very high doses cause respiratory depression and death. If combined with other depressants of the central nervous system, much lower doses of alcohol will produce the effects just described.. Repeated use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden cessation of alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Alcohol withdrawal can be ...
Methanol, Ethanol, & 1-Propanol 1) How would you sketch these three alcohol molecules? 2) What is each of their polarity? 3) What differences might you expect in the comparative solubility of each of them in lipids? WHY??? 4).
This is a good Biotechnology project report on ethyl alcohol production by fermentation of cane sugar molasses which was submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Science in Biotechnology. This report is conducted at Mohit Petrochemicals (P) Limited (MPPL) which is located in Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh and uses the molasses from sugar to produce alcohol and rectified spirit. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECTS by Email for more such projects and seminar ...
How does alcohol affect diabetes? When you have diabetes, you need to be careful with alcohol. If you take medicine for diabetes, drinking alcohol may cause low blood sugar. Too much alcohol can also affect your ability to know when your blood sugar is low and to treat it. Drinking alcohol can make you feel...
Pd/alumina; dehydrogenation; aerobic oxidation; decarbonylation; in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy; benzyl alcohol; 1-phenylethanol; 2-octanol; cyclohexanol; 1-octanol; cinnamyl ...
Palm-wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the sugary sap of various palm species in Nigeria. It is usually obtained from Raphia vinifera, Raphia hookeri, and Elaeis guineensis by methods described by Bassir (1965), Faparusi (1966) and Okafor (1972). Raphia palms usually yield more sap than oil palms although raphia palms can only be tapped once in its life time because its terminal inflorescence is destroyed during tapping (Okafor, 1977).. The presence of various microorganisms especially the bacteria and yeasts responsible for the fermentation of palm-wine has been reported by Bassir (1962), Faparusi (1966) and Okafor (1977). During fermentation, the sugars in the palm-sap are metabolized to alcohol and organic acids with the result that the sap loses its sweetness (Okafor, 1975). The types of bacteria present appear to depend on the stage of fermentation and the composition of the sap (Bassir, 1962; Okafor, 1977). Although alcohol production is common among yeasts, ...
We suggest you to remove LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE from your computer as soon as possible. LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE is known as: Backdoor.SuspectCRC [Ikarus]. MD5 of LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE = C278AF783AB675D5E9F011DB05513BB0 LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE size is 75169 bytes. Full path on a computer: %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE Related Files: %COMMONDESKTOPDIR%\ALCOHOL 120%.LNK %TEMP%\NSR5.TMP %TEMP%\NSG6.TMP\USERINFO.DLL %PROGRAMS%\ALCOHOL 120%\A.C.I.D. WIZARD.LNK %PROGRAMS%\ALCOHOL 120%\ALCOHOL 120%.LNK %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL.EXE %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE
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Nomenclature of alcohols. In the common system, alcohols are named as alkyl alcohols. The word alcohol is added after the name of the alkyl group to which the hydroxyl group is attached. For e.g., CH3OH is methyl alcohol.. In the IUPAC system, the names of saturated alcohols are derived from corresponding alkenes by replacing e of alkenes by ol. Some examples are shown below.. ...
We report a new Fe(NO₃)₃·9H₂O/9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-N-oxyl catalyst system that enables efficient aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system exhibits excellent activity and selectivity for primary aliphatic alcohol oxidation. This procedure can also be sc ...
Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. The harmful use of alcohol causes a large disease, social and economic burden in societies. Environmental factors such as economic development, culture, availability of alcohol and the level and effectiveness of alcohol policies are relevant factors in explaining differences and historical trends in alcohol consumption and related harm.. Alcohol-related harm is determined by the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking, and, on rare occasions, the quality of alcohol consumed. The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries. The latest causal relationships established are those between alcohol consumption and incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.. A wide range of effective global, regional and ...
he reactions of phenoxathiin radical cations with diverse organic compounds in ambient conditions were realized by using fused-droplet electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the investigation, the phenoxathiin radical cation was prepared by el
