Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Marital Therapy: A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.OklahomaSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical: A condition characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of ADIPOSE TISSUE symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.MMPI: A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ethnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Gypsies: Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Myelinolysis, Central Pontine: A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/5630)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Antibodies against phospholipids and oxidized LDL in alcoholic patients. (2/5630)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a generic term describing antibodies that recognize various phospholipids. Hepatocyte damage is a cardinal event in the course of alcoholic liver injury and autoantibodies against phospholipids could play an important role in this process. APA in alcoholic patients seem to reflect membrane lesions, impairment of immunological reactivity, liver disease progression and they correlate significantly with disease severity. LDL oxidation is supposed to be one of the most important pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis and antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are some kind of an epiphenomenon of this process. The scope of our study was to determine some autoantibodies (IgG-oxLDL and antiphospholipid antibodies) and their possible changes in alcoholic patients. We studied IgG-oxLDL and four APA - anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (APSA) antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies (APE) and antiphosphatidylcholine antibodies (APCA) in 35 alcoholic patients with mildly affected liver function at the beginning of the abuse treatment. The control group consisted of 60 healthy blood donors. In the studied group, we obtained positive results concerning total ACA in 17.1 % of alcoholic patients (8.3 % in the control group), 11.4 % IgG-ACA (6.7 %), 8.6 % IgM-ACA (3.3 %), 14.3 % total APE (6.7 %), 14.3 % total APCA (8.3 %) and 20 % total APSA (8.3 % in the control group). The IgG-oxLDL (406.4+/-52.5 vs 499.9+/-52.5 mU/ml) was not affected in alcoholic patients. We conclude that the autoantibodies against oxLDL are present in sera of alcoholics and healthy blood donors. Based on our results which revealed a wide range of IgG-oxLDL titres in the healthy population, this parameter does not appear to be very promising for the evaluation of the risk of atherosclerosis. Alcoholics with only mild affection of liver functions did not exhibit a significantly higher prevalence of all studied antiphospholipid antibodies (ACA, APSA, APE, APCA) which could lead to membrane lesions in these patients.  (+info)

Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. (3/5630)

Hydroxylation of salicylate into 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) by human liver microsomal preparations was investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that salicylate was 5-hydroxylated with two apparent Km: one high-affinity Km of 606 microM and one low-affinity Km greater than 2 mM. Liver microsomes prepared from 15 human samples catalyzed the formation of 2,5-DHBA at metabolic rate of 21.7 +/- 8.5 pmol/mg/min. The formation of 2, 3-DHBA was not P-450 dependent. Formation of 2,5-DHBA was inhibited by 36 +/- 14% following preincubation of microsomes with diethyldithiocarbamate, a mechanism-based selective inhibitor of P-450 2E1. Furthermore, the efficiency of inhibition was significantly correlated with four catalytic activities specific to P-450 2E1, whereas the residual activity was correlated with three P-450 3A4 catalytic activities. Troleandomycin, a mechanism-based inhibitor selective to P-450 3A4, inhibited by 30 +/- 12% the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate, and this inhibition was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation, specific to P-450 3A4. The capability of seven recombinant human P-450s to hydroxylate salicylate demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and 3A4 contributed to 2, 5-DHBA formation in approximately equal proportions. The Km values of recombinant P-450 2E1 and 3A4, 280 and 513 microM, respectively, are in the same range as the high-affinity Km measured with human liver microsomes. The plasmatic metabolic ratio 2,5-DHBA/salicylate, measured 2 h after ingestion of 1 g acetylsalicylate, was increased 3-fold in 12 alcoholic patients at the beginning of their withdrawal period versus 15 control subjects. These results confirm that P-450 2E1, inducible by ethanol, is involved in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Furthermore, this ratio was still increased by 2-fold 1 week after ethanol withdrawal. This finding suggests that P-450 3A4, known to be also inducible by alcoholic beverages, plays an important role in this increase, because P-450 2E1 returned to normal levels in less than 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. Finally, in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A4, both inducible by alcohols, catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate.  (+info)

The role of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcoholism: from animal to clinical studies. (4/5630)

Since its discovery nearly 40 years ago, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has attracted several waves of scientific interest due to new developments in the knowledge of its mechanisms of action and ideas for its potential use in clinical practice. Its effects have been claimed to treat different psychiatric conditions, but over time its use has become limited to a few specific situations (e.g. sedating patients in non-painful surgical procedures and narcolepsy). New interest in the drug derives from its potential use in the treatment of alcoholism. Recent studies demonstrated a marked effect of the substance in suppressing ethanol (ETOH) withdrawal symptoms and in reducing craving for alcohol, compared to other available drugs. However, GHB has to be given under very careful supervision because of its side-effects, including the risk of abuse and dependence and possible interference with the metabolic pathways of endogenous GHB and ETOH. This short review discusses these and related issues and we hope that it will stimulate further interest in GHB.  (+info)

The impact of Alcohol and Alcoholism among substance abuse journals. (5/5630)

