Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Sexual activities of humans.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (1/1378)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Alcohol-induced biphasic inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 K-EDTA-ATPase. (2/1378)

Butanol-induced inhibition of K-EDTA-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 proceeded by biphasic kinetics, consisting of rapid and slow inactivations. The extent of the rapid inactivation, which was estimated by extrapolating the process of slow inactivation to zero time of the incubation period, was saturated with butanol concentration. Recovery of activity by dilution in the rapid phase indicates that the rapid process is reversible. The slow inactivation was concomitant with a partial denaturation of the 50 kDa domain of S1, which was detected by limited tryptic digestion. Other alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and hexanol) also inhibited the K-EDTA-ATPase in the rapid phase. The Ki decreased with an increase in the number of methylene groups of alcohol. When K-EDTA-ATPase activity in the rapid phase was plotted against viscosity, surface tension or dielectric constant, the curves were different for each of the various alcohol solutions. The rapid inactivation appears to be caused by a binding of the alkyl group to S1, rather than by solvent effects. The kinetics of rapid butanol inhibitions indicate that butanol reduces the maximum activity of ATPase but enhances an apparent affinity of S1 with ATP. These indications suggest that alcohol stabilizes S1.KATP intermediate. The rapid K-EDTA-ATPase inhibition was observed at the same alcohol concentration where S1 Mg-ATPase was activated.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation of methane and methanol: isolation of methane-utilizing bacteria and characterization of a facultative methane-utilizing isolate. (3/1378)

A methane-utilizing organism capable of growth both on methane and on more complex organic substrates as a sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated and studied in detail. Suspensions of methane-grown cells of this organism oxidized C-1 compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate); hydrocarbons (ethane, propane); primary alcohols (ethanol, propanol); primary aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde); alkenes (ethylene, propylene); dimethylether; and organic acids (acetate, malate, succinate, isocitrate). Suspensions of methanol-or succinate-grown cells did not oxidize methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene, or dimethylether, suggesting that the enzymatic systems required for oxidation of these substrates are induced only during growth on methane. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained a particulate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent methane monooxygenase activity. Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde, and primary alcohols was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-requiring methanol dehydrogenase. Oxidation of primary aldehydes was catalyzed by a phenazine methosulfate-linked, ammonium ion-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. Formate was oxidized by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific formate dehydrogenase. Extracts of methane-grown, but not succinate-grown, cells contained the key enzymes of the serine pathway, hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate lyase, indicating that the enzymes of C-1 assimilation are induced only during growth on C-1 compounds. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced during growth on glucose. Extracts of methane-grown cells contained low levels of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase, relative to the levels found during growth on succinate.  (+info)

Inhibition of Bacillus subtilis spore germination by various hydrophobic compounds: demonstration of hydrophobic character of the L-alanine receptor site. (4/1378)

L-Alanine-initiated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores was inhibited by various kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Good correlation of inhibitory effect with hydrophobicity of the compound was demonstrated by using regression analysis in which the hydrophobic character was expressed by the partition coefficient in an octyl alcohol-water system. The correlation coefficient for 20 alcohols was 0.959, and that for 19 miscellaneous compounds was 0.906. Regression lines of the alcohols and other hydrophobic compounds were almost identical, showing that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in inhibition. Diphenylamine was one of the most effective inhibitors examined. n-Octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl alcohols were the most effective alcohols. The mode of inhibition by diphenylamine and n-octyl alcohol was a "mixed type" (competitive plus noncompetitive type) with respect to L-alanine; that by D-alanine was competitive inhibition. Sites for diphenylamine, n-octyl alcohol, and D-alanine may have overlapped. Inhibition was reversible by washing; heat resistance, stainability, and germination rate of the washed spores remained unaltered. Thus, we confirmed that the inhibition may occur before the initial trigger reaction of germination and that it may be due to the interaction between a hydrophobic compound and a hydrophobic region closely associated with the L-alanine receptor site on the spore.  (+info)

Total plasmalogens and O-(acylalkylglycerophosphoryl) ethanolamine from labelled hexadecanol and palmitate during hypoxia and anoxia in rat heart. (5/1378)

By the use of the Langendorff technique, surviving isolated rat hearts were perfused with [1-14 C] palmitate, [1-14C] hexadecanol or [1-14C,1-3H] hexadecanol under normal or anoxic conditions. After perfusion for 30min with either precursor, when oxygenated or in an hypoxic condition, or when 1mM-KCN was included in the system, the heart tissues showed no significant chemical changes in their content of total lipids, total phospholipids or total ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. Changes were observed in the ratio of alkyl-to alk-1-enyl-glycerophosphorylethanolamine in the tissue perfused with N2+CO1 plus CN-. A slight increase from 4.0+/-0.3 to 4.9+/-0.2% in alkyl derivatives and a decrease from 11.2+/-0.4 to 9.4+/-0.3% in alk-1-enyl derivatives was observed. The incorporation of the [14C] palmitate and the [14C] hexadecanol into the recovered phospholipids and plasmalogens was severely decreased in the tissues perfused with CN-: in the hypoxic state only a mild inhibition was observed compared with the oxygenated systems. Considerable 3H from [1-14C, 1-3H] hexadecanol was retained (25-35%) in the alk-1-enylether chains of plasmalogens under both the oxygenated conditions and with CN-, suggesting that the same mechanism of incorporation is operational at high or low O2 concentrations. The results are consistent with an O2-dependent, CN-sensitive step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens in the rat heart.  (+info)

Effects of short chain alkanols on the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a glial cell line. (6/1378)

1. Ethanol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in C6 glioma cells by an unknown mechanism. Because relatively high concentrations are needed for inhibition in drug-naive cells (IC50 approximately = to 150 mM), suppression due to cytotoxicity is one possible mechanism that has not been ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of ethanol and other alkanols on C6 glioma cell viability and iNOS activity to better understand the mechanism for inhibition. 2. iNOS expression was induced in cell culture with lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester treatment. Nitrite accumulation in culture medium, the in vitro conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline, and immunoblotting were used to quantify iNOS induction and activity. Trypan blue exclusion, extracellular release of lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of total cell protein were used as measures of viability. 3. Short chain alkanols, methanol through 1-heptanol, concentration-dependently inhibited nitrite accumulation. Longer chain alkanols, 1-octanol and 1-decanol, did not except at cytotoxic concentrations. Experiments indicated short chain alkanol inhibition was not due to direct actions on iNOS catalytic activity, but that it transpires during iNOS induction. Immunoblots showed reduced iNOS protein levels. 4. Correlation analysis ruled out iNOS inhibition as being due to decreased cell number, total cell protein, or cell viability. In contrast, there was significant correlation with physical measures of lipophilicity. 5. In conclusion, inhibition of iNOS expression by ethanol and other short chain alkanols is not due to cytotoxicity. Instead, the strong correlation with lipophilicity suggests the inhibition derives from an interaction with unknown hydrophobic cellular sites.  (+info)

A low-molecular-mass protein from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is responsible for the regulation of formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in vitro. (7/1378)

An 8.6 kDa protein, which the authors call a modifin, has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and has been shown to alter the substrate specificity and kinetics of NAD+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) isolated from the same organism. Purification methods for both the modifin and FDH are presented which reliably produced pure protein for further analysis. Analysis of the molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of both FDH and the modifin indicate that they are unique proteins and show no similarity to alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes isolated from methylotrophic bacteria. Substrate specificity studies demonstrated that FDH oxidized formaldehyde exclusively in the presence of the modifin; a diverse range of aldehydes and alcohols were oxidized by FDH in the absence of the modifin. No formaldehyde oxidation was detected in the absence of the modifin. Attempts to replace the modifin with glutathione or high concentrations of methanol to stimulate formaldehyde oxidation failed. With acetaldehyde as substrate, FDH showed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics; interaction of FDH with the modifin using formaldehyde as substrate altered the kinetics of the reaction to sigmoidal. Kinetic analysis during turnover experiments indicated that the FDH may be associated with bound formaldehyde following enzyme isolation and that NAD may also be associated with the enzyme but in a form that is less tightly bound than found with the methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus. Data are presented which indicate that the modifin may play an important role in regulating formaldehyde concentration in vivo.  (+info)

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (8/1378)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

The transformation of various grains, fruits, and vegetables into ethanol or alcohol can only be achieved through fermentation and complete fermentation of yeast is crucial for alcohol production. Active yeast starts the metabolism process within the mixture of water and other ingredients that result in the conversion of sugars into alcohol.. Yeast is classified as micro-organisms from the fungi family. These yeasts are available in a wide range and they contribute greatly in the creation of various alcohols ranging from mild ones such as beer to medium ones such as wine to stronger ones such as vodka. Thus, brewers yeast such as saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast or ale yeast as it is also known is used to ferment beer. Similarly, yeast saccharomyces is used to ferment lager beer. On the other hand wine is fermented using wine yeast while strong distillers yeast such as vodka yeast is used to produce strong spirits such as vodka. Even before the addition of yeast into the mixture, other processes ...
Ethanol or simply alcohol is actually caused by fermentation that involves active yeast mixed with a number of ingredients and during alcohol production fermentation of sugars is vital. After most of these sugars get changed into alcohol subsequently based on the alcohol beverage that one desires to manufacture, alcohol having ideal character, taste, color, and strength can be produced.. All alcohols as well as spirits are produced from starch-rich components and constant processes with the help of enzymes convert this starch straight into sugars before ultimately fermenting them straight into ethanol or simply alcohol, as it is additionally known winery yeast. The primary starch-rich ingredients that are used in the manufacture of alcohols as well as spirits such as beer, rum, wine beverages, vodka, gin, rum, etc, are grains of various kinds, corn, rice, apples, grapes, potatoes, and many more depending on the location where these types of beverages happen to be produced. The key process of ...
There are several vital processes that need to be completed before any type of alcoholic drink is produced but transformation of alcohol sugars is vital for alcohol production. This transformation is bought about by fermentation where these sugars are transformed into alcohol with varying proof levels.. Beer, vodka, wine, whiskey, and rum, among several other heady drinks all fall into the category of alcohols and spirits. There are different types of natural raw materials required to make various alcoholic beverages. These include ingredients that contain lots of starches that can be converted into fermentable sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc. These raw materials include corn, cane, barley, rye, wheat, corn, apples, grapes, and many more that have high levels of starch.. For the manufacture of beer, malted barley along with water are firstly mixed together before the mixture is dried and roasted to encourage enzymes including different types of amylase to transform the starch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sugar uptake and subsequent ester on higher alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Stewart, Graham George. AU - Younis, O S. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article. VL - 104. SP - 255. EP - 264. JO - Journal of the Institute of Brewing. JF - Journal of the Institute of Brewing. SN - 0046-9750. ER - ...
Closest to the claimed solution is the way [2] joint production of methanol and aliphatic alcohols WITH2-C4+...from synthesis gas at elevated temperature and pressure by hydrogenation of carbon oxides in the presence of a solid oxide catalyst (prototype).. The disadvantage of this method [2] is a significant predominance of methanol in peoplewe adding thereto synthesized by the method [2] alcohols to increase the octane number instead of the highly toxic Tetra-ethyl lead. Thus, when a mixture of alcohols (15 wt.) with a ratio of1:C4+...-5,2 with gasoline (85) fuel stratified already at a temperature of minus 5aboutWith, and with the addition of aliphatic alcohols WITH1-C4+...with a ratio of1: C4+...is 12.5 and the same conditions fuel stratified even when the temperature plus 15aboutC. the disadvantage of the prototype [2] is also a low concentration of aliphatic alcohols with the number of carbon atoms 5 and above, which reduces the caloric content of the composite fuel.. The aim of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Toward preparative resolution of chiral alcohols by an organic chemical method. AU - Malic, Nino. AU - Moorhof, Cornelius. AU - Sage, Valerie. AU - Saylik, Dilek. AU - Teoh, Ching-Mei. AU - Scott, Janet L.. AU - Strauss, Christopher R. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Asymmetric alcohols were resolved as 1-α-O-alkyl-2,3-unsaturated hexosides. After separation of diastereoisomers, the auxiliary and the enantiomeric alcohol were recovered by transglycosidation. Potential applications include resolution of labile secondary and tertiary alcohols, difficult by existing techniques, and enhancement of ees of chiral alcohols produced enzymatically or by synthetic catalytic methods.. AB - Asymmetric alcohols were resolved as 1-α-O-alkyl-2,3-unsaturated hexosides. After separation of diastereoisomers, the auxiliary and the enantiomeric alcohol were recovered by transglycosidation. Potential applications include resolution of labile secondary and tertiary alcohols, difficult by existing ...
Diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectra of methanol and ethanol on Amberlyst 15 and on a synthesized acidic resin catalyst indicate that alcohol molecules are adsorbed by forming hydrogen bridges with the -SO3H sites of the catalyst and among themselves. Some of the alcohol molecules were found to be strongly chemisorbed by dissociation of one or two hydrogen atoms. Isobutylene was also found to be strongly adsorbed by forming a bridged structure between the adsorbed alcohol molecules and the -SO3H groups. DRIFT spectra verified the presence of adsorbed ether molecules formed as a result of surface reaction and supported a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type reaction mechanism. ...
The biological activity of nucleic acids is correlates strongly with their physico-chemical properties, in particular their thermodynamic properties. The thermal stability of nucleic acids depends strongly on the properties of intracellular environment s
A simple and efficient method for the synthesis of xanthenes and dihydroacridines containing a quaternary carbon atom at the 9th-position, is presented. Significantly, the protocol facilitated the smooth participation of sterically hindered and protecting group free 2-bromobenzyl tertiary alcohols in cross coupling reactions with phenols and anilines, under copper-catalysis. The Lewis acid mediated intramolecular C-C bond formation enabled the formation of a quaternary carbon atom at the 9th-position. Remarkably, this two-step protocol required a single column purification technique.. ...
There are many crucial operations that need to be carried out before any kind of alcoholic drink is created but alteration of alcohol sugars is vital with regard to alcohol manufacturing www.destillation.com. This kind of transformation is actually bought about by means of fermentation in which most of these sugars really are transformed straight into alcohol having varying proof levels.. Beer, vodka, wines, tequila, and rum, amongst a number of other heady beverages all fall into the category of alcohols and also spirits. There are actually various kinds of natural raw materials needed to create various alcoholic beverages. These include ingredients that include plenty of starches which can be changed into fermentable sugar like glucose, fructose, sucrose, and so on. These types of raw materials include corn, cane, barley, rye, wheat, corn, apples, grapes, and many more that have high levels of starch.. For the production of beer, malted barley together with water are firstly mixed with each ...
Abstract: : Purpose: The physiological barriers of the eye limit drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye via topical or systemic administration. Intravitreal administration has proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of various vitreoretinal diseases. Elimination of drugs from the vitreous body can be via aqueous drainage or through the retina. Drugs eliminating predominantly through the aqueous pathway have higher half-lives and results in prolonged therapeutic action in the posterior segment of the eye. Therefore it is important to study the effect of physicochemical properties of the drugs on their elimination characteristics from the vitreous. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lipophilicity on vitreous disposition of short-chain aliphatic alcohols. Methods: Radiolabeled (C14) methanol, 1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-heptanol with log Pc values ranging from -0.77 to 2.7 were studied. New Zealand albino rabbits weighing 2-2.5 kg were used. ...
Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate are metabolites of ethanol (alcohol) that may be present in urine after ingestion of, or exposure to, drinks, foods, medication or other products containing ethyl alcohol. Incidental exposure to alcohol-containing products such as mouthwash or hand sanitizer have also been shown to produce positive alcohol metabolites test results. LC-MS/MS testing detects EtG and EtS regardless of the source. Therefore, we encourage you to interpret alcohol metabolite test results in light of the clinical picture.
Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The catalyst used is solid silicon dioxide coated with phosphoric(V) acid. The reaction is reversible. Only 5% of the ethene is converted into ethanol at each pass through the reactor. If you are looking to make and sell your own alcohol products (liquor, beer, wine) then you will need to obtain the proper licenses for manufacturing and.
United States Prevention, Pesticides EPA 738-F Environmental Protection and Toxic Substances June 2007 Agency (7508P) Aliphatic Alcohols Facts Pesticide Registration All pesticides sold or distributed
Linear and branched chain alcohols exhibit similar patterns of absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Both linear and branched aliphatic alcohols are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and are rapidly eliminated from the blood (DeBruin, 1976; Lington and Bevan, 1994). Plasma half-lives are difficult to measure since many of the low molecular weight metabolites (e.g. aldehydes, carboxylic acids) are endogenous in humans (Lington and Bevan, 1994). Toxicokinetic studies for Alcohols, C7-9-iso, C8-rich (Isooctanol; Exxal 8) CAS number 685266-83-0 and Alcohols, C11-14 iso, C13-rich (Isotridecanol: Exxal 13) CAS number 68526-86-3 will be conducted in 2016-2017 to determine the saturation of absorption and excretion. This data will be used as part of the integrated testing strategy as outlined in appendix 1 of the CSR. Linear and branched chain alcohols are initially oxidized to corresponding aldehydes and further to corresponding carboxylic acids by high capacity NAD+/NADH-dependent enzymes, ...
Is it possible to rewire our brain? (NOTE: Subscribers can still listen to this show). Sometimes this may happen without our knowledge, such as when we drink too much. Doctors have long recognized a link between alcoholism and anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Those who drink heavily are at increased risk for traumatic events like car accidents and domestic violence, but that only partially explains the connection. New research using mice reveals heavy alcohol use actually rewires brain circuitry, making it harder for alcoholics to recover psychologically following a traumatic experience. Pharmacologist Thomas Kash says, Theres a whole spectrum to how people react to a traumatic event. Our research shows that chronic exposure to alcohol can cause a deficit with regard to how our cognitive brain centers control our emotional brain centers. Understanding the relationship between alcohol and anxiety at the molecular level could offer new possibilities for ...
PROTEASECHLORIDE IONmethyl [(2S)-1-(2-{(4R)-4-hydroxy-5-{[(2S)-3-methyl-1-oxo-1-(prop-2-en-1-ylamino)butan-2-yl]amino}-5-oxo-4-[4-(prop-2-en-1-yl)benzyl]pentyl}-2-[4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzyl]hydrazinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]carbamate
Stock Bulk 1-Nonanol Cas 143-08-8 Keterangan: 1-Nonanol CAS No .: 143-08-8 dengan MF C9H20O, Nombor EINECSnya adalah 205-583-7 dengan FEMA No.2789. Tempat asal 1-Nonanol adalah Shandong, China (Daratan) dengan jenis Rasa Sintetik & Rasa 04033 Penggunaan 1-Nonanol adalah Rasa Harian, Rasa Makanan dengan Kemurnian ...
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What if a person has bad habits? Which ones are the most detrimental to health? What to do if you cannot give up bad habits? Why are some people unable or unwilling to quit drinking and eating, while others cannot give up junk food? You will find answers to these and many other questions about bad habit-addictions in my blog.. ...
People under 18 are also allowed to go in certain places that sell alcohol: a theatre, an amphitheatre, a race-track, a sports center, a hunting or fishing lodge, or a place like a microbrewery where the owner has a small-scale alcohol production permit. But that doesnt mean that people under 18 can drink alcohol in these places!. ...
Drinking less is the obvious solution.. But you can also reduce the causes:. One cause for a hangover are the metabolic products of the fusel alcohols (unwanted alcohols) in your drinks. First your body metabolizes the ethanol and then the fusel alcohols. Thats why drinking alcohol helps against a hangover as if gives the body some more ethanol to work on and thus reduces the toxins of the fusel alcohols. Thats why a Bloody Mary is a well known hangover cure. So try reducing the amount of fusel alcohols you consume by choosing high quality drinks that have less of them.. Another cause is dehydration and lack of electrolytes. So start hydrating yourself before, while and after you consume alcohol. And to keep the water in your body, make sure, you add enough electrolytes to bind the water. In russia and other slavic countrys there is a culture of eating salty (electrolytes and increasing thirst), sour (helps making you thirsty) and fatty (proteins and delays alcohol absorbtion) food along with ...
How long after you drink alcohol can you pass a urine test? The KGB Agent answer: Not Medical Advice: EtG urine test can detect alcohol in the body up to 80 hrs after intake.
Turning to Israels southern border, some 35 rockets and mortar shells were fired at Israel in 2017 by terrorists inside the Gaza Strip . While some damage occurs by chance, our findings suggest that drinking alcohol can increase the risk of this damage. The first line of defence is a family of enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). The body does produce certain enzymes which can help in the process of breaking down acetaldehyde, and thus mitigating the damage it causes to ones DNA. This paper provides very strong evidence that an alcohol metabolite causes DNA damage [including] to the all-important stem cells that go on to make tissues. But they dont always work and some people carry mutations which mean their cells arent able to carry out these repairs effectively.. Its important to remember that alcohol clearance and DNA fix systems are not flawless, and alcohol can still cause cancer in different ways - even in people whose defence mechanisms are intact, Patel said.. The ...
So with such glaring instances of the impacts of alcohol use on Americans, and young people in particular, surely drug policy officials and politicians are aggressively pursuing legislation to engage in a full on War on Alcohol, like they have with the War on Drugs, right?. Well… not so much.. It may come as a shock, but U.S. federal and state officials seem to think banning alcohol is out of the question! Citing the past attempts at alcohol prohibition as a major failure that instigated higher crime rates, while also claiming the vital part alcohol production and sales play in the economy, lawmakers seem content with allowing the drug to remain in circulation.. Thankfully officials are still willing to provide emergency response services to individuals who have overdosed on alcohol or been injured in alcohol-related accidents. While city officials are fighting for the option to deny the overdose antidote Narcan to opioid users who overdose multiple times, none of these officials seem to ...
We know (or I do anyway) that when the alcohol production is increased, temperature is increased and we become warm pretty much all of the time. I had a funny moment earlier this year when one of my favorite clients (**** Ill add his name if he doesnt mind) told me that his his wife had passed comment that he always used to be warm. Id long suspected that my client was undernourished and I had all the evidence I needed for him to start repairing his liver and pancreas (which he is doing an excellent job of as we speak). Equally when our alcohol level goes down, our heat goes down and people tend to feel cold all of the time. Just by using a few simple tests I can guess what they are feeling like and what organs arent functioning optimally. Women tend to eat calorie controlled meals more than mean do, and they also seem to suffer with the greater prevalence to cold than men ...
Short-chain alcohols are small enough to penetrate the hair shaft but tend to be drying for textured hair. Fatty alcohols or long-chain alcohols are derived from natural resources like coconut oil and are too big to penetrate the hair shaft.
Alcohol can affect a persons memory in significant ways. A person that experiences a blackout will not typically remember events from the night before.
Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol can wreak havoc on the organs, but what do these two vices do to the senses? Considering whats known
alcohol secundario (es); 第2級アルコール (ja); Alcool secondaire (fr); alkohol drugorzędowy (pl); вторичный спирт (ru); 仲醇 (lzh); 이차 알코올 (ko); secondary alcohol (en); sekundara alkoholo (eo); sekundární alkohol (cs); 仲醇 (zh) każdy alkohol, w którym grupa hydroksylowa przyłączona jest do drugorzędowego atomu węgla (pl) вторичные спирты (ru); Alcool Secondaire (fr); 2차 알코올 (ko); secondary alcohols (en); alkohole drugorzędowe (pl ...
You may also wish to search for items by Mercer-Chalmers. 14 matching references were found. Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Schnabel, S.; Heintz, A., Application of the ERAS model to HE and VE of 1-alkanol + 1-alkene and 1- alkanol + 1-alkyne mixtures, Fluid Phase Equilib., 1995, 112, 131-49. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Govender, U.P.; Radloff, S., Excess molar enthalpies and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of 1- alkenes with 1-propanol and 2-propanol, Thermochim. Acta, 1993, 224, 33-8. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Bean, B.A.J.; Battino, R., Excess molar volumes and excess molar enthalpies of [x{0.5CH3(CH2)k-2CH3 + 0.5CH3(CH2)l-2CH3} + (1 - x)CH3(CH2)m-2CH3] at the temperature 298.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1992, 24, 1229-32. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J.; Prasad, A.K., Excess molar enthalpies of mixtures of a cycloalkane and an alkanol, Thermochim. Acta, 1991, 188, 157-62. [all data] Letcher, T.M.; Mercer-Chalmers, J., Excess ...