Alcohol can affect people in different ways. For some, alcohol is constipating. For others, alcohol can have the opposite effect. Learn more about how alcohol is metabolized, its effect on your gastrointestinal tract, and how it affects laxatives and other medications you may be taking.
Chemisrty C7: Alcohols. Introduction:. Alcohols are a family of organic compunds.. They all contain the functional group -OH.. Alcohols all share two chemical properties. These are that they all burn and they all react with sodium.. The Alcohols:. The names of the first four alcohols are:. Methonal. Ethonal. Propanol. Butrol. Just remeber:. ...
Looking for 1-Hexanol? Find out information about 1-Hexanol. CH3 4CH2OH Colorless liquid boiling at 156°C; soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water; used as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals,... Explanation of 1-Hexanol
When we humans consume alcohol, like most other drugs, it goes through certain metabolic processes. Interestingly, our liver produces an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, which converts alcohol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, is further degraded by another enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. So let us see how is this acetaldehyde formation in body is important in various way: First…
Introduction. Identification of an Organic Unknown Aim: You are supplied with an unknown compound containing one of the following functional groups: - Alkene - primary alcohol - tertiary alcohol - aldehyde - ketone - carboxylic acid - ester - phenol Outline a sequence of tests to identify the unknown compound. Before carrying out the tests, I will label each test tube A-H so I can distinguish between different samples. Tests I will use: Sodium Metal Test Procedure: - Place 2cm depth of the organic compound in a test tube. - Remove the oil from a small piece of sodium - Add the sodium to a test tube containing the organic compound. - Bubbles of gas are a positive result. Safety�: Sodium is flammable so make sure there are no naked flames near the sodium. ...read more. Middle. If the compound reacts, bubbles will be seen (carbon dioxide gas). Safety: Wear goggles at all times to prevent any getting into eyes. Ester test - Hydrolyse compound by adding warm sodium hydroxide - Add excess nitric ...
Alcohol - Structure and classification of alcohols: Similar to water, an alcohol can be pictured as having an sp3 hybridized tetrahedral oxygen atom with nonbonding pairs of electrons occupying two of the four sp3 hybrid orbitals. (See chemical bonding for a discussion of hybrid orbitals.) Alkyl groups are generally bulkier than hydrogen atoms, however, so the R−O−H bond angle in alcohols is generally larger than the 104.5° H−O−H bond angle in water. For example, the 108.9° bond angle in methanol shows the effect of the methyl group, which is larger than the hydrogen atom of water. One way of classifying alcohols is based on which carbon atom
Alcohol and the global burden of disease According to the Global status report on alcohol and health (WHO, 2014) alcohol consumption led to 3.3 million deaths in 2012. In other words 5.9% of all deaths globally resulted from using alcohol. To put that in context, alcohol led to more deaths than HIV/AIDS (2.8%), violence (0.9%) and tuberculosis (1.7%) combined.. Alcohol is also responsible for 5.1% of the global burden of disease or 139 DALYs (disability adjusted life years) and there is evidence of strong links between alcohol use and occurrence of more than 200 diseases. This includes its role as one of the main risk factors behind the rise of non communicable diseases (NCDs) i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung diseases.. It also includes alcohols role in aggravating the incidence and progression of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.. This makes alcohol one of the leading avoidable risk factors contributing to premature death, disability and ...
The regional study was published in the January issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and the authors cite previous research that identified early initiation of alcohol use (before the age of 14) as one risk factor for problems with alcohol later in life.. Each year that kids delay experimenting with alcohol can help them avoid some of the serious consequences that drinking at a young age can contribute to, including drinking and driving and alcohol dependence, says the lead author of the study James Sargent, professor of pediatrics at DMS. This study is aimed at the prevention of early alcohol use and our hope is that parents of young children become more aware that drinking in films is common and that seeing these depictions can lead to early experimentation with drinking.. In his previous studies, Sargent found that images and scenarios depicted in movies are among the strongest influences on young children, rivaling several other factors such as drinking by parents and peers. In his ...