This article concerns the question of journal impact factor and other bibliometric indicators made available by the Institute for Scientific Information in their Journal Citation Report for 1996. The impact factors of journals within the subject category 'substance abuse' are listed along with total citations, immediacy indices, and cited half-lives. The relationship between cited and citing journals is discussed with the main focus on the data available for Alcohol and Alcoholism. Some of the problems and limitations of bibliometric measures of productivity are dealt with, especially when these are used to evaluate the work of individual scientists. Although bibliometric measures are easy to compute, they become difficult to interpret, such as when dealing with collaborative research and the problem posed by multiple authorship. The need to adjust impact factors and citation counts for the number of co-authors in a paper becomes important when credit has to be attributed to one individual from a multi-author paper. This is often necessary in connection with grant applications and when making decisions about academic promotion and tenure. The impact factor of Alcohol and Alcoholism has increased steadily over the past 5 years, even after adjusting for the number of self-citations, which resulted in an even greater increase in impact. However, the impact factors of substance abuse journals are generally low, compared with disciplines such as immunology, genetics, and biochemistry. Some suggestions are made for increasing the impact factors of substance abuse journals if this is considered necessary. But instead of paying attention to the impact factor of a journal, scientists should give more consideration to the speed and efficiency of the editorial handling of their manuscripts and particularly to the quality and timeliness of the peer review.  (+info)

Enhancing the identification of excessive drinkers on medical wards: a 1-year follow-up study. (6/5630)

This paper describes a 1-year follow-up study examining whether hospital ward doctors and nurses continue to take quantitative alcohol histories and provide brief intervention to problem drinkers on general medical wards after the introduction of a simple protocol. Regular training in the use of this protocol was stipulated in the annual service contract between the Health Authority and the Hospital Trusts. Improvements in staff practice persisted at 1-year follow-up, although it fell from a peak at an earlier phase of the study. The positive role of state purchasers of health services in sustaining improvements in clinical practice is discussed.  (+info)

Urban-rural comparisons of drink-driving behaviour among late teens: a preliminary investigation. (7/5630)

A preliminary study was conducted to examine the nature and extent of urban-rural differences in self-reported drinking and driving among youths in Western Australia. A total of 102 youths aged 17, 18 and 19 years were surveyed via a random street sampling technique about their alcohol consumption and drink-driving behaviour. Analyses indicated that urban youths had a significantly higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than their rural counterparts. Males indicated a higher level of self-reported drink-driving behaviour than females. This article also provides a review and summary of youth drink-driving literature with special focus on urban-rural comparisons.  (+info)

Alcohol consumption profile by time in middle-aged men: a longitudinal study based on three different diagnostic instruments. (8/5630)

This longitudinal study aimed at comparing aggregate measures of heavy or problem drinking and their variations across time among the same subjects. We examined middle-aged men participating in a health survey over a 5-year interval. Of the 133 consecutive men in the whole age group interviewed as 40-year-olds in 1989, 114 were reached and re-interviewed in 1994. Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report, Malmo-modified Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST), and serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Self-reported alcohol consumption decreased with years (142 vs 105 g/week, P = 0.01), as did CDT (16.9 vs 14.4 U/l, P = 0.02), but there was no change in the Mm-MAST results. There was no significant difference in the number of heavy drinkers (either Mm-MAST score > or = 3, or by self-reported alcohol consumption > or = 280 g/week, or by CDT > or = 20 U/l) at 40 and 45 years of age (37 and 47% respectively). At the individual level, alcohol consumption both increased and decreased with age. At 45 years of age 5/114 (4%) of the men reported that they had increased their alcohol consumption by more than 80 g/week and 25/114 (22%) said that they had reduced their drinking by the same amount. The remaining 84 (74%) reported drinking the same amount as 5 years earlier (+/- 80 g/week). This indicates that alcohol drinking habits are not stable in middle age. Most heavy drinkers in both age groups were detected by Mm-MAST and this proportion increased with age while the proportion of positive self-reports and CDTs decreased. Thus, the social consequences, measured here by the Mm-MAST, may be more readily experienced with years even at smaller consumption levels.  (+info)

Chronic alcoholism medical definition Acute and chronic alcoholism definition Chronic alcoholism definition Definition of chronic alcoholism ➥ This article will describe the connection between alcohol and anemia and address how alcohol induced anemia can be prevented and treated. ➤ Chronic alcoholism medical definition Acute and chronic alcoholism definition Chronic alcoholism definition Definition of chronic alcoholism on the site ➦ alcohol-ism.info
Page 2 Ξ Alcoholism and depression Alcoholism and diabetes Alcoholism and genetics Alcoholism and dementia Alcoholism and anxiety Alcoholism and diarrhea Alcoholism and the brain Alcoholism and weight loss Alcoholism and anemia Alcoholism and pancreatitis Alcoholi ➥ Alcoholism and relapse ➥ Alcoholism 5 years ➥ Alcoholism and weight loss ➥ Alcoholism and yellow diarrhea ➥ Alcoholism 19th century ➥ Alcoholism and cramps ➥ Alcoholism and nervous system ➥ Alcoholism and the heart ➥ Alcoholism and depression Alcoholism and diabetes Alcoholism and genetics Alcoholism and dementia Alcoholism and anxiety Alcoholism and diarrhea Alcoholism and the brain Alcoholism and weight loss Alcoholism and anemia Alcoholism and pancreatitis Alcoholism and anger Alcoholism and addiction Alcoholism and abuse Alcoholism and adhd Alcoholism and ada Alcoholism and anorexia Alcoholism and anger issues Alcoholism and aging Alcoholism and afib Hepatitis a and alcoholism Vitamin a and alcoholism Alcoholism and a
The terms alcoholism and alcohol dependency are often used interchangeably. While both indicate a physical reliance upon alcohol, alcohol dependency is characterized by a dependence upon alcohol that results in physical withdrawal symptoms while alcoholism is an addiction to alcohol characterized by marked behavioral problems due to prolonged and excessive harmful use.
The terms alcoholism and alcohol dependency are often used interchangeably. While both indicate a physical reliance upon alcohol, alcohol dependency is characterized by a dependence upon alcohol that results in physical withdrawal symptoms while alcoholism is an addiction to alcohol characterized by marked behavioral problems due to prolonged and excessive harmful use.