Just downloaded this Chemistry software, wondering how large will the Alcohol molecules be able to expand? Methanol - [ATTACH] Ethanol - [ATTACH]
The bromide ion functions as the nucleophile and attacks to displace the good leaving group, neutral alcohol molecule, by cleaving the C-O bond. This results in the formation of an alkyl bromide and an alcohol ...
Introduction. THE APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN INDUSTRY AND MEDICINE Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy for a reaction to take place. Enzymes have many advantageous qualities that allow them to be used in industry and medicine: * Enzymes are not used up in reactions; each molecule repeatedly carries out the same process. This makes enzyme technology very efficient as enzymes can be reused. * They have specificity. One type of enzyme will decompose one substrate into a particular product therefore there is no wastage of resources. * Enzymes are biodegradable; therefore there is little pollution in this industry. * Enzymes function at moderate temperatures, pressure and pH so energy is saved. Until recently most biotechnology involved whole organisms therefore many enzyme pathways were involved but now isolated enzymes can be used. There is still a lot of biotechnology taking place using whole organisms though e.g. yeast used in baking and alcohol production. ...read ...
The USDA recently released its December Grain Crushings and Co-Products Production report, announcing 470 million bushels of corn was consumed for fuel alcohol production in October, up 6 percent from September and up 3 percent from October 2016.
The IKA ULTRA-TURRAX line of dispersing tools and homogenizer instrumentation produces homogenous, uniform sample preparations for a variety of applications, including: particle reduction, emulsifications, reaction enhancements in chemical, pharmaceutical, and food research, tissue homogenization for biological and medical research, alcohol production, homogenization of marine samples for bacterial separation and heavy metal analysis.
Drinking alcohol increases risk of developing some cancers, particularly of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, bowel, liver and breast. Find More Information.
Alcohol can affect the way each individual body system works. Some of these effects of alcohol can be seen immediately, while others take years to develop.
Hi, Im a 39 y/o male, never smoked, normal alcohol consumer, and about 2,5 years ago, I moved to a new place and I started to get postnasal drainage and also issues with my voice. After speaking m...
Volatile off-flavor compounds are present in beef. Using purge and trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, some volatile compounds were shown to have different concentrations in normal-flavored beef, compared to samples with liver-like off-flavor. Most of the compounds, like pentanol, hexanal, hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and nonanol, are associated with lipid oxidation. The compounds, β-pinene and 1-octen-3-ol were in higher concentration in the liver-like samples in all muscles tested. Several, small, unidentified peaks also differed between samples. Determination of the possible origins of these compounds may improve the quality and consistency of beef products.
2-C-branched methyl glycosides react with various alcohols under gold catalysis to transglycosylated products. The method is applicable for the convenient synthesis of disaccharides. Without nucleophile a selective anomerization occurs, giving first access to alpha-configured 2-C-nitromethyl glycosides. The results are interesting for the mechanism of gold-catalyzed glycosidations ...
This database and website are updated and enhanced by Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA). The project is made possible by our Sponsors and by PANNA general funds. We need your support to maintain and improve this system. Please support the database and website - donate to PANNA ...
Besides paying attention to what you eat, you should also consider what you drink. Stop drinking alcohol when you have elevated levels of bilirubin. You should at least limit your intake of alcohol and never go beyond 2 drinks a day depending on how old you are. Alcohol can damage your liver in many ways. It leaves excess fat in your liver cells and causes a condition called fatty liver. It can leads to inflammation and scarring of the liver. Above all, alcohol can disrupt the functioning of the liver and make it impossible to remove harmful toxins from your blood.. ...
There is no known safe amount of alcohol a woman can drink while pregnant. When you are pregnant and you drink beer, wine, hard liquor or other alcoho
We all love a tipple, but the drink driving limit is in place to keep everyone safe. Heres how much alcohol you can legally drink before driving.
Whether youre at work events, dinner parties, clubs, or on dates, it can seem that alcohol is always there. And sometimes - like what happened to me this weekend - theyre the only options besides plain water. But as more people are embracing the…
People with a family history of cancer should seriously consider stopping drinking alcohol altogether experts have warned in response to new research which show
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What if a person has bad habits? Which ones are the most detrimental to health? What to do if you cannot give up bad habits? Why are some people unable or unwilling to quit drinking and eating, while others cannot give up junk food? You will find answers to these and many other questions about bad habit-addictions in my blog.. ...
For people who drink moderately, this is another indication that they are not doing any harm. And for those who dont, if they dont simply out of health concerns, they might want to rethink that position, said Meir Stampfer, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health, who was not involved in the study.. ...
Alcohols[edit]. *Acyclic: pridinol. *Pyrolidino: diphenylprolinol. *2-Piperidine: pipradrol. *4-Piperidine: terfenadine, ...
Alcohols[edit]. Main article: Alcohol fuel. Generally, the term alcohol refers to ethanol, the first organic chemical produced ... Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, the latter because it was formerly produced from the distillation of ... Ethanol, also known as grain alcohol or ethyl alcohol, is commonly found in alcoholic beverages. However, it may also be used ... Butanol is an alcohol which can be used as a fuel in most gasoline internal combustion engines without engine modification. It ...
Feni is about 40-42% alcohol (80 - 84 proof). The single-distilled version is called urrak, which is about 15% alcohol (30 ... Alcohol[edit]. In the Indian state of Goa, the ripened cashew apples are mashed and the juice is extracted and kept for ... In the first stripping run of the distillation process, a cashew wine is distilled into a light alcohol, urrak. It is the next ... with less flavor and more alcohol in it. The flavors come entirely from the cashew apple and the earthen pot where it took root ...
Electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes[edit]. Alcohols add to electrophilically activated alkenes. ... The R-X cannot be used to react with the alcohol. However phenols can be used to replace the alcohol while maintaining the ... Elimination reactions compete with dehydration of the alcohol: R-CH2-CH2(OH) → R-CH=CH2 + H2O. The dehydration route often ... It involves treatment of a parent alcohol with a strong base to form the alkoxide, followed by addition of an appropriate ...
Precursors to fatty alcohols[edit]. Triethylaluminium is used industrially as an intermediate in the production of fatty ... For this reaction, even weak acids can be employed such as terminal acetylenes and alcohols. ... alcohols, which are converted to detergents. The first step involves the oligomerization of ethylene by the Aufbau reaction, ...
Alcohol[edit]. Acute alcohol consumption can directly trigger an episode of atrial fibrillation.[32] Regular alcohol ... Caffeine consumption does not appear to be associated with AF;[15][31] excessive alcohol consumption ("binge drinking" or " ... Many of its risk factors, such as obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity, and excessive alcohol consumption, are ... Healthy lifestyle changes, such as weight loss in people with obesity, increased physical activity, and drinking less alcohol, ...
Alcohol[edit]. See also: Ethanol. Describing the effects of using alcohol to treat pain is difficult.[21] Alcohol has ... Moderate use of alcohol can lessen certain types of pain in certain circumstances.[21] Attempting to use alcohol to treat pain ... High-alcohol liquor, two forms of which were found in the US Pharmacopoeia up until 1916 and in common use by physicians well ... Comes in free form, aluminium and lysine salt forms; fairly insoluble in water (1 in 300); highly soluble (1 in 5) in alcohol; ...
Alcohol[edit]. See also: Christianity and alcohol. The Catholic Church believes that grape juice that has not begun even ... "Alcohol". Methodist Church of Great Britain. Retrieved 10 November 2017.. *^ "... the use of unfermented grape juice by The ... so as to include those who do not take alcohol for any reason, as well as a commitment to the Church's historical support of ... de-alcoholized wine from which most of the alcohol has been removed (between 0.5% and 2% remains), or water.[162] Exclusive use ...
Alcohol[edit]. Maertens drank champagne during races.[11] And he was for a while salesman for Lanson, a champagne company. ... His body, he said, reacted quickly to alcohol and he could get drunk on a single glass of beer. ...
Alcohol[edit]. Main articles: Alcohol consumption and health, Alcohol and cancer, and Alcohol and cardiovascular disease ... Alcohol is believed to be hormetic in preventing heart disease and stroke,[8] although the benefits of light drinking may have ... Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Kerr, William C.; Stockwell, Tim; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Bostrom, Alan (2006). "Moderate alcohol use and ... Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Stockwell, Tim; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Bostrom, Alan; Kerr, William (2007). "Moderate Alcohol Use and ...
Consuming alcohol while taking metronidazole has been suspected in case reports to cause a disulfiram-like reaction with ... Gupta NK, Woodley CL, Fried R (October 1970). "Effect of metronidazole on liver alcohol dehydrogenase". Biochemical ... some studies call into question the mechanism of the interaction of alcohol and metronidazole,[40][41][42] and a possible ... People are often advised not to drink alcohol during systemic metronidazole therapy and for at least 48 hours after completion ...
Alcohol[edit]. Drinking alcohol excessively is a major cause of chronic pancreatitis, which in turn predisposes to pancreatic ... However, considerable research has failed to firmly establish alcohol consumption as a direct risk factor for pancreatic cancer ...
Feni is about 40-42% alcohol. The single-distilled version is called urrac, which is about 15% alcohol. ... Alcohol[edit]. In Goa, the cashew apple is mashed and the juice extracted and kept for fermentation for a few days. Fermented ... According to one source,[30] an alcohol had been distilled in the early 20th century from the juice of the fruit, and was ...
"Alcohol poisoning". nhs.uk. 2017-10-17. Retrieved 24 May 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i American Psychiatric Association (2013), ... Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning,[1] is the negative behavior and physical effects due to ... Alcohol intoxication is very common, especially in the Western world.[6] Most people who drink alcohol have at some time been ... Alcohol intoxication is the negative health effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).[5] When severe it may ...
Alcohol[edit]. Most Christian denominations condone moderate drinking of alcohol, including the Anglicans, Catholics, Lutherans ... For most of Christian history, as in the Bible, moderate drinking of alcohol was taken for granted while drunkenness was ... and Pentecostals either abstain from or prohibit the consumption of alcohol (abstentionism and prohibitionism).[20] However, ...
Alcohol[edit]. The removal of ethanol (drinking alcohol) through oxidation by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver from the human ... Drinking large amounts of alcohol will reduce the biological half-life of water in the body.[3][4] This has been used to ... Hence the removal of a large concentration of alcohol from blood may follow zero-order kinetics. Also the rate-limiting steps ... For instance, the blood alcohol concentration can be used to modify the biochemistry of methanol and ethylene glycol. In this ...
Alcohol[edit]. Various types of alcohol were also used in ancient medical practices. One of the first uses was by the Sumerians ... Alcohol is still in use today as a wound cleanser largely as rubbing alcohol. However the side effects can be skin cell death ... Another peoples to take advantage of the cleansing properties of alcohol were the Greeks. They used wine along with boiled ...
"Alcohol and Driving". Retrieved 7 October 2014.. *^ a b c d e Grand Rapids Effects Revisited: Accidents, Alcohol and Risk, H.-P ... Drinking enough alcohol to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03-0.12% typically causes a flushed, red appearance ... In Australia it is a criminal offence to drive under the influence of alcohol if one's level of alcohol is .05% or greater.[ ... With alcohol consumption, a drunk driver's level of intoxication is typically determined by a measurement of blood alcohol ...
"Alcohol and Driving". Retrieved 7 October 2014.. *^ a b c d e Grand Rapids Effects Revisited: Accidents, Alcohol and Risk, H.-P ... Alcohol[edit]. Main article: Drunk drivers. With alcohol consumption, a drunk driver's level of intoxication is typically ... Drinking enough alcohol to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03-0.12% typically causes a flushed, red appearance ... Alcohol-related crimes. *Drunk drivers *Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States) ...
Alcohol abuse[edit]. Main article: Alcohol abuse. Workplace factors can contribute to alcohol abuse and dependence of employees ... Greenberg, E.S., & Grunberg, L. (1995). Work alienation and problem alcohol behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36 ... J.C. (1995). Occupational stress and the risk of alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ... study of ECA subjects who were followed one year after the initial interviews provided data on newly incident cases of alcohol ...
Alcohol fuels[edit]. See also: Biobutanol. Pipelines have been used for transportation of ethanol in Brazil, and there are ...
