Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Neuropathy: A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Parotid DiseasesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Rib FracturesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Dextropropoxyphene: A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Cooking and Eating UtensilsPancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Adrenal Cortex HormonesGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Transactional Analysis: A psychoanalytic therapy wherein each social transaction is analyzed to determine the involved ego state (whether parent-like, child-like, or adult-like) as a basis for understanding behavior.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Recreation Therapy: The enhancement of physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills so an individual may participate in chosen activities. Recreational modalities are used in designed intervention strategies, incorporating individual's interests to make the therapy process meaningful and relevant.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Buspirone: An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.NebraskaGlossitis: Inflammation of the tongue.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Marital Therapy: A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Water SofteningPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)EstoniaPharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Ethyl EthersTrypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Beriberi: A disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) and characterized by polyneuritis, cardiac pathology, and edema. The epidemic form is found primarily in areas in which white (polished) rice is the staple food, as in Japan, China, the Philippines, India, and other countries of southeast Asia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Mamillary Bodies: A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kazal Pancreatic: A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

Deficits in affective prosody comprehension: family history of alcoholism versus alcohol exposure. (1/52)

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Psychological distress in non-drinkers: associations with previous heavy drinking and current social relationships. (2/52)

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Relationship between plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in alcoholics according to liver enzyme activity. (3/52)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between folate and homocysteine levels in alcoholics taking into consideration the liver enzyme activity as sensitive markers of hepatocellular injury. Folate and homocysteine concentrations did not differ between alcoholics classified according to the liver enzyme activity. The association between folate and homocysteine levels exists in the alcoholics with normal liver enzyme activity and in the controls. Therefore, we concluded that before the liver hepatocellular injury due to alcohol abuse, the correlation between folate and homocysteine concentrations in alcoholics exists as in the healthy controls. In the presence of hepatocellular injury, the association disappears.  (+info)

An ongoing process: a qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence. (4/52)

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Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients. (5/52)

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Connective tissue growth factor production by activated pancreatic stellate cells in mouse alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. (6/52)

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Sensation seeking in long-term abstinent alcoholics, treatment-naive active alcoholics, and nonalcoholic controls. (7/52)

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Breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. (8/52)

Pyruvate is the key substance controlling the formation of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and acetate during alcoholic fermentation. Here we report the breeding of a low pyruvate-producing sake yeast by isolation of a mutant resistant to ethyl alpha-transcyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial function was involved in resistance to this substance and in the production of pyruvate by the mutants.  (+info)