BACKGROUND Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. METHOD We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. RESULTS Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders, and the
Ethyl alcohol - the symptoms of alcohol dependency. To replace their God given spirit, begins with understanding at some level the symptoms of alcohol dependency and spirit to affect the symptoms of alcohol dependency and body coordinating connection. Look to breathing forms as force that works from the symptoms of alcohol dependency into the symptoms of alcohol dependency next of the symptoms of alcohol dependency about alcohol use if it wasnt a problem so they wont have to adjust to the symptoms of alcohol dependency, especially family members. Often the affected family members becoming desperate, angry, frustrated, nervous, afraid and guilty. In many ways they start behaving like the symptoms of alcohol dependency, even though they do not know how to feel and think within events of life experiences and other natural resources such as MADD, and school and college administrators.. When something like alcohol use if it wasnt a problem in their life to be connected with sexual assault. For ...
Ethyl alcohol - the symptoms of alcohol dependency. To replace their God given spirit, begins with understanding at some level the symptoms of alcohol dependency and spirit to affect the symptoms of alcohol dependency and body coordinating connection. Look to breathing forms as force that works from the symptoms of alcohol dependency into the symptoms of alcohol dependency next of the symptoms of alcohol dependency about alcohol use if it wasnt a problem so they wont have to adjust to the symptoms of alcohol dependency, especially family members. Often the affected family members becoming desperate, angry, frustrated, nervous, afraid and guilty. In many ways they start behaving like the symptoms of alcohol dependency, even though they do not know how to feel and think within events of life experiences and other natural resources such as MADD, and school and college administrators.. When something like alcohol use if it wasnt a problem in their life to be connected with sexual assault. For ...
Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Leschs Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent
Alcohol dependency is common, but it is also commonly overlooked. One reason why is that the negative symptoms of alcoholism are closely linked with other chronic health conditions and aging in general. If a woman over 65 imbibes in several drinks, then falls and is injured, the cause of the fall will likely be attributed to her age - even if it is more likely that alcohol caused the fall.. Likewise, medical issues such as headaches, fatigue, stomach pain, and depression are common symptoms of drinking to excess on a regular basis. Still, if these symptoms appear in older women, they are often written off as age-related.. Another reason for overlooking alcohol dependency in older women is that women are not largely thought of as having substance abuse problems. By contrast, men are generally the ones who end up on the receiving end of interventions and legal action because of their behavior while under the influence. It is generally accepted that if a man is seen overindulging in alcohol, he ...
There are lots of types of essays, so it isnt hard to eliminate an eye on all of your writing assignments.. For instance, an superb cause and effect article on alcoholism should start with a overview of alcoholism. You should briefly explain what the article is all about and how youre likely to be presenting it. If youre considering writing an general informative article on alcohol, then you are able to write about various forms of alcohol, the manner that it is prepared, distinct brands and prices etc.. If you do not find out how to start your essay or where to search for encouraging information, we are going to be delighted to help you.. If youre in need of a custom created essay on Alcoholism dont hesitate to contact our essay writing firm. A study paper on alcoholism should also consist of sources on the topic ...
FERREIRA, Luciano Nery et al. Prevalence and associated factors of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2013, vol.18, n.11, pp.3409-3418. ISSN 1413-8123. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232013001100030.. The scope of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction and the respective associated factors in the urban population of a city of northeastern Brazil. It is a population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the consumption of alcohol of 270 people living in the urban area of Jequié, State of Bahia. Alcohol abuse, defined by a score of , 8 from responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol addiction was identified by a score , 2 obtained in the application of the Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE). The analysis used the logistic regression model. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.5%. For alcohol addiction it was 10.4%. After adjusted analysis, the groups ...
Alcohol dependency is a common and complex issue that develops for a number of reasons. Each addict has their own reasons for drinking and different circumstances under which they may have developed the problem.. Alcohol dependency has a multitude of social implications, but the health related issues are some of the worst with pregnancy drinking becoming an ever increasing social issue.. The problem with drinking starts when the line between acceptable consumption is crossed and people enter into unacceptable territory, such as drinking more than the daily recommended limit each day, binge drinking every day, morning drinking, neglecting other activities in favour of drinking, lying about your drinking habits etc. Daily drinking most often starts out as occasional, social drinking and develops into an addiction.. Because the majority of problem drinkers start out as social drinkers, the social festive season we are in at the moment can be a concern. Over the festive season parties abound and ...
Read this full essay on Alcohol Dependency. Alcohol Dependency Dependence is defined as a cluster of three or more existing criteria according to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Are alcoholism treatments effective? The Project MATCH data. AU - Cutler, Robert B.. AU - Fishbain, David A.. PY - 2005/7/14. Y1 - 2005/7/14. N2 - Background: Project MATCH was the largest and most expensive alcoholism treatment trial ever conducted. The results were disappointing. There were essentially no patient-treatment matches, and three very different treatments produced nearly identical outcomes. These results were interpreted post hoc as evidence that all three treatments were quite effective. We re-analyzed the data in order to estimate effectiveness in relation to quantity of treatment. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a multisite clinical trial of alcohol dependent volunteers (N = 1726) who received outpatient psychosocial therapy. Analyses were confined to the primary outcome variables, percent days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD). Overall tests between treatment outcome and treatment quantity were conducted. Next, three specific ...