"Appendix 9. Alcohol". health.gov.. *^ "Alcohol and Nutrition: The Calorie and Carb Breakdown!". The Catholic University of ... Alcohol (ethanol)[edit]. Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits, a standard serving in the United ... High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they ... Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
Reduced alcohol[edit]. Main article: Low-alcohol beer. Light beers with lower alcohol content allow consumers to drink more ... Low alcohol content can also mean a less expensive beer, especially where excise is determined by alcohol content.[5] ... In Australia, regular beers have approximately 5% alcohol by volume; light beers may have 2.2-3.2% alcohol.[6] In Scotland, the ... Light beer in Australia is low in alcohol content but not necessarily low in flavour. Alcohol content of light beer may be 2.2 ...
Alcohol usage[edit]. In the Northern Territory (which has the greatest proportion of Aboriginal Australians), per capita ... Due to the complex nature of the alcohol and domestic violence issue in the Northern Territory, proposed solutions are ... Nearly half of Aboriginal adults in the Northern Territory reported alcohol usage. In addition to the inherent risks associated ... with alcohol use, its consumption also tends to increase domestic violence. Aboriginal people account for 60% of the facial ...
Alcohol consumption[edit]. Social inhibition can be lowered by a few different factors, one of them being alcohol. Alcohol ... such that parties with little or no alcohol were perceived as less 'wild' than parties a lot of alcohol consumption."[56] ... Alcohol consumption also has the ability to lower inhibitions in a positive way. Research has been conducted looking at the way ... Alcohol can lower inhibitions for a number of reasons, it can reduce one's self-awareness, impair perceptual and cognitive ...
Alcohol consumption[edit]. A study has shown that alcohol consumption is directly associated with waist circumference and with ... After controlling for energy under-reporting, it was observed that increasing alcohol consumption significantly increased the ... Further study is needed to determine whether a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and abdominal obesity ... with elevated alcohol consumption, even after establishing a lower number of drinks per day to characterize women as consuming ...
Alcohol-induced[edit]. Main article: Alcohol use and sleep. Alcohol is often used as a form of self-treatment of insomnia to ... However, alcohol use to induce sleep can be a cause of insomnia. Long-term use of alcohol is associated with a decrease in NREM ... Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in ... Zopiclone; Others: Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol). *Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, ...
Alcohol consumption[edit]. According to clinical psychologist Catherine Grello, "alcohol consumption appears to have a direct ... The colleges and universities known for a larger alcohol consumption by their students seem to also have a larger number of ... Consumption of alcohol increases the perceptions of attraction between partners which leads to sexual activity at a much higher ... link with casual sex."[8] The more alcohol that is involved the higher the possibility of a casual relationship forming. Both ...
Alcohol prohibition[edit]. In 1996 the government of Mizoram banned liquor. The church leaders (Mizoram Kohhran Hruaitute ... Before Christianity arrived in Mizoram, home-brewed alcohol and many meat delicacies were part of the Chapchar celebrations. ... it has been difficult to enforce the ban due to the high demand for alcohol.[117] ...
Alcohols react with acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides to give esters: RCOCl + R′OH → RCO2R′ + HCl. (RCO)2O + R′OH → RCO2R′ + ... Using the alcohol in large excess (i.e., as a solvent).. *Using a dehydrating agent: sulfuric acid not only catalyzes the ... Another method for the dehydration of mixtures of alcohols and carboxylic acids is the Mitsunobu reaction: RCO2H + R′OH + P(C6H ... Ozonolysis of alkenes using a work up in the presence of hydrochloric acid and various alcohols.[19] ...
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007; 31: 1425-1434. Bertrand J, Floyd L, Chasnoff I, Wells A, Bailey G, et al. Interventions for ... In a majority of states, children with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are immediately eligible for early ... National and State Resource Directoryexternal icon from the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS) ... A controlled social skills training for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(4):639- ...
Drinking too much alcohol can lead to alcohol poisoning, which can kill a person. Over time, people who abuse alcohol can do ... Drinking alcohol is dangerous for kids and teens and sometimes for adults, too. Alcohol is a drug, and it is the drug most ... But alcohol is actually a depressant. That means its a drug that slows down or depresses the brain. Like many drugs, alcohol ... Because alcohol can cause such problems, the citizens and government leaders in the United States decided that kids shouldnt ...
When large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period of time, alcohol poisoning can result. Alcohol poisoning is ... So if alcohol is a natural product, why do teens need to be concerned about drinking it? When people drink alcohol, its ... Alcohol is a depressant, which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. Alcohol actually blocks some of the ... What Is Alcohol?. Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented. Fermentation is a process that uses ...
... but only 1 in 6 people has ever talked with their doctor or other health professional about alcohol use. ... Alcohol screening and brief counseling can reduce drinking on an occasion by 25% in people who drink too much, ... Alcohol screening and brief counseling has been proven to work.. *It can reduce how much alcohol a person drinks on an occasion ... Too Much Alcohol: Making Screening and Counseling Routineexternal icon. *The Doctors Channel - CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol ...
... including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), alcohol-related ... What do we know about the economic impact of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder? A systematic literature review. Alcohol Alcohol. ... Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1987;19(1):51-70pmid: ... Institute of Medicine, Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. . In: Stratton K, Howe C, Battaglia F, eds. Fetal Alcohol ...
Home ▸ Breastfeeding ▸ Can I Breastfeed if...? ▸ Lifestyle choices ▸ Breastfeeding and Alcohol. Breastfeeding and Alcohol. By ... Effects of alcohol on breastfeeding and the breastfed baby. *Alcohol does not increase milk production. In fact, babies nurse ... Alcohol. 2001 Nov;25(3):153-8.. Mennella JA. The transfer of alcohol to human milk: Sensory implications and effects on mother- ... Less than 2% of the alcohol consumed by the mother reaches her blood and milk. Alcohol peaks in moms blood and milk ...
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived ... Both disaccharides and monosaccharides can form sugar alcohols; however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. ... Sugar alcohols as food additives[edit]. Name Sweetness relative to sucrose Food energy. (kcal/g) Sweetness per food energy Food ... Sugar alcohols are not metabolized by oral bacteria, and so they do not contribute to tooth decay.[2][3] They do not brown or ...
Alcohol poisoning is a serious and sometimes deadly consequence of drinking large amounts of alcohol in a short time. Heres ... To avoid alcohol poisoning:. *Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For ... Other forms of alcohol - including isopropyl alcohol (found in rubbing alcohol, lotions and some cleaning products) and ... Alcohol poisoning is an emergency. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning - even if you dont see the classic signs ...
... according to a new study by scientists at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National ... Analyses of a national sample of individuals with alcohol dependence (alcoholism) reveal five distinct subtypes of the disease ... About the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, ... and treatment of alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and alcohol problems. NIAAA also disseminates research findings to general, ...
... "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on ... A primary alcohol A secondary alcohol A secondary alcohol A primary alcohol A tertiary alcohol ... n-propyl alcohol,. propan-1-ol, or. 1-propanol isopropyl alcohol,. propan-2-ol, or. 2-propanol cyclohexanol isobutyl alcohol,. ... "Nomenclature of Alcohols". chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/. Retrieved 17 March 2015.. *^ "Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004" (PDF). ...
For ethanol used as drinking alcohol, see Category:Alcohol.. For beverages containing ethanol as drinking alcohol, see Category ... English: Alcohols are a group of organic compounds, including ethanol (drinking alcohol) and methanol (wood alcohol) among many ... For the specific type of alcohol known as ethanol, see Category:Ethanol.. ... Media in category "Alcohols". The following 176 files are in this category, out of 176 total. ...
Indian Town Encounters Alcohol Pouring Out of Their Water Faucets. On Monday, 18 families living in Chalakudy, a town in the ... The Alameda County Sheriffs Office said the "illegally made jail house alcohol" had been found during a search at Santa Rita ... Pentagon leaders continue to grapple with suicide and alcohol-related deaths in the U.S. military. The news comes roughly a ... Beer and wine will be available to order from Aldi in 60 percent of its 1,400 stores that sell alcohol nationwide. ...
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Alditolo (it); Šećerni alkohol (sr); Sucre-alcool (fr); Категорија:Шеќерни алкохоли (mk); Sugar alcohol (en-ca); sugar alcohols ... Media in category "Sugar alcohols". The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. ... Azucre-alcohol (gl); سكر الكحول (ar); Cukerné alkoholy (cs); Šećerni alkohol (sr-el) composti chimici derivati da zuccheri (it ... en); 당알코올 (ko); Alkohol gula (id); Альдиты (ru); cukoralkohol (hu); Alditole (de); Rượu đường (vi); sugar alcohol (en-gb); ...
Pregnant women are generally advised to avoid drinking alcohol and for good reason - exposing an unborn baby to alcohol can ... But alcohol also has much subtler effects on a foetus. Some scientists have suggested that people who get their first taste of ... P.S. Isnt it hilarious when you go to make a tag called "alcohol" for a piece on the blog, but that tag has already been ... Alcohol was the weapon of choice for these men: Peer groups may be key to stopping campus rape. ...
Alcohol Overdose Facts. When people have an overdose of alcohol (which is when they drink more than their body can handle), ... Symptoms of an alcohol overdose. When people have had too much, they may show some signs or symptoms that could tell you ... Alcohol Rehab. One of the best ways to recover from an addiction to alcoholism is rehab. At Transformations rehab centres, they ... Well, when people consume more alcohol then their body can handle, it has effects on them. A person who has drunk a heavy ...
... with alcohols being especially ubiquitous. The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety ... When a hydroxyl group is joined to an alkane framework, an alcohol such as ethanol, is produced. When the hydroxyl group is ... Alcohols and phenols: An oxygen atom normally forms two σ bonds with other atoms; the water molecule, H2O, is the simplest and ... joined to an aryl ring, a phenol results (shown above). Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in nature, ...
Sources of alcohols: The common sources of methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol have been discussed above. Larger, more ... are examples of naturally occurring sources of alcohols. Long-chain alcohols can be obtained from fats and waxes by hydrolysis ... Substances such as cholesterol, found in most animal tissues (and abundant in egg yolks), and retinol (vitamin A alcohol), ... complicated alcohols are often isolated from volatile oils of plants by the process of steam distillation. The plant material ...
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... which occurs when a person drinks a toxic amount of alcohol, usually over a short period of time. This is often known as binge ... Alcohol poisoning occurs when a person drinks a toxic amount of alcohol, usually over a short period of time (binge drinking). ... Alcohol is absorbed quickly into your body (much quicker than food), but the body can only process around 1 unit of alcohol an ... How alcohol poisoning is treated in hospital. In hospital, the person will be carefully monitored until the alcohol has left ...
... alcohol (CHEBI:30879). allylic alcohol (CHEBI:134361) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). amino alcohol (CHEBI:22478) is a alcohol ( ... primary alcohol (CHEBI:15734) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). secondary alcohol (CHEBI:35681) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). ... fatty alcohol (CHEBI:24026) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). geosmin (CHEBI:46703) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). hemiacetal (CHEBI: ... aromatic alcohol (CHEBI:33854) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). Chloropanaxydiol (CHEBI:169502) is a alcohol (CHEBI:30879). Costatol ...
Alcohol at Reason.com, the leading libertarian magazine and video website covering news, politics, culture, science, policy ... Alcohol. Georgias Mimosa Mandate Is a Victory for Alcohol Freedom. Now restaurants can sell alcohol on Sundays as early as ... Alcohol. The FDA Is Making It Much, Much Harder for Distilleries To Produce Hand Sanitizer. Rules designed to keep alcohol safe ... Alcohol. The 5 Dumbest Laws Restricting the Sale of Booze. R Streets Jarrett Dieterle explains five of the most absurd alcohol ...
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While the anti-alcohol campaign may well have resulted in a decline in alcohol consumption, it also precipitated a sharp rise ... Mikhail Gorbachev launched a campaign against alcohol abuse, backing it up with a series of measures to reduce alcohol ... Instances of alcohol poisoning also rose, as hard drinkers turned to other, more dangerous, substances. No less serious was the ... The consumption of alcohol has deep cultural roots in Russia where it typically accompanied celebrations, signified hospitality ...
Frequency of alcohol consumption. One in eleven persons in the EU-28 reported drinking alcohol on a daily basis ... The harmful use of alcohol is determined not only by the volume but also the frequency of drinking. The volume of alcohol ... Among the EU population, one in five of those who drink alcohol had an episode of heavy drinking at least once a month ... Over one fifth of the EU population in the fifth income quintile group who drink alcohol had an episode of heavy drinking at ...
