An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Mercury poisoning, also known as hydrargyria, is a type of metal toxicity caused by exposure to excessive levels of mercury, leading to harmful effects on the nervous system, kidneys, and other organs, often resulting from improper handling or ingestion of mercury-containing substances.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
'Lead poisoning' is a type of heavy metal toxicity caused by increased levels of lead in the body, typically resulting from exposure to lead-containing substances or environments, and potentially leading to neurological issues, anemia, and developmental delays, especially in children.
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a condition characterized by the systemic toxicity induced by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, causing central nervous system depression, cardiovascular collapse, and potentially fatal liver and kidney damage.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members produce quassinoids.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.

The effects of age and alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance, awareness and self-restraint. (1/957)

AIMS: To investigate whether, compared with middle-aged men (aged 30-50), older men (age > or =60) (i) perform more poorly on a driving simulator and (ii) are more sensitive to the effects of ethanol in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving performance, but more aware of their driving difficulties, and therefore exercise better driving judgement. METHODS: 14 Healthy middle-aged men (mean age 36 years) were compared with 14 healthy older men (mean age 69 years) on an interactive driving simulator, while sober and while legally intoxicated (BAC >80 mg/dl). RESULTS: Older age was associated with poorer driving performance on the simulator. While sober, older men exhibited more improper braking, slower driving, greater speed variability, fewer appropriate full stops and more crashes, and spent more time executing left turns (across oncoming traffic); all values < or =0.02. BACs > or =80 mg/dl were associated with impaired driving, with more inappropriate braking, fewer appropriate full stops and more time executing left turns (all values > or =0.02) and trends towards more speed variability, more low speed collisions and more wrong turns (values <0.1). However, similar ethanol consumption did not produce higher peak BAC or more driving impairments in older drivers. While there were no differences between age groups in terms of awareness of intoxication or driving difficulties, older men were unwilling to drive while legally intoxicated because of fear of physical injury, whereas middle-aged men were more likely to avoid driving when intoxicated due to fear of legal ramifications. CONCLUSION: While both age and legal intoxication affected driving performance, older men were no more sensitive to ethanol in terms of peak BACs, driving performance or awareness/judgement than middle-aged men.  (+info)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor modulates the pulmonary host response to endotoxin in the absence and presence of acute ethanol intoxication. (2/957)

Alcohol impairs neutrophil function and predisposes the host to infectious complications. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases both the number and functional activities of neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of G-CSF on the pulmonary response to endotoxin in rats with or without acute ethanol intoxication. Acute ethanol intoxication inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 production in the lung and suppressed the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung. Ethanol also inhibited CD11b/c expression on recruited neutrophils and suppressed the phagocytic activity of circulating neutrophils. G-CSF pretreatment up-regulated CD11b/c expression on circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes, augmented the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung, and enhanced the phagocytic activity of circulating and recruited neutrophils in both the absence and presence of acute ethanol intoxication. G-CSF inhibited MIP-2 but not TNF-alpha production in the lung. These data suggest that G-CSF may be useful in the prevention or treatment of infections in persons immunocompromised by alcohol.  (+info)

Wine and good subjective health. (3/957)

The association of subjective, self-rated suboptimal (average or poor) health with the intake of beer, wine, and liquor and alcohol intoxication was examined in a general population sample in Finland in 1992. The odds ratios were adjusted for several possible confounders with the use of logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects who drank no wine, suboptimal health was less frequent among both men and women who imbibed 1-4 drinks of wine, and more common among men who consumed > or = 10 drinks of wine or liquor. Moderate wine drinking seems to be related to good self-rated health.  (+info)

A case of acute renal failure and compartment syndrome after an alcoholic binge. (4/957)

A 25 year old man presented with anuria and bilateral leg pain two days after an alcoholic binge. He subsequently developed rhabdomyolysis causing acute renal failure, with compartment syndrome of both lower legs. This required urgent dialysis and fasciotomy respectively within six hours of admission. He remained dialysis dependent for three weeks and only after four months was he able to weight bear on both legs. Alcohol is a leading cause of rhabdomyolysis. Early recognition and prompt treatment is essential to prevent serious complications.  (+info)

Alcohol sales to pseudo-intoxicated bar patrons. (5/957)

OBJECTIVES: Many establishments serve alcoholic beverages to obviously intoxicated patrons despite laws against such sales. To guide the development of interventions to reduce these illegal alcohol sales, this study used actors feigning intoxication to determine whether servers recognized obvious signs of intoxication and to assess the tactics servers used when dealing with intoxicated patrons. METHODS: Male actors ages 30 to 50 acted out signs of obvious intoxication as they attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages. If served during the first attempt, these pseudo-intoxicated buyers made second purchase attempts during the same visit. Observers accompanied the actors; after each visit, actors and observers recorded the servers' behavior and comments. RESULTS: Alcoholic beverages were served to actors portraying intoxicated patrons at 68% of first purchase attempts and 53% of second purchase attempts (62% of a total of 106 purchase attempts). The most common refusal technique was a direct refusal (68% of refusals), made with either no excuse or with reference to the actors' apparent intoxication level. Servers' second most commonly used refusal technique was offering alcohol-free beverages, such as coffee or water (18% of refusals). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine why servers who recognize intoxication serve alcoholic beverages and what training, outlet policies, and external pressures are needed to reduce illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.  (+info)

Outpatient detoxification of the addicted or alcoholic patient. (6/957)

Outpatient detoxification of patients with alcohol or other drug addiction is being increasingly undertaken. This type of management is appropriate for patients in stage I or stage II of withdrawal who have no significant comorbid conditions and have a support person willing to monitor their progress. Adequate dosages of appropriate substitute medications are important for successful detoxification. In addition, comorbid psychiatric, personality and medical disorders must be managed, and social and environmental concerns need to be addressed. By providing supportive, nonjudgmental, yet assertive care, the family physician can facilitate the best possible chance for a patient's successful recovery.  (+info)

Recent heavy drinking of alcohol and embolic stroke. (7/957)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for ischemic stroke, whereas light-to-moderate alcohol intake decreases the risk, but the role of different drinking patterns has remained unclear. We investigated recent light, moderate, and heavy alcohol drinking and former heavy drinking as risk factors for acute ischemic brain infarction by etiological subtype of stroke. METHODS: We compared 212 consecutive patients aged between 16 and 60 years, who were completely evaluated for the etiology of their ischemic stroke, with 274 control subjects admitted to the emergency unit of the same hospital. ORs, as estimates of multivariate relative risks (RRs), and 95% CIs after adjustment for possible confounding variables were calculated by logistic regression. The ORs were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipemia, current smoking, and history of migraine. RESULTS: Recent heavy drinking but not former heavy drinking was an independent risk factor for stroke (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.05). Consumption of 151 to 300 g and >300 g alcohol within the week preceding the onset of stroke significantly increased the risk for cardioembolic and cryptogenic stroke. Consumption of >40 g alcohol within the preceding 24 hours increased the risk for cardiogenic embolism to the brain among those who had a high-risk source (RR 4.75, 95% CI 1.23 to 18.4), the risk for tandem embolism among those who had prominent large-artery atherosclerosis (RR 7.68, 95% CI 1.82 to 32.3), and the risk for cryptogenic stroke (RR 3.84, 95% CI 1.69 to 8.71). Light drinking did not increase the risk for stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that acute drinking of intoxicating amounts of alcohol may trigger the onset of embolic stroke among subjects who have a source of thrombus in the heart or the large arteries.  (+info)

Increase in type I and type III collagens in human alcoholic liver cirrhosis. (8/957)

Collagen in bulk was isolated in about 30% yield from the livers of normal human beings and from livers of persons with alcholic cirrhosis. Analyzed chemically and examined by electron microscopy, the collagen in each case was shown to consist of two types identical with, or resembling closely, type I and type III collagens of skin. The collagen from normal liver was predominantly type I, whereas, that from cirrhotic livers consisted or approximately equal amounts of the two types. By chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose, the type I collagen from the cirrhotic livers showed one alpha2chain and two alpha1 chains. The alpha1 chains were separable from one another, but gel electrophoretic patterns of peptides obtained from them after treatment with CNBr were almost identical, and resembled the pattern obtained with CNBr peptides of the alpha1 chain of rat skin type I collagen. The increased collagen of both types was responsible in part for the observed distortion of the architecture of the cirrhotic livers associated with increased rigidity of the stroma. The predominance of type III collagen in the areas of collapse of architecture where, as shown by others, few fibroblasts are present, suggests that hepatocytes might have an important function in fibrogenesis during the course of liver cirrhosis.  (+info)

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol consumption despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. It is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a problematic pattern of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Alcohol is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain, use, or recover from the effects of alcohol.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use alcohol, is present.
5. Recurrent alcohol use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Alcohol use continues despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of alcohol use.
8. Recurrent alcohol use is in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by alcohol.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol (refer to DSM-5 for further details).
b) Alcohol (or a closely related substance, such as a benzodiazepine) is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The severity of alcohol use disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met:

* Mild: 2-3 criteria met
* Moderate: 4-5 criteria met
* Severe: 6 or more criteria met

It's important to note that alcohol use disorder is a complex condition with various factors contributing to its development and course. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it's crucial to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or a mental health specialist for an accurate assessment and appropriate treatment.

Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis is a medical condition characterized by irreversible scarring (fibrosis) and damage to the liver caused by excessive consumption of alcohol over an extended period. The liver's normal structure and function are progressively impaired as healthy liver tissue is replaced by scarred tissue, leading to the formation of nodules (regenerative noduli).

The condition typically develops after years of heavy drinking, with a higher risk for those who consume more than 60 grams of pure alcohol daily. The damage caused by alcoholic liver cirrhosis can be life-threatening and may result in complications such as:

1. Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
2. Encephalopathy (neurological dysfunction due to liver failure)
3. Esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus that can rupture and bleed)
4. Hepatorenal syndrome (kidney failure caused by liver disease)
5. Increased susceptibility to infections
6. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
7. Portal hypertension (increased blood pressure in the portal vein that supplies blood to the liver)

Abstaining from alcohol and managing underlying medical conditions are crucial for slowing down or halting disease progression. Treatment may involve medications, dietary changes, and supportive care to address complications. In severe cases, a liver transplant might be necessary.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a term that encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The three main stages of ALD are:

1. Fatty Liver: This is the earliest stage of ALD, characterized by the accumulation of fat droplets within liver cells (hepatocytes). It's often reversible with abstinence from alcohol.

2. Alcoholic Hepatitis: This is a more severe form of ALD, characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver cells. It can range from mild to severe, and severe cases can lead to liver failure. Symptoms may include jaundice, abdominal pain, and fever.

3. Cirrhosis: This is the most advanced stage of ALD, characterized by widespread scarring (fibrosis) and nodular transformation of the liver. It's irreversible and can lead to complications such as liver failure, portal hypertension, and increased risk of liver cancer.

The development and progression of ALD are influenced by various factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, genetic predisposition, nutritional status, and co-existing viral hepatitis or other liver diseases. Abstaining from alcohol is the most effective way to prevent and manage ALD.

Alcoholic hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption. It is a type of hepatitis that specifically results from alcohol abuse, rather than from viral infections or other causes. The condition can vary in severity, and long-term heavy drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholic hepatitis.

The inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis can lead to symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause liver failure, which may be life-threatening. Treatment typically involves alcohol abstinence, supportive care, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, hospitalization and more intensive treatments may be necessary.

Medical Definition of Water Intoxication:

Water intoxication, also known as hyponatremia, is a condition that occurs when an individual consumes water in such large quantities that the body's electrolyte balance is disrupted. This results in an abnormally low sodium level in the blood (hyponatremia), which can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including nausea, headache, confusion, seizures, coma, and even death in extreme cases. It's important to note that water intoxication is rare and typically only occurs in situations where large amounts of water are consumed in a short period of time, such as during endurance sports or when someone is trying to intentionally harm themselves.

Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is a condition in which there is accumulation of fat in the liver due to heavy and prolonged alcohol consumption. The medical definition of "alcoholic fatty liver" is:

"A buildup of fat in the liver (steatosis) caused by excessive alcohol consumption, leading to inflammation, damage, and possible progression to more severe liver diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis."

Excessive alcohol intake causes the liver to prioritize metabolizing alcohol over its other functions, which leads to an accumulation of fatty acids in the liver cells (hepatocytes). Over time, this can result in inflammation, scarring, and ultimately liver failure if not treated or if alcohol consumption continues.

AFLD is often reversible if the individual stops consuming alcohol, allowing the liver to recover and repair itself. However, continued alcohol use will exacerbate the condition and may lead to more severe liver diseases.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

Alcoholic pancreatitis is a specific type of pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas. This condition is caused by excessive and prolonged consumption of alcohol. The exact mechanism by which alcohol induces pancreatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed that alcohol causes damage to the cells of the pancreas, leading to inflammation. This can result in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate. Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis can also lead to serious complications such as diabetes, malnutrition, and pancreatic cancer. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as hydration, pain management, and nutritional support, along with abstinence from alcohol. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or to relieve blockages in the pancreas.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a international fellowship of individuals who have had a drinking problem and wish to do something about it. AA is nonprofessional, self-supporting, multiracial, apolitical, and available almost everywhere. There are no age or education requirements, and membership is open to anyone who wants to do something about their drinking problem.

AA's primary purpose is to help alcoholics stop drinking, though the organization also aims to inspire personal growth and improve the quality of life for its members. AA's program of recovery is based on the Twelve Steps, a set of principles that, when practiced as a way of life, can expel the obsession to drink and enable the sufferer to become happily and usefully whole.

The organization holds regular meetings where members share their experiences, strength, and hope to help one another recover from alcoholism. AA also offers sponsorship, where more experienced members work with newer members to guide them through the Twelve Step program.

It's important to note that while AA has helped many people achieve and maintain sobriety, it is not the only path to recovery from alcoholism. Other evidence-based treatments, such as medication-assisted treatment and behavioral therapy, are also effective for some individuals.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle) that is caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The condition is characterized by the progressive weakening and enlargement of the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure. Over time, alcoholic cardiomyopathy can cause the heart to become weakened and unable to pump blood efficiently throughout the body. This can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, and fluid retention.

The exact mechanism by which alcohol causes cardiomyopathy is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of factors, including direct toxic effects of alcohol on the heart muscle, nutritional deficiencies, and genetic predisposition. Treatment for alcoholic cardiomyopathy typically involves lifestyle changes such as abstaining from alcohol, as well as medications to manage symptoms and improve heart function. In severe cases, hospitalization or surgery may be necessary.

In the context of medicine and health, "temperance" refers to moderation or self-restraint in the consumption of potentially harmful substances, particularly alcohol. It promotes a balanced lifestyle that avoids excessive habits, such as overeating, substance abuse, or any other activities that could negatively impact one's health.

However, it is important to note that "temperance" itself is not a medical term per se but has been used in various historical and social contexts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Alcoholic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that occurs due to excessive alcohol consumption. It's caused by the toxic effects of alcohol and its byproducts on nerves throughout the body, particularly in the peripheral nervous system. The condition typically develops over time, with symptoms becoming more severe as alcohol abuse continues.

The symptoms of alcoholic neuropathy can vary widely depending on which nerves are affected. However, common symptoms include:

1. Numbness or tingling in the arms and legs
2. Muscle weakness and cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Difficulty with balance and coordination
5. Pain or burning sensations in the extremities
6. Heat intolerance
7. Bladder and bowel dysfunction
8. Sexual dysfunction

Treatment for alcoholic neuropathy typically involves addressing the underlying alcohol abuse, as well as managing symptoms with medications and physical therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage complications. It's important to note that abstaining from alcohol is the only way to prevent further nerve damage and improve symptoms over time.

Alcoholic psychosis is a term used to describe a group of psychiatric disorders that are directly related to alcohol abuse or withdrawal. The two most common types of alcoholic psychosis are Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome, which often occur together and are referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Wernicke's encephalopathy is a acute neurological disorder characterized by confusion, memory loss, difficulty with muscle coordination, and abnormal eye movements. It is caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency that is often seen in people who are chronic alcoholics.

Korsakoff's syndrome, on the other hand, is a chronic memory disorder characterized by severe memory loss and confusion. People with Korsakoff's syndrome often have difficulty learning new information and may confabulate, or make up information, to fill in gaps in their memory.

Both Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome are serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves administering thiamine and other vitamins, as well as providing supportive care to help manage symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcohol abuse can also lead to other types of psychosis, such as delirium tremens (DTs), which is a severe form of alcohol withdrawal that can cause confusion, hallucinations, and seizures. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are a class of drugs that slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to decreased arousal and decreased level of consciousness. They work by increasing the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, relaxation, reduced anxiety, and in some cases, respiratory depression.

Examples of CNS depressants include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and certain types of pain medications such as opioids. These drugs are often used medically to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and chronic pain, but they can also be misused or abused for their sedative effects.

It is important to use CNS depressants only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects, including addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose of CNS depressants can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death.

Plant poisoning is a form of poisoning that occurs when someone ingests, inhales, or comes into contact with any part of a plant that contains toxic substances. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type and amount of plant consumed or exposed to, as well as the individual's age, health status, and sensitivity to the toxin.

Symptoms of plant poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, seizures, or in severe cases, even death. Some common plants that can cause poisoning include poison ivy, poison oak, foxglove, oleander, and hemlock, among many others.

If you suspect plant poisoning, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and bring a sample of the plant or information about its identity if possible. This will help healthcare providers diagnose and treat the poisoning more effectively.

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a medical condition that occurs when carbon monoxide gas is inhaled, leading to the accumulation of this toxic gas in the bloodstream. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as natural gas, propane, oil, wood, or coal.

When carbon monoxide is inhaled, it binds to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. This binding forms carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and leads to hypoxia, or insufficient oxygen supply to the body's tissues and organs.