Figure: Reaction of the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate. In the second reaction of the Krebs cycle, the isomerisation of citrate to isocitrate takes place. As an intermediate, cis-aconitate is formed. Therefore, it is a two-step reaction sequence. In the first step, H2O is removed from the cireate molecule (see Figure). Thie dehydration ledas to the intermediate, cis-aconitate which is bound to the enzyme. In the second step, cis-aconitate is hydrated again. Therefore, the proton (from C2 to C3) and the OH group (from C3 to C2) swap places. A tretiary aclohol is transformed into a secondary alcohol.. This conversion is of utmost importance for the subsequent decarboxylation, because a tertiary alcohol (the citrate) can not be directly oxidized to a keto carboxylic acid.. ...
After long term exposure to alcohol, your brain adapts to the changes alcohol produces and comes to be dependent on it. Consuming alcohol in moderate quantities might not be injurious for your health and well-being. Drinking alcohol can have unfavorable consequences on these biological rhythms. Alcoholics are generally overweight since alcohol is full of calories, so, even some drinks a day will fatten you up in no time. Alcohol likewise enhances the dangers of domestic violence, child abuse and injuries while driving ...
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The only safe limit of alcohol to have in your blood and drive is zero!. It is not advisable to even have one drink and drive as alcohol impairs your judgement and lessens your reflexes. The official amount of alcohol is 35 microgrammes per 100ml of breath reading, this cannot be translated into an exact amount of units as it depends on many factors, height and weight, the time when last drink was consumed etc, so the best advice is not to drink at all or to order a taxi.. ...
The data below is based on a Stitch DB API call for human protein-drug interactions for N-propanol Up to 20 direct protein and drug interactions are displayed, having a medium confidence score (0.450) or above.. ...
For more information (like where to get nitrous oxide and the various alcohols used, plus other homemade rocket designs) check out the full article on my blog at *******wickedhowtos****/index.php/2009/06/28/how-to-build-a-rocket-engine/
Alcohol is nothing but a natural fruit juice. It is a health drink also. There are many types of alcohol. But the one which is useful to human being is ethyl alcohol. It is also known as grain alcohol since it is prepared from starch grains. Ethyl alcohol is the alcohol of wine beer, whisky and similar beverages. It is often simply referred as "alcohol". Most of the alcohol is prepared when grains, fruits or vegetables are fermented ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
It can be tempting to try alcohol. Its normal to be curious about new things, especially if it seems like everyone is doing it. But everyone is not drinking alcohol. Dont believe it if someone says youre immature for not drinking. Youre actually more mature (which means grown up) because youre being strong and smart.. Still, it can be hard if you feel unpopular because of your decision. Good friends wont stop being your friend just because you dont want to drink alcohol. If you feel this kind of pressure, talk to someone you trust.. And if youre concerned about a friend whos drinking, you should tell one of your parents, a school counselor, or another trusted adult. That way, someone can talk with your friend before the alcohol causes a big problem. Unfortunately, some kids who drink may also drop out of school, get in car accidents, start fights, or join in crimes.. But with help, anyone who has a problem with alcohol can be successful at stopping. And if youre still a kid, help ...
Many medications have a warning not to mix with alcohol because of serious side effects. What drugs can have the most dangerous interactions with alcohol?
Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios (E | 200) and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S)-alcohol and (R)-acetylated product (|99%). However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers.
0143] As an aliphatic carboxylic acid component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, the same acid as said aliphatic carboxylic acid can be used. On the other hand, as an alcohol component constituting the aliphatic carboxylate ester, saturated or unsaturated monohydric alcohol, saturated or unsaturated polyhydric alcohol, and the like are included. These alcohols may have a substituent such as fluorine atom, aryl group, and the like. Among these alcohols, monohydric or polyhydric saturated alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is preferable, and aliphatic saturated monohydric alcohol or polyhydric alcohol having 30 or less carbon atoms is further preferable. Herein, aliphatic alcohol also encompasses alicyclic alcohols. Specific example of such alcohol includes octanol, decanol, dodecanol, stearyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, glycerin, pentaerythritol, 2,2-dihydroxyperfluoropropanol, neopentylene glycol, ditrimethylolpropane, dipentaerythritol, and the ...