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1 threat facing Australian children and there is no adequate system in place to stop them being exposed to alcohol advertising ... The Alcohol Advertising Review Board will assess complaints from members of the public about alcohol advertising, and will look ... ALCOHOL is fast becoming the No. 1 threat facing Australian children and there is no adequate system in place to stop them ... The director of the McCusker Centre for Action on Alcohol and Youth, Mike Daube, said he was most concerned by the lack of ...
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Operators who receive a combination of two alcohol convictions within seven years, or any combination of three alcohol ... convictions within ten years, are presumed to be habitual alcohol violators. ... An alcohol content of .02 or more, but less than .08. *Any presence of alcohol in the body, other than from alcohol consumed as ... Habitual Alcohol Offender. Habitual Alcohol and Drug Offenders. Under section 303 of the Michigan Vehicle Code [the Code; MCL ...
  • Alcohol in the form of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is found in alcoholic beverages, mouthwash, cooking extracts, some medications and certain household products. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For ethanol found in alcoholic drinks, see Alcohol (drug) . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic drinks . (wikipedia.org)
  • An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is C n H 2n+1 OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (the chemical known today as ethanol ) in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term ethanol was invented in 1892, blending " ethane " with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol", which was generalized as a libfix . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohols are a group of organic compounds, including ethanol ( drinking alcohol ) and methanol (wood alcohol) among many others. (wikimedia.org)
  • For the specific type of alcohol known as ethanol, see Category:Ethanol . (wikimedia.org)
  • For ethanol used as drinking alcohol, see Category:Alcohol . (wikimedia.org)
  • For beverages containing ethanol as drinking alcohol, see Category:Alcoholic beverages . (wikimedia.org)
  • When a hydroxyl group is joined to an alkane framework, an alcohol such as ethanol , is produced. (britannica.com)
  • The common sources of methanol , ethanol , and isopropyl alcohol have been discussed above. (britannica.com)
  • Almost one in five Europeans drinking alcohol ingested more than 60 g of pure ethanol on a single occasion at least once a month in 2014. (europa.eu)
  • A standard serving of alcohol, or 'one drink' contains 14 grams (0.5 oz) of pure alcohol (ethanol). (bgsu.edu)
  • Ingestion of toxic alcohols (methanol, ethylene glycol, or other glycols) might result in some signs and symptoms similar to those of ethanol inebriation (vomiting, lethargy, or coma). (cdc.gov)
  • Professor David Nutt has been working on an alternative to alcohol for years, but it's not easy to displace ethanol in our culture (or in our legal regulations). (techdirt.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol may contain either isopropyl alcohol or ethanol. (answers.com)
  • Many alcohols exist, but by far the most common is ethanol , more commonly known just as alcohol, and probably the most widely used drug in the world. (everything2.com)
  • Ethanol is usually made by fermentation of yeast , and other alcohols are made by hydrolysing alkenes . (everything2.com)
  • Human stomachs and livers have an enzyme known as alcohol dehydrogenase that breaks down ethanol to make it less toxic for our bodies, said Atlanta gastroenterologist Dr. Preston Stewart. (cnn.com)
  • Ethanol, when used for toxicity, competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, lessening metabolism into toxic aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives, and reducing more serious toxic effect of the glycols to crystallize in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other forms of alcohol - including isopropyl alcohol (found in rubbing alcohol, lotions and some cleaning products) and methanol or ethylene glycol (a common ingredient in antifreeze, paints and solvents) - can cause other types of toxic poisoning that require emergency treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Much of it, however, had been mixed with methanol ( methyl alcohol ) or other chemicals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Is there methanol in rubbing alcohol? (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol contain water, methanol or isopropyl alcohol, a dye. (answers.com)
  • Simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article include primary (RCH 2 OH), secondary (R 2 CHOH) and tertiary (R 3 COH) alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Grignard reagent adds to formaldehyde to give a primary alcohol with one additional carbon atom, to an aldehyde to give a secondary alcohol, and to a ketone to yield a tertiary alcohol. (britannica.com)
  • This technique is valuable for making secondary and tertiary alcohols with two identical alkyl groups. (britannica.com)
  • Model tertiary alcohols exhibited β-proton abstraction following breaking of the C-O bond, while model secondary and primary alcohols experienced an earlier β-proton abstraction, synchronic with the C-O bond cleavage. (springer.com)
  • Isopropyl (or methyl) alcohol (or possibly ethyl alcohol) normally has the name "rubbing alcohol" applied to it. (answers.com)
  • No. Rubbing alcohol contains either Isopropyl or Denatured Ethyl alcohol. (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is already a mixture of water and isopropyl alcohol. (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is 'isopropyl' alcohol, not the same chemical as grain alcohol, ('ethyl' alcohol). (answers.com)
  • There are two common types of rubbing alcohol, Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol and Ethyl Alcohol Rubbing Alcohol. (answers.com)
  • Yes, rubbing alcohol is a common name for isopropyl alcohol. (answers.com)
  • Can you use isopropyl alcohol for rubbing alcohol? (answers.com)
  • Isopropyl alcohol and rubbing alcohol are not the same thing. (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is a mixture of compounds (type of denatured alcohol) whereas isopropyl alcohol is not. (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is called 2-propanol or isopropyl alcohol. (answers.com)
  • No, Isopropyl Alcohol (also known as rubbing alcohol) isn't a carcinogen. (answers.com)
  • If you know, be sure to tell hospital or emergency personnel the kind and amount of alcohol the person drank, and when. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Alcohol poisoning occurs when a person drinks a toxic amount of alcohol, usually over a short period of time (binge drinking) . (www.nhs.uk)
  • The amount of alcohol in your bloodstream, known as your blood alcohol concentration (BAC), will rise. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The amount of alcohol in the drink is more important than the volume of liquid. (bgsu.edu)
  • There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Binge drinking is when you drink an excessive amount of alcohol at one time. (familydoctor.org)
  • You will be fine if thats the honest amount of alcohol you are consuming, Luvox is more dangerous than the 2 beers you have I would get off that ASAP I know its an OCD med but its not worth it. (drugs.com)
  • As the amount of alcohol increases inside the brain, cells essentially shut down because they cannot receive signals. (everything2.com)
  • However, you are not taking it for depression but for panic attacks , which unlike depression are likely to be eased by a small amount of alcohol rather than worsened as depression might be. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Limit the amount of alcohol you keep at home. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Chapter 107: Toxic Alcohols. (cdc.gov)
  • Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning: methylpyrazole for toxic alcohols study group. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxic alcohols are poisonous alcohols that can damage the heart, kidneys, and nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2018 alcohol and tobacco compliance check results are now available at SAC - Survey for Alcohol Compliance and TCC - Tobacco Compliance Checks . (in.gov)
  • John Crabbe , current Portland Alcohol Research Center (PARC) Co-Investigator and former Center Director, was elected as a 2018 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ( AAAS) in recognition of extraordinary achievements in science. (ohsu.edu)
  • When large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period of time, alcohol poisoning can result. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol poisoning is exactly what it sounds like - the body has become poisoned by large amounts of alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • A newborn has a very immature liver, so minute amounts of alcohol would be more of a burden. (kellymom.com)
  • One study showed changes in the infant's sleep-wake patterning after short-term exposure to small amounts of alcohol in breastmilk - infants whose mothers were light drinkers slept less (Mennella & Gerrish 1998). (kellymom.com)
  • Alcohol poisoning is a serious - and sometimes deadly - consequence of drinking large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The amount consumed and how long they have had the high amounts of alcohol in their system can be a determining factor in whether or not they survive. (google.com)
  • Together, the studies included more than 500 people who drank low, moderate or high amounts of alcohol before going to bed, and underwent testing while they snoozed in a sleep lab. (livescience.com)
  • Consuming these amounts of alcohol harms your health, relationships, work, and/or causes legal problems. (familydoctor.org)
  • The small amounts of alcohol contained in that early beer was enough to keep the bacterial content to an acceptable limit. (everything2.com)
  • My question is whether it is ok to drink moderate amounts of alcohol while taking this drug. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Grignard and organolithium reagents are powerful tools for organic synthesis, and the most common products of their reactions are alcohols. (britannica.com)
  • So for the 99% of the population which doesn't have reactions to sugar alcohols, these products are great. (bellaonline.com)
  • Someone who has alcoholism craves alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • A person who starts drinking alcohol at a young age is more likely to develop alcoholism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Analyses of a national sample of individuals with alcohol dependence (alcoholism) reveal five distinct subtypes of the disease, according to a new study by scientists at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (nih.gov)
  • However, recent reports from NIAAA's National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative epidemiological study of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders in the United States, suggest that only about one-fourth of individuals with alcoholism have ever received treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Alcohol abuse can lead to physical dependency on alcohol, or alcoholism. (familydoctor.org)
  • If you have a family history of alcoholism or alcohol abuse, you may have to work harder at resisting or limiting alcohol. (familydoctor.org)
  • Severe AUD is sometimes called alcoholism or alcohol dependence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In New York and Massachusetts, two states that had no restrictions on alcohol consumption before 1920, hospital admissions for alcoholism declined sharply. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One of 20 research centers funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism , the Portland Alcohol Research Center (PARC) focuses on uncovering the genetics of how the brain adapts to alcohol. (ohsu.edu)
  • The Society promotes research, training, and dissemination of information on alcoholism and alcohol-related biomedical phenomena, for the benefit of individuals and to inform national and international agencies on alcohol-related research and policy. (ohsu.edu)
  • Tamara Phillips , PARC Center Director, received the Bowles Lectureship Award from the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in recognition of her distinguished career and research on alcoholism and alcohol abuse. (ohsu.edu)
  • According to results from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), alcoholism affects men more than women: About 10 percent of men, compared to 3 to 5 percent of women, become alcoholics over the course of their lifetime. (forbes.com)
  • In a majority of states, children with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are immediately eligible for early intervention services. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. (aappublications.org)
  • The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. (aappublications.org)
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is an overarching phrase that encompasses a range of possible diagnoses, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). (aappublications.org)
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious type of FASD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow eyes, growth problems and nervous system abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety of physical and chemical properties. (britannica.com)
  • The polar bonds of the hydroxyl group are responsible for the major reaction characteristics of alcohols and phenols. (britannica.com)
  • Cholesterol, found in most animal tissues and in egg yolks, contains a hydroxyl group (―OH), making it a naturally occurring source of alcohol. (britannica.com)
  • Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols , polyalcohols , alditols or glycitols ) are organic compounds , typically derived from sugars , that comprise a class of polyols . (wikipedia.org)
  • THCCOOH were detectable in lifted up by the different nationalities struggling to for at least 24 which are two-team costo cialis 20 mg in farmacia The species in which your walls a TARDIS substances are are called secondary Pastillas Cialis Alcohol as also make beverages or desserts resulted in the earliest. (matthewjensenlaw.com)
  • Like many drugs, alcohol changes a person's ability to think, speak, and see things as they really are. (kidshealth.org)
  • Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2005 (66). (cdc.gov)
  • The chances of an overdose is increased if a person mixes alcohol with other narcotics (such as drugs). (google.com)
  • Operating a vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or a combination of alcohol and drugs. (michigan.gov)
  • Operating While Impaired by alcohol or drugs, or a combination of alcohol and drugs. (michigan.gov)
  • He or she represents a low or minimal risk of again driving drunk and/or drugged, or repeating his or her past abusive behavior regarding alcohol and/or drugs. (michigan.gov)
  • Regarding abstinence, the petitioner must prove that he or she has completely abstained from the use of alcohol and drugs, except for controlled substances prescribed by a licensed health care professional, for not less than 6 consecutive months immediately before the hearing. (michigan.gov)
  • A relapse means the petitioner used alcohol or drugs on at least 1 occasion after attempting to bring his or her problem under control. (michigan.gov)
  • Sometimes, when potentially harmful or dangerous situations occur that involve alcohol or drugs people may be reluctant to call for help. (shsu.edu)
  • Bowling Green State University has a long-standing commitment to addressing the impacts of alcohol and drugs on its student body. (bgsu.edu)
  • While data demonstrates that most BGSU students make responsible choices related to alcohol and drugs, there are many that do not. (bgsu.edu)
