Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.LEOPARD Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute: A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Abnormalities, MultipleAlcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.United StatesChild Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.tert-Butyl AlcoholMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)RussiaPeer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.

Do alcohol and cocaine abuse alter the course of HIV-associated dementia complex? (1/893)

Although psychoactive drugs are commonly used by AIDS patients, it is unclear whether commonly abused drugs, such as cocaine and ethanol, affect the course of HIV-associated dementia (HADC). Epidemiological studies have resulted in conflicting conclusions as to what role, if any, abused drugs play in HADC. In this review we discuss the clinical and pathological evidence that cocaine and ethanol might exacerbate the detrimental effects of HIV infection on the brain. We also review studies of cocaine and ethanol effects on various components of the immune system both in the presence and absence of retroviral infection. Data from these studies indicate that cocaine and ethanol have profound effects on the immune system that, in many respects, are enhanced by retroviral infection. We conclude that abused drugs likely affect the course of HADC but that proof awaits an examination of their interactive effects in an appropriate in vivo system of retroviral encephalitis.  (+info)

Regional cerebral glucose metabolism and blood flow in a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease. (2/893)

We report functional neuroimaging studies of a 54-year-old man with Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). Glucose metabolic images obtained by [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography showed diffusely reduced whole brain metabolism and strongly decreased metabolism in the frontal and parietal lobes, orbital gyrus, and thalamus. Cerebral perfusion images showed a similarly decreased radioactivity pattern as the metabolic images. Functional neuroimages would be useful for understanding the pathophysiologic processes of MBD.  (+info)

Identifying alcohol-related harm in young drinkers: the role of accident and emergency departments. (3/893)

Data are presented from a screening study of ambulant attendees at two London Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments. Among young people (aged 16-24 years), 37.2% were drinking harmfully [an Alcohol-Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8 or more]; 17.3% admitted to drinking alcohol in the 6 h prior to attendance; and 14.6% considered that their attendance was alcohol related. Young women were as likely as men to score 8 or over. This age group had nearly twice the odds of scoring highly on the AUDIT, compared to those over 25 years old, and were more likely to report that their attendance was alcohol related. Screening in A&E departments would identify considerable numbers of young people who might benefit from brief intervention, but the problems of doing so are acknowledged.  (+info)

Alcoholism in the elderly. (4/893)

Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are common but underrecognized problems among older adults. One third of older alcoholic persons develop a problem with alcohol in later life, while the other two thirds grow older with the medical and psychosocial sequelae of early-onset alcoholism. The common definitions of alcohol abuse and dependence may not apply as readily to older persons who have retired or have few social contacts. Screening instruments can be used by family physicians to identify older patients who have problems related to alcohol. The effects of alcohol may be increased in elderly patients because of pharmacologic changes associated with aging. Interactions between alcohol and drugs, prescription and over-the-counter, may also be more serious in elderly persons. Physiologic changes related to aging can alter the presentation of medical complications of alcoholism. Management of alcohol withdrawal in elderly persons should be closely supervised by a health care professional. Alcohol treatment programs with an elder-specific focus may improve outcomes in some patients.  (+info)

Substance abuse and the kidney. (5/893)

Substance abuse has been increasing steadily in the UK and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests more than 40% of young people have tried illicit drugs at some time. There are numerous medical consequences to recreational drug use, and a physician should always consider substance abuse in any unexplained illness. The renal complications of drug abuse are also becoming more frequent, and may encompass a spectrum of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases. Although some substances are directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. These effects are often chronic and irreversible, but occasionally acute with possible recovery. The rapid growth of illicit drug use is clearly a major public health problem. We review the commonly used substances of abuse and their associations with renal disease.  (+info)

Early changes in left ventricular function in chronic asymptomatic alcoholics: relation to the duration of heavy drinking. (6/893)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess preclinical cardiac abnormalities in chronic alcoholic patients and possible differences among alcoholics related to the duration of heavy drinking. BACKGROUND: Chronic excessive alcohol intake has been reported as a possible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, before the appearance of severe cardiac dysfunction, subtle signs of cardiac abnormalities may be identified. METHODS: We studied 30 healthy subjects (age 44 +/- 8 years) and 89 asymptomatic alcoholics (age 45 +/- 8 years, p = NS) divided into three groups, with short (S, 5-9 years, n = 31), intermediate (I, 10-15 years, n = 31) and long (L, 16-28 years, n = 27) duration of alcoholism. Transmitral early (E) and late (A) Doppler flow velocities, E/A ratio, deceleration time of E (DT) and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) were obtained. Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and volumes were also determined by echocardiography, and LV mass and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. RESULTS: The alcoholics had prolonged IVRT (92 +/- 11 vs. 83 +/- 7 ms, p < 0.001), longer DT (180 +/- 20 vs. 170 +/- 10 ms, p < 0.01), smaller E/A (1.25 +/- 0.34 vs. 1.40 +/- 0.32, p < 0.05), larger LV volumes (73 +/- 8 vs. 65 +/- 7 ml/m2, p < 0.001 for end-diastolic volume index; 25 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 2 ml/m2, p < 0.001 for end-systolic volume index), higher LV mass index (92 +/- 14 vs. 78 +/- 8 g/m2, p < 0.001) and thicker posterior wall (9 +/- 1 vs. 8 +/- 1 mm, p < 0.001). Ejection fraction did not differ between the two groups (66 +/- 4 vs. 67 +/- 2%). Deceleration time of the early transmitral flow velocity was longer in groups L (187 +/- 18 ms) and I (185 +/- 16 ms) compared with group S (168 +/- 17 ms, p < 0.001 for L and I vs. S), whereas A was higher in group L compared with S (43 +/- 10 vs. 51 +/- 10 cm/s, p < 0.005). Multiple regression analysis identified duration of heavy drinking as the most important variable affecting DT and A. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular dilation with preserved EF and impaired LV relaxation characterized LV function in chronic asymptomatic alcoholic patients. It appeared that the progression of abnormalities in LV diastolic filling related to the duration of alcoholism.  (+info)