If you or a loved one have been drinking too much or have experienced problems with alcoholism, you probably know a thing or two about the harmful short-term effects of alcohol abuse. There are the hangovers, the vomiting, the big red nose with the broken capillaries, the shakes. Theres the violence, too, and all the bad decisions you make. But you know all that. What you might not know is that alcohol addiction can have serious long-term effects on almost every system in your body.. Most people know that alcoholism can cause cirrhosis of the liver. But did you know that it can also lead to neuropathic disorders and stroke? Hepatitis is a major risk, as well as cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, breast, colon, and liver. Cardiovascular issues such as myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension are also extremely common among patients with alcohol dependency. Gastrointestinal problems such as gastritis and pancreatitis can also result. The fact is that ...
This report presents the findings of the 1987 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey, a national survey designed to measure the location, scope, and characteristics of drug abuse and alcoholism treatment and prevention facilities, services, and activities throughout the United States, including the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories. An introductory chapter describes the background of the survey, the report format, characteristics of the reporting base, and data considerations and limitations. Chapter 2 examines utilization rates, locations of units, unit ownership, unit orientation, the annual unduplicated count of clients, client demographics, type of care, services provided, and estimates of the number of intravenous drug users among both drug abuse and alcoholism clients. Chapter 3 presents data on drug abuse clients and chapter 4 examines alcoholism clients. Since separate client matrices were used to collect data on drug abuse and alcoholism clients,
Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months.. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out with new TB and TB retreatment patients systematically selected from two hospitals and had screened positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Sisaket Province in Thailand. Alcohol use disorders were measured with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.. Results: Of the 295 TB patients who were screened with AUDIT-C, 72 (24.4%) tested positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use. At 6 months, 72 TB patients had completed the followup. At the 6-month follow-up, hazardous or harmful drinking was reduced by 84.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using generalised estimation equation modelling found that alcohol use ...
What are the underlying reasons that alcoholism interventions fail?. First, the intervention may fail if the alcoholic doesnt follow through with the treatment program both during and after formal treatment.. Second, because his or her reasoning and logical abilities and emotional stability may be decreased because of chronic alcoholism, the alcoholic may simply leave the intervention session.. What this essentially means is that the well-intentioned family members will have to deal with the failed intervention in addition to the rest of their alcohol-related difficulties and problems.. The third reason that alcoholism interventions may prove to be unsuccessful is the fact that the alcoholic may not be ready for alcohol treatment at this time.. Stated in another way, some therapists believe that quite a few alcoholism interventions lack a consistent track record because several alcoholics are unable to go through treatment until they get to the point in their lives when they can make this ...
Alcohol dependency It is not unusual to enjoy an alcoholic drink with friends etc, but drinking habits can become unhealthy without us noticing. Long-term heavy drinking or regular binge drinking … read more
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients is mediated by stress, anxiety and loss of self-control over drinking. AU - Thorberg, Fred. AU - Young, Ross M. AU - Lyvers, Michael F.. AU - Connor, Jason AU - Tyssen, Reidar. AU - London, Edythe D.. AU - Feeney, Gerald F X. PY - 2017/2/1. Y1 - 2017/2/1. N2 - Aims: Up to 67% of alcohol-dependent patients in treatment have alexithymia, a personality trait associated with emotion regulation difficulties. A single study reported that alcohol expectancies related to affective change and social enhancement partially mediated the relationship of alexithymia and alcohol dependence. However, no research has explored the potential explanatory power of other key factors such as stress, anxiety and obsessive thoughts about alcohol use and compulsive behaviors associated with alcohol dependence as mechanisms to elucidate the role of alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients with alexithymia. By integrating frontal lobe theory, the stress-alexithymia ...
Acamprosate has been shown to reduce drinking days in alcohol dependent patients and promote abstinence, with few reported side effects. A limitation of these studies, however, has been their lack of generalizability due to restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria. Furthermore, most of the previous studies of acamprosate have been conducted in Europe, in a different treatment setting from the typical American Family Medicine center, where alcohol dependent patients are most likely to be first identified in the U.S.. The present study is designed to determine the efficacy of acamprosatefor alcohol dependence in a Family Medicine setting using minimal psychotherapeutic interventions-as would also likely occur in a primary care setting. The study will be a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial comparing 666 mg acamprosate t.i.d. to placebo in patients at the UNC Family Medicine Center with alcohol dependence. Subjects will be seen by Family Medicine physicians and receive ...
A new study of the effects of religiosity on the genetic variance of problem alcohol use in males and females has found that religiosity can moderate genetic effects on problem alcohol use during adolescence but not during early adulthood
Some physicians, scientists and others have rejected the disease theory of alcoholism on logical, empirical and other grounds.[48][49][50][51][52][53] Indeed, some addiction experts such as Stanton Peele are outspoken in their rejection of the disease model, and other prominent alcohol researchers such as Nick Heather have authored books intending to disprove the disease model.[54] Some critics of the disease model argue alcoholism still involves choice, not total loss of control, and stripping alcohol abusers of their choice, by applying the disease concept, is a threat to the health of the individual; the disease concept gives the substance abuser an excuse. A disease cannot be cured by force of will; therefore, adding the medical label transfers the responsibility from the abuser to caregivers. Inevitably the abusers become unwilling victims, and just as inevitably they take on that role. They argue that the disease theory of alcoholism exists only to benefit the professionals and ...
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Poor response inhibition has been implicated in the development of alcohol dependence, yet little is known about how neural pathways underlying cognitive control are affected in this disorder. Moreover, endogenous opioid levels may impact the functionality of inhibitory control pathways. This study investigated the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks during response inhibition in an alcohol-dependent sample. A secondary aim of this study was to test the moderating effect of a functional polymorphism (A118G) of the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (six females; 90% Caucasian; mean age = 29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Stop-Signal Task. The relationship between alcohol dependence severity and functional connectivity within fronto-striatal networks important for ...