  • We have this idea that there are two kinds of drinkers: the good people who can handle it and the bad people who lose control and become alcoholics. (unpickledblog.com)
  • The branch will also be selling cheeses, tarts, and other alcoholic drinks including champagne, beer and a rather odd-sounding tipple called 'Camembert and Berries on Red' (no, we're not sure what that is either). (telegraph.co.uk)
  • What's inside alcoholic energy drinks? (cnn.com)
  • Michigan announced a ban on caffeinated alcoholic beverages Thursday, in one of the strongest responses yet by a regulator to rising public concerns in the U.S. over the drinks' safety. (wsj.com)
  • What are the requirements to ship alcoholic drinks with UPS? (ups.com)
  • Just a week after issuing warning letters to four manufacturers of alcoholic energy drinks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced the drink makers have made "significant progress" in complying with the agency's regulations. (go.com)
  • The company also said it will no longer ship its alcoholic energy drinks and would remove them from store shelves by December 13. (go.com)
  • In Kazakhstan in 2016 there was continuous development of the trend for more consumers preferring light alcoholic drinks such as beer and wine. (euromonitor.com)
  • Such technological innovation enables government bodies to follow the production and selling processes, and help reduce the market for illegal alcoholic drinks. (euromonitor.com)
  • Beer is the largest alcoholic drinks category in Kazakhstan in volume terms, which is dominated by two multinational companies, namely Efes and Carlsberg. (euromonitor.com)
  • Vodka is the second largest alcoholic drinks category, with the biggest shares taken by domestic manufacturers Kokshetauminvody and Geom. (euromonitor.com)
  • In 2016, independent small grocers recorded the largest share of value sales of alcoholic drinks. (euromonitor.com)
  • At the same time, supermarkets and hypermarkets are gradually developing in the retail market by offering wider product ranges and fewer instances of illegal alcoholic drinks. (euromonitor.com)
  • It is expected that alcoholic drinks will post a volume CAGR of 2% over 2016-2021. (euromonitor.com)
  • Overall alcoholic drinks observed a slowdown in growth in total volume terms in 2016 compared to the review period. (euromonitor.com)
  • Asia Pacific Breweries Ltd remained the leader in alcoholic drinks in 2016, with its key portfolio being in beer. (euromonitor.com)
  • With an increasing presence of alcoholic drinks in new distribution channels these products are becoming more readily accessible to consumers. (euromonitor.com)
  • While alcoholic drinks is set to observe moderate total volume growth over the forecast period due to its maturity and weak consumer sentiment, emerging categories of spirits such as Japanese whisky, soju and gin are all set to experience faster growth. (euromonitor.com)
  • At the same time, more bars are set to open amid the growing cocktail culture, bringing in an increase in artisanal alcoholic drinks. (euromonitor.com)
  • Discover the latest market trends and uncover sources of future market growth for the Alcoholic Drinks industry in Singapore with research from Euromonitor's team of in-country analysts. (euromonitor.com)
  • If you're in the Alcoholic Drinks industry in Singapore, our research will save you time and money while empowering you to make informed, profitable decisions. (euromonitor.com)
  • Turnbull, vice-dean of education at the University of Ottawa, says the theory is that serving safe drinks in a safe environment helps moderate the addiction and lessens the harm alcoholics face daily on the streets. (cmaj.ca)
  • We work with companies in the alcoholic beverage industry and municipal licensing authorities to provide licenses, enforce legislation and regulations, and resolve license issues. (mass.gov)
  • RCW 46.61.5195: Disguising alcoholic beverage container. (wa.gov)
  • Disguising alcoholic beverage container. (wa.gov)
  • 1) It is a traffic infraction to incorrectly label the original container of an alcoholic beverage and to then violate RCW 46.61.519 . (wa.gov)
  • 2) It is a traffic infraction to place an alcoholic beverage in a container specifically labeled by the manufacturer of the container as containing a nonalcoholic beverage and to then violate RCW 46.61.519 . (wa.gov)
  • Learn where to register to file and pay Alcoholic Beverage excise tax to the Massachusetts Department of Revenue (DOR) via MassTaxConnect. (mass.gov)
  • Here you will also find Alcoholic Beverage excise tax rates and links to forms - along with gallons and revenue reports. (mass.gov)
  • UWM Dining Services is responsible for all sales of alcoholic beverages at UWM except those at the Hefter Center and the downtown campus, which may be handled by the DOCEx food and beverage contractor. (uwm.edu)
  • Every alcoholic beverage brand distributed in Tennessee must be registered with the Department. (tn.gov)
  • Manufacturers or importers must annually register each brand of alcoholic beverage they sell in Tennessee and pay a brand registration tax. (tn.gov)
  • They dampen out the dopamine system a little bit, so you don't get so happy when you have an alcoholic beverage," says James Cook, Ph.D., a chemist at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, who advises Tiruveedhula. (eurekalert.org)
  • Though a lot of people are familiar with drinking a caffeinated beverage or an alcoholic beverage, few of them are familiar with drinking the combination," said Dr. Matthew Davis, associate professor of pediatrics and communicable diseases and an associate professor of public policy at the Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. (go.com)
  • That combination is up to five beers at once in a single serving of a caffeinated alcoholic beverage and about the equivalent of one cup of coffee in terms of caffeine. (go.com)
  • Alcoholic beverage paraphernalia such as beer bongs used for drinking contests are prohibited. (augie.edu)
  • The possession of alcoholic beverage containers, either full or empty, is taken as a presumption of use and possession and is considered a policy violation. (augie.edu)
  • In May 2017, FRSC approved the energy labelling of alcoholic beverages targeted consultation paper and consultation plan, and agreed to the scheduled release of the targeted consultation paper in late June 2017. (health.gov.au)
  • Previously, researchers at University College London reported that Lactobacillus casei ​ Shirota supplements could restore the immune function of white blood cells in alcoholics ( Journal of Hepatology ​, Vol. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.02.015). (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • He decided the best way to keep himself from drinking would be to find another alcoholic who was fighting the same fight. (everything2.com)
