Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.United StatesCommunity Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Great BritainHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.RussiaHealth: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)EnglandSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.LondonFetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.WalesDiagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.ScotlandCooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
  • Your visit will include a review of both your medical and social history (as it relates to your health), plus education about services like recommended screenings, shots and referrals for other care if you need. (anthem.com)
  • With respect to infants, children, and adolescents, evidence-informed preventive care and screenings provided for in the comprehensive guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). (varnumlaw.com)
  • Examples of preventive health care include cancer screenings to find cancer before it spreads and getting vaccines or immunizations to prevent harmful viruses like the flu or measles. (uga.edu)
  • The Task Force is an independent panel of experts-including doctors, nurses, medical directors and academics-that examines the latest scientific evidence and makes recommendations on preventive services and screenings. (napsnet.com)
  • Alcohol screenings involve talking to patients about drinking habits, which typically starts by answering a set of questions related to how much and how often alcohol is consumed. (napsnet.com)
  • With its increased focus on the prevention of lifestyle-related illness, the Department of Health could, for example, do more to convince Trusts about the value of timely advice to help people develop safer drinking patterns. (nao.org.uk)
  • The drug and alcohol abuse prevention program must be distributed annually, in writing, to each employee and to each student who is taking one or more classes for any type of academic credit (except for continuing education units), regardless of the length of the student's program of study. (stevenson.edu)
  • Psychosocial life-skills education in early and middle adolescence is a prevention approach for a wide range of problem behaviours initiated in adolescence, including drug 121 K. Maruska and others, "Influencing antecedents of adolescent risk-taking behaviour in elementary school: results of a 4-year quasiexperimental controlled trial", Health Education Research, vol. 25, No. 6 (2010), pp. 1021-1030. (issuu.com)
  • The purpose of these procedures being risk reduction and prevention and the provision of safe, sound, supportive services. (dovepress.com)
  • NICE guidance advocates an invest-to-save approach by prioritising the prevention of alcohol-use disorders. (findings.org.uk)
  • Each section offers examples of service models, including case studies and ideas for using Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) and Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) to drive improvements to alcohol services. (findings.org.uk)
  • Construction's loss is definitely medicine's gain, for the 33-year-old has instead built a pre-eminent research reputation in health promotion and the prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. (edu.au)
  • Professor Nav Kapur, from the University's Centre for Suicide Prevention based in the Centre for Mental Health and Risk one of the leading centres for research into suicidal behaviour internationally, said: "It is vital not to lose the benefits of the last 10 years. (healthcanal.com)
  • The National Prevention Strategy provides evidence-based Recommendations for Preventing Drug Abuse and Excessive Alcohol Use . (astho.org)
  • X Trustworthy Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Main public health institute for the US, run by the Dept. of Health and Human Services Go to source Binge drinking is a common problem in many countries worldwide. (wikihow.com)
  • X Trustworthy Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Main public health institute for the US, run by the Dept. of Health and Human Services Go to source A pattern of drinking that causes these issues is called "alcohol abuse," and left to go on, it can turn into alcohol dependence, or alcoholism. (wikihow.com)
  • Smoking's impact on public health is huge. (hse.ie)
  • public health services for women who are pregnant and for children aged 0 to 5. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • If you want to raise concerns or provide feedback about your local public health services, you can complain directly to whoever is providing the service or you can contact the Director of Public Health at your local authority. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • We are seeing a movement toward more and more plans offering gym memberships as a way to facilitate better health for employees," says David Jones, an assistant professor of Health Policy and Management at Boston University's School of Public Health. (menshealth.com)
  • The first baseline data for the PHOF will be published by DH in Autumn 2012 and monitoring data to support PHOF indicators will be published regularly in future by Public Health England (PHE) at national and upper tier local authority level (and by inequalities and equalities breakdowns where feasible). (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • John Orr, chairman of the SASM board, said that alcohol abuse remains a 'major public health issue' for Scotland. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Summary This document sets out the structure and objectives of the public health system for England effective from April 2013 and how progress against these objectives will be measured. (findings.org.uk)