The burden of alcohol misuse on an inner-city general hospital. (7/893)

Alcohol consumption in the UK has been increasing steadily. We prospectively studied the burden on hospital services caused by overt alcohol misuse, in an inner-city hospital in north-west England. All Accident & Emergency (A&E) patients were assessed to determine whether their hospital attendance was alcohol-related, and whether this resulted in admission and/or generated new out-patient appointments. Over 2 months, 1915 patients attended A&E with alcohol-related problems, accounting for 12% of attendances; 50% were aged 18-39 years, and acute alcohol intoxication was the commonest presenting complaint. Overall, 6.2% of all hospital admissions were due to alcohol-related problems. Over 2800 new out-patient visits were likely to have been generated over an 18-month period from initial attendance with an alcohol-related problem, mostly for orthopaedic clinics. The burden placed by overt alcohol-related problems on hospitals is enormous, both in terms of the emergency and out-patient services. The implementation of education, screening and intervention strategies in A&E departments, and employment of key trained personnel, should be considered, to optimize the clinical management of these patients.  (+info)

Do drinking surveys predict changes in population-based alcohol problem indicators? (8/893)

We examined per capita alcohol consumption and survey-based measures of alcohol use in Ontario in relation to indicators of alcohol problems for the period 1977-1997. Per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers were significantly related to problem indicators, but percentage of drinkers and percentage of heavy drinkers were not. Of the measures we examined, per capita consumption was the strongest indicator of alcohol problems.  (+info)

Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcoho ➥ Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcohol use disorder moderate Alcohol use disorder in remission Alcohol use disorder identification test Alcohol use disorder symptoms Alcohol use disorder statistics Alcohol use disorder axis Alcohol use disorder assessment Alcohol use disorder and depression Alcohol use disorder and alcoholism Alcohol use disorder australia Alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities Alcohol use disorder audit Alcohol use disorder ati Alcohol-use disorder as the dsm-5 Alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence
Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse or harmful use cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Alcohol-use disorders are associated with depressive episodes, severe anxiety, insomnia, suicide, and abuse of other drugs. Continued heavy alcohol use also shortens the onset of heart disease, stroke, cancers, and liver cirrhosis, by affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. Heavy drinking can also cause mild anterograde amnesias, temporary cognitive deficits, sleep problems, and peripheral neuropathy; cause gastrointestinal problems; decrease bone density and production of blood cells; and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol-use disorders complicate assessment and treatment of other medical and psychiatric problems. Standard criteria for alcohol dependence-the more severe disorder-can be used to reliably identify people for whom drinking causes major physiological consequences and persistent impairment of quality of life and ability to function. Clinicians should routinely ...
According to the Department of Health, majority of people in Hong Kong started to develop drinking habit at 18-21 years of age in 2014/2015. Amongst them, 16.8% had scored higher than 3 in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) (an abbreviated version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, or AUDIT, designed by the World Health Organization(WHO)), while 3.5% had even scored 8 or above in the test. With higher prevalence to begin drinking within 18 and 23 years old, university students could have established higher tendency of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence as compared with other age groups. Therefore, early interventions such as the evidence-based Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) suggested by the WHO are particularly needed to target university drinkers who are 5% more likely to develop higher frequency of drinking in later of their lives compared with other age groups ...
A recently published Yale-affiliated study may change the way doctors treat alcohol-use disorders in patients who smoke cigarettes.. Smokers recovering from alcohol dependence often continue smoking in an effort to alleviate the discomfort of withdrawal, according to the study. But the researchers determined that this cigarette use has an adverse impact on patients likelihood of staying sober in the long-run. Patients in treatment for alcohol-use disorders who smoke cigarettes are far less likely to relapse if they are concurrently treated for cigarette smoking habits, the study indicated.. "What we found is that adults with a past alcohol-use disorder who were smokers were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol-use disorders three years later, compared to adults with a past alcohol-use disorder who were not smoking," first author and Yale School of. Medicine psychiatry professor Andrea Weinberger said.. Past research on the subject has generally focused on how alcohol use affects patients ...
Aims: To report on alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking from a survey of university students in England in 2008-2009.. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was carried out in a purposive sample of 770 undergraduates from seven universities across England. Results: Sixty-one per cent of the sample (65% men; 58% women) scored positive (8+) on the AUDIT, comprising 40% hazardous drinkers, 11% harmful drinkers and 10% with probable dependence. There were large and significant differences in mean AUDIT scores between the universities taking part in the survey. Two universities in the North of England showed a significantly higher combined mean AUDIT score than two universities in the Midlands which in turn showed a significantly higher mean AUDIT score than three universities in the South. When the effects of university attended were extracted in a binary logistic regression analysis, independent significant predictors of AUDIT positive ...
BACKGROUND Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among tuberculosis (TB) patients are associated with nonadherence and poor treatment outcomes. Studies from Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC), Chennai have reported that alcoholism has been one of the major reasons for default and mortality in under the DOTS programme in South India. Hence, it is planned to conduct a study to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and AUDs among TB patients attending the corporation health centres in Chennai, India. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional cohort study covering 10 corporation zones at Chennai and it included situational assessment followed by screening of TB patients by a WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test AUDIT scale. Four zones were randomly selected and all TB patients treated during July to September 2009 were screened with AUDIT scale for alcohol consumption. RESULTS Out of 490 patients, 66% were males, 66% were 35 years and above, 57% were married, 58% were from the low monthly income
Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil. Between December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a
This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to select 649 participants who started TB treatment or ART in the preceding month. Participants were first interviewed using the CES-D and AUDIT, and subsequently with a psychiatric diagnostic interview for current major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). The optimum cut-off scores for clinical use were calculated using sensitivity ...
Evidence-based recommendations on diagnosing and managing physical complications caused by alcohol-use disorders in adults and young people
Evidence-based recommendations on diagnosing and managing physical complications caused by alcohol-use disorders in adults and young people
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OBJECTIVES: Most individuals with alcohol use disorders receive no treatment for their disorder. Past research suggests that a major reason for this is that individuals with alcohol use disorders do not perceive a need for treatment. The research presented here had two objectives. First, to provide updated estimates of the percentage of individuals with alcohol use disorders who perceive a need for treatment, and among those, the percentage who receive any treatment for alcohol use disorders.
The university environment reinforces positive alcohol-related expectations and motivations for drinking among undergraduate students. High levels of hazardous consumption in this population lead to significant negative alcohol-related consequences, for individuals and those around them. This study sought to explore the contexts in which those who engage in hazardous drinking consume alcohol, their perceptions of safety and harm, and receptivity to health messages. Undergraduate university students (n = 69; aged 17 - 24 of both genders [57% female]) were purposively recruited into one of seven focus groups after screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to select for hazardous drinking (score, >8) or moderate drinking. A focus group interview schedule was developed, which was informed by theory and tested for validity by a panel of experts. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed four thematic clusters: positive expectations; inescapable culture; defining
