Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Chlormethiazole: A sedative and anticonvulsant often used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Chlormethiazole has also been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic activity is not entirely clear, but it does potentiate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors response and it may also affect glycine receptors.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsSpasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Strychnos nux-vomica: A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)SulfonesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.

Differential change in neuroactive steroid sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal. (1/42)

The progesterone metabolite 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-P or allopregnanolone) is a potent positive modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors. Although it is well documented that chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration produces cross-tolerance to the positive modulatory effect of benzodiazepines and GABA at GABA(A) receptors, recent findings suggest that sensitivity to 3alpha,5alpha-P is enhanced during EtOH withdrawal. In addition, EtOH-naive inbred strains of mice, which differ in EtOH withdrawal severity (DBA/2 >> C57BL/6), had marked differences in behavioral sensitivity to 3alpha,5alpha-P. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice would be differentially sensitive to several of the pharmacological effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal. Male mice were exposed to EtOH vapor or air for 72 h. During withdrawal from EtOH, animals were injected with 3alpha,5alpha-P (0, 3.2, 10, or 17 mg/kg i.p.) and tested for activity and anxiolysis on the elevated plus maze, muscle relaxation, ataxia, and seizure protection following pentylenetetrazol. Sensitivity to the anticonvulsant effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P was enhanced during EtOH withdrawal in B6, but not D2 mice. In contrast, sensitivity to the muscle relaxant effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P was reduced in EtOH-withdrawing B6 and D2 mice, with a suggestion of decreased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal in B6. These results suggest that sensitization to the anticonvulsant effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal does not generalize across all genotypes nor does it generalize to all of the pharmacological effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P.  (+info)

Animal models of alcohol withdrawal. (2/42)

One diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence is the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption ceases. Researchers have used various animal models, including isolated brain cells, slices of brain tissue, and intact animals, to study the mechanisms and manifestations of withdrawal. Results from these experimental studies have demonstrated that many consequences of withdrawal found in animals resemble those observed in humans. Such signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include enhanced activity of the autonomic nervous system; body posture and motor abnormalities; hyperexcitability of the central nervous system, including sensory hyperreactivity; convulsions; anxiety; and psychological discomfort. Researchers also have used animal models to study the electrophysiological correlates of withdrawal, as well as neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence and withdrawal.  (+info)

Emergency airway management in a case of lingual haematoma. (3/42)

A previously unreported cause of acute tongue swelling is presented and the airway issues discussed. Cases with different aetiology have been sporadically published however the consequent, and sometimes fatal, airway obstructions have been dealt with somewhat variably. The aetiogy of acute tongue swelling and modern emergency airway algorithms are discussed with reference to the literature.  (+info)

Influence of clonazepam and carbamazepine on alcohol withdrawal syndrome, preference and development of tolerance to ethanol in rats. (4/42)

The effects of clonazepam (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg, b.i.d., 5 days) and carbamazepine (50 and 100 mg/kg or 12.5 and 50 mg/kg b.i.d., 5 days) on alcohol withdrawal syndrome in rats were investigated. Moreover, the influence of clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg, single dose, or repeated doses for 8 days) and carbamazepine (50 mg/kg, single dose, or repeated doses for 8 days) on the development of tolerance to ethanol was also examined. To study the influence of clonazepam and carbamazepine on preference to ethanol, both drugs were administered for 5 days during the last week of the experiment, (clonazepam at 0.1 mg/kg, b.i.d., i.p. and carbamazepine at 12.5 mg/kg, b.i.d, i.p.). Clonazepam and carbamazepine administered at single doses as well as multiple doses diminished the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome. Clonazepam did not prevent the development of tolerance to sleep-inducing and hypothermal action of ethanol, while carbamazepine prevented the development of tolerance to hypnotic effect of ethanol. Carbamazepine clearly reduced preference to ethanol (significantly vs. the control group and vs. the baseline values). Clonazepam also diminished preference to alcohol, but only in comparison with baseline values.  (+info)

No association between metabotropic glutamate receptors 7 and 8 (mGlur7 and mGlur8) gene polymorphisms and withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens in alcohol-dependent individuals. (5/42)

- Up-regulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission from chronic ethanol intoxication may cause a hyperexcitable state during alcohol withdrawal that may lead to seizures and delirium tremens. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between a history of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures and delirium tremens and a mGlurR7 (Tyr433Phe); and a mGlurR8 (C2756T) metabotropic glutamate receptor polymorphism in alcoholics compared to controls. A total of 182 patients meeting DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria and 117 controls, both groups being of German descent, were investigated. mGluR7 and mGluR8 polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction of lymphocyte DNA. History of alcohol withdrawal-induced delirium tremens and seizures were obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment of Genetics in Alcoholism (SSAGA). Data were cross-checked with inpatients' clinical files. No significant associations were obtained between both receptor polymorphisms and alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures and delirium tremens. The negative results in this study question the role of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures and delirium tremens.  (+info)