  • Contributing factors to these negative choices include stress, a belief that all students are engaging in those behaviors, and lack of accurate information about alcohol and drugs and the consequences of their use. (bgsu.edu)
  • Peer educators present on various wellness topics, including nutrition, body image, alcohol and other drugs and sexual health. (bgsu.edu)
  • Middlebury's standards of conduct, which prohibit the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illegal drugs and alcohol by students and employees on Middlebury property or in connection with any activities or programs sponsored by Middlebury. (middlebury.edu)
  • My main goal is to help people to obtain a one-stop solution for their addictions to drugs or alcohol. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Alcohol and other drugs have varying degrees of social and legal acceptance and varying levels of risk. (nyu.edu)
  • The World Health Organization describes substance abuse as the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. (nyu.edu)
  • As with many medications and drugs, we don't actually know how alcohol induces intoxication. (techdirt.com)
  • Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The reward center is the same combination of brain areas (particularly the ventral striatum ) that are affected by virtually all pleasurable activity, including everything from hanging out with friends, going on vacation, getting a big bonus at work, ingesting drugs (like cocaine and crystal meth), and drinking alcohol. (forbes.com)
  • How comfortable do you feel seeking medical/professional help in regards to you or a friend who is using drugs/alcohol? (google.com)
  • This article provides some information on alcohol, including how it affects your body, so you can make an educated choice. (kidshealth.org)
  • Consumption of sugar alcohols affects blood sugar levels, although much less than does sucrose comparing by glycemic index. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because alcohol poisoning affects the way the gag reflex works, someone with alcohol poisoning may choke on his or her own vomit and not be able to breathe. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In fact, alcohol affects HDL levels just about as strongly as any other lifestyle factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Alcohol affects your health in other ways, too. (familydoctor.org)
  • Alcohol had become an indispensable part of the drug which affects people in all aspects. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Alcohol affects the brain and neurochemistry and makes the person lose control of his/her actions. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Alcohol affects your central nervous system (CNS), but there are various elements that could play a role in how much alcohol will affect your CNS. (bgsu.edu)
  • We hear many different things about how alcohol affects the brain and body, most notably that it is a depressant. (forbes.com)
  • Alcohol directly affects brain chemistry by altering levels of neurotransmitters -- the chemical messengers that transmit the signals throughout the body that control thought processes, behavior and emotion. (forbes.com)
  • Alcohol affects both "excitatory" neurotransmitters and "inhibitory" neurotransmitters. (forbes.com)
  • Most alcohol is processed (metabolized) by your liver. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Substances such as cholesterol , found in most animal tissues (and abundant in egg yolks), and retinol ( vitamin A alcohol), extracted from fish liver oils, are examples of naturally occurring sources of alcohols. (britannica.com)
  • Your liver breaks down alcohol and some medications . (webmd.com)
  • Every time you drink alcohol, your liver has to filter it out of your blood. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Under Prohibition, deaths from alcohol-related diseases, such as cirrhosis of the liver, fell, and arrests for drunkenness decreased. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since mono often produces liver inflammation it is wise to avoid alcohol consumption while symptomatic. (drugs.com)
  • Since alcohol is broken down by the liver, the illness can intensify the risk of liver injury by alcohol. (drugs.com)
  • Blood absorbs alcohol much faster than the liver can eliminate it, which is why it takes an hour for the effects of each drink to wear off. (menshealth.com)
  • Eventually the alcohol would still make its way to the liver, Stewart said, but the high alcohol content would overwhelm the organ. (cnn.com)
  • Drinking too much alcohol increases people's risk of injuries, violence, drowning, liver disease, and some types of cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Because experts now know that the human brain is still developing during our teens, scientists are researching the effects drinking alcohol can have on the teen brain. (kidshealth.org)
  • In commercial foodstuffs, sugar alcohols are commonly used in place of table sugar ( sucrose ), often in combination with high intensity artificial sweeteners to counter the low sweetness. (wikipedia.org)
  • This displacement reaction is not frequently used to synthesize alcohols, however, because alkyl halides are more commonly synthesized from alcohols rather than vice versa. (britannica.com)
  • Binge drinking is commonly tied to alcohol poisoning. (familydoctor.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are commonly used in sugar free products and diet products because they are very slow to be absorbed and do not cause the "sugar rush / blood sugar spike" that normal carbohydrates cause. (bellaonline.com)
  • For example, sugar alcohols are commonly used in sugar free candies because they mimic sugar so nicely in the baking process. (bellaonline.com)
  • Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sugarless gum uses sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, as a sweetener. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Some common types of sugar alcohols include maltitol, sorbitol and isomalt. (bellaonline.com)
  • A report of the study is now available online in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence. (nih.gov)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding notes: "ingestion of alcoholic beverages should be minimized and limited to an occasional intake but no more than 0.5 g alcohol per kg body weight, which for a 60 kg mother is approximately 2 oz liquor, 8 oz wine, or 2 beers. (kellymom.com)
  • Ethyl alcohol poisoning generally results from drinking too many alcoholic beverages, especially in a short period of time. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A major cause of alcohol poisoning is binge drinking - a pattern of heavy drinking when a male rapidly consumes five or more alcoholic drinks within two hours, or a female rapidly consumes at least four drinks within two hours. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In 2014, 9.2 % of the EU-28 population aged 15 and over reported having an alcoholic drink every day, compared to 29.6 % of weekly alcohol consumers and 23.1 % of monthly alcohol consumers (see Table 1). (europa.eu)
  • In contrast, slightly less than one quarter of Europeans (23.9 %) have not consumed alcohol at all during the twelve months prior to the survey or have never had an alcoholic drink of any kind. (europa.eu)
  • The Alcohol & Tobacco Commission conducts two types of meetings on a monthly basis: Commission Meetings and Local Alcoholic Beverage Board Hearings. (in.gov)
  • Collectible alcohol containers if they still contain any alcoholic content. (ebay.com)
  • Distilled alcoholic beverages could pretend neither to nourishment nor to low alcohol content-but they became widely popular in some areas of Europe (for example, Russia), where they replaced wine and beer as the preferred beverages in daily life and in the celebration of church holidays and ceremonial occasions, such as births, christenings and baptisms, marriages, deaths, and wakes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Burns reduces alcohol sales distances The Burns Commission reduced the distance permitted for alcoholic beverage sales to within 250 feet of churches and public schools. (tennessean.com)
  • Making alcoholic ice cream isn't as simple as it might sound because the freezing point of alcohol is much lower than water. (techdirt.com)
  • According to a study, Dutch scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in viewers. (france24.com)
  • Distillation increases the alcohol content of a drink by boiling an alcoholic mixture and collecting the alcohol as it evaporates. (ehow.com)
  • They also add to epoxides , yielding primary alcohols in which two additional carbon atoms have been added to the chain of the Grignard reagent. (britannica.com)
  • This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alcohol Advertising Review Board will assess complaints from members of the public about alcohol advertising, and will look at areas not covered by the current code, such as sponsorship or advertisement placement. (smh.com.au)
  • thiols and sulfides Thiols are organic functional groups, similar in structure to alcohols but containing sulfur atoms in place of oxygen atoms. (britannica.com)
  • The addition of two hydrogen atoms to a carbonyl group produces an alcohol. (britannica.com)
  • A primary alcohol is a compound in which a hydroxy group, ‒OH, is attached to a saturated carbon atom which has either three hydrogen atoms attached to it or only one other carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms attached to it. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sugar alcohols are made from adding hydrogen atoms to sugars. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in nature, with alcohols being especially ubiquitous . (britannica.com)
  • Although ethers contain two polar carbon-oxygen bonds, they are much less reactive than alcohols or phenols. (britannica.com)
  • Drinking too much alcohol can lead to alcohol poisoning, which can kill a person. (kidshealth.org)
  • Violent vomiting is usually the first symptom of alcohol poisoning. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol poisoning can also occur when adults or children accidentally or intentionally drink household products that contain alcohol. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A person with alcohol poisoning needs immediate medical attention. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you suspect someone has alcohol poisoning, call for emergency medical help right away. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A person with alcohol poisoning who is unconscious or can't be awakened is at risk of dying. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning - even if you don't see the classic signs and symptoms - seek immediate medical care. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This event can be known as acute intoxication or alcohol poisoning. (google.com)
  • Alcohol poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning in England, especially among young people. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In the most severe cases, alcohol poisoning can lead to coma , brain damage and death. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you suspect alcohol poisoning, dial 999 immediately to request an ambulance. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Alcohol poisoning can also occur if a person drinks household products that contain alcohol. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Instances of alcohol poisoning also rose, as hard drinkers turned to other, more dangerous, substances. (archive.org)
  • Too much alcohol at one time also can lead to alcohol poisoning. (familydoctor.org)
  • Alcohol Poisoning Requires Immediate Medical Attention! (etsu.edu)
  • Drinking black coffee, taking a cold bath or shower, or sleeping or walking it off can not reverse alcohol poisoning. (etsu.edu)
  • Therefore, a "normal" osmol gap should never be used to exclude a toxic alcohol poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol poisoning can be deadly. (familydoctor.org)
  • Current research says that occasional use of alcohol (1-2 drinks) does not appear to be harmful to the nursing baby. (kellymom.com)
  • Daily consumption of alcohol (1+ drinks daily) has been associated with a decrease in gross motor development (Little et al 1989). (kellymom.com)
  • In addition, moderate doses (2 to 4 drinks) and high doses (more than 4 drinks) of alcohol reduced overall rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the night. (livescience.com)
  • The rate at which a person's BAC rises varies depending on:  The number of drinks consumed (The more consumed, the higher the BAC)  How quickly drinks are consumed (Alcohol consumed more quickly raises the BAC higher than when drinks are consumed over a longer period of time)  Your gender (Women generally have less water weight and more body fat per pound than men. (slideshare.net)
  • Different types of drinks contain different concentrations of alcohol. (bgsu.edu)
  • Drinks with high alcohol content, larger sizes, and additional sugar and syrup mixers. (bgsu.edu)
  • Peers also will tell your child that alcohol makes them feel good, gives them confidence, that there's no harm in drinking, and that everyone drinks. (familydoctor.org)
  • For example, the innocuous information programmes carried out by the drinks industry over the past decades or so are totally ineffective and represent nothing more than a means of staving off the introduction of measures that could reduce alcohol-related harm among people of all ages in this country. (irishtimes.com)
  • Four drinks in 1 hour and you have a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.08, the legal limit in most states. (menshealth.com)
  • It's true that, in certain cases, moderate doses of alcohol may help keep the heart and its arteries clear--one or two drinks a day raises plaque-scavenging HDL cholesterol, softens artery walls, and makes blood cells less likely to clot. (menshealth.com)
  • But alcohol is actually a depressant. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol is a depressant , which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
  • Note that the fact that alcohol is classified as a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant is irrelevant to it's effects on Depression as a psychiatric disorder. (answers.com)
  • Hi, alcohol is a depressant, so it will go against the effects of the antidepressant/s. (drugs.com)
  • Alcohol is a depressant, but it's also an indirect stimulant, and plays a few other roles that might surprise you. (forbes.com)
  • So what we just discussed accounts for the depressant effects of alcohol: it suppresses the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and increases the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. (forbes.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is POISONOUS to drink! (answers.com)
  • Rubbing alcohol is poisonous. (answers.com)
  • This is when the level of alcohol in a person's blood is so high that it's considered poisonous. (familydoctor.org)
  • Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol has played an important role in human society since the accidental discovery of the effects of ethyl alcohol-the product of the natural fermentation of honey or fruit. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike sugars, which tend to exist as rings, sugar alcohols do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with Type I diabetes have found that their blood sugars will rise if they consume sugar alcohols in large amounts. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are not actually sugars, nor are they alcohols. (bellaonline.com)
  • Grignard reagents add twice to esters to give alcohols (upon hydrolysis). (britannica.com)
  • The base introduced in the oxo reactor while hydroformylation is occurring continuously converts by-products acetals and esters to the corresponding primary alcohols, thereby considerably increasing the yield thereof. (google.com)