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level of exposure and the duration of exposure. Mild to moderate CO poisoning may cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. Severe CO poisoning can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, heart failure, respiratory failure, and even death.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment typically involves administering high-flow oxygen therapy to help eliminate carbon monoxide from the body and prevent further damage to tissues and organs. In some cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to accelerate the elimination of CO from the body.

Prevention is key in avoiding carbon monoxide poisoning. It is essential to ensure that all fuel-burning appliances are properly maintained and ventilated, and that carbon monoxide detectors are installed and functioning correctly in homes and other enclosed spaces.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is not listed as a separate disorder in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it was previously included in earlier editions as a subtype of Amnestic Disorder due to the effects of substance use or exposure to toxins.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is characterized by significant memory impairment that is directly caused by alcohol consumption. This disorder can result in anterograde amnesia, which is the inability to form new memories after drinking, and/or retrograde amnesia, which involves forgetting previously learned information or personal experiences.

The diagnosis of Alcohol Amnestic Disorder typically requires a comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluation to determine the extent and nature of memory impairment, as well as to rule out other potential causes for cognitive decline. Treatment usually involves a combination of abstinence from alcohol, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial interventions to address substance use disorder and any co-occurring mental health conditions.

Beer is a fermented alcoholic beverage typically made from malted barley, hops, water, and yeast. The brewing process involves steeping the malt in water to create a sugary solution called wort, which is then boiled with hops for flavor and preservation. After cooling, the wort is fermented with yeast, which converts the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. There are many varieties of beer, including ales, lagers, stouts, and porters, that differ in their ingredients, brewing methods, and flavor profiles. The alcohol content of beer generally ranges from 3% to 12% ABV (alcohol by volume).

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium, also known as delirium tremens (DTs), is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in people who are dependent on alcohol and suddenly stop or significantly reduce their consumption. It is a form of alcohol withdrawal syndrome that is characterized by the sudden onset of severe confusion, agitation, hallucinations, tremors, and autonomic hyperactivity.

The diagnostic criteria for alcohol withdrawal delirium, as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Disturbance in consciousness (i.e., reduced clarity of awareness of the environment) with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention.
2. A change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, or language disturbance) or the development of a perceptual disturbance that is not better explained by another medical condition or substance use disorder.
3. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to a few days) and tends to fluctuate throughout the day.
4. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the symptoms are caused by alcohol withdrawal.
5. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another medical condition, medication use, or substance intoxication or withdrawal.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment in a hospital setting. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to manage symptoms, such as benzodiazepines to reduce agitation and prevent seizures, and antipsychotic medications to treat hallucinations and delusions. Supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, may also be necessary to prevent dehydration and other complications.

Wernicke Encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). It is characterized by a classic triad of symptoms: confusion, oculomotor dysfunction (such as nystagmus and ophthalmoplegia), and gait ataxia. Other symptoms can include memory loss, apathy, and hypothermia.

Wernicke Encephalopathy is most commonly seen in alcoholics due to poor nutrition, but it can also occur in people with conditions that cause malabsorption or increased thiamine requirements, such as AIDS, cancer, and chronic diarrhea. Immediate treatment with thiamine replacement therapy is necessary to prevent progression of the disease and potential permanent neurological damage. If left untreated, Wernicke Encephalopathy can lead to Korsakoff's syndrome, a chronic memory disorder.

'Wine' is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice. It contains ethanol and can have varying levels of other compounds depending on the type of grape used, the region where it was produced, and the method of fermentation.

In a medical context, wine might be referred to in terms of its potential health effects, which can vary. Moderate consumption of wine, particularly red wine, has been associated with certain health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health. However, heavy or excessive drinking can lead to numerous health problems, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and an increased risk of various types of cancer.

It's important to note that while moderate consumption may have some health benefits, the potential risks of alcohol consumption generally outweigh the benefits for many people. Therefore, it's recommended that individuals who do not currently drink alcohol should not start drinking for health benefits. Those who choose to drink should do so in moderation, defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

An antidote is a substance that can counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. It works by neutralizing, reducing, or eliminating the harmful effects of the toxic substance. Antidotes can be administered in various forms such as medications, vaccines, or treatments. They are often used in emergency situations to save lives and prevent serious complications from poisoning.

The effectiveness of an antidote depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxin involved, the timing of administration, and the individual's response to treatment. In some cases, multiple antidotes may be required to treat a single poisoning incident. It is important to note that not all poisons have specific antidotes, and in such cases, supportive care and symptomatic treatment may be necessary.

Examples of common antidotes include:

* Naloxone for opioid overdose
* Activated charcoal for certain types of poisoning
* Digoxin-specific antibodies for digoxin toxicity
* Fomepizole for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
* Dimercaprol for heavy metal poisoning.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Mercury poisoning, also known as hydrargyria or mercurialism, is a type of metal poisoning caused by exposure to mercury or its compounds. It can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Symptoms may vary but can include sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type of symptoms can vary greatly, depending on the type and amount of mercury and the form in which it was taken. Long-term exposure to mercury can lead to serious neurological and kidney problems. It is usually diagnosed through tests that measure the amount of mercury in the body, such as blood or urine tests. Treatment generally involves eliminating the source of mercury exposure, supportive care, and, in some cases, chelation therapy which helps to remove mercury from the body.

Energy drinks are defined in the medical literature as beverages that contain caffeine, often along with other ingredients like sugars, vitamins, and various herbal supplements. The caffeine content in these drinks can range from 70 to 240 milligrams per serving, which is roughly equivalent to one to three cups of coffee.

The purpose of energy drinks is to provide a quick boost of energy and alertness, primarily through the stimulant effects of caffeine. However, it's important to note that consuming large amounts of caffeine can lead to negative side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, rapid heart rate, and upset stomach.

Additionally, some energy drinks contain high levels of sugar, which can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems when consumed in excess. It's important for individuals to consume these beverages in moderation and be aware of their caffeine and sugar content.

Acetaldehyde is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid with a pungent odor. It is the simplest aldehyde, with the formula CH3CHO. Acetaldehyde is an important intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol and is produced by the oxidation of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase. It is also a naturally occurring compound that is found in small amounts in various foods and beverages, such as fruits, vegetables, and coffee.

Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance that can cause a range of adverse health effects, including irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, nausea, vomiting, and headaches. It has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Long-term exposure to acetaldehyde has been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, and liver.

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by the accumulation of lead in the body, often over months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children under the age of 6 are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development.

The primary source of lead exposure is lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings. Lead can also be found in water supplied through lead pipes, soil contaminated by historical industrial activity, air (in certain industries and locations), and some consumer products such as toys, cosmetics, and traditional medicines.

Lead poisoning can cause a wide range of symptoms, including developmental delays, learning difficulties, abdominal pain, irritability, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, vomiting, and memory or concentration problems. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, and even death.

It's important to note that there is no safe level of lead exposure, and any amount of lead in the body is potentially harmful. If you suspect lead poisoning, consult a healthcare professional for evaluation and treatment options.

Hemoperfusion is a medical procedure that involves passing a patient's blood through an external device to remove toxic substances or excess therapeutic drugs. In this process, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body, where it passes through a cartridge containing adsorbent material (such as activated charcoal or synthetic resins). These materials bind to and eliminate harmful molecules from the blood, which are then discarded.

Hemoperfusion can be used in various clinical situations, such as:

1. Drug overdoses: To remove toxic levels of drugs that cannot be effectively eliminated by conventional methods like dialysis.
2. Poisoning: To eliminate harmful toxins from the bloodstream in cases of acute poisoning or envenomation.
3. Liver failure: In patients with liver dysfunction, hemoperfusion can help remove waste products and toxins that the damaged liver cannot process effectively.
4. Septicemia: To eliminate bacterial toxins from the bloodstream in severe cases of sepsis or septic shock.

It is important to note that hemoperfusion is not a common procedure and is typically reserved for specific, life-threatening situations where other treatment options have been exhausted. The use of this technique requires specialized equipment, trained medical personnel, and close monitoring of the patient's clinical status during and after the procedure.

Digitoxin is a cardiac glycoside drug that is derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis lanata). It is used in the treatment of various heart conditions, particularly congestive heart failure and certain types of arrhythmias. Digitoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and slowing the heart rate, which helps to improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping action.

Like other cardiac glycosides, digitoxin inhibits the sodium-potassium pump in heart muscle cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and a strengthening of heart muscle contractions. However, digitoxin has a longer half-life than other cardiac glycosides such as digoxin, which means that it stays in the body for a longer period of time and may require less frequent dosing.