Alcohol & alcoholism abbreviation Alcoholism alcohol abuse Alcoholism alcohol abuse difference Alcoholism alcohol dependence Alcoholism alcohol intolerance Alcoholism alcohol tolerance Alcoholism alcohol allergy Alcoholism alcohol dehydrogenase Alcoholism ➥ Want to know the truth about what alcohol does to your body? Alcohol effects every part of your body, including your brain, liver, stomach, and more. ➤ Alcohol & alcoholism abbreviation Alcoholism alcohol abuse Alcoholism alcohol abuse difference Alcoholism alcohol dependence Alcoholism alcohol intolerance Alcoholism alcohol tolerance Alcoholism alcohol allergy Alcoholism alcohol dehydrogenase Alcoholism on the site ➦ alcohol-ism.info
Have the hand hygiene recommendations changed? We had our annual OSHA update last week and were informed that the hand hygiene protocol is changed to hand washing with invasive procedures instead of visibly soiled. We currently utilize hand sanitizer the majority of our day. I have searched and do not see documentation of this change.. Ask OSAP would like to refer you to the CDC publication Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings which says in part:. Techniques for hand hygiene • Amount of hand-hygiene solution • Duration of hand-hygiene procedure • Selection of hand-hygiene agents - Alcohol-based hand rubs are the most efficacious agents for reducing the number of bacteria on the hands of personnel. Antiseptic soaps and detergents are the next most effective, and non-antimicrobial soaps are the least effective (1,398).. - Soap and water are recommended for visibly soil hands. - Alcohol-based hand rubs are recommended for routine decontamination of hands for all clinical ...
To the Editor:. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers is the currently recommended procedure for the control of infection in health care settings. The American College of Obstetricians advises that "women should avoid alcohol entirely while pregnant or trying to conceive." Is the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers by pregnant health care workers a risk to their unborn fetuses?. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have been done to measure blood alcohol concentrations after the use of these alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Miller et al1 had 5 volunteers (all men) apply hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) 50 times over a 4-hour period, and found all blood alcohol concentrations to be below 5 mg/dL.. Kramer et al2 had 12 volunteers (six men and six women) use three different hand sanitizers (95%, 85%, and 55% ethanol) for a Basic Hand Hygiene application regimen. The volunteers applied 4 mL of hand sanitizer for 30 seconds each time, 20 times over the course of 30 minutes, with ...
N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complexes consisting of different donor substituents attached to the NHC ligand efficiently catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and of activated olefins in α,β-unsaturated ketones to give saturated alcohols. The most active catalyst precursor contains a tethered olefin as a hemilabile donor site. This complex also converts nitriles and, depending on the reaction conditions, either benzylamines are produced by means of transfer hydrogenation, or amides from formal addition of H2O. Kinetic analysis of the double hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated ketones indicates fast isomerisation of the enol intermediate to its saturated ketone tautomer prior to the second hydrogenation ...
Since the discovery of the Grignard reaction more than a century ago, carbonyl addition mediated by premetalated reagents has played a central role in synthetic chemistry. Metal-catalyzed reductive coupling of π-unsaturated reactants with carbonyl compounds has emerged as an alternative to classical carbonyl addition. Although such processes bypass stoichiometric organometallic reagents and the issues of safety, selectivity, and waste associated with their use, in many cases the requisite terminal reductants are just as problematic as the organometallic reagents they replace. Catalytic reductive coupling via hydrogenation or transfer hydrogenation represents a more ideal strategy for carbonyl addition as relatively safe, inexpensive reductants with low molecular weights may be used (H2 or 2-propanol). Carbonyl addition via hydrogen autotransfer is most ideal. In such processes, hydrogen embedded within a reactant alcohol mediates reductive coupling. By allowing alcohols to serve dually as ...
In this paper, we present estimates of the effect of alcohol taxes on employment, hours of work per week, and wages. These are reduced form estimates derived from a structural model linking alcohol use to labor market outcomes. The reduced form estimates are meaningful in two ways: first, they provide estimates of the effect of an important public policy tool, alcohol taxes, on labor market outcomes, and second, they can be used to evaluate hypotheses about the structural effects of alcohol use on labor market outcomes. The results of the analysis suggest that alcohol taxes are unrelated to employment, hours of work, and wages. Estimates of the effect of alcohol taxes on labor market outcomes were large and imprecise, and characterized by significant variation in sign and magnitude across samples and types of alcohol taxes. This suggests that there is a weak and indeterminate relationship between alcohol taxes and labor market outcomes. This finding implies that alcohol use does not adversely ...