An accurate alcohol history cannot be obtained by merely asking how many units an individual drinks, but should be systematically approached. This may be particularly pertinent within primary care, given that patients and staff often develop close and trusting relationships with whole families. Failure to adopt a systematic screening approach is unfortunate, as specific alcohol screening tools are available. In particular, the questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), can reliably detect hazardous drinking in the primary care setting.(2) Perhaps more importantly, AUDIT has been shown to be patient-friendly and inoffensive when used to obtain a patients medical history (see Figure 1).(3). [[nip36_52_fig1 ...
BACKGROUND: For alcohol, the association with socioeconomic status (SES) is different than for other public health challenges - the associations are complex, and heterogeneous between socioeconomic groups. Specifically, the relationship between alcohol consumption per se and adverse health consequences seems to vary across SES. This observation is called the alcohol harm paradox. This study aims to describe different patterns of alcohol use and potential problems. Next, the associations between sub-groups characterized by different patterns of alcohol use and potential problems, and age, gender, educational level, full-time employment, occupational level and income is analysed. METHODS: Employing data from the ongoing cross-sectional WIRUS-study, N = 4311 participants were included in the present study. Individual response patterns of the ten-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were analysed and latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify latent groups. Next, the ...
Old and new MMPI-derived scales and the short-MAST as screening tools for alcohol disorder https://www.upress.umn.edu/test-division/bibliography/1990-1999/1992/hays_old_1992 https://www.upress.umn.edu/logo.png ...
건강행태 지표는 지역사회건강조사지에 포함되어 있는 변수에서 심뇌혈관 질환과 관련이 있다고 판단되는 변수들로 흡연, 음주, body mass index (BMI), 중증도 이상 신체활동, 수면시간 등 5가지 변수를 선택하였다. 흡연 문항은 비 흡연, 현재 흡연, 과거 흡연으로 구분하였고, 음주 문항에서 음주율은 알코올 의존정도척도(Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT)를 이용하여 비 음주, 정상 음주, 문제 음주로 구분하였다. 알코올의존정도척도는 민감도와 특이성에서 적절한 것으로 평가되고 있으며 [8] , 많은 연구에서 활용되는 자기보고용 알코올 남용 및 의존 평가척도이다. BMI는 체질량지수(체중[kg]/신장2 [m2])에 따라 BMI가 18.5 미만일 경우 저체중, 18.5 이상에서 25 미만은 정상, 25 이상은 비만으로 구분하였다. 중증도 이상 신체활동은 최근 1주일 동안 중등도 ...
In the Vantaa Depression Study, psychiatric out- and inpatients with DSM-IV MDD and aged 20-59 years at were followed from baseline to 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years. We investigated course of depression, smoking, and comorbid alcohol-use disorders among the 214 patients (79.6% of 269) participating at least three time points; differences between smoking versus nonsmoking patients, and covariation of MDD, smoking, and alcohol-use disorders. ...
This is a carefully designed animal study, which looked in detail at the effects of alcohol on the brains of adolescent rhesus monkeys. The fact that it used adolescent primates rather than adult rats or mice makes the results more relevant to humans. It also used a control group for comparison of brain changes. The results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption may alter the process of brain development in adolescents.. The researchers suggest that this early damage may be permanent, and could increase an individuals vulnerability to alcohol-related disorders. Such early damage may also underlie deficits in spatial learning, short-term memory and higher-level cognitive function (executive function) seen in adult alcoholics.. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn from a study in just seven monkeys. Also, the monkeys drank a substantial amount of alcohol every day for 11 months, and the teenage human equivalent would presumably be heavy, chronic alcohol misuse, rather than episodic ...
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and consequences.
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and consequences.
Learn more about Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at Reston Hospital Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Reducing Your Risk of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Main Page Risk Factors ...
Learn more about Reducing Your Risk of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) at Sky Ridge Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Strategies for Treatment of Young Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders (R01) PAS-10-246. NIAAA
Learn more about Alcohol Use Disorder at Memorial Health DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Alcohol Use Disorder at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Doctors tried to treat a woman looking for a liver transplant for addiction after results showed her urine was full of alcohol.The problem: She denied ever drinking a drop.Medical professionals at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that the 61-year-old woman wasnt trying to hide an alcohol-use disorder but had a rare medical condition called auto-brewery syndrome, or ABS.In a case study published in the peer-reviewed Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors said
Alcohol-related deaths rising Men still drink more than women Units explained The number of people in the UK dying from alcohol-related problems is continuing to rise. Office for...
BACKGROUND: Heavy episodic drinking (HED) or consuming 4+/5+ drinks in 1 occasion for women/men is linked consistently with alcohol-related harms. Rec...
This indicator is available in the following set of views in the "By topic" section of the Global Health Observatory. These links will open a new browser tab or window onto the selected view. ...
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet
Nearly 73,000 people died from liver disease and other alcohol-related illnesses in 2017, up from just under 36,000 deaths in 1999. Alcohol was even more deadly than illicit drugs, including opioids.
Im safe from smoking related problems by my genetic makeup. People who delude themselves into thinking smoking poses a minimal risk because of thei
Do you want a drink so badly you cant think of anything else? Find out if you meet the latest criteria for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis.
Hi, I need some assistance with the following questions: 1) You have two pieces of Al metal - one is a thin piece of Al foil, and the other is a thick block. Both have the same length and width. Which will absorb more heat when.
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Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months.. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out with new TB and TB retreatment patients systematically selected from two hospitals and had screened positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Sisaket Province in Thailand. Alcohol use disorders were measured with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.. Results: Of the 295 TB patients who were screened with AUDIT-C, 72 (24.4%) tested positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use. At 6 months, 72 TB patients had completed the followup. At the 6-month follow-up, hazardous or harmful drinking was reduced by 84.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using generalised estimation equation modelling found that alcohol use ...