Digitoxin is available in tablet form and is typically prescribed at a low dose, with regular monitoring of blood levels to ensure safe and effective use. Common side effects of digitoxin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as arrhythmias or toxicity, which may require hospitalization and treatment with medications or other interventions.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Mushroom poisoning refers to the adverse health effects that occur after ingesting toxic mushrooms. These effects can range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, to severe neurological and systemic reactions, including hallucinations, organ failure, and even death in serious cases. The severity of the poisoning depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxic mushroom consumed, the age and health status of the individual, and the time elapsed between ingestion and medical treatment. It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if mushroom poisoning is suspected, as some symptoms may not appear until several hours or days after consumption, and delays in treatment can lead to more severe outcomes.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), alcohol-induced disorders of the nervous system are a category of conditions characterized by symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal. These disorders include:

1. Alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorder: This condition is characterized by significant impairment in cognitive functioning, including difficulties with attention, memory, and executive functions, which are caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
2. Alcohol-induced mood disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of a mood disorder, such as depression or mania, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
3. Alcohol-induced anxiety disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of an anxiety disorder, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
4. Alcohol-induced sleep disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty sleeping or maintaining sleep that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
5. Alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction: This condition is characterized by the presence of sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or decreased libido, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
6. Alcohol-induced movement disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of abnormal movements, such as tremors or ataxia, that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.

It's important to note that in order for a diagnosis of an alcohol-induced disorder to be made, the symptoms must be severe enough to cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be better explained by another medical condition or mental disorder.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide that is used for controlling weeds and grasses in agricultural settings. It is a non-selective contact weed killer, meaning it kills any green plant it comes into contact with. Paraquat is a fast-acting chemical that causes rapid desiccation of plant tissues upon contact.

In a medical context, paraquat is classified as a toxicological emergency and can cause severe poisoning in humans if ingested, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin or eyes. Paraquat poisoning can lead to multiple organ failure, including the lungs, kidneys, and liver, and can be fatal in severe cases. There is no specific antidote for paraquat poisoning, and treatment typically focuses on supportive care and managing symptoms.

It's important to note that paraquat is highly regulated and its use is restricted to licensed professionals due to its high toxicity. Proper protective equipment, including gloves, goggles, and respiratory protection, should be used when handling paraquat to minimize the risk of exposure.

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol). It is used in various industrial applications such as the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other chemicals. In the medical field, methanol is considered a toxic alcohol that can cause severe intoxication and metabolic disturbances when ingested or improperly consumed. Methanol poisoning can lead to neurological symptoms, blindness, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhododendron" is not a medical term. It is a genus of woody plants in the heath family Ericaceae, which includes shrubs and small trees commonly known as rhododendrons and azaleas. Some species contain toxic compounds that can cause health issues if ingested, but "Rhododendron" itself is not a medical term or concept.

Ricin is defined as a highly toxic protein that is derived from the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). It can be produced as a white, powdery substance or a mistable aerosol. Ricin works by getting inside cells and preventing them from making the proteins they need. Without protein, cells die. Eventually, this can cause organ failure and death.

It is not easily inhaled or absorbed through the skin, but if ingested or injected, it can be lethal in very small amounts. There is no antidote for ricin poisoning - treatment consists of supportive care. Ricin has been used as a bioterrorism agent in the past and continues to be a concern due to its relative ease of production and potential high toxicity.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This enzyme is primarily located in the liver and to some extent in other organs such as the lungs, brain, and kidneys.

CYP2E1 plays a significant role in the metabolic activation of several procarcinogens, including nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain solvents. It also contributes to the oxidation of various therapeutic drugs, such as acetaminophen, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. Overexpression or induction of CYP2E1 has been linked to increased susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicity, carcinogenesis, and alcohol-related liver damage.

The activity of CYP2E1 can be influenced by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, age, sex, smoking status, and exposure to certain chemicals or drugs. Understanding the regulation and function of this enzyme is crucial for predicting individual susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicities and diseases, as well as for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Cadmium poisoning is a condition that results from the exposure to cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. This can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Cadmium is found in some industrial workplaces, such as battery manufacturing, metal smelting, and phosphate fertilizer production. It can also be found in contaminated food, water, and cigarette smoke.

Acute cadmium poisoning is rare but can cause severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps. Chronic exposure to cadmium can lead to a range of health problems, including kidney damage, bone disease, lung damage, and anemia. It has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer.

The treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves removing the source of exposure, providing supportive care, and in some cases, chelation therapy to remove cadmium from the body. Prevention measures include reducing exposure to cadmium in the workplace, avoiding contaminated food and water, and not smoking.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Alcohol abstinence is the deliberate choice to refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages. This can be a personal choice, or it may be recommended by a healthcare professional for individuals who have alcohol use disorder, are pregnant, have certain medical conditions, or are taking medications that interact negatively with alcohol. Abstinence is often an important part of treatment and recovery for people struggling with alcohol addiction.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Cholinesterase reactivators are a type of medication used to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning, particularly organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, as well as nerve agents. These chemicals work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This can lead to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine and result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Cholinesterase reactivators, also known as oximes, work by reactivating the inhibited enzyme and allowing it to resume its normal function. The most commonly used cholinesterase reactivator is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is often administered in combination with atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of nerve agents or pesticides, and their use should be determined by a medical professional based on the specific type of poisoning involved. Additionally, these medications can have side effects and should only be administered under medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "honey" is not typically considered a medical term. It is a natural sweet substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. Honey is composed primarily of fructose and glucose, with small amounts of other sugars, water, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and various organic compounds.

While honey does have some potential health benefits, such as its antimicrobial properties and its use in wound healing, it is not a medical treatment or intervention. If you have any questions about the medicinal uses of honey or its role in health, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Neurotoxicity syndromes refer to a group of conditions caused by exposure to neurotoxins, which are substances that can damage the structure or function of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity syndromes can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems and may cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type and severity of the exposure.

Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness
* Tremors or shaking
* Difficulty with coordination or balance
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Vision problems
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Seizures or convulsions
* Mood changes, such as depression or anxiety

Neurotoxicity syndromes can be caused by exposure to a variety of substances, including heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and arsenic), pesticides, solvents, and certain medications. In some cases, neurotoxicity syndromes may be reversible with treatment, while in other cases, the damage may be permanent.

Prevention is key in avoiding neurotoxicity syndromes, and it is important to follow safety guidelines when working with or around potential neurotoxins. If exposure does occur, prompt medical attention is necessary to minimize the risk of long-term health effects.

Sodium oxybate is a central nervous system depressant, which is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is also known as gamma-hydroxybutyrate monosodium salt or sodium GHB. Sodium oxybate is used in the medical field for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone). It is sold under the brand name Xyrem.

Sodium oxybate works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically increasing the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and wakefulness. The medication is available only through a restricted distribution program due to its potential for abuse and dependence. It is usually taken at night in two doses, one at bedtime and the other about 2.5 to 4 hours later.

It's important to note that sodium oxybate has a high potential for misuse and addiction, and it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet taste, which makes it appealing to animals and children. It is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreeze, coolants, deicers, hydraulic brake fluids, solvents, and other industrial products. Ethylene glycol is also found in some household items such as certain types of wood stains, paints, and cosmetics.

Ingesting even small amounts of ethylene glycol can be harmful or fatal to humans and animals. It is metabolized by the body into toxic substances that can cause damage to the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. Symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, coma, acidosis, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.

If you suspect that someone has ingested ethylene glycol, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves administering a medication called fomepizole or ethanol to inhibit the metabolism of ethylene glycol, as well as providing supportive care such as fluid replacement and dialysis to remove the toxic substances from the body.

'Hyalin' is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a histological term used to describe a particular type of tissue structure. Hyalin refers to the homogeneous, translucent, and eosinophilic (pink) appearance of a tissue under a microscope due to the accumulation of an amorphous, acellular, and protein-rich matrix.

Hyalinization can occur in various tissues, including blood vessels, cardiac valves, cartilage, and other connective tissues. It is often associated with aging, injury, inflammation, or degenerative changes, such as those seen in hyaline membrane disease (a respiratory disorder in premature infants) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (thickening of the heart muscle).

In summary, Hyalin is a histological term used to describe the appearance of tissue under a microscope due to the accumulation of an amorphous, acellular, and protein-rich matrix.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

Rhabdomyolysis is a medical condition characterized by the breakdown and degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers, leading to the release of their intracellular contents into the bloodstream. This can result in various complications, including electrolyte imbalances, kidney injury or failure, and potentially life-threatening conditions if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The process of rhabdomyolysis typically involves three key components:

1. Muscle injury: Direct trauma, excessive exertion, prolonged immobilization, infections, metabolic disorders, toxins, or medications can cause muscle damage, leading to the release of intracellular components into the bloodstream.
2. Release of muscle contents: When muscle fibers break down, they release various substances, such as myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aldolase, and potassium ions. Myoglobin is a protein that can cause kidney damage when present in high concentrations in the bloodstream, particularly when it is filtered through the kidneys and deposits in the renal tubules.
3. Systemic effects: The release of muscle contents into the bloodstream can lead to various systemic complications, such as electrolyte imbalances (particularly hyperkalemia), acidosis, hypocalcemia, and kidney injury or failure due to myoglobin-induced tubular damage.

Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can vary widely depending on the severity and extent of muscle damage but may include muscle pain, weakness, swelling, stiffness, dark urine, and tea-colored or cola-colored urine due to myoglobinuria. In severe cases, patients may experience symptoms related to kidney failure, such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and decreased urine output.

Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis typically involves measuring blood levels of muscle enzymes (such as CK and LDH) and evaluating renal function through blood tests and urinalysis. Treatment generally focuses on addressing the underlying cause of muscle damage, maintaining fluid balance, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and preventing or managing kidney injury.