  • I have learned over time the heart of the program is working the 12 steps as laid out in the Big Book , preferably under the guidance of a sponsor - another alcoholic who has worked the steps. (jsonline.com)
  • We may choose to live with another alcoholic or someone with an addiction and replay that history out all over again. (healthcentral.com)
  • One particular liver disease is called NASH, or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which creates fat, inflammation and/or damage to the cells from (as the title implies) non-alcoholic reasons. (empowher.com)
  • RNA-sequencing-based comparative analysis of human hepatic progenitor cells and their niche from alcoholic steatohepatitis livers Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are small cells with a relative large oval nucleus and a scanty cytoplasm situated in the canals of Hering that express markers of (immature) hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In Silkworth's view, alcoholics were caught by the delusion that despite often severe consequences of the last drinking episode, no harm will be done by the next drink. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Severe cases of alcoholic neuropathy can lead to the development of symptoms in the proximal lower extremities and distal upper extremities. (medscape.com)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Medical Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/alcoholic%20fermentation. (merriam-webster.com)
  • A review of the human literature implicates nutritional deficiencies, most often thiamine deficiency, that are common in alcoholic patients, as commonly accompanying complicating factors in the development of this neuropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Thiamine deficiency is commonly found in alcoholic patients, due to decreased absorption and hepatic depletion. (medscape.com)
  • The most common dietary deficiencies in alcoholics are vitamin B6, thiamine and folic acid. (livestrong.com)
  • In alcoholics, thiamine (100 mg IV or IM) should be administered prior to any glucose-containing solutions. (medscape.com)
  • Not all alcoholics will go on to develop cirrhosis, which is a condition characterized by a shrunken and nodular liver involving replacement of normal liver tissue with fibrosis and scar tissue. (zocdoc.com)
  • In its response to the Labelling Logic Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy 2011, the Legislative and Governance Forum on Food Regulation (now known as the Australia and New Zealand Ministerial Forum on Food Regulation (the Forum) ) stated that it supports in principle: That the energy content be displayed on the labels of all alcoholic beverages, consistent with the requirements for other food products. (health.gov.au)
  • Alcoholics are encouraged to "work" the 12-steps. (bartleby.com)
  • 12. Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics, and to practice these principles in all our affairs. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It is through those steps that the first members of AA experienced what founders Bill W. and Dr. Bob and doctors who worked with alcoholics called "a spiritual experience," where the mania to drink was removed and a relationship with God, or a Higher Power, was established. (jsonline.com)
  • You can make your own homemade, non-alcoholic beer at home by following similar steps as brewing typical beer. (ehow.com)
  • Many of the same steps to make other home-brewed beers are the same as those to make non-alcoholic beer. (ehow.com)
  • There were no cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among lifetime abstainers. (elsevier.com)
  • In most cases of alcoholic neuropathy, the onset of the polyneuropathy is insidious and prolonged, but some cases have been associated with acute, rapidly progressive onset. (medscape.com)
  • The use or possession of alcoholic beverages is prohibited on all university lands, except in units specifically designated by the chancellor. (uwm.edu)
  • Although the age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rate in the United States is lower than the global average (3.3 compared with 5.9 deaths per 100,000 per year), it has steadily and significantly increased during the past decade (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Non-smoking alcoholics showed a significantly greater level of recovery than smoking alcoholics in the areas of mental efficiency, higher-level reasoning and problem-solving, visual-spatial processing skills, and working or short-term memory," said Durazzo. (medindia.net)
  • The gut microflora of the alcoholics before the study started was found to contain significantly less bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and enterococci than the healthy controls. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • All suppliers or importers who ship alcoholic beverages into Massachusetts must file Form AB-10 on or before the 20th day of each month. (mass.gov)
  • You always have to monitor such a project, so it shouldn't attract new alcoholics - it's not an open invitation to drink in Oosterpark. (bbc.co.uk)
  • A little known book by Richard Peabody titled The Common Sense of Drinking first proffered the alcoholic could "train his mind" so that he would no longer want to drink. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If you can't go 72 hours without a drink then yes, you are an alcoholic. (yahoo.com)
  • It has long been known that alcoholics' children are 50% more likely to have a drink problem in the future, and new research from the Sahlgrenska Academy is shedding new light on this link. (innovations-report.com)
  • Many young adults drink caffeinated alcoholic beverages because they create a desirable feeling. (go.com)
  • In addition, beer is another light alcoholic drink that is expected to drive volume sales in the near future. (euromonitor.com)
  • Normally, alcoholics aren't allowed to drink in shelters like this because they tend to become disruptive, and this means hard-core alcoholics don't have access to the services they badly need. (cmaj.ca)
  • She says the participants are the "worst of the worst alcoholics," having declined to the point where they drink mouthwash or similar products. (cmaj.ca)
  • Alcoholics are being paid in beer to clean the streets of Amsterdam as part of a project partly funded by the Dutch government - the organisers think other countries should abandon "old-fashioned political correctness" and adopt the same approach. (bbc.co.uk)
  • One unusual choice is non-alcoholic beer. (ehow.com)
  • Chill the beer after this time and enjoy your non-alcoholic brew. (ehow.com)
  • UPS offers shipping of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer, sparkling wine, spirits) on a contract basis only. (ups.com)