Alcohol and Caffeinated Energy Drinks: A Bad Mix | Berkeley WellnessAlcohol and Caffeinated Energy Drinks: A Bad Mix | Berkeley Wellness

... for Alcohol mixed with Energy Drinks)-but its an especially bad mix, a new study warns. ... The practice of combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks has become so common, it has its own acronym (AmED, ... "Drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks are more likely than drinkers who do not mix alcohol with energy drinks to report ... Combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks increases the risk of injury, warns a Canadian review of 13 studies, published ...
more infohttp://www.berkeleywellness.com/node/3890

Federal Register | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice ofFederal Register | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed MeetingPursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting. Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory ...
more infohttp://thefederalregister.com/2012/12/06/2012-29448.html

Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of PsychiatryAlcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of Psychiatry

Alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome in alcohol dependence. The lifetime prevalence of AIPS among participants who were alcohol- ... 11 In alcohol treatment settings, 2-7% of patients with alcohol dependence had alcohol hallucinosis,8,9 5-11% delirium tremens, ... Alcohol has a central role in substance use disorders,1 and alcohol use disorders are associated with a considerable burden in ... Earlier data on alcohol-induced psychotic disorders are based on clinical samples,7-11 collected typically in alcohol treatment ...
more infohttp://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/197/3/200

Alcohol Use Quiz | CDCAlcohol Use Quiz | CDC

Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause lifelong effects. ... 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening and Counseling. *Alcohol Use ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/quiz.html

Drinking too much alcohol can harm your health. Learn the facts | CDCDrinking too much alcohol can harm your health. Learn the facts | CDC

... and cancer.The CDC Alcohol Program works to strengthen the scientific foundation for preventing excessive alcohol use. ... Excessive alcohol use can lead to increased risk of health problems such as injuries, violence, liver diseases, ... Alcohol and Crime: An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime pdf iconexternal icon [PDF - ... J Stud Alcohol Suppl 2002;14:118-128.. *Kanny D, Brewer RD, Mesnick JB, Paulozzi LJ, Naimi TS, Lu H. Vital Signs: Alcohol ...
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Home - Alcohol and Drug FoundationHome - Alcohol and Drug Foundation

... is Australias leading organisation committed to preventing and minimising the harm caused by alcohol and other drugs. ... We do this because it is the best way to prevent and minimise the harm caused by alcohol and other drugs in Australia. ... The Alcohol and Drug Foundation acknowledges the peoples and elders of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australia, and ...
more infohttps://adf.org.au/

Alcohol use disorder - Symptoms and causes - Mayo ClinicAlcohol use disorder - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Unhealthy alcohol use ranges from mild to severe, including alcoholism and binge drinking, putting health and safety at risk. ... Unhealthy alcohol use includes any alcohol use that puts your health or safety at risk or causes other alcohol-related problems ... Alcohol intoxication results as the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream increases. The higher the blood alcohol concentration ... Alcohol use may begin in the teens, but alcohol use disorder occurs more frequently in the 20s and 30s, though it can start at ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alcohol-use-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20369243

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | PediatricsFetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics

... including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), alcohol-related ... What do we know about the economic impact of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder? A systematic literature review. Alcohol Alcohol. ... Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1987;19(1):51-70pmid: ... Institute of Medicine, Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. . In: Stratton K, Howe C, Battaglia F, eds. Fetal Alcohol ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/5/e1395

Alcohol withdrawal: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAlcohol withdrawal: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

... symptoms that may occur when a person who has been drinking too much alcohol on a regular basis suddenly stops drinking alcohol ... Alcohol withdrawal refers to symptoms that may occur when a person who has been drinking too much alcohol on a regular basis ... Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should stop alcohol completely. ... severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal may need inpatient treatment at a hospital or other facility that treats alcohol ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000764.htm

Breastfeeding and Alcohol • KellyMom.comBreastfeeding and Alcohol • KellyMom.com

Home ▸ Breastfeeding ▸ Can I Breastfeed if...? ▸ Lifestyle choices ▸ Breastfeeding and Alcohol. Breastfeeding and Alcohol. By ... Effects of alcohol on breastfeeding and the breastfed baby. *Alcohol does not increase milk production. In fact, babies nurse ... Alcohol. 2001 Nov;25(3):153-8.. Mennella JA. The transfer of alcohol to human milk: Sensory implications and effects on mother- ... Less than 2% of the alcohol consumed by the mother reaches her blood and milk. Alcohol peaks in moms blood and milk ...
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Initiative TextInitiative Text

Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol. The Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol is supporting Proposal 1, a 2018 ... Copyright © 2016 - 2018 , Paid for with regulated funds by the Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol, 2370 Champlain St ...
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Sugar alcohol - WikipediaSugar alcohol - Wikipedia

Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived ... Both disaccharides and monosaccharides can form sugar alcohols; however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. ... Sugar alcohols as food additives[edit]. Name Sweetness relative to sucrose Food energy. (kcal/g) Sweetness per food energy Food ... Sugar alcohols are not metabolized by oral bacteria, and so they do not contribute to tooth decay.[2][3] They do not brown or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar_alcohol

Alcohol poisoning - Symptoms and causes - Mayo ClinicAlcohol poisoning - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Alcohol poisoning is a serious and sometimes deadly consequence of drinking large amounts of alcohol in a short time. Heres ... To avoid alcohol poisoning:. *Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For ... Other forms of alcohol - including isopropyl alcohol (found in rubbing alcohol, lotions and some cleaning products) and ... Alcohol poisoning is an emergency. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning - even if you dont see the classic signs ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alcohol-poisoning/symptoms-causes/syc-20354386

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Alcohol-Related Disease Impact - Home PageAlcohol-Related Disease Impact - Home Page

Alcohol-Attributable Fractions. Estimates the proportion of deaths from various causes that are attributable to alcohol. ... Alcohol-Attributable Deaths. Estimates the total number of deaths attributable to alcohol.. ... The Custom Data User feature allows you to conduct your own analyses of alcohol-attributable harms in the ARDI application ... The Alcohol Related Disease Impact (ARDI) Custom Data User Manual is available to download. ...
more infohttps://nccd.cdc.gov/DPH_ARDI/default/default.aspx

Researchers Identify Alcoholism Subtypes | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)Researchers Identify Alcoholism Subtypes | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

... according to a new study by scientists at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National ... Analyses of a national sample of individuals with alcohol dependence (alcoholism) reveal five distinct subtypes of the disease ... About the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, ... and treatment of alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and alcohol problems. NIAAA also disseminates research findings to general, ...
more infohttps://www.niaaa.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/researchers-identify-alcoholism-subtypes

Drinking Guidelines | Canadian Centre on Substance Use and AddictionDrinking Guidelines | Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction

Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines provide information to moderate alcohol consumption and reduce alcohol related ... Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines [poster]. *Communicating Alcohol-Related Health Risks: Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol ... Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and ... If all Canadians who consume alcohol were to follow the proposed guidelines, there would be approximately 4,600 less alcohol- ...
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Category:Alcohols - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Alcohols - Wikimedia Commons

For ethanol used as drinking alcohol, see Category:Alcohol.. For beverages containing ethanol as drinking alcohol, see Category ... English: Alcohols are a group of organic compounds, including ethanol (drinking alcohol) and methanol (wood alcohol) among many ... For the specific type of alcohol known as ethanol, see Category:Ethanol.. ... Media in category "Alcohols". The following 176 files are in this category, out of 176 total. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Alcohols

alcoholalcohol

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Alcohol: MedlinePlusAlcohol: MedlinePlus

But drinking too much can be harmful, so its important to know how alcohol affects you and how much is too much. ... Alcohol Use and Cancer (American Cancer Society) - PDF * Alcohols Effects on the Body (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... Alcohol Facts and Statistics (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) * Alcohol-Related Deaths Increase Nationwide ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) * Calculators (National Institute on Alcohol ...
more infohttp://www.medlineplus.gov/alcohol.html

Alcohol: MedlinePlusAlcohol: MedlinePlus

But drinking too much can be harmful, so its important to know how alcohol affects you and how much is too much. ... Alcohol Use and Cancer (American Cancer Society) - PDF * Alcohols Effects on the Body (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... Alcohol Facts and Statistics (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) * Alcohol-Related Deaths Increase Nationwide ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) * Calculators (National Institute on Alcohol ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/alcohol.html

Alcohol intolerance - WikipediaAlcohol intolerance - Wikipedia

Acute alcohol sensitivity. Alcohol intolerance is due to a genetic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme ... Alcohol flush reaction. References[edit]. *^ "Acute alcohol sensitivity , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD ... inhalation of alcohol or the vapour of alcohol-containing cleaning agents. Drinking alcohol first or afterwards together with ... Congener (Alcohol congener analysis). *Ethanol (Blood alcohol content, Breathalyzer, Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic ...
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Alcohol AwarenessAlcohol Awareness