Shellfish poisoning refers to illnesses caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated with harmful toxins produced by certain types of microscopic algae. These toxins can accumulate in various species of shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific type of toxin involved.

There are several types of shellfish poisoning, each caused by different groups of algal toxins:

1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP): Caused by saxitoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense. Symptoms include tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by weakness, difficulty swallowing, and potentially paralysis and respiratory failure in severe cases.
2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): Caused by domoic acid produced by diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, memory loss, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.
3. Diarrheal Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): Caused by okadaic acid and its derivatives produced by dinoflagellates such as Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and occasionally chills and fever.
4. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP): Caused by brevetoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis. Symptoms include reversible neurological symptoms like tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as respiratory irritation, coughing, and chest tightness in severe cases.
5. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP): Caused by azaspiracids produced by dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

It is essential to note that shellfish contaminated with these toxins may not show visible signs of spoilage or illness-causing bacteria; therefore, it is crucial to avoid consuming them during harmful algal blooms (HABs) or red tide events. Public health authorities often issue warnings and close shellfish beds when HABs are detected in the water. Always check local advisories before consuming shellfish, especially if you have harvested them yourself. Cooking does not destroy these toxins, so they remain harmful even after cooking.

Mercury poisoning, specifically affecting the nervous system, is also known as erethism or cerebral mercurialism. It is a condition that results from prolonged exposure to mercury or its compounds, which can lead to serious neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The central nervous system is particularly sensitive to mercury's toxic effects.

The symptoms of mercury poisoning affecting the nervous system may include:

1. Personality changes: This might include increased irritability, excitability, or emotional lability.
2. Cognitive impairment: There can be issues with memory, attention, and concentration, leading to difficulties in learning and performing complex tasks.
3. Neuromuscular symptoms: These may include tremors, fine motor coordination problems, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, it might lead to ataxia (loss of balance and coordination) or even paralysis.
4. Sensory impairment: Mercury poisoning can cause sensory disturbances such as numbness, tingling, or pain in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy). Additionally, visual and auditory disturbances might occur.
5. Speech and hearing problems: Changes in speech patterns, including slurred speech, or difficulties with hearing may also be present.
6. Mood disorders: Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms can develop as a result of mercury poisoning.
7. Insomnia: Sleep disturbances are common in individuals exposed to mercury.

It is important to note that these symptoms might not appear immediately after exposure to mercury but could take months or even years to develop, depending on the severity and duration of exposure. If you suspect mercury poisoning, seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Substance-induced psychosis is a type of psychosis that is caused by the use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder as follows:

A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a combination of substances.

C. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium and is not better explained by a psychotic disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal, or after exposure to a medication.

D. The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder).

It's important to note that the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis requires a thorough medical and psychiatric evaluation to determine if the symptoms are caused by substance use or another underlying mental health condition.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Pellagra is a nutritional disorder caused by a deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3) or tryptophan, an amino acid that the body can convert into niacin. It's characterized by the four D's: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The skin lesions typically appear on sun-exposed areas and are often described as "photosensitive." Other symptoms can include inflammation of the mucous membranes, mouth sores, anemia, and depression. If left untreated, pellagra can be fatal. It was once common in regions where people subsisted on corn as a staple food, as corn is low in tryptophan and contains niacin in a form that is not easily absorbed by the body. Nowadays, it's most commonly seen in alcoholics, people with malabsorption disorders, and those with severely restricted diets.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve synapses. This results in an accumulation of acetylcholine, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disruption of normal nervous system function. Methomyl is used to control a wide range of pests in various crops, but its use is restricted due to its high toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, weakness, and difficulty breathing in cases of acute exposure. Chronic exposure to methomyl has been linked to neurological effects, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

Alcohol deterrents, also known as alcohol deterrent devices or ignition interlock devices, are breathalyzer devices that are installed in vehicles to prevent a driver from starting the vehicle if their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is above a certain limit. These devices are often used as a condition of license reinstatement for individuals who have been convicted of drunk driving or other alcohol-related offenses.

The driver must blow into the device, and if their BAC is above the programmed limit, the vehicle will not start. Some devices also require periodic rolling retests while the vehicle is in motion to ensure that the driver remains sober throughout the trip. The use of alcohol deterrents has been shown to reduce recidivism rates among drunk drivers and improve overall road safety.

Forensic Toxicology is a branch of toxicology that applies scientific methods and techniques to investigate and provide information about the presence, identity, concentration, and effects of drugs, poisons, or other chemicals in biological specimens (such as blood, urine, tissues) within a legal context. It is often used in criminal investigations, medical examinations, and workplace drug testing to determine the cause of death, poisoning, impairment, or other health effects related to exposure to toxic substances. Forensic toxicologists may also provide expert testimony in court based on their findings.

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning refers to the harmful effects on the body caused by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile and toxic chemical compound. This substance has been widely used in various industrial applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, and rubber, a fire extinguishing agent, and a refrigerant. However, due to its high toxicity, the use of carbon tetrachloride has been significantly reduced or phased out in many countries.

Ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of carbon tetrachloride can lead to poisoning, which may cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can result in:

1. Central nervous system depression: Dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death.
2. Respiratory irritation: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).
3. Cardiovascular effects: Increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
5. Liver damage: Hepatitis, jaundice, and liver failure in severe cases.
6. Kidney damage: Acute kidney injury or failure.

Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can lead to long-term health effects, including:

1. Liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
2. Kidney damage and kidney disease.
3. Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves in the limbs), causing numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnant women exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and monitoring of vital signs. In some cases, specific treatments like activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be used to remove the substance from the body. Prevention is crucial in minimizing exposure to this harmful chemical by following safety guidelines when handling it and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

Lithium carbonate is a medical inorganic salt that is commonly used as a medication, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It works by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes. Lithium carbonate is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.

The medical definition of lithium carbonate is: "A white, crystalline powder used as a mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It acts by reducing the availability of sodium and potassium ions within nerve cells, which alters the electrical activity of the brain and helps to regulate mood. Lithium carbonate is also used in the treatment of cluster headaches and to reduce aggression in patients with behavioral disorders."

It's important to note that lithium carbonate requires careful medical supervision due to its narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

4-Hydroxycoumarins are a type of chemical compound that contains a hydroxy group (-OH) attached to the 4th carbon atom of the coumarin structure. Coumarins themselves are aromatic organic compounds, characterized by a benzene ring fused to a pyrone ring.

4-Hydroxycoumarins have gained attention in medical research due to their potential biological activities. For instance, some 4-hydroxycoumarins exhibit anticoagulant properties and are used as oral anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin. These compounds work by inhibiting the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, thereby interfering with the blood clotting process.

Additionally, 4-hydroxycoumarins have been investigated for their potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profiles.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Sarin is a potent and deadly nerve agent, a type of organic compound called a phosphoro-organic fluid. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid, which is also known as GB. Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent that is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.

Sarin works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions and synapses, causing uncontrolled muscle contractions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

Exposure to Sarin can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Symptoms of exposure include runny nose, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blurred vision, and confusion. Immediate medical attention is required for anyone exposed to Sarin, as antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime can be administered to counteract its effects.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

The medical definition of 'charcoal' is referred to as activated charcoal, which is a fine, black powder made from coconut shells, wood, or other natural substances. It is used in medical situations to absorb poison or drugs in the stomach, thereby preventing their absorption into the body and reducing their toxic effects. Activated charcoal works by binding to certain chemicals and preventing them from being absorbed through the digestive tract.

Activated charcoal is generally safe for most people when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as black stools, constipation, and regurgitation of the charcoal. It should be used under medical supervision and not as a substitute for seeking immediate medical attention in case of poisoning or overdose.

It's important to note that activated charcoal is different from regular charcoal, which is not safe to consume and can contain harmful chemicals or substances.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

2-Propanol is a type of alcohol, also known as isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. 2-Propanol is miscible with water and most organic solvents.

It is commonly used as a solvent and as an antiseptic or disinfectant, due to its ability to denature proteins and disrupt microbial cell membranes. In medical settings, 2-Propanol is often used as a skin sanitizer or hand rub to reduce the number of microorganisms on the skin.

Ingestion or prolonged exposure to 2-Propanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and may lead to central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. It is important to handle 2-Propanol with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Aversive therapy is a behavioral treatment approach that uses negative reinforcement or punishment to help an individual reduce or stop undesirable behaviors. The goal of aversive therapy is to condition the person to associate the undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus, such as a taste, sound, or image, so that they are deterred from engaging in the behavior in the future.

In aversive therapy, the therapist may use several techniques, including:

1. Contingent negative reinforcement: This involves removing a positive reinforcer (a reward) after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a child with a disruptive behavior disorder is given tokens for good behavior that can be exchanged for prizes, and then loses tokens for misbehaving, this is an example of contingent negative reinforcement.
2. Punishment: This involves presenting an unpleasant stimulus immediately after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a person who bites their nails receives a mild electric shock every time they bite their nails, this is an example of punishment.
3. Avoidance conditioning: This involves associating a negative stimulus with a particular situation or object to create an aversion to it. For example, if a person has a phobia of spiders, the therapist may gradually expose them to images or objects associated with spiders while also presenting a mild electric shock. Over time, the person learns to associate the spider-related stimuli with the unpleasant shock and develops an aversion to spiders.