  • Public Health England will be the new national delivery organisation of the public health system. (findings.org.uk)
  • It will be charged with delivering some public health services, and with promoting health through all its clinical activity, striving to use the millions of patient contacts that take place each day as opportunities to promote healthier living. (findings.org.uk)
  • Local authorities will commission public health services on their populations' behalf, resourced by a ring-fenced grant, and put health and wellbeing at the heart of all their activity. (findings.org.uk)
  • Public Health England will support and advise directors of public health and local authorities to help ensure consistency and excellence across the public health system, for example through a single authoritative web portal on public health information and evidence. (findings.org.uk)
  • The featured document sets out the indicators which will be used to measure improvements in public health, defined in greater detail in the part 2 technical specification . (findings.org.uk)
  • Dr Chris Williams is an HMRI Postdoctoral Research Fellow working with Hunter New England Population Health and the University of Newcastle's School of Medicine and Public Health in the field of musculoskeletal pain. (edu.au)
  • Lifetime sexual trauma (ST) (i.e., behaviors that range from unwanted sexual touching to attempted or completed rape) is a significant social and public health problem among women Veterans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But a quarter of a million adult problem gamblers is a public health issue. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • Both the clinical and public health settings will be examined. (edu.au)
  • Section 509 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended and subject to the availability of funds. (federalregister.gov)
  • Local authorities fund school nurses and similar services through public health budgets. (ncb.org.uk)
  • Obesity, most often defined using body mass index or BMI (kg/m 2 ), is classified in categories that are reflective of the increasing health risk associated with excess body weight (Class I: BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m 2 , Class II BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m 2 , Class III BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m 2 ) [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His work relates to the interaction between musculoskeletal management and health risk behaviours like obesity, inactivity, poor diet, alcohol misuse and smoking. (edu.au)
  • The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) today issued a final rule with comment period that updates payment policies and rates for physicians and nonphysician practitioners (NPPs) for services paid under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS) in calendar year (CY) 2012. (cms.gov)
  • Our occupational health nurses are supported by our on-site occupational health physicians to ensure that you receive clear guidance and advice. (nuh.nhs.uk)
  • More than 70 top obstetrician-gynecologists, family physicians, and other physicians and health experts from across Texas will convene the state's first-ever Texas Medical Association (TMA) Maternal Health Congress in Austin on Saturday. (texmed.org)
  • The findings "demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for PEth in discriminating alcohol misuse, with useful cut-points to risk-stratify patients," Dr. Afshar and colleagues concluded. (loyolamedicine.org)
  • However, while these findings are often present, they are not necessary to make a diagnosis of alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a commentary from Drug and Alcohol Findings. (findings.org.uk)
  • Based on the findings of this study it is clear that veterans from the junior enlisted ranks should be targeted for enhanced transition support, and this support should begin prior to their separation from active duty service," says coauthor Nicole Morgan, assistant research professor at the Clearinghouse. (futurity.org)
  • The findings follow a study published by the National Confidential Inquiry earlier this year which showed suicides among mental health patients increased with the current economic difficulties a likely factor. (healthcanal.com)
  • Military veterans experience a range of service-related health conditions, including hearing damage, traumatic brain injury, PTSD and toxic exposure to asbestos and burn pits. (drugwatch.com)
  • Carers - Carers are those family members or adult friends who provide significant physical, social, emotional and/or practical support to the person experiencing a mental health problem. (scie.org.uk)
  • A commonly held view is that intoxication due to alcohol directly causes unsafe sexual behaviour, which in turn leads to higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unwanted pregnancies, but the evidence does not support this simplistic model. (bmj.com)
  • This includes publishing clear service standards, setting out what can be expected from them, and providing information on how they can be contacted, how they provide information and guidance and what those being regulated can expect. (ombudsman.org.uk)
  • Interim final regulations were issued July 14, 2010, providing guidance on the preventive services that must be covered. (varnumlaw.com)