  • Erythritol is a sugar alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols have the general formula HOCH 2 (CHOH) n CH 2 OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sugar alcohols differ in chain length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols occur naturally and at one time, mannitol was obtained from natural sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols do not contribute to tooth decay . (wikipedia.org)
  • These results have generated interest in the sugar alcohol that would examine if it could be a human treatment for osteoporosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] [7] Sugar alcohols, with the exception of erythritol , may also cause bloating and diarrhea when consumed in excessive amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. maltitol and lactitol) are not entirely hydrogenated because only one aldehyde group is available for reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as sucrose , and they have slightly less food energy than sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are not metabolized by oral bacteria, and so they do not contribute to tooth decay . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their sweetness, some sugar alcohols can produce a noticeable cooling sensation in the mouth when highly concentrated, for instance in sugar-free hard candy or chewing gum . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cooling sensation is due to the dissolution of the sugar alcohol being an endothermic (heat-absorbing) reaction [1] , one with a strong heat of solution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are usually incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestine which generally results in a smaller change in blood glucose than "regular" sugar ( sucrose ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of calories in a drink is primarily determined by the alcohol content, rather than the amount of sugar that is added to the drink. (bgsu.edu)
  • Sugar alcohols have about one-half to one-third fewer calories than regular sugar, because they convert to glucose more slowly. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The caloric content varies by specific sugar alcohol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Some of the other sugar alcohols can have almost as many calories as sugar, so they're not necessarily used in 'diet' foods, but in sugar-free gum. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This is because higher levels of sugar alcohols unabsorbed in the intestines can cause bloating, gas, and diarrhea. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The only way to know how many sugar alcohols are in a given total carb count is if the maker of the product tells you what the actual net carbs of the food item are, doing that work for you. (bellaonline.com)
  • Many (if not most) people do not absorb sugar alcohols at all before they pass through the system. (bellaonline.com)
  • Because sugar alcohols just slide through your digestive system, they can cause a laxitive effect if you eat too many of them. (bellaonline.com)
  • When your intestines run into these sugar alcohols, they go a bit crazy :) Some people get a little farty. (bellaonline.com)
  • If you've never tried sugar alcohols before, be sure to try them in SMALL amounts to see which group you fall into. (bellaonline.com)
  • Do Sugar Alcohols Count? (bellaonline.com)
  • Sugar alcohols don't cause a sugar rush, and are pretty much passed through your system. (bellaonline.com)
  • But a few people DO have problems losing weight when they eat too many sugar alcohol products. (bellaonline.com)
  • But I do know people personally who stall when they eat sugar alcohol products. (bellaonline.com)
  • So I would be cautious about eating too many sugar alcohols. (bellaonline.com)
  • Some people complain - if sugar alcohols cause problems, why use them? (bellaonline.com)
  • If you're in the 1% that has tummy problems with sugar alcohols, you can eat the sugar-free items Splenda can be used to create. (bellaonline.com)
  • In general, sugar alcohols and any artificial sweeteners are good ways to wean yourself off of sugar - but remember that the end result of this process should be aiming to reduce your sweet tooth in general. (bellaonline.com)
  • So be sure to eat sugar alcohol items only occasionally, and stick with the healthy foods and meats that should be the bulk of your diet! (bellaonline.com)
  • NOTE: I've heard from pet owners that pets can get very sick if they eat items with sugar alcohols. (bellaonline.com)
  • Ingestion of large amounts of a toxic alcohol typically results in a large osmol gap followed by a high anion gap metabolic acidosis. (cdc.gov)
  • covers an alcohol misuse screening once per year if you're an adult (including pregnant women) who uses alcohol, but you don't meet the medical criteria for alcohol dependency. (medicare.gov)
  • The treatment options for alcohol misuse depend on the extent of your drinking and whether you're trying to drink less (moderation) or give up drinking completely (abstinence). (www.nhs.uk)
  • The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends screening adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse. (familydoctor.org)
  • Government statistics show that these and other programs to prevent alcohol misuse could be paying off. (prweb.com)
  • Sir, - Your report on alcohol-related deaths among people who were alcohol dependent (Home News, July 14th) yet again underlines the grave levels of alcohol misuse in this country. (irishtimes.com)
  • Operating a vehicle with a bodily alcohol content [BAC] of .08 or higher. (michigan.gov)
  • Operating a commercial vehicle with an alcohol content of .04 or higher. (michigan.gov)
  • 1. Blood Alcohol Content Your BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) is the percentage of your blood volume that is alcohol. (slideshare.net)
  • The US Postal Service (USPS) doesn't allow the shipment of intoxicating liquors containing 0.5% or more alcohol by content. (ebay.com)
  • Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) is a measure of alcohol in the blood as a percentage. (bgsu.edu)
  • The following are typical effects associated with increases in blood alcohol content. (bgsu.edu)
  • The powerful spirituous beverages aquavit and vodka-names that derive from the word "water" in Scandinavian languages and Russian, respectively-resulted from a process that used a boiling water-alcohol mixture to derive a condensation with a higher alcohol content than that of the starting liquid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Volstead Act, unlike some state laws, permitted the manufacture of beer as long as the beer contained no more than 0.5 percent alcohol (this low-alcohol-content beer was called near beer). (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is packaged with a bit of water, and the alcohol content varies from one manufacturer to another. (answers.com)
  • Well, when people consume more alcohol then their body can handle, it has effects on them. (google.com)
  • It is also a violation of University policy for anyone to consume or possess alcohol in any public or private area of campus without prior approval by the University. (umsl.edu)
  • Drinking alcohol is dangerous for kids and teens and sometimes for adults, too. (kidshealth.org)
  • By setting the drinking age at 21, they hope older people will be able to make good decisions about alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • But everyone is not drinking alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • So if alcohol is a natural product, why do teens need to be concerned about drinking it? (kidshealth.org)
  • The impression is that drinking is cool, but the nervous system changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. (kidshealth.org)
  • Drinking too much includes binge drinking, high weekly use, and any alcohol use by pregnant women or those under age 21. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol screening and brief counseling can reduce drinking on an occasion by 25% in people who drink too much, but only 1 in 6 people has ever talked with their doctor or other health professional about alcohol use. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors and other health professionals can use alcohol screening and brief counseling to help people who are drinking too much to drink less. (cdc.gov)
  • Drinking too much is dangerous and can lead to heart disease, breast cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, sudden infant death syndrome, motor-vehicle crashes, and violence. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no need to pump & dump milk after drinking alcohol, other than for mom's comfort - pumping & dumping does not speed the elimination of alcohol from the milk. (kellymom.com)
  • Alcohol peaks in mom's blood and milk approximately 1/2-1 hour after drinking (but there is considerable variation from person to person, depending upon how much food was eaten in the same time period, mom's body weight and percentage of body fat, etc. (kellymom.com)
  • Even when you're unconscious or you've stopped drinking, alcohol continues to be released from your stomach and intestines into your bloodstream, and the level of alcohol in your body continues to rise. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Tend to be in their mid-twenties, had early onset of regular drinking, and alcohol problems. (nih.gov)
  • Comprised mostly of middle-aged individuals who had early onset of drinking and alcohol problems, with high rates of Antisocial Personality Disorder and criminality. (nih.gov)
  • Drinking alcohol can sometimes be a touchy issue between patients and doctors. (webmd.com)
  • Doctors don't recommend drinking alcohol to protect against DVT. (webmd.com)
  • It's important to avoid misusing alcohol and to be aware of how much you're drinking and the effect this could have on your body. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Drinking too much alcohol can affect a person's judgement and put them in situations where their health and safety are at risk. (www.nhs.uk)
  • At this stage you should seriously consider not drinking any more alcohol. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In 2014, among the EU population, one in five of those who drink alcohol had an episode of heavy drinking at least once a month. (europa.eu)
  • The harmful use of alcohol is determined not only by the volume but also the frequency of drinking. (europa.eu)
  • The volume of alcohol consumption and the pattern of drinking affect both health and social outcomes. (europa.eu)
  • for example, for a group of countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Denmark and Norway) the pattern of alcohol consumption is characterised by high proportions of the population drinking at least every month but also high proportions of heavy drinking episodes at the same frequency, while in Romania risky single-occasion drinking proportions are high despite the relatively low proportion of alcohol consumption at least every month. (europa.eu)
  • Also, there are countries that are characterised by daily drinking of alcohol (for example Spain, Italy, Portugal), but the levels of regular heavy episodic drinking are relatively low. (europa.eu)
  • Over 40 % of the population in Denmark (40 %), Luxembourg (40.6 %), Ireland (41.4 %) and the United Kingdom (45 %) reported drinking alcohol every week. (europa.eu)
  • Figure 1 presents the percentage of persons aged 15 and over drinking alcohol who reported having an episode of heavy drinking at least once a month during the twelve months prior to the survey. (europa.eu)
  • What we found in a study of about 38,000 men was that the key factor wasn't what men were drinking, or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In addition, drinking alcohol, no matter the quantity, increased deep sleep during the first half of the night. (livescience.com)
  • If you are worried about your drinking or have had an alcohol-related accident or injury, you may be offered a short counselling session known as a brief intervention. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A brief intervention lasts about 5 to 10 minutes, and covers risks associated with your pattern of drinking, advice about reducing the amount you drink, alcohol support networks available to you, and any emotional issues around your drinking. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Keeping a "drinking diary" may be recommended so you can record how many units of alcohol you drink a week. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It is a pattern of drinking too much alcohol too often. (familydoctor.org)
  • You hide your drinking or your alcohol. (familydoctor.org)
  • Repeated use of alcohol puts you or someone else in physical danger (driving, operating machinery, mixing alcohol and medicine, drinking alcohol while pregnant). (familydoctor.org)
  • Some prescription medicines can treat alcohol abuse by helping people stop or reduce their drinking. (familydoctor.org)
  • A New Study Says Heavy Drinking Has Become a 'Public Health Crisis' Rates of alcohol abuse are on the rise, especially for women, minorities, and the elderly. (nymag.com)
  • 2. If one thinks in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), it's really not surprising that women and men who stick to the low-risk drinking guidelines experience fewer negative alcohol-related consequences than their peers who drink more. (slideshare.net)
  • Moderate drinking does not impact much whereas complete rely on alcohol results in adverse consequences. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Even after an individual stops drinking, alcohol continues to be absorbed through the stomach. (etsu.edu)
  • The Beer Institute is recognizing Alcohol Awareness Month and record low drunk driving and underage drinking reports. (prweb.com)
  • The brewer is also committed to preventing underage drinking and partners with the Responsible Retail Forum to enhance the existing skills of retailers through the Respect 21 program, assisting almost 2,000 retailers in keeping alcohol out of the hands of those under the legal drinking age. (prweb.com)
  • The executives say that the introduction of a minimum price for alcohol would protect society from "irresponsible" drinking blighting Britain's streets. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In the letter, they say: "Minimum unit pricing will not solve all our alcohol-related ills but it will help to encourage responsible drinking and curb excessive drinking. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Peter Marks, chief executive of the Luminar Group, which runs 56 nightclubs in England, said too many town centres were now suffering the consequences of binge drinking, especially from young people who "pre-loaded" by drinking cheap alcohol at home before arriving in pubs and nightclubs. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Wines and beers of varying strengths and description became the primary beverages among European populations confronted with unpotable drinking water, since the antiseptic power of alcohol, along with the natural acidity of wine and beer, killed many pathogens in the questionable water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other subterranean rumblings against excessive alcohol consumption during this period came from moralists disturbed by the spread of distilled spirits-with the matter betraying national animosities: the French accused the Italians of introducing distilling techniques learned from the Arabs, the Germans accused the French of the same thing, and the English claimed that their soldiers had been introduced to gin drinking in Holland during the wars of the sixteenth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are physical effects of drinking alcohol? (webmd.com)
  • Drinking during pregnancy can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Binge drinking is drinking so much at once that your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level is 0.08% or more. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The findings highlight a potential need to explicitly warn people -- and parents -- if movies contain alcohol use because such portrayals have a direct effect on drinking, researchers at Radboud University Nijmegen said. (france24.com)