It's important to note that aversive therapy can be controversial due to concerns about potential harm, including physical discomfort or psychological distress. As a result, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatment approaches have been ineffective, and only under the close supervision of a qualified professional who can ensure that the therapy is administered safely and ethically.

Forensic medicine, also known as legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, is a branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues and questions. It involves the examination, interpretation, and analysis of medical evidence for use in courts of law. This may include determining the cause and manner of death, identifying injuries or diseases, assessing the effects of substances or treatments, and evaluating the competency or capacity of individuals. Forensic medicine is often used in criminal investigations and court cases, but it can also be applied to civil matters such as personal injury claims or medical malpractice suits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Simarouba" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a genus of trees that are native to the Americas. The bark and seeds of some species of Simarouba have been used in traditional medicine systems, such as in South America and India, for various purposes including as a treatment for diarrhea, fever, and skin conditions. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses, and more research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made about the therapeutic benefits of Simarouba.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

Ergotism is a condition that results from the consumption of ergot alkaloids, which are found in ergot fungus that infects grains such as rye. There are two types of ergotism: convulsive and gangrenous. Convulsive ergotism can cause seizures, muscle spasms, vomiting, and mental disturbances. Gangrenous ergotism, on the other hand, can lead to constriction of blood vessels, resulting in dry gangrene of the extremities, which can ultimately require amputation. Ergotism has been known since ancient times and was once a significant public health problem before modern agricultural practices were implemented.

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Euphoria is a medical term that refers to an state of intense happiness and well-being, often exaggerated or irrational in context. It is a heightened state of pleasure or excitement, sometimes reaching levels of ecstasy. Euphoria can be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, or it can be a side effect of certain drugs, including some prescription medications and illegal substances.

In a clinical setting, euphoria is often assessed using rating scales to help diagnose and monitor the severity of various mental health disorders. It's important to note that while euphoria can be a positive experience for some individuals, it can also have negative consequences, particularly when it leads to impaired judgment or risky behaviors.