People who are homosexual, bisexual or lesbian or who have had a same sex relationship in the past are 1.5 to 2x more likely to have experienced violent events during their childhood and have double the risk of experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence of these events. Researchers from Harvard School of Public Health and the Childrens Hospital, Boston used data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and found that 48% of sexual minority women and 28% of sexual minority men experienced violence or abuse in childhood compared to 21% of women and 20% of men in the general population ...
5 Research on the Effectiveness of Alcoholism Treatment 5. Research on the Effectiveness of Alcoholism Treatment Despite the lack of well-controlled and generalizable research on the efficacy and effectiveness
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This method has proven to be reliable in helping people with alcoholism to overcome this habit and achieve complete abstinence. Others have shown a tendency to continue using the drugs they had been introduced to prior to alcohol consumption. Though they may not achieve total abstinence, they have exhibited a tendency of not relapsing to their former levels of alcoholism and therefore achieve their goals.. The Sinclair Method has proven to be popular with an increasing number of people seeking an inpatient alcohol abuse rehab. However, the fact that there still lacks enough studies conducted on the method means that not many rehab centers, especially those offering inpatient services, are willing to fully embrace, implement, and recommend it to their patients. Therefore, it is perceived that more time is required for it to gain widespread acceptance.. Patients undergoing inpatient rehab who exhibit acute withdrawal symptoms are given sodium oxybate to alleviate this problem. This drug also helps ...
Learn everything you need to know about the disease of alcoholism, also known as alcohol addiction. Find signs, symptoms and causes of alcohol addiction. Learn about treatment options and how alcoholics recover.
This study examined the potential mediating role of Ego Strength, Self-Esteem, and Negative Emotionality/neuroticism (NEGE) in the relationship between traumatic parental failures and childhood adversity on the development and severity of alcoholism, in a sample of 296 alcoholic and non-alcoholic Roman Catholic women Religious. Potential mediators and addiction severity were measured with the MMPI-2 subscales. The mediational model was tested using logistic regression, and the results supported a mediational role for NEGE in the effect of trauma on alcoholism diagnosis. When controlling for the effects of parental alcoholism or age, however, the effect of trauma was not significant. Negative emotionality/neuroticism was significantly correlated with trauma index and was a significant predictor of alcoholism diagnosis and severity of addiction, suggesting it may represent an enduring personality dimension important in the development of alcoholism. Trauma index was less strongly related to low self
The mission of the Rockland Council on Alcoholism and Other Drug Dependence, Inc. is to increase public awareness of the disease of addiction through prevention, education and advocacy.. ...
The mission of the Rockland Council on Alcoholism and Other Drug Dependence, Inc. is to increase public awareness of the disease of addiction through prevention, education and advocacy.. ...
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Alcohol dependency is a challenging routine to beat for a lot of factors. Society does not put the same preconception on alcohol usage that it does on drug usage, so there is not as strong of a cultural reward to get much better.. That is why the obligation for resolving alcohol dependency falls, by and big, on the shoulders of the American individuals. If you understand somebody who has a hard time with an alcohol practice, the most beautiful thing to do is to get that individual into a treatment centre like rehab Birmingham.. It is besides challenging to kick an alcohol practice on ones own. It is severely hazardous to try this, as attempting to come down off of alcohol without expert aid can lead to death. Alcohol treatment, nevertheless, at a domestic treatment center manages the specific with a safe and clear course out of alcoholism and into sobriety.. Sluggish Development in Battling the Dependency Epidemic. After working with hundreds of individuals who had a hard time with dependency ...
A downer of a spot with an uplifting, almost liltingly sing-songy soundtrack earned the number one slot in SHOOTs quarterly Top Ten Tracks Chart. Airing during the Super Bowl telecast in the St. Louis market, the National Council on Alcoholism & Drug Abuse (NCADA) :60 "Thats How"... ...
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In the field of addiction treatment and recovery, alcoholism can impact an individual emotionally, mentally, physically, and in some cases, spiritually. However, there can also be financial, legal, and social consequences as well as. Interestingly enough, the biologic mechanisms that underlie alcoholism are still unclear. The risk factors include age, ethnic group, genetics, mental health, sex, and social environment.. Prolonged alcohol abuse not only leads to physical dependence, it leads to psychological dependence as well. Alcoholism also leads to additional substance abuse, the most common of which are benzodiazepines, medications that are effective in treating anxiety disorders, insomnia, muscle spasms, and seizures. Ironically, benzodiazepines are also used to treat alcohol withdrawal symptoms.. ...
Fighting Drug and Alcohol Addictions There are a lot of people today who are suffering from drug and alcohol addiction. Unfortunately, many of these individuals dont realize or acknowledge that they have a problem with drug and alcohol abuse. Doing a little research on the web will lead you to discover that there are actually numerous ways or options for you to treat drug and alcohol addiction. There are medicines that can help drug and alcohol addiction. You will also be able to find companies or organizations that help people who are suffering from drug and alcohol addiction. Before selecting a particular treatment option for drug and alcohol addiction, it is advisable that you consider some few things or ponder on some few points first. The aim of this article is to help people who are suffering from drug and alcohol addiction. Since there are a lot of treatment options which you can find on the Internet today, finding the best of the best can be a daunting task. And so you need to make sure ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Complex Genetics of Alcoholism. AU - Edenberg, Howard. AU - Foroud, Tatiana. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - Genetic factors play a significant role in the risk for alcoholism, although environmental influences are also important. Alcohol use disorders are defined by symptomology and are heterogeneous, making the identification of specific genes that affect risk difficult. Several strategies have been applied to identify genes that contribute to alcoholism and alcohol-related phenotypes, including candidate gene studies, family-based linkage studies, and genome-wide association studies. Variants in the alcohol metabolizing genes ALDH2 and ADH1B confer some protection against alcohol dependence. Common variants in other genes, including ADH4, ADH1C, GABRA2, GABRG1, CHRNA5, CHRNA3, CHRM2, PECR, AUTS2, PDYN, OPRK1, and KCNJ6, have been associated with alcohol dependence or other alcohol-related phenotypes. Many of these results await further replication. Meta-analysis of large ...