  • This is the first experimental study to show a direct effect of exposure to alcohol portrayals on TV on viewers' immediate drinking behaviour," Engels said in a statement. (france24.com)
  • Research shows that the earlier a child starts drinking, the greater the likelihood he or she will abuse alcohol later in life. (familydoctor.org)
  • As a reminder, drinking alcohol while under the age of 21 is not legal and is unsafe. (familydoctor.org)
  • Talk about the dangers of underage drinking and alcohol abuse. (familydoctor.org)
  • This means losing memories after drinking too much alcohol. (familydoctor.org)
  • These are bad choices your child could make after drinking too much alcohol. (familydoctor.org)
  • By jacking up dopamine levels in your brain, alcohol tricks you into thinking that it's actually making you feel great (or maybe just better, if you are drinking to get over something emotionally difficult). (forbes.com)
  • This April, during Alcohol Awareness Month, [your organization] encourages you to educate yourself and your loved ones about the dangers of drinking too much. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Newsom's alcohol use became an embarrassment for the mayor after witnesses reported he appeared to have been drinking late Dec. 22 before arriving at San Francisco General Hospital , where a police officer had been taken after being mortally wounded. (sfgate.com)
  • The mayor also faced scrutiny late last year for bringing a then 20-year-old woman out on dates, where she was reportedly seen drinking what appeared to be alcohol. (sfgate.com)
  • For instance, they don't want people to drink alcohol and drive cars because that's how many accidents occur. (kidshealth.org)
  • An alcohol binge can occur over hours or last up to several days. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Per Hale (2017), "mothers who ingest alcohol in moderate amounts can generally return to breastfeeding as soon as they feel neurologically normal. (kellymom.com)
  • Associated Alcohols & Breweries Ltd has informed BSE that the Register of Members & Share Transfer Books of the Company will remain closed from July 31, 2017 to August 05, 2017 (both days inclusive) for the purpose of Payment of Dividend & 28th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Company to be held on August 05, 2017. (indiatimes.com)
  • As of August 1, 2017, an Electronic Chain of Custody Form (eCCF) replaced the paper chain of custody forms for employees or prospective employees of Indiana state government who visit an approved testing/collection site for a drug or alcohol test. (in.gov)
  • Regardless of how much people drank, alcohol reduced the time it took them to fall asleep. (livescience.com)
  • Call 911, stay with the victim to prevent them from choking on vomit, and tell emergency personnel how much alcohol the victim drank. (etsu.edu)
  • The health care provider will make a diagnosis by looking at the child's signs and symptoms and asking whether the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An experiment with students showed that volunteers exposed to a film and commercials where alcohol featured predominately drank an average one-and-a-half bottles of beer more during the hour they were watching. (france24.com)
  • The most alcohol anyone drank was four bottles and the least amount was none, the researchers said, adding it was not possible to tell whether watching alcohol on screen has any effect on long-term behaviour. (france24.com)
  • Good friends won't stop being your friend just because you don't want to drink alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • When people drink alcohol, it's absorbed into their bloodstream. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol screening and brief counseling can reduce the amount consumed on an occasion by 25% in those who drink too much. (cdc.gov)
  • When people have an overdose of alcohol (which is when they drink more than their body can handle), they could lose their life. (google.com)
  • When people drink alcohol in high amounts, they have a chance of having an overdose. (google.com)
  • Unfortunately, it's quite common for people to drink alcohol and take other dangerous substances at the same time. (google.com)
  • People who said they drink a lot of liquor also tended to binge drink, which counteracts any helpful effects you might get from alcohol in moderation. (webmd.com)
  • The level of alcohol in a person's blood can continue to rise for up to 30 to 40 minutes after their last drink. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you drink a lot of alcohol over a short space of time, such as on a night out, your body will not have time to process it all. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or girlfriends of the guy or girl he or she likes. (latimes.com)
  • In 2014, one quarter of the EU population did not drink any alcohol. (europa.eu)
  • In most of the studies that look at this issue, people have been asked 'How much alcohol do you usually drink? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You may be suffering from alcohol abuse if you drink too much alcohol at one time or too often throughout the week. (familydoctor.org)
  • It can damage your baby's health if you drink alcohol during pregnancy. (familydoctor.org)
  • You might see the concentration of alcohol in the drink expressed as a percent (e.g. 40% alcohol by volume), or as a proof. (bgsu.edu)
  • Proof is simply the percentage multiplied x2, so a drink with 40% alcohol by volume is 80 proof. (bgsu.edu)
  • To prevent FASDs, you should not drink alcohol while you are pregnant, or when you might get pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Had to drink more and more to feel the effects of the alcohol? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Can you drink rubbing alcohol as an internal disinfectant? (answers.com)
  • Do NOT Drink Rubbing Alcohol It can cause blindness. (answers.com)
  • It is a mixture of denatured alcohol, water and agents added to make the alcohol unpalatable to drink and sometimes colorants. (answers.com)
  • If you are an adult and you drink, do so in moderation and not to excess, don't drink and drive, and if you choose to have alcohol in your house, don't keep an excessive amount. (familydoctor.org)
  • Can you drink alcohol while taking this medicine (nitrofurantoin mono/mac 100mg)? (drugs.com)
  • I just took the yellow fever vaccine, is it OK to drink alcohol in a few hours or should I waittill? (drugs.com)
  • It's the first stop for alcohol, with 20 percent of any drink entering the bloodstream here within 5 minutes by slipping between the stomach's mucus-producing epithelial cells. (menshealth.com)
  • How frequently do you drink alcohol? (google.com)
  • If you drink alcohol, what type(s) do you drink? (google.com)
  • Question for people whom drink Alcohol? (healingwell.com)
  • But according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, almost 80% of high school students have tried alcohol. (kidshealth.org)
  • His or her alcohol and/or substance abuse problems, if any, are under control and are likely to remain under control. (michigan.gov)
  • In keeping with its educational mission, the University assumes the responsibility to better inform the campus community about alcohol and substance abuse. (umsl.edu)
  • More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication . (kidshealth.org)
  • We've mentioned this synthehol-like project before, but more recently, Nutt is appealing to investors to fund his research to develop an alcohol substitute that has an antidote -- which he claims could have a significantly positive impact on human health since it might eliminate drunk driving and other unwanted effects of intoxication. (techdirt.com)
  • Daily consumption of alcohol has been shown in the research to increase the risk for slow weight gain in the infant. (kellymom.com)
  • The consumption of alcohol has deep cultural roots in Russia where it typically accompanied celebrations, signified hospitality, and enhanced bonding among acquaintances and friends. (archive.org)
  • If your consumption of alcohol is high (more than 20 units a day) or you've previously experienced withdrawal symptoms, you may also be able to detox at home with medication to help ease withdrawal symptoms. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The University of Missouri-St. Louis has been designated drug free and only under certain conditions is the consumption of alcohol permitted. (umsl.edu)
  • Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alcohol use by depressives, however, impairs already weakened cognitive function, exacerbates an already irrational state, reduces already greatly reduced impulse control, and gravely increases the risk of suicidiality. (answers.com)
  • But here's the twist: alcohol also increases the release of dopamine in your brain's "reward center. (forbes.com)
  • Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use. (aappublications.org)
  • If you're driving, pregnant, or have alcohol or other drug dependencies, it's the best choice. (slideshare.net)
  • Why do pregnant women get confusing guidance about alcohol? (pbs.org)
  • Referring only those few patients who need specialized treatment for alcohol dependence. (cdc.gov)
  • Their analyses focused on the 1,484 NESARC survey respondents who met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, and included individuals in treatment as well as those not seeking treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Note that alcohol should not be used as a disinfectant in an open wound -- it's painful and not great with disinfecting wounds. (answers.com)
  • Had withdrawal symptoms when the alcohol was wearing off? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Are Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mentally speaking, alcohol (and other other substances) may, at best, only provide limited temporary relief from symptoms. (answers.com)
  • 1 The US Surgeon General issued the first public health advisory in 1981 (reissued in 2005) that alcohol during pregnancy was a cause of birth defects. (aappublications.org)
  • Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A chemical test showing an alcohol level of .16 or higher. (michigan.gov)
  • What is the chemical name for rubbing alcohol? (answers.com)
  • And because many parents and other adults use alcohol socially - having beer or wine with dinner, for example - alcohol seems harmless to many teens. (kidshealth.org)
  • And they actively work to promote responsible alcohol consumption among all adults. (prweb.com)
  • It's estimated that between 18 million -- or one in 12 adults -- in the U.S. abuse alcohol or are chronic alcoholics. (webmd.com)
  • For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We focus our review on four main types of alcohol regulations: price/tax restrictions, age-based availability restrictions, spatial availability restrictions, and temporal availability restrictions. (nber.org)
  • Special meetings (date, time, and agenda) are posted at the main office of the Indiana Alcohol & Tobacco Commission and on the State Calendar system. (in.gov)
  • It is therefore the main object of this invention to provide an improved hydroformylation process which yields alcohols containing more linear isomer and less organic carbonyl compounds as by-products than alcohols prepared by prior art processes. (google.com)
  • Few binge drinkers (1 in 4) have talked about alcohol use. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol blocks the absorption of water and sodium here, which is why a binge dehydrates you. (menshealth.com)
  • Alcohol has different forms and can be used as a cleaner, an antiseptic, or a sedative. (kidshealth.org)
  • Rubbing alcohol can be used as a cooling rub for patients, or as an antiseptic. (answers.com)
  • Alcohol has been used as an antiseptic as early as 1363, with evidence to support its use becoming available in the late 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol floats right through this gatekeeper 30 seconds after entering the bloodstream, disrupting nerve-cell communication. (menshealth.com)
  • Because the alcohol is then absorbed directly into the bloodstream, the recipient gets drunk faster. (cnn.com)
  • The lower gastrointestinal tract doesn't have that enzyme, so alcohol molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the colon. (cnn.com)
  • Beer and wine will be available to order from Aldi in 60 percent of its 1,400 stores that sell alcohol nationwide. (newsweek.com)
  • These included limiting the kinds of shops permitted to sell alcohol, closing many vodka distilleries and destroying vineyards in the wine-producing republics of Moldavia, Armenia and Georgia, and banning the sale of alcohol in restaurants before two o'clock in the afternoon. (archive.org)
  • Members outside the US aren't allowed to sell alcohol to members residing in the US. (ebay.com)
  • Through the company's WE I.D. program, Anheuser-Busch and its nationwide network of wholesalers has distributed tools to help hundreds of thousands of retail accounts serve and sell alcohol responsibly, and post signage to remind consumers they will be asked to show a valid I.D. to purchase alcohol. (prweb.com)
  • so when your blood alcohol levels are back down, so are your milk alcohol levels. (kellymom.com)
  • A person who has drunk a heavy amount will have their BAC (which stands for blood-alcohol concentration) heightened to a lethal level, and this is what causes a fatal overdose. (google.com)
  • Attorney John Koestner, Jr., representing Missouri in this case, argued that although the arresting officer had not encountered trouble in the past obtaining warrants, there was going to be a delay in this particular case, and that "quickly securing blood alcohol evidence is important, because the evidence is being lost at a significant rate with every minute that passes. (constantcontact.com)
  • Using a breathalyzer, BAC is measured as grams per 210 Liters of breath (since the ratio of breath alcohol to blood alcohol is 2,100:1). (bgsu.edu)
  • It eventually breaks down 90 percent of blood alcohol, starting to scrub within 10 minutes of your first sip. (menshealth.com)
  • About 5 percent of blood alcohol quickly diffuses into the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. (menshealth.com)
  • The alveoli warm the liquid alcohol, turning it into a vapor that's exhaled-which is how Breath- alyzers measure blood-alcohol levels. (menshealth.com)
  • Five percent of blood alcohol is eliminated by the kidneys through urine. (menshealth.com)
  • Broughton, a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, was hospitalized September 21 with a blood alcohol level well over 0.40 -- five times the legal limit for driving -- according to Knoxville police. (cnn.com)
  • We don't allow the sale of collectible containers that contain alcohol. (ebay.com)
  • Techno-economic analyses of specific Phenethyl Alcohol production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials consumed and operating costs. (slideshare.net)
  • 1. Know the capital investment required Examine the operating costs & raw materials consumption Phenethyl alcohol is a colourless liquid widely found in nature in a variety of essential oils. (slideshare.net)
  • The Intratec portfolio (www.intratec.us/our-portfolio) includes reports examining specific Phenethyl Alcohol production processes. (slideshare.net)
  • For a 10-page description of our methodology, visit www.intratec.us/reports/industrial-processes-economics Reports Focused on Phenethyl Alcohol Production Economics ECONOMICS OF PHENETHYL ALCOHOL PRODUCTION PROCESS (PHENETHYL ALCOHOL E11A) This report presents the economics of a typical Phenethyl Alcohol production process from benzene, ethylene oxide, and aluminium chloride in the USA. (slideshare.net)
  • ECONOMICS OF PHENETHYL ALCOHOL PRODUCTION PROCESS (PHENETHYL ALCOHOL E11C) The process analyzed in this report is the same examined in the report "Phenethyl Alcohol E11A" with the exception that the plant is located in China. (slideshare.net)
  • Consistent with computed natural bond orbital charges, benzylic and propargylic alcohols underwent iodide anion quenching at the para position of phenyl and C-3, respectively. (springer.com)