"On ether-drinking and extra-alcoholic intoxication". Gentleman's Magazine. 245 (10): 440-464. Kerli Kirch Schneider. (2014). ... The effects of ether intoxication are similar to those of alcohol intoxication, but more potent. Also, due to NMDA antagonism, ...
Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. As of 2011, one case of lethal poisoning was ...
... typically begins after two or more alcoholic drinks. Alcohol has the potential for abuse. Risk factors ... In the Quran, there is a prohibition on the consumption of grape-based alcoholic beverages, and intoxication is considered an ... Some religions consider alcohol intoxication to be a sin. Alcohol intoxication leads to negative health effects due to the ... Legally, alcohol intoxication is often defined as a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of greater than 5.4-17.4 mmol/L (25-80 mg ...
Bogen E (June 1927). "The Diagnosis of Drunkenness-A Quantitative Study of Acute Alcoholic Intoxication". California and ... While jurisdictions that recognise absorptive stage intoxication as a defense would also accept a defense of consumption after ... This closely relates to absorptive stage intoxication (or bolus drinking), except that the consumption of alcohol also occurred ... The American Medical Association concludes in its Manual for Chemical Tests for Intoxication (1959): "True reactions with ...
Nadeau, Louise; Harvey, Kathryn (1995). "Women's Alcoholic Intoxication: The Origins of the Double Standard in Canada". ...
His thesis, titled The Effect of Alcoholic Intoxication Upon Acquired Resistance to Pneumococcal Infection in Rabbits, was ... Lushbaugh, Clarence (March 1, 1943). "The Effect of Alcoholic Intoxication Upon Acquired Resistance to Pneumococcal Infection ...
... (Arabic: خمر) is an Arabic word for wine; intoxication; the plural form, Khumūr (Arabic: خمور), is defined as alcoholic ... Haider, Najam (2013). "Contesting Intoxication: Early Juristic Debates on the Lawfulness of Alcoholic Beverages". Islamic Law ... This distinction between the legal status of wine and non-grape alcoholic beverages was reflected in early Hanafi legal ... Like the rationalist school of Islamic theology, the Muʿtazila, early Hanafi scholars upheld the unlawfulness of intoxication, ...
"Serum Cortisol Levels in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Subjects During Experimentally Induced Ethanol Intoxication". Psychosomatic ... abstinent alcoholics, and non-alcoholics. One recent study revealed that alcoholics had three to four times higher hair ... Cortisol was overall higher in alcoholics than non-alcoholics, indicating that alcohol has long-term effects on the endocrine ... Abstinent alcoholics and non-alcoholics had the same low levels of cortisol, suggesting that cortisol levels eventually return ...
... is known to increase alcoholic content to intoxication levels, depending on the surrounding conditions. As alcohol is ... He relates how the Rusiyyah would drink an alcoholic drink he refers to by the name "nabidh". It is not clear what drink it ...
Intoxication and Alcoholic Beverage Offenses Covers driving, flying, and boating while intoxicated, vehicular manslaughter, etc ... intoxication, duress, entrapment, and the responsibility and capacity of minors, including minors with mental illness. Chapter ...
Studies suggest that the degree of alcoholic intoxication directly correlates with the level of risky behavior. In one study, ...
In Arts of Intoxication (1870), he wrote against alcoholic beverages of any kind and advocated temperance. He also wrote ... The Art of Intoxication: Its Aims and Results, University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI 2006, ISBN 978-1-4255-2398-5 ...
Microgels under Alcoholic Intoxication: When a LCST Polymer Shows Swelling with Increasing Temperature". ACS Macro Letters. 6 ( ... Crowther, H. M.; Vincent, B. (1998-01-23). "Swelling behavior of poly- N -isopropylacrylamide microgel particles in alcoholic ...
Humans might also develop aversions to certain types of alcoholic beverages because of vomiting during intoxication. This is ... aldehyde dehydrogenase which causes a rapid buildup of the hangover-causing compound acetaldehyde when consuming alcoholic ...
Powdered loquat leaves are also used to treat diarrhea, depression, and even help to counteract alcoholic intoxication. Loquat ...
On the contrary, a constant state of alcoholic intoxication was seen as a defense mechanism against culture shock; this was ... magazine publisher Urpo Lahtinen and advancing and advertising excessive use of alcoholic beverages. This was reflected in ...
... which resemble symptoms of alcoholic intoxication (hence punch-drunk). Figuratively, it refers to a state of dazedness or ...
In many cases, however, especially in people with alcoholic intoxication, hypoglycemia appears to be a more common cause. ... Commonly, this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia and advanced age. Body temperature ...
... used as metadoxine immediate release formulation in developing nations for acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcoholic ... Spanish Group for the Study of Alcoholic Fatty Liver". Journal of Hepatology. 28 (1): 54-60. doi:10.1016/s0168-8278(98)80202-x ... Metadoxine, also known as pyridoxine-pyrrolidone carboxylate, is a drug used to treat chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. ... Vonghia L, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Bertini M, Gasbarrini G, Addolorato G (December 2008). "Acute alcohol intoxication". European ...
... texts describe both the beneficent uses of consuming alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic ... Some have proposed that alcoholic drinks predated agriculture and it was the desire for alcoholic drinks that lead to ... History of alcoholic drinks, Alcoholic drinks, History of food and drink, Historical drinks). ... Evidence of alcoholic beverages has also been found dating from 5400 to 5000 BC in Hajji Firuz Tepe in Iran, 3150 BC in ancient ...
For someone to be described as shitfaced means that person is essentially incapacitated by alcoholic intoxication (i.e. in a ...
... making water intoxication likely to set in before any alcoholic intoxication. The process of ethanol fermentation will slow ... Some alcoholic drinks may be considered legally as non-alcoholic in spite of having relatively high alcohol levels such as in ... In the United States and India, a few[which?] states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight (ABW ... is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent). It is defined as the number of ...
... s are games which involve the consumption of alcoholic beverages and often enduring the subsequent intoxication ...
This prompts Fang to become an alcoholic, leading him to repeatedly abuse her under intoxication and jealousy. As for Zhao ...
However, the next morning, when her alcoholic intoxication vanishes, Mallika realizes her mistake and calls up Jaidev in order ...
... from the similarity of the symptoms elicited by poisoning by the plant to those of alcoholic intoxication. Somewhat hispid, ...
... intoxication unlike (- and not as pleasureable as - ) alcoholic intoxication, manifesting as 'an immediate and almost complete ... los hechiceros [= Machi/sorcerers] could quickly recover [from Latua intoxication] with a drug from a Solanum species of the ... the effects produced by consumption of Latua pubiflora closely resemble those of intoxication by its infamous Old World cousin ...
On October 24, 1951, Lucas' alcoholic father died of hypothermia after drinking to intoxication and collapsing outside during a ...
Venevitin, with traces of beatings on his face, said on the video that he "in a state of alcoholic intoxication" due to ...
Wine law Alcohol exclusion laws Alcohol advertising Drunk driving law by country Public intoxication Non-alcoholic beverage § ... Alcoholic drinks are available only from licensed shops in many countries, and in some countries, strong alcoholic drinks are ... or alcoholic beverages. Common alcoholic beverages include beer, wine, (hard) cider, and distilled spirits (e.g., vodka, rum, ... gin). Definition of alcoholic beverage varies internationally, e.g., the United States defines an alcoholic beverage as "any ...
PUBLIC INTOXICATION. (a) A person commits an offense if the person appears in a public place while intoxicated to the degree ... POSSESSION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE IN MOTOR VEHICLE. (a) In this section:. (1) "Open container" means a bottle, can, or other ... INTOXICATION ASSAULT. (a) A person commits an offense if the person, by accident or mistake:. (1) while operating an aircraft, ... INTOXICATION MANSLAUGHTER. (a) A person commits an offense if the person:. (1) operates a motor vehicle in a public place, ...
Acute alcoholic intoxication. *There are 4 ICD-9-CM codes below 303.0 that define this diagnosis in greater detail. Do not use ...
I. M. Rabinowitch, Medicolegal Aspects of Chemical Tests of Alcoholic Intoxication, 39 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 225 (1948). ...
Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... Despite their widespread use in agriculture during the 1940s to 1960s and the well-known signs and symptoms of intoxication, ... We report two cases of acute intentional endosulfan intoxication with cerebral edema and cardiac failure. case reports: Both ... Deficiency of this vitamin may be nutritional or secondary to alcohol intoxication. In Western societies (occidental beriberi ...
Serum 2,3-butanediol in alcoholics during acute intoxication. / Mezey, E. In: Gastroenterology, Vol. 86, No. 2, 02.1984, p. 372 ... Mezey, E 1984, Serum 2,3-butanediol in alcoholics during acute intoxication, Gastroenterology, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 372. https ... Mezey, E. / Serum 2,3-butanediol in alcoholics during acute intoxication. In: Gastroenterology. 1984 ; Vol. 86, No. 2. pp. 372. ... Serum 2,3-butanediol in alcoholics during acute intoxication. Gastroenterology. 1984 Feb;86(2):372. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(84) ...
"On ether-drinking and extra-alcoholic intoxication". Gentlemans Magazine. 245 (10): 440-464. Kerli Kirch Schneider. (2014). ... The effects of ether intoxication are similar to those of alcohol intoxication, but more potent. Also, due to NMDA antagonism, ...
Alcoholic Intoxication / blood * Alcoholic Intoxication / complications* * Alcoholic Intoxication / mortality* * Alcoholism / ... Methods: The study group comprised 150 consecutive ED patients who presented with intoxication (blood alcohol level higher than ...
... and drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting were compared with objectively observed belt use in traffic and ... Alcoholic Intoxication * Automobile Driving* * Data Collection / methods * Humans * Population Surveillance * Reproducibility ... Data from state telephone surveys of self-reported seatbelt use, driving while intoxicated, and drinking five or more alcoholic ...
inebriation, which means behavior that resembles intoxication from alcoholic beverages. *Irritation of the gastrointestinal ...
Categories: Alcoholic Intoxication Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Hospital admission rates for alcoholic intoxication after policy changes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Wicki, Matthias ... Estimated changes in hospital admissions for alcohol intoxication after partial bans on off-premises sales of alcoholic ... Hospital admission rates for alcoholic intoxication after policy changes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Drug and Alcohol ... Effects of partial bans on off-premise sales of alcoholic beverages on hospitalization rates for alcohol intoxication in ...
Alcoholic Intoxication/drug therapy. 1. Anxiety/drug therapy. 1. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. 1. ...
Delayed effects of acute alcoholic intoxication were kinesiologically studied. Changes in eye-hand coordination, manipulative ... Effects of intoxication, sometimes lasting as long as 20 hours after ingestion of alcohol were found. These included decreased ... Nine healthy males were tested with various amounts of alcoholic beverages on several days in a simulated social setting. ...
alcoholic intoxication. - acute infectious diseases with an unclear diagnosis. - acute mental illnesses. ...
Consume alcoholic beverages responsibly and avoid intoxication, diminished capacity or impairment by alcohol or drugs. Guests ... Alcoholic beverages in a guests possession shall count against the service limitation of two alcoholic beverages. For purposes ... Guests must be at least 21 years of age to purchase and consume alcoholic beverages. All guests who appear to be 30 years of ... Servers of alcohol may serve no more than two alcoholic beverages per guest for on-premise consumption during a single ...
Cold water relieves alcoholic intoxication, exhaustion, fainting. Vomiting, debility (fatigue, giddiness, thirst, burning ... Purana ghita (ghee old by more than 10 years), cures intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, diseases of the head, ear, eye and ...
P.C. 49.02 - Public Intoxication. *. P.C. 49.031 - Possession of Alcoholic Beverage in Motor Vehicle. ...
Alcoholic Intoxication • Drugs • Premenstrual and Menstrual Stress/Dsyphoric Syndrome 9. Rules Regarding Insanity in Other ...
Permit holders are prohibited from selling alcoholic beverages to individuals who show intoxication signs. ... Businesses that sell alcoholic beverages, such as bars, restaurants, and liquor stores, are required to obtain the appropriate ... Moreover, Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages can only commence between 5:30 a.m. and must end at the same time as you are ... The legal drinking age in Ohio is 21 years old, and its illegal for anyone under this age to purchase or consume alcoholic ...
... texts skillfully describe both the beneficent uses of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic ...
David Shillinglaws Beergoggles artwork explores the various states of alcoholic intoxication. Following artist residencies in ...
The investigation of this apparent mass intoxication implicated a homemade alcoholic beverage produced from a highly toxic ... Intoxication was most likely caused by homemade unlabeled medicinal liquor containing extremely high concentrations of toxic ... Lin C-C, Phua D-H, Deng J-F, Yang C-C. Aconitine intoxication mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011;30: ... As was the case with most of the victims of this intoxication, severe cases of cardiac toxicity from consumption of aconitine- ...