Kaner E, et al. [15], DOnofrio G, et al. [22] Kaner and colleagues [15] undertook a pragmatic trial of three brief intervention strategies in primary care settings as part of the large multi-center Screening and Intervention Programme for Sensible drinking (SIPS) trial conducted in the UK. Over 3500 patients across 29 primary care practices participated in this cluster randomized trial. Practices were assigned to one of three interventions of increasing levels of intensity: simple feedback plus a patient information leaflet (provided for all interventions); a five-minute structured brief intervention delivered by practice staff; or a brief intervention followed by a 20-minute motivational interviewing session delivered at a follow-up visit by an alcohol counselor. The primary outcome was drinking status as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).. Hazardous and harmful drinking decreased in all treatment conditions at six and 12 months, but the odds of having a ...
Background: Topiramate (Topamax) decreases cravings for alcohol by reducing corticomesolimbic dopamine release. A preliminary trial showed that topiramate improved drinking patterns in patients with alcohol dependence. Johnson and colleagues conducted a more definitive randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of topiramate in the treatment of alcoholism.. The Study: The study included patients 18 to 65 years of age with alcohol dependence. Male participants drank at least 35 drinks per week, and female participants drank more than 28 drinks per week. Participants also had negative urine toxicology findings, with limited exceptions, and a score of 8 or more on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Exclusion criteria were extensive and mostly related to severe alcoholism, other psychiatric or health conditions (e.g., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., axis I disorders), substance abuse over the ...
Alcohol Addiction 8. Gynecology related problems including Menstrual Disorders. Also Hormonal Imbalance related Infertility. ... 1. Obesity 2. Disorders related to Spine - Arthritis, Osteo Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis 3. Gastroenteritis Related Diseases ... Pulmonary Disorders - Bronchitis, Bronchial Asthma, Sinusitis 11. Migraine Headaches - 12. Muscular Disorders - Fibromyalgia, ... This 184-bed hospital provides a holistic and natural way of healing to various kinds of disorders and diseases.[citation ...
A (2004). "Alcohol and Stress in the Military". Military Trauma and Stress Related Disorders. Mahon, Martin. J. (2005). " ... Professional pilots can experience stress in flight, on the ground during work-related activities, and during personal time ... Millions of veterans struggle with post-traumatic stress injuries, unhealthy coping strategies such as alcohol or substance ...
November 2009). "Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY, and beyond". Alcohol. 43 (7): 491-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... Robinson SL, Thiele TE (2017). "The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Disorders". International Review of ... Thorsell A, Mathé AA (2017). "Neuropeptide Y in Alcohol Addiction and Affective Disorders". Frontiers in Endocrinology. 8: 178 ... Dumont Y, Quirion R (December 2014). "Neuropeptide Y pathways in anxiety-related disorders". Biological Psychiatry. 76 (11): ...
Alcohol-Related Disorders and Children Adopted from Abroad. Richard P. Barth, Madelyn Freundlich, and David Brodzinsky. ... Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and International Adoption. International Adoption: Challenges and Opportunities. Parent Network ... Issues related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission in schools, child care, medical setting, the home, and community. ... Adoption & Prenatal Alcohol Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice. Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute and Child ...
Degenhardt, Louisa (June 2000). "Interventions for people with alcohol use disorders and an intellectual disability". Journal ... Barrett, Nadia; Paschos, Dimitrios (September 2006). "Alcohol-related problems in adolescents and adults with intellectual ... Emotions Anonymous is the primary book, the Today book contains 366 daily meditation readings related the EA program, and It ... The subjective experience of powerlessness over one's emotions can generate multiple kinds of behavioral disorders, or it can ...
Investigators hypothesize that these symptoms are directly related to alcohol use disorders. Their results showed that ... Mier, N., Ory, M. G., Zhan, D., Conkling, M., Sharkey, J. R., & Burdine, J. N. (2008). Health-related quality of life among ... For Mexican Americans born in the United States, 27% of women and 20% of men met the criteria for anxiety disorders. Mexican ... The research provides statistical data and analysis as well as a discussion about the importance of a health-related quality of ...
Those with a history of criminal activity, mental disorders, alcohol or drug abuse will be denied a permit. There is also a ... no history of medical condition including alcohol and drug-related conditions; no history of depression, mental or nervous ... mental disorder, or history of alcohol or illegal substance abuse. There is a thorough background check with police having the ... In the United States, gun laws are found in a number of federal statues, enforced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms ...
Robert, Levine (2006). "Defying dementia: understanding and preventing Alzheimer's and related disorders". Westport: conn: ... high alcohol consumption increases the risk of dementia while low alcohol consumption may be protective. However, low alcohol ... Moderate alcohol consumption can possibly reduce the risk of vascular disease and dementia because it can increase blood levels ... Peters R, Peters J, Warner J, Beckett N, Bulpitt C (2008). "Alcohol, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly: a ...
Part 1 of the Act deals with alcohol-related violence and disorder. (ss. 1 to 27) Part 2 deals with weapons. (ss. 28 to 51) ... Part 3 deals with a miscellany: football disorder, sexual offences, anti-social behaviour, parenting orders, mobile phone ...
... which detect morphine and related compounds. It is most closely related to methadone. Dextropropoxyphene is subject to some ... Balance disorder is possible, with risk of falls from standing height. Propoxyphene was initially introduced as propoxyphene ... It was discussed at the time that people who abuse alcohol and other substances and take combination dextropoxyphene / ... Propoxyphene will not show up on standard opiate/opioid tests because it is not chemically related to opiates as part of the ...
The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expression, as well as thiamin ... attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. They analyzed genome- ... Alcohol-Related Psychosis at eMedicine McNeill, Ann (2001). "Smoking and mental health - a review of the literature" (PDF). ... although generally related to psychotic disorders rather than schizophrenia in particular. The early subtle motor signs ...
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 3 (4): 440-443. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2014.02.005. ISSN 2211-0356. PMID 25877054. Chan ... patterns of alcohol consumption, the efficacy of using the social web for personalization of health treatment, the contexts of ... Eysenbach demonstrated his point by showing a correlation between flu-related searches on Google (demand data) and flu- ... Infodemiology (and the closely related term infoveillance) is a term coined by Canadian researcher Gunther Eysenbach. Eysenbach ...