Programs are available for individuals to attend. Some permits require the completion of certain programs.. To learn more about the available programs, please click on your program of interest on the left side of this page, or below.. ...
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Alcohol | SpringerLinkAlcohol | SpringerLink

Akan H, et al. Percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy of venous malformations of the oral cavity and the oropharynx. Erciyes Medical Journal 39: 183-188, No. 4, 2017. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.5152/etd.2017.17055 - TurkeyCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40278-018-44584-z
  • Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols , polyalcohols , alditols or glycitols ) are organic compounds , typically derived from sugars , that comprise a class of polyols . (wikipedia.org)
  • Miscarriage and stillbirth or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) among pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. (aappublications.org)
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is an overarching phrase that encompasses a range of possible diagnoses, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). (aappublications.org)
  • We don't allow the sale of collectible containers that contain alcohol. (ebay.com)
  • In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. (aappublications.org)
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • As it became evident that PAE resulted in a spectrum of lifelong manifestations, varying from mild to severe and encompassing a broad variety of physical defects and cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and adaptive functioning deficits, the term "fetal alcohol effects" was adopted to describe children who had PAE manifestations yet did not meet the FAS diagnostic criteria, primarily by lacking physical abnormalities associated with FAS. (aappublications.org)
  • Mennella JA, Garcia-Gomez PL. Sleep disturbances after acute exposure to alcohol in mothers' milk . (kellymom.com)
  • From March 1, 2018 to March 18, 2019, incorrect estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths, years of potential life lost, and alcohol-attributable fractions for some chronic conditions (e.g., acute pancreatitis, breast cancer, ischemic heart disease) were posted on the ARDI website. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.5-ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol content) distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, whiskey). (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol use disorder can be mild, moderate or severe, based on the number of symptoms you experience. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with moderate-to-severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal may need inpatient treatment at a hospital or other facility that treats alcohol withdrawal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have mild-to-moderate alcohol withdrawal symptoms, you can often be treated in an outpatient setting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Per Hale (2017), "mothers who ingest alcohol in moderate amounts can generally return to breastfeeding as soon as they feel neurologically normal. (kellymom.com)
  • We do this because it is the best way to prevent and minimise the harm caused by alcohol and other drugs in Australia. (adf.org.au)
  • Excessive alcohol use has immediate effects that increase the risk of many harmful health conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 The US Surgeon General issued the first public health advisory in 1981 (reissued in 2005) that alcohol during pregnancy was a cause of birth defects. (aappublications.org)
  • ARDI is an online application that provides national and state estimates of alcohol-related health impacts, including deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL). (cdc.gov)
  • Being poisoned by alcohol can damage your health or even put your life in danger. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The Custom Data User feature allows you to conduct your own analyses of alcohol-attributable harms in the ARDI application using local data. (cdc.gov)
  • The level of alcohol in a person's blood can continue to rise for up to 30 to 40 minutes after their last drink. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Taking certain prescription or over-the-counter medications that can interact with alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 , 3 In 1989, Congress mandated that alcohol product labels include a warning about potential birth defects. (aappublications.org)
  • The Alcohol Related Disease Impact (ARDI) Custom Data User Manual is available to download. (cdc.gov)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding notes: "ingestion of alcoholic beverages should be minimized and limited to an occasional intake but no more than 0.5 g alcohol per kg body weight, which for a 60 kg mother is approximately 2 oz liquor, 8 oz wine, or 2 beers. (kellymom.com)
  • If people are intolerant, some nearly non-alcoholic beverages may be a problem, similar to alcohol-containing medications, vinegar , inhalation of alcohol or the vapour of alcohol-containing cleaning agents . (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) each year in the United States from 2006 - 2010, shortening the lives of those who died by an average of 30 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Sugar alcohols, with the exception of erythritol , may also cause bloating and diarrhea when consumed in excessive amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are usually incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestine which generally results in a smaller change in blood glucose than "regular" sugar ( sucrose ). (wikipedia.org)
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  • Despite greater public awareness, improved terminology, and an accruing body of research, the lack of uniformly accepted diagnostic criteria for FAS and other related disorders has critically limited efforts to determine accurate prevalence figures, expand awareness and prevention campaigns, actuate early identification and intervention programs, and delineate the full continuum of alcohol-related conditions. (aappublications.org)
  • If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning - even if you don't see the classic signs and symptoms - seek immediate medical care. (mayoclinic.org)