In the study published in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, researchers from several South Korean universities and hospitals used genetic testing to look for variations of the HTR7 gene in 903 adults. Four hundred fifty-nine of these adults had previously received a diagnosis for alcoholism/alcohol use disorder; the remaining 444 participants did not have an alcoholism history. The genetic testing focused on the identification of different forms of HTR7 in both groups of study participants. The researchers used a combination of the results of this testing and the results of AUDIT screening to determine if specific forms of the gene can increase a persons alcoholism risks.. All told, the researchers identified 22 variations of the HTR7 gene. Based on the known incidence of alcoholism in the study participants, they linked seven of these variations to an increased risk for becoming physically dependent on drinking. After reviewing the results of the AUDIT screenings, they identified ...
The woman alcoholic bears a double burden--the general stigma of alcoholism and the additional popular assumption that a female drinker indulges in amoral behavior--said Ruth P. Oakley, MD, director of the John L. Norris Clinic for Alcoholism of Rochester [N.Y.] State Hospital. The 1972 admission statistics at the clinic indicate that the ratio of women to men has reached 1:2.2. Fulltime housewives do not predominate; among the widely varying occupations, there is a preponderance of nurses and teachers. Three Roman Catholic nuns, one of them black, were among the admissions.. About one-third of the women gave a family history of alcoholism, either in the father, siblings, or both, but rarely in the mother. Women, far more than men, date the onset of their alcoholism to some crisis, tragic event, or loss. However, their drinking had already been leading in the direction of alcoholism.. -- Physicians Alcohol Newsletter. This is a preview. To view the full article, use the link below to begin a ...
Postoperative infections are 2- to 4-times more frequent in patients with alcohol use disorders with the sequel of prolonged ICU stay. Its association with an altered perioperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as response to chronic alcohol consumption and surgical stress is discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention with low-dose ethanol, morphine or ketoconazole compared to placebo on the HPA axis and the postoperative infections rate as well as the ICU stay in chronic alcoholic patients. 64 patients with alcohol use disorders undergoing elective surgery of the aerodigestive tract were included in this randomized, double-blind controlled study. Chronic alcoholic patients were defined as having a daily ethanol consumption of at least 60 g and fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for either alcohol abuse or dependence. Perioperative intervention was started on the evening before surgery and continued for three days after surgery. Blood samples to analyze ACTH, immune ...
Postoperative infections are 2- to 4-times more frequent in patients with alcohol use disorders with the sequel of prolonged ICU stay. Its association with an altered perioperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as response to chronic alcohol consumption and surgical stress is discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention with low-dose ethanol, morphine or ketoconazole compared to placebo on the HPA axis and the postoperative infections rate as well as the ICU stay in chronic alcoholic patients. 64 patients with alcohol use disorders undergoing elective surgery of the aerodigestive tract were included in this randomized, double-blind controlled study. Chronic alcoholic patients were defined as having a daily ethanol consumption of at least 60 g and fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for either alcohol abuse or dependence. Perioperative intervention was started on the evening before surgery and continued for three days after surgery. Blood samples to analyze ACTH, immune ...
Alcoholism treatment methods are highly effective, and offer future patients many methods to choose from. Treatment professionals will help with sobriety.
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Alcohol use disorder can also start at an early age, and as the bodys tolerance levels increases, physical dependence on alcohol becomes a comfortable habit. Individuals who do actually turn to alcohol to relieve stress, maybe from their jobs or lack thereof, or from an extremely stressful personal life, or maybe as a result of something that they feel they cant control are more likely to turn into heavy drinkers.. Did you know that a family history of alcoholism can increase a persons predisposed to alcohol dependency? This is in part due to genetics or environmental factors such as being constantly around an alcoholic parent, sibling, or relative that directly influences you to emulate their behavior. This may be a hard pill to swallow, but our genetic structure determines all our human traits and numerous studies have been carried out to show that approximately 50% of alcohol dependency is attributable to genetics.. Since our DNA (passed on to us by our parents) dictates our physical ...
El Dorado Council on Alcoholism Lifeskills is a drug and alcohol rehab facility found at 893 Spring Street in Placerville, California. The program utilizes major approaches to treatment of Cognitive/Behavior Therapy, Relapse Prevention Plans, 12-Step Facilitation Approach. The center offers services in these settings: Outpatient Drug Addiction Recovery. El Dorado Council on Alcoholism Lifeskills also provides individuals with several special programs designed specifically for the needs of individuals, such as: Persons with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Or Transgender (LGBT) Clients, Drug and Alcohol Treatment for Adult Women. El Dorado Council on Alcoholism Lifeskills also allows the following types of payment: Private Pay, Sliding Scale Fee Payments for Rehab. ...
Alcoholism[edit]. At the same time, he developed a drinking problem, and a reputation for unreliability inevitably followed. A ...
"Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 28 (11): 1629-1637. doi:10.1097/01.ALC.0000145789.55183.D4. PMC 1397913. PMID ... PROP sensitivity, supertasting, and alcoholism[edit]. The TAS2R38 protein also confers sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n- ...
The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited[edit]. In the 1995 book The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited[24] Harvard ... 32nd International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Warsaw, Poland.. *^ a b c "Comments On A.A. Triennial Surveys". ... Recent Developments in Alcoholism. Recent Developments in Alcoholism. 18: 261-282. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-77725-2_15. ISBN 978-0 ... "Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 38 (11): 2688-94. doi:10.1111/acer.12557. PMC 4285560. PMID 25421504.. ...
Drug addiction and alcoholism[edit]. Hamilton's struggles with drugs and alcohol are well documented. He finally got clean ...
Alcoholism[edit]. Main article: Alcohol and Native Americans. Another significant concern in Native American health is ... Rates of alcoholism of Native Americans are also greater than in the general population.[52] ... Alcoholism is often approached using the disease model of addiction, with biological, neurological, genetic, and environmental ... alcoholism. From 2006 to 2010, alcohol-attributed deaths accounted for 11.7 percent of all Native American deaths, more than ...
Views on alcoholism[edit]. Peele maintains that, depending on the person, abstinence or moderation are valid approaches to ... psychotherapist and the author of books and articles on the subject of alcoholism, addiction and addiction treatment.[1] ... "The limitations of control-of-supply models for explaining and preventing alcoholism and drug addiction," JSA, 48:61-77, 1987.[ ...
Alcoholism[edit]. Fraternity members are "much more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs than their non-Greek affiliated peers." ...
Odorless and Alcoholism. Added "odorless" (because pure alcohol is odorless) and the comment about alcoholism being hotly ... What do others say? Regarding alcoholism, the proper place for that discussion is probably the alcoholism page. This article is ... supposed to be about the functional group in organic chemistry, not about alcoholism! Thanks, Walkerma 01:12, 20 May 2006 (UTC) ...
Alcoholism. *Alcohol and Native Americans. *Alcoholism in adolescence. *Alcoholism in family systems ...
ALcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2007 Jan; 31 (1): 19-27. *^ a b c d e f Roehrs, T., and Roth, T. Sleep, ... Schuckit, M.A. Low level of response to alcohol as a predictor of future alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Feb; 151(2):184-189. ...
Alcoholism. Note: see Template:Psychoactive substance use for diagnoses *Alcohol and Native Americans ...
Alcoholism. *Eating disorders (such as binge eating). *Genetic predisposition. *Hormonal imbalances (e.g. hypothyroidism) ...
Alcoholism. *Deficient intake. *Increased needs: pregnancy, infant, rapid cellular proliferation, and cirrhosis ...
Alcoholism. *Alcohol and Native Americans. *Alcoholism in adolescence. *Alcoholism in family systems ...
The Adult Children of Alcoholics movement: Help for the unseen victims of alcoholism. By: Carney, T.F., Guidance & Counseling, ... you will come to see parental alcoholism or family dysfunction for what it is: a disease that infected you as a child and ...
Alcohol and Alcoholism. 48 (4): 464-471. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agt046. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-01.. ... "Alcohol and Alcoholism. 37 (2): 109-20. doi:10.1093/alcalc/37.2.109. PMID 11912065.. ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. July 1995.. *. Dowdall, George W. (2009). College Drinking: Reframing a ... Dec 2006). "Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcoholism: resilience vs. risk". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1094 ...
Alcoholism. Note: see Template:Psychoactive substance use for diagnoses *Alcohol and Native Americans ...
"Underage Drinking." National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, pubs. ... People who receive multiple DUI offenses are often people struggling with alcoholism or alcohol dependence. ...
Alcoholism. Note: see Template:Psychoactive substance use for diagnoses *Alcohol and Native Americans ... "Underage Drinking." National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, pubs. ...
After publicly revealing struggles with alcoholism and bipolar disorder in the offseason, had a career-low 2.13 goals against ...
... alcoholism; gastrointestinal ulcera or bleeding; pregnancy and lactation; infants and children under 6 to 12 years (varying by ...
Alcoholism; age disparities in sexual relationships; Corruption or Exploitation; Unjust firings; Diabetes; Male infertility; ...
Alcohol and Alcoholism 2011; 46: 210-13. Two articles among many are Effects of Alcohol Advertising Exposure on Drinking Among ... There have been various campaigns to help prevent alcoholism, under-age drinking and drunk driving. The Portman Group, an ... In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 132-135, p. 133. "Issues" at the Distilled ... Alcohol and Alcoholism. 44 (3): 229-243. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn115. ISSN 0735-0414. PMID 19144976. Waiters, Elizabeth D.; Treno ...
In: Roleff, T. (ed). Alcoholism. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Alcohol Advertising. In: Esposito, R. (ed). Mass Media. ... "Find Alcoholism Help" Disclaimer for the website "Alcohol Facts" Webpage about David J. Hanson Alcohol: Problems and Solutions ... Alcohol Facts Find Alcoholism Help Mangled Drunk Driving Data? - Dr. David J. Hanson interview Fox News: Lawsuits, Alcohol ...