In silico discovery of gene-coding variants in murine quantitative trait loci using strain-specific genome sequence databases. (6/42)

BACKGROUND: The identification of genes underlying complex traits has been aided by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches, which in turn have benefited from advances in mammalian genome research. Most recently, whole-genome draft sequences and assemblies have been generated for mouse strains that have been used for a large fraction of QTL mapping studies. Here we show how such strain-specific mouse genome sequence databases can be used as part of a high-throughput pipeline for the in silico discovery of gene-coding variations within murine QTLs. As a test of this approach we focused on two QTLs on mouse chromosomes 1 and 13 that are involved in physical dependence on alcohol. RESULTS: Interstrain alignment of sequences derived from the relevant mouse strain genome sequence databases for 199 QTL-localized genes spanning 210,020 base-pairs of coding sequence identified 21 genes with different coding sequences for the progenitor strains. Several of these genes, including four that exhibit strong phenotypic links to chronic alcohol withdrawal, are promising candidates to underlie these QTLs. CONCLUSIONS: This approach has wide general utility, and should be applicable to any of the several hundred mouse QTLs, encompassing over 60 different complex traits, that have been identified using strains for which relatively complete genome sequences are available.  (+info)

Lack of association between hippocampal volume reduction and first-onset alcohol withdrawal seizure. A volumetric MRI study. (7/42)

AIMS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hippocampus has been extensively studied in both neurological and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, hippocampal volume reductions on MRI have been reported in patients with chronic alcoholism. The present volumetric MRI study was undertaken to determine whether an association exists between hippocampal volume reduction and first-onset alcohol withdrawal seizure. Until recently, no data as to whether hippocampal volume reductions in alcoholics might serve as a predictor of withdrawal seizures were available. RESULTS: We found the average hippocampal volumes measured by high resolution MRI to be significantly reduced in 52 alcoholics compared with 30 healthy controls. Besides a decrease of hippocampal volume in patients with chronic alcoholism, we could not find any significant correlation between the occurrence of seizures during alcohol withdrawal and the amount of hippocampal volume reduction in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the alcoholism-related atrophy within the hippocampal formation in patients suffering from chronic alcoholism does not seem to be the source of convulsive activity in these patients. Neither does the amount of atrophy allow the occurrence of first-onset withdrawal seizures to be predicted.  (+info)

Alcohol withdrawal treatment in intoxicated vs non-intoxicated patients: a controlled open-label study with tiapride/carbamazepine, clomethiazole and diazepam. (8/42)

AIMS AND METHODS: Alcohol withdrawal treatment efficacy of tiapride/carbamazepine (A) vs clomethiazole (B) vs diazepam (C) in non-intoxicated patients and vs tiapride/carbamazepine in intoxicated patients (D; breath alcohol concentration > or = 1 g/l) was tested (n = 127) in a controlled randomized open-label study. RESULTS: Efficacy and safety were not different between groups (total group: delirium, 3.9%; seizure, 0.8%), except for a lack of efficacy in 18% of intoxicated tiapride/carbamazepine patients. A change of medication in this group was necessary only when primarily intoxicated patients had reached the non-intoxicated range. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with tiapride/carbamazepine in alcohol-intoxicated patients proved to be safe.  (+info)

  • Typically it is safe to complete the work-up following a single seizure as an outpatient . (wikipedia.org)
  • While treating physicians will have access to EEG data in the ESG, no EEG data in the CSG will be available to the clinician for treatment of seizures. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hypothesis is that a loading dose of 20 mg/kg and a maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg of Levetiracetam is going to be safe and effective in the treatment of seizures in neonates. (bioportfolio.com)
  • drug and alcohol withdrawal seizures. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Tiffany Douglass is the Founder of Wellness Retreat Recovery Center, a JCAHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) accredited drug and alcohol treatment program based in San Jose, California. (wikihow.com)
  • Drug and alcohol testing is part of almost every business in the United States. (testcountry.com)
  • Businesses and organizations that operate under certain government agencies have to include a drug and alcohol testing program that complies with the agency they are under as part of their company policy. (testcountry.com)
  • USDR, a prominent drug and alcohol rehab center near Montreal, Quebec, Canada is leading the way in sponsoring this type of ground-breaking internet addictions research. (usdrugrehabcenters.com)