"Sleep-related Eating Disorders". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.. *^ Clinic, Cleveland. "Sleep-Related Eating Disorders". ... During an alcohol-induced blackout (drug-related amnesia), a person is able to actively engage and respond to their environment ... sleep disorder called REM Behavior Disorder (or REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, RSBD).[4] More accurate data about sleep is due to ... These sleep eating disorders are more often than not induced for stress related reasons. Another major cause of this sleep ...
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... Around 60,000 are born with some kind of alcohol-related abnormalities and developmental issues. Despite this 1 in 10 pregnant ... 2005), "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis", CMAJ, 172 (5 Suppl): S1-S21, doi:10.1503/cmaj. ... 2013). "Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): neurobehavioral profile, indications for diagnosis and treatment". Rivista di ...
bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, hypochondriasis, alcohol, drug abuse and obsessive compulsive disorder. The causes of ORS are ... Munro, Alistair (1999). Delusional Disorder: Paranoia and Related Illnesses. Concepts in clinical psychiatry. Cambridge ... disorders of gustation (e.g. dysgeusia- taste dysfunction) can present as a complaint related to smell, and vice versa. These ... OCD and Related Disorders Clinic and Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital Olfactory reference syndrome, OCD Center ...
"Nanocapsules the next big thing to prevent alcohol-related gastric ulcers". India Medical Times. October 9, 2012. Retrieved ... "Cancer Biology & Inflammatory Disorder". iicb.res.in. 2017-12-24. Retrieved 2017-12-24. "Turmeric Can Soothe Gastric ... he joined the Division of Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder of the Indian Institute of Chemical Biology where he holds ... is an Indian chemical biologist and the senior principal scientist at the Division of Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder ...
"National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) , National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... "Disordered Gambling Among Racial and Ethnic Groups in the US: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and ... Petry has been involved analyzing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large-scale ... "Gambling Level and Psychiatric and Medical Disorders in Older Adults: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol ...
"Alcohol-Related Risk of Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempt, and Completed Suicide: A Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 10 (5): e0126870 ... schizophrenia or personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. Comorbity of mental disorders increases ... A history of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence is common among people who commit suicide, and alcohol intoxication at the ... People with a diagnosis of a personality disorder, particularly borderline, antisocial or narcissistic personality disorders, ...
He even took his patient's occupation into consideration, and related the cause to excessive alcohol intake. Since then, the ... "Relapsing Polychondritis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Damiani, JM; Levine, ... The exact mechanism is poorly understood, but it is thought to be related to an immune-mediated attack on particular proteins ... There has been little research on neurological problems related to RP. If these cartilage structures get inflamed, they could ...
... these findings underscore the potential usefulness of HDAC inhibition in treating alcohol use disorders ... Given the ability ... these drugs hold potential as treatment for substance abuse-related disorders. ... Our lab and others have published ... Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial ...
Jun 2007). "Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual ... Spasticity related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome Benzodiazepines, such as clonazepam, are ... Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Clonazepam has also been found effective in treating other anxiety disorders, such ... The central nervous system depressing effects of the drug can be intensified by alcohol consumption, and therefore alcohol ...
... acquired or central nervous system disorders, toxicity, pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, or rotational movement. Previously ... The direction of ocular movement is related to the semicircular canal that is being stimulated. There are two key forms of ... However, the validity of the horizontal gaze nystagmus test for use as a field sobriety test for persons with a blood alcohol ... It also may be induced temporarily by disorientation (such as on roller coaster rides) or by certain drugs (alcohol and other ...
Overall, 11.7% of Native American and Alaskan Native deaths are alcohol-related, which includes traffic accidents, alcoholic ... As a result, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder rates are higher than the national average in some tribes. Among tribes in Alaska ... "1 in 10 Native American deaths alcohol related". MSNBC. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2013-02-17. "USDOJ: National Drug Intelligence ... Areas from their demographics and economy to health standards, drug and alcohol use, and land use and ownership all lead to a ...
Acquired Neuropsychological Disorders Prenatal Substance Exposure (e.g., Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Alcohol Related ... In addition to assessing and treating children with medical disorders such as traumatic brain injury, brain tumors or epilepsy ... The neuropsychological evaluation is used to determine the pattern of brain-related strengths and weaknesses to understand the ... Gouvier, W. M. D., Baumeister, A., & Ijaola, K., (2009). Neuropsychological disorders of children. In J. L. Matson, F. Andrasik ...
He has also appeared to help raise awareness for FASASD, Families Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Sines also lends ... He has worked with faith base related ministries "Victory Weekend Ministries" and "Racing with Jesus Ministries".[3]. Sines ... online at New Era Progress Families Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, "CONCERT and FUNDRAISER", February 1, 2013, ...
... have been built to capture some features of the prefrontal cortex in context-related memory.[27] Additional models look at the ... "Simulation of alcohol action upon a detailed Purkinje neuron model and a simpler surrogate model that runs ,400 times faster" ...
This instability may be related to cyclic alternating pattern. - RBD, which may have a prevalence as high as 0.5%, has two ... These include sleep deprivation, alcohol ingestion, and medications. - The basic sleep architecture and sleep macrostructure is ... The most common primary parasomnias are disorders of arousal and REM sleep disorders. Disorders of arousal include confusional ... Primary parasomnias are disorders of sleep states per se, and secondary parasomnias are disorders of other organ systems that ...
Seizures are a side effect with Contrave and really should not be taken in people with seizure disorders. The drug could also ... Tags: buy naltrexone in south africa buy naltrexone uk alcohol buy naltrexone without a script can i buy naltrexone online buy ... as well as by you are not heart-related and cerebrovascular (circulation system dysfunction impacting the mind) disease. ... online india can you buy naltrexone over the counter buy naltrexone canada buy naltrexone online usa buy naltrexone alcohol buy ...