Alcoholic hepatitis and acute or chronic liver failure follow acute alcohol intoxication [23]. There is also a strong, dose- ... intoxication, and chronic (withdrawal) alcohol intoxication [74,77]. When administered before or after ethanol, BPC 157 acts as ... dependent association between the number of alcoholic drinks consumed per day and acute lung injury and ARDS [23]. In addition ...
In the years 1867â 1912, a number of 16,532 patients were treated for alcoholic intoxication. 70.3% of all patients were ... The exceptionally high alcoholic strength of absinthe (,50%vol) alone may lead to major health and social problems, but is not ... Intoxication due to wormwood or thujone rarely occurs, either due to a misconceived belief in folk remedies or simple ignorance ... Digitalis intoxication? JAMA 1981, 245:727-9.. Arnold WN, Loftus LS: Xanthopsia and van Goghs yellow pal ette. Eye 1991, 5:503 ...
He was then tested at various different levels of alcoholic intoxication to see if he could recall this number. In the not so ...
No alcoholic beverages shall be sold or furnished to a person displaying signs of intoxication from alcoholic beverages or ... It now reads:No alcoholic beverages shall be sold or furnished to a person displaying signs of intoxication from alcoholic ... No alcoholic beverages may be consumed on the licensed premises by any person displaying such signs of intoxication. No person ... No alcoholic beverages may be consumed on the licensed premises by any person displaying such signs of intoxication. No person ...
As in the first example, alcoholic intoxication is connected with the power of imagination. The trip signifies an imaginative ... as well as to alcoholic intoxication and a "trip" to a liminal, sublime, heavenly condition. In the Lotto series, images of a ... The alcoholic trip becomes the incarnation of the good life and glorifies the way of life in exotic places. The commercial says ... It is as though we enter the mans imagination, or perhaps a kind of alcoholic hallucination: the desire for the body blends ...
The text book gives the following description of the symptoms of alcoholic poisoning: "Perhaps evidence of intoxication. ...
Alcoholic Intoxication), overweight or obesity (Overweight or Obesity or Body Mass Index or Body Weight), HBV ( ...
  • Isopropyl alcohol is also not the same substance as ethyl alcohol, which is the type of alcohol in beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nine healthy males were tested with various amounts of alcoholic beverages on several days in a simulated social setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Guests must be at least 21 years of age to purchase and consume alcoholic beverages. (mlb.com)
  • The legal drinking age in Ohio is 21 years old, and it's illegal for anyone under this age to purchase or consume alcoholic beverages. (gettips.com)
  • Businesses that sell alcoholic beverages, such as bars, restaurants, and liquor stores, are required to obtain the appropriate permits and licenses from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control. (gettips.com)
  • Permit holders are prohibited from selling alcoholic beverages to individuals who show intoxication signs . (gettips.com)
  • Individuals holding Class 1 permits in Ohio are authorized to purchase and sell alcoholic beverages from 5:30 a.m. until 1 a.m. (gettips.com)
  • For those with Class 2 permits, the permissible hours for buying and selling alcoholic beverages in Ohio extend from 5:30 a.m. until 2:30 a.m. (gettips.com)
  • Furthermore, home delivery of alcoholic beverages on Sundays is permitted if the retailer has obtained the necessary permit. (gettips.com)
  • Therefore, it is advisable to check the regulations within your specific local jurisdiction before requesting home delivery of alcoholic beverages on Sundays. (gettips.com)
  • The Hindu Ayurvedic texts skillfully describe both the beneficent uses of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Absinthe â a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) (Figure 1) and other herbs â was one of the most popular alcoholic beverages of late 19th century Europe. (wormwoodsociety.org)
  • No alcoholic beverages shall be sold or furnished to a person displaying signs of intoxication from alcoholic beverages or other drugs / substances. (findlaw.com)
  • No alcoholic beverages may be consumed on the licensed premises by any person displaying such signs of intoxication. (findlaw.com)
  • Thus, the issue here is whether GR17 is connected to, and is therefore a proper exercise of the Board's authority for, regulating the overuse of alcoholic beverages, or if it impermissibly regulates an unrelated activity-namely, mere loitering-that is beyond the Board's authority. (findlaw.com)
  • Colleges will be a safer environment if the government would allow eighteen year olds to consume alcoholic beverages and less incidents of hidden intoxication will occur. (bartleby.com)
  • The early settlers in the America claimed that if 5 or 6 bitter almonds were eaten before partaking of alcoholic beverages, intoxication is slowed. (emedicinal.com)
  • A cash bar may be made available serving alcoholic beverages. (myffpc.com)
  • 4) The alcoholic beverages are acquired, possessed, or used during events at a college-owned or college-operated veterans stadium with a capacity of over 12,000 people, located in a county with a population of over 6,000,000 people. (shouselaw.com)
  • 5) The alcoholic beverages are acquired, possessed, or used during an event not sponsored by any college at a performing arts facility built on property owned by a community college district and leased to a nonprofit organization that is a public benefit corporation formed under Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code. (shouselaw.com)
  • No alcoholic beverages outside of camping unit or public intoxication. (roverpass.com)
  • For patients with alcohol use disorder, previously known as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, psychosis can occur during phases of acute intoxication or withdrawal, with or without delirium tremens. (medscape.com)
  • Delayed effects of acute alcoholic intoxication were kinesiologically studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Influences of situational factors and alcohol expectancies on sexual desire and arousal among heavy-episodic drinking women: acute alcohol intoxication and condom availability. (uw.edu)
  • 2011. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication, partner risk level, and general intention to have unprotected sex on women's sexual decision making with a new partner. . (uw.edu)
  • 2010. Assessing women's sexual arousal in the context of sexual assault history and acute alcohol intoxication. . (uw.edu)
  • Among these, alcohol dependence and acute alcohol intoxication stand out as significant risk factors for suicide. (bvsalud.org)
  • Joke-free zones are few and far between - even the title refers ambiguously both to death and (in slang) a state of alcoholic intoxication. (sonicartsnetwork.org)
  • On that day, the actor was in a state of alcoholic intoxication - the indicators were twice the norm. (mulletsighting.com)
  • a-1) For the purposes of this section, a premises licensed or permitted under the Alcoholic Beverage Code is a public place. (texas.gov)
  • e) An offense under this section committed by a person younger than 21 years of age is punishable in the same manner as if the minor committed an offense to which Section 106.071 , Alcoholic Beverage Code, applies. (texas.gov)
  • 1) "Open container" means a bottle, can, or other receptacle that contains any amount of alcoholic beverage and that is open, that has been opened, that has a broken seal, or the contents of which are partially removed. (texas.gov)
  • The investigation of this apparent mass intoxication implicated a homemade alcoholic beverage produced from a highly toxic flowering plant in the genus Aconitum used in traditional Chinese medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage made from grain, hops, malt, yeast and water. (drugrehab.com)
  • In study 2, 36 heavy drinkers consumed an alcoholic beverage (0.6 g/kg body weight), an alcohol-placebo beverage, and water on a within-subjects basis, followed by the modified stop-signal task and a bogus taste test. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • a) Every person who possesses, consumes, sells, gives, or delivers to another person an alcoholic beverage in or on a public schoolhouse or the grounds of the schoolhouse, is guilty of a misdemeanor. (shouselaw.com)
  • 1) The alcoholic beverage possessed, consumed, or sold, pursuant to a license obtained under this division, is wine or beer that is produced by a bonded winery or brewery owned or operated as part of an instructional program in viticulture and enology or brewing. (shouselaw.com)
  • 2) The alcoholic beverage is acquired, possessed, or used in connection with a course of instruction given at the school and the person has been authorized to acquire, possess, or use it by the governing body or other administrative head of the school. (shouselaw.com)
  • Rastorfer told Deputy Johnson that he had last consumed an alcoholic beverage 30 minutes earlier. (findlaw.com)
  • Data from state telephone surveys of self-reported seatbelt use, driving while intoxicated, and drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting were compared with objectively observed belt use in traffic and evidence of blood alcohol in fatally injured drivers. (nih.gov)
  • The widespread use of alcoholic drinks containing wormwood extract might have also resulted from the use of wormwood as a preventive measure for helminthiasis and fevers during the French conquest of Algeria (1830â 1847). (wormwoodsociety.org)
  • The absinthe prohibition crusade in France was a paradoxical campaign in which the wine-producers, suppliers of the vast majority of alcoholic drinks consumed, backed the temperance movement [16]. (wormwoodsociety.org)
  • EtOH is a medical term for ethanol, the primary ingredient in alcoholic drinks that causes intoxication. (drugrehab.com)
  • This clear substance is found in alcoholic drinks such as beer, wine and liquor. (drugrehab.com)
  • All types of alcoholic drinks―even red and white wine, craft beers, and cocktails―are linked with cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethanol is a small molecule that readily distributes to the brain and reaches peak levels in blood approximately 30 minutes after ingestion of an alcoholic drink. (medscape.com)
  • Pharmacokinesiological Study of Alcoholic Hangover. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, alcohol hallucinosis and alcoholic paranoia are 2 uncommon alcohol-induced psychotic disorders, which are seen only in chronic alcoholics who have years of severe and heavy drinking. (medscape.com)
  • In chronic alcoholic patients, lack of thiamine is a common condition. (medscape.com)
  • Impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome on social phobia and panic disorder in alcoholic in patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings indicates both (1) the hallucinations or delusions developed during or soon after (eg, within a month of) substance intoxication or withdrawal or (2) substance used is etiologically related to the disturbance. (medscape.com)
  • 1] Lastly, psychosis can also occur during alcohol intoxication, also known as pathologic intoxication, an uncommon condition the diagnosis of which is considered controversial. (medscape.com)
  • No person displaying such signs of intoxication shall be allowed to loiter on the licensed premises. (findlaw.com)
  • Effects of intoxication, sometimes lasting as long as 20 hours after ingestion of alcohol were found. (cdc.gov)
  • 2014. Women's unprotected sex intentions: roles of sexual victimization, intoxication, and partner perception. . (uw.edu)
  • Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions. (uw.edu)
  • 2010. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior. . (uw.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The largest number of changed conclusions during the forensic medical examination of corpses in cases of TBI was due to the wrongly established duration of the trauma, accounting for 39.2±9.5%, with the vast majority of cases (80±12.4%) observed against the background of alcohol intoxication. (bvsalud.org)
  • As expected, intoxication increased motivation to drink and ad libitum consumption (compared to placebo and control). (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • 1 See the WHO web site for further information about the process of implementing resolution WHA61.4 and links to the various documents referred to in this report: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/globalstrategy/en/index.html. (who.int)
  • Intoxication was most likely caused by homemade unlabeled medicinal liquor containing extremely high concentrations of toxic Aconitum alkaloids. (cdc.gov)
  • 2014. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women. . (uw.edu)
  • 2012. Men's alcohol intoxication and condom use during sexual assault perpetration. . (uw.edu)
  • In this paper , we argue that managing addiction is an essential aspect of palliative care for chemically-dependent and alcoholic patients . (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • The study group comprised 150 consecutive ED patients who presented with intoxication (blood alcohol level higher than 100 mg/dL) in June 1986 and 50 control patients matched for age, sex, ED arrival time, and date. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of ether intoxication are similar to those of alcohol intoxication, but more potent. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this interaction, the man's friend approached, and the team observed signs of intoxication from both patrons. (findlaw.com)
  • It is unknown whether intoxication and cue exposure selectively influence these subprocesses in heavy drinkers. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Alcohol idiosyncratic intoxication is an unusual condition that occurs when a small amount of alcohol produces intoxication that results in aggression, impaired consciousness, prolonged sleep, transient hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. (medscape.com)
  • Alcohol idiosyncratic intoxication often occurs in elderly persons and those with impaired impulse control. (medscape.com)
  • Rationale: Alcohol intoxication and alcohol cue exposure impair 'reactive' inhibitory control and increase motivation to drink. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication and cue exposure increase motivation to drink in the absence of impairments in subcomponents of inhibitory control. (ljmu.ac.uk)