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  • But none of the company's employees, not even "Dr. Doug," hold any doctorates or licenses to treat alcoholism, the state and FTC say. (courthousenews.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Two drugs commonly used to treat alcoholism may be appropriate for people in different stages of recovery, a new analysis confirms - likely because they work differently in the brain. (reuters.com)
  • Scientists have found that the epilepsy drug topiramate may help to treat alcoholism by boosting overall health as well as cutting cravings. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A gene has been identified in a new mice study that acts as a target for the development of novel drugs to prevent and treat alcoholism. (medindia.net)
  • The Here's To Never Growing Up hitmaker - who is married to Nickelback frontman Chad Kroeger - voiced her support for Deryck Whibley on Twitter after he opened up about his battle with alcoholism from his hospital bed. (news24.com)
  • In this book, Yari Garcia shares her own story of alcoholism, sobriety, relapse, and the way to finally break out of the relapse cycle to live a sober life. (smashwords.com)
  • More than half come from families with alcoholism, and about half have a psychiatric diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Age-varying effects of parental alcoholism on lifetime major depressive disorder for respondents aged 18-90 years, National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave III, 2012-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • After adjusting for demographic characteristics, we examined the relationship between parental alcoholism and outcomes of 1) major depressive disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and 2) DSM-5 persistent depressive disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism, now known as alcohol use disorder, is a condition in which a person has a desire or physical need to consume alcohol, even though it has a negative impact on their life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) describes alcohol use disorder as "problem drinking that becomes severe. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The disease model also gives the false impression that alcoholism is solely a biological disorder, Young said, leading some researchers tend to adopt a narrow view, focusing on particular chemicals or brain cells that might be involved. (livescience.com)
  • Alcohol use disorder or alcoholism is an inability to control drinking. (medindia.net)
  • Clinicians have long recognized diverse manifestations of alcoholism," adds NIAAA Director Ting-Kai Li, M.D, "and researchers have tried to understand why some alcoholics improve with specific medications and psychotherapies while others do not. (nih.gov)
  • In the elderly, medical researchers say, these can be signs of hidden alcoholism, a problem whose dimensions in the lives of men and women over 65 is little understood. (nytimes.com)
  • Researchers say traditional approaches to treating alcoholism, which stress incentives of abstinence as a way of getting back jobs or the affections of loved ones, are unlikely to work with the elderly. (nytimes.com)
  • CADMIUM, one of the metallic poisons that increasingly pollute the global food chain, may be a factor in inducing human alcoholism, Texas A&M researchers say. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The researchers defined family history of alcoholism as those teens with at least one biological parent with a history of alcohol abuse and/or alcohol dependence, or those with two or more second-degree relatives meeting this condition on either the maternal or paternal side of the family. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers did not find significant differences in task performance among teens, regardless of their family history of alcoholism , but the fMRI scans showed that two areas of FHP teens' brains responded differently during the tasks. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers suggest a weaker activation of these decision-making areas of the brain may pose an increased vulnerability toward risky decisions involving future alcohol use among FHP individuals who are already at risk for alcoholism. (livescience.com)
  • In the first study, researchers found that 16 percent of liver transplant patients with a history of alcoholism started drinking again if they received substance-abuse treatment before and after the transplant. (medicinenet.com)
  • 2001-2002 Survey Finds That Many Recover From Alcoholism - Researchers Identify Factors Associated with Abstinent and Non-Abstinent Recovery. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As many as 30% of persons with alcoholism stop drinking. (medscape.com)
  • Lovallo's team searched for traits that might make a difference in alcoholism risk. (webmd.com)
  • This identification of an in vivo neurochemical mechanism that could help explain the sex difference in alcoholism is an exciting step forward in alcoholism research. (psychcentral.com)
  • FILE - In this 2013 file photo, U.S. District Court Judge Patricia Minaldi speaks during the Empowering Women Luncheon in Sulphur, La. Minaldi retired several months after taking medical leave for treatment of severe alcoholism, a court official said Wednesday, Aug. 2, 2017. (nationalpost.com)
  • His older brother, Fred Jr., died in 1981 after struggling with alcoholism, and the president has said he learned from his brother's experience. (usatoday.com)
  • Alcoholism is the continued consumption of alcoholic beverages, even when it is negatively affecting your health, work, relationships and life. (dailystrength.org)
  • Chronic alcoholism usually results in liver and other organ damage, nutritional deficiencies and impaired social functioning. (dictionary.com)
  • Taken together with other studies on FHP youth, these results suggest that atypical brain structure and function exist prior to any substance use, and may contribute to an increased vulnerability for alcoholism in these individuals,' Nagel said. (livescience.com)
  • In this study, Pandey and colleagues worked with rats specially bred to be deficient in the CREB "alcoholism" gene. (webmd.com)
  • This is the first direct evidence that a deficiency in the CREB gene is associated with anxiety and alcohol-drinking behaviors," said Subhash Pandey, associate professor of psychiatry and director of neuroscience alcoholism research at the UIC College of Medicine. (innovations-report.com)
  • It was established in 1963 as the Bulletin on Alcoholism, with H.D. Chalke as the founding editor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current evidence indicates that in both men and women, alcoholism is 50-60% genetically determined, leaving 40-50% for environmental influences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The severity of the problem and the willingness of the patient will determine the extent of treatment he or she will undergo.Though there are many aspects of alcoholism, a major issue at hand is whether or not alcoholism is a genetically inherited disease. (brightkite.com)
  • Through research studies and surveys, it is evident that alcoholism is, in fact, genetically inherited. (brightkite.com)
  • Alcoholism can also lead indirectly, through excess consumption, to physical dependence on alcohol, and diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism is marked by physical dependency and can cause disorders in many organs of the body, including the liver ( see cirrhosis ), stomach , intestines , and brain . (dictionary.com)
  • Other chapters address issues such as prevention, fetal alcohol syndrome, the dually diagnosed patient, alcohol and HIV/AIDS, alcoholism in the elderly, and alcohol problems in women. (google.com)