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Seizures really are a side effect with Contrave and must not be taken in people who have seizure disorders. The drug also can ... As a person is constantly on the drive pleasure from drinking, they carry on having alcohol lacking the knowledge of how much ... as well as by you are not heart-related and cerebrovascular (circulatory dysfunction impacting mental performance) disease. ... Naltrexone (vivitrol) acts on this craving for drugs or alcohol and it is acts as chemical also ass physical aspect of curve ...
Seizures are a side effect with Contrave and must not be taken in people with seizure disorders. The drug may also raise blood ... heart diseases which can be common aliments of an alcoholic. In the Vivitrol Rehab centers, the above stage is then ... and also by anyone with heart-related and cerebrovascular (circulation dysfunction impacting the mind) disease. Patients having ... buy buy naltrexone low dose buy naltrexone in uk how to order naltrexone online What if you were a problem drinker or alcoholic ...
... mood disorders (bipolar and major depression) and anxiety disorders. Source for information on Alcohol and related disorders: ... Long-term and uncontrollable harmful consumption can cause alcohol-related disorders that include: antisocial personality ... Definition Alcoholism is defined as alcohol seeking and consumption behavior that is harmful. ... Alcohol-related disorders are groups of disorders that can result in persons who are long-term users of alcohol. These ...
... neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction. "Neural-Immune Interaction in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders" ... integrates emerging knowledge on neural-immune interactions with related key discoveries in alcohol research to provide a ... active researchers in the fields of neuroimmune research and alcohol use disorders. ... 1.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and, Division of Neuroscience and BehaviorNIHBethesdaUSA ...
fetal alcohol syndrome • ARND = alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder • ARBD = alcohol-related birth defects. ... and the terms alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder and alcohol-related birth defects have been proposed to identify ... Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Committee on Substance Abuse and Committee on Children ...
A REVIEW OF STRESS AND ENDOGENOUS OPIOID INTERACTION IN ALCOHOL ADDICTION E Emsley, R Lees, A Lingford-Hughes, D Nutt ... NEURAL CORRELATES OF WAITING IMPULSIVITY: A DIMENSIONAL APPROACH TO ALCOHOL MISUSE Laurel S Morris, Prantik Kundu, Kwangyeol ... EUNATRAEMIC HYPOKALAEMIC CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS IN AN ALCOHOLIC LADY WITH BULIMIA Emily Pegg, Rebecca Exley, Shuja ... Mild traumatic brain injury and epilepsy: alcohol misuse may underpin the association Killian A Welch, Christopher Derry ...
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in the diagnosis and management of alcohol-use disorders in children ... Related NICE quality standards. Related NICE quality standards. * Alcohol: preventing harmful use in the community (2015) NICE ... Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis and management. Quality standard [QS11]. Published date: August 2011. ... Quality statement 8: Medically assisted alcohol withdrawal - setting * Quality statement 9: Medically assisted alcohol ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ... Framework for alcohol policy in WHO European region  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎World Health ... Alcohol is one of the worlds top three priority areas in public health. Even though only half the global population drinks ... Alcohol in the European Union : consumption, harm and policy approaches / edited by Peter Anderson, Lars Moeller and Gauden ...
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Sendes innen 5‑7 virkedager.. Kjøp boken Neural-Immune Interactions in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders av (ISBN ... Function and Alcohol Related Disorders focuses on neural-immune interactions in areas directly related to alcohol use disorders ... Neural-Immune Interactions in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders heftet, Engelsk, 2012 ... The close relevance of these topics to neural-immune interactions and alcohol use disorders warrants future discussion and more ...
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jul 1;124(1-2):128-34. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.023. Epub 2012 Jan 21. Research Support, N.I ... between cannabis use disorders and social anxiety disorder in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related ... The sample consisted of adults from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2957 of ... CUD-SAD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. ...
Alcohol-related crime and disorder linked to the night-time economy in Fenland has dropped thanks to joint working by police ... Alcohol related disorder has fallen Published: 15:19 Tuesday 22 November 2016 ... Alcohol-related crime and disorder linked to the night-time economy in Fenland has dropped thanks to joint working by police ... To report alcohol-related crime or disorder, call police on 101 or Crimestoppers, anonymously, on 0800 555111. Information can ...
Maternal alcohol-use disorder is associated with increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome and infant death from other ... Survey finds only 15% of emergency departments have formal alcohol screening and intervention policies for trauma patients ... A brief therapist-delivered intervention reduces self-reported aggression and alcohol consequences in adolescents who present ...
Early ChildhoodNeurobehavioral Assessmentfor theDifferential Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndromeand Alcohol-Related ... Neurodevelopmental Disorder Bethesda Marriott Hotel Bethesda, Maryland March 8-10, 2000 ... Differential Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Bethesda Marriott Hotel. ... "alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder" (ARND) to refer to alcohol-exposed children displaying neurobehavioral effects in the ...
... disorder had an increased risk for mortality by liver-related causes compared with those with an alcohol-use disorder, but not ... Patients with hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol-use ... alcohol-use disorder had increased risk for liver-related ... "HCV infection in patients with [alcohol-use disorder] is associated with an increased risk of overall and liver-related ... "HCV infection in patients with [alcohol-use disorder] is associated with an increased risk of overall and liver-related ...
Drug and Alcohol Findings Effectiveness Bank analysis titled: ... Alcohol use disorders: diagnosis and clinical management of ... Alcohol use disorders: diagnosis and clinical management of alcohol-related physical complications. ... DOCUMENT 2015 Alcohol-use disorders. REVIEW 2011 Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful ... commentary Other related NICE guidance documents are listed below.. Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management ...
... and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant ... results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 May;66(5):564-74. doi ... The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated ... of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a ...
Front on medicine for alcohol related disorders: Alcohol and drugs may cause a mood disorder. ... Alcohol blackouts: Get help to stop drinking alcohol. Blackouts from drinking alcohol are dangerous and a sign of alcohol abuse ... addictions to alcohol and other drugs are actually a metabolic disorder wherein the brain does not process alcohol or other ... Are drug-alcohol addictions a diagnosed mental illness? Is it a way of life that may involve disorders? ...
For example, the Paddington Alcohol Test, also designed to screen patients for alcohol-related disorders in EDs, consists of ... Nor, to our knowledge, has an SBIR program previously been validated as a useful measure for alcohol-related disorders. The use ... Emergency Department Screening and Intervention for Patients With Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Pilot Study. The Journal of the ... Context: Physicians in emergency departments (EDs) treat more patients with alcohol-related disorders than do those in primary ...
Much experimental data suggest that CBD could be used for various purposes in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-related ... By reducing alcohol-related processes of steatosis in the liver, and brain alcohol-related damage, CBD could improve both the ... By reducing alcohol-related steatosis processes in the liver, and alcohol-related brain damage, CBD could improve both hepatic ... Moreover, CBD reduces alcohol-related steatosis and fibrosis in the liver by reducing lipid accumulation, stimulating autophagy ...
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and ... Home , Psychosocial support to tackle trauma-related symptoms and related substance use disorders. ... Psychosocial support to tackle trauma-related symptoms and related substance use disorders. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. 52 p ... Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) are often concurrent and develop as a result of a ...
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) are often concurrent and develop as a result of a person being exposed to a traumatic event. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Homeless youth seem to be at elevated risk for a variety of mental health problems, including mood disorders, suicide attempts, and post traumatic stress disorder (Cauce et al. (hhs.gov)
  • Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a crime, accident, natural calamity, sexual assault or domestic violence. (medindia.net)
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder was formally recognized as a mental disorder after the famous Vietnam War, where soldiers appeared to be in shell shock even after they left the war zone, fearfully recalling the trauma of combat, and unable to adjust to life afterwards. (medindia.net)
  • 6 The Institute of Medicine in 1996 issued a report proposing the terms alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) to describe conditions in which there is a history of maternal alcohol exposure (defined as substantial regular intake or heavy episodic drinking) and an outcome validated by clinical or animal research to be associated with that exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • Unfortunately, ARND frequently poses a significant clinical challenge as these patients lack the visible physical characteristics associated with alcohol teratogenicity. (queensu.ca)
  • Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are frequently treated with antidepressant drugs (ADs), but clinical evidence of their efficacy is contradictory. (intechopen.com)
  • Earlier data on alcohol-induced psychotic disorders are based on clinical samples, 7 - 11 collected typically in alcohol treatment units. (rcpsych.org)
  • This systematic review, from 2010 through May 2015, found 53 clinical research papers examining the impact of alcohol use on each step of the HIV treatment cascade. (iogt.org)
  • Such integration has not yet included alcohol treatment within clinical care settings. (iogt.org)
  • Summary: This FOA issued by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invites applications to obtain critical and necessary support in the planning and development of feasible and well designed multicenter clinical trials focused on rare hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The Clinical Trials Development Resource for Hematologic Disorders (U24) (RFA-HL-12-016) will provide guidance to investigators on trial design, biostatistics, clinical trial management, and regulatory requirements during the funding period. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic tolerance occurs over the long term when there is greater resistance to the intoxicating effects of alcohol, and, as a result, the affected person has to drink more to achieve desired effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The more a person drinks, the more likely he or she is to experience the negative health effects of alcohol. (vertavahealth.com)
  • Unfortunately, the mood-boosting effects of alcohol are not long-lasting. (healthstatus.com)
  • This condition occurs when neurons in the cerebellum deteriorate and die because of the damaging effects of alcohol. (healthline.com)
  • While many people are becoming aware that medication assisted therapy can help treat opioid use disorder, very few know that medication and counseling can significantly reduce alcohol use compared with trying to cut back on your own. (harvard.edu)
  • Such EBIs may include the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP) , which has previously been used to reduce HIV risk and promote ART adherence specifically for PLH with opioid use disorders. (iogt.org)
  • The scientists said their next steps will include repeating the investigation in other, larger samples of mothers and infants, and determining if these early markers are predictive of longer term developmental outcomes for children exposed to alcohol. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ability of alcohol to cause developmental anomalies has been demonstrated in a broad range of taxa, from insects to mammals. (biologists.org)
  • ConclusionsThe microdeletion emphasizes the importance of adequate chromosomal testing in examining the etiology of complex alcohol ‐induced developmental disorders. (medworm.com)
  • In order to further clarify this question, this chapter aims to examine available data regarding the effect of ADs on behavioral and HN alterations related to alcohol abstinence, as a key period in which the treatment would be implemented and in which their potential effects on alcohol-related problems remain under controversy. (intechopen.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that the neurobehavioural phenotypes of children with ARND or ADHD have distinct features, which may be accounted for by differences in the patterns of brain injury underlying these two disorders. (queensu.ca)
  • The experts who developed the guidance noted there was no reliable evidence that repeated unplanned medically assisted withdrawals from alcohol caused harm - the so-called 'kindling' effect. (findings.org.uk)
  • Alcohol use disorders are medical conditions that are diagnosed when a patient's drinking causes significant concern or harm, and decrease in functioning. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harmful drinking leads to 2.5 million deaths annually and alcohol is the third leading risk factor globally for burden of illness. (nih.gov)
  • Stories about underage drinking, blacking out, and harmful behavior associated with alcohol use are quite common in many families around the world. (harvard.edu)
  • In these groups, the women are encouraged by health promoters and health care workers to stop taking alcohol during their pregnancies and other things that might be harmful to their unborn babies. (health-e.org.za)