Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)United StatesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.tert-Butyl AlcoholMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Neurofunctional effects of developmental alcohol exposure in alcohol-preferring and alcohol-nonpreferring rats. (1/84)

The neurofunctional effects of developmental alcohol exposure (3% v/v solution from day 15 of gestation to day 7 after parturition) have been investigated in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rat lines, selectively bred for opposite alcohol preference and consumption. Alcohol exposure significantly decreased the rate of ultrasonic emission in sP male pups; whereas, it did not affect this indicator of emotional reactivity in sNP animals. Perinatal alcohol intake did not influence either learning of an active avoidance task or hippocampal long-term potentiation in both offspring lines. Significant differences in time spent exploring novel objects were observed between control sP and sNP rats subjected to the novel exploration object test. Alcohol exposed sP rats, but not alcohol exposed sNP rats, apparently lost the capacity to discriminate between the novel and the familiar object, even though this difference is difficult to interpret because of the large differences in the respective responses to the novel objects. Neurochemical experiments have shown that basal levels of dopamine (DA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of sP rats with respect to sNP animals. Perinatal alcohol did not affect basal DA and HVA concentrations or amphetamine-induced DA increase and HVA decrease in the NAC of either sP or sNP offspring. These results suggest that subtle behavioral alterations induced by developmental exposure to low doses of alcohol, which do not cause malformations and/or overt neurotoxicity, may be associated with genetic factors, although not necessarily those responsible for differences in alcohol preference.  (+info)

Attributable risk of common and rare determinants of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (2/84)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Smoking, hypertension, alcohol consumption, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and positive family history for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well-known risk factors for SAH. For effective prevention, knowledge about the contribution of these risk factors to the overall occurrence of SAH in the general population is pivotal. We therefore investigated the population attributable risks of the risk factors for SAH. METHODS: We retrieved the relative risk and prevalence of established risk factors for SAH from the literature and calculated the population attributable risks of these risk factors. RESULTS: Drinking alcohol 100 to 299 g/wk accounted for 11% of the cases of SAH, drinking alcohol >/=300 g/wk accounted for 21%, and smoking accounted for 20%. An additional 17% of the cases could be attributed to hypertension, 11% to a positive family history for SAH, and 0.3% to ADPKD. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and preventive treatment of patients with familial preponderance of SAH alone will cause a modest reduction of the incidence of SAH in the general population. Further reduction can be achieved by reducing the prevalence of the modifiable risk factors alcohol consumption, smoking, and hypertension.  (+info)

Mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the developing nervous system. (3/84)

Numerous mechanisms likely contribute to the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus and particularly the developing central nervous system (CNS). The coexistence of a multitude of mechanisms that may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among various cell types poses particular challenges to researchers. To study alcohol's effects on the fetus more easily, investigators have used animal models and tissue-culture experiments. Such approaches have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol acts on the fetus, many of which result in cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, damage to the mitochondria, interference with the activity of growth factors, effects on glia cells, impaired development and function of chemical messenger systems involved in neuronal communication, changes in the transport and uptake of the sugar glucose, effects on cell adhesion, and changes in the regulation of gene activity during development.  (+info)

Teratogenic effects of alcohol on brain and behavior. (4/84)

Children prenatally exposed to alcohol can suffer from serious cognitive deficits and behavioral problems as well as from alcohol-related changes in brain structure. Neuropsychological studies have identified deficits in learning and memory as well as in executive functioning both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome and in children with less severe impairments. Both groups of children also exhibit problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor socialization and communication skills. Brain imaging studies have identified structural changes in various brain regions of these children--including the basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hippocampus--that may account for the cognitive deficits. Functional brain imaging studies also have detected changes in alcohol-exposed children indicative of deficits in information processing and memory tasks.  (+info)

A 47-year-old alcoholic man with progressive abnormal gait. (5/84)

Central pontine myelinolysis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with a history of alcoholism and malnutrition presenting with ataxia, regardless of serum sodium values. T2-weighted images are the most sensitive imaging technique, but changes may not be evident for weeks after the insult, and in addition, the insult may not be known. Supportive care is important to prevent complications, but no treatment has been found to be effective in treating the illness. Patient outcomes vary considerably and are difficult to predict.  (+info)

Ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing visual system during synaptogenesis. (6/84)

PURPOSE: Ethanol is known to have deleterious effects on the human fetal nervous system (fetal alcohol syndrome), including components of the visual system, but only modest progress has been made in understanding these effects. The authors have recently demonstrated that, during the period of synaptogenesis, a single episode of ethanol intoxication lasting for several hours triggers a massive wave of apoptotic neurodegeneration in several regions of the developing rat or mouse forebrain. The present study was undertaken to determine to what extent the developing visual system is vulnerable to the apoptogenic effects of ethanol. METHODS: Infant rats and mice at ages from birth to 21 days were treated subcutaneously with a single dose of ethanol or with two doses, 2 hours apart, on a single day. Blood alcohol levels were determined, and the retinas and visual centers in the brain were examined by light and electronmicroscopy at various times from 4 to 24 hours after treatment. RESULTS: Retinal ganglion cells and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and visual cortex were all highly susceptible to ethanol's apoptogenic action, the period of peak sensitivity being postnatal days 1 to 4 for ganglion cells and 4 to 7 for the other visual neurons. A transient elevation of blood alcohol to approximately 120 mg/dL was sufficient to activate the cell death program in visual neurons. CONCLUSIONS: During synaptogenesis, a single ethanol intoxication episode triggers apoptotic cell death of neurons at all levels of the visual system from retina to the visual cortex.  (+info)

Signaling cascades regulating NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. (7/84)

One of the major targets for ethanol (alcohol) in the brain is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate-gated ion channel. Intriguingly, the effects of ethanol on the NMDA receptor are not homogeneous throughout the brain. This review focuses on recent studies revealing molecular mechanisms that mediate the actions of ethanol on the NMDA receptor in different brain regions via changes in NMDA receptor phosphorylation and compartmentalization. Specifically, the role of the scaffolding protein RACK1 and the regulatory protein DARPP-32 in mediating the distinct effects of ethanol is presented.  (+info)

Temporally specific burst in cell proliferation increases hippocampal neurogenesis in protracted abstinence from alcohol. (8/84)

Adult neurogenesis is a newly considered form of plasticity that could contribute to brain dysfunction in psychiatric disease. Chronic alcoholism, a disease affecting over 8% of the adult population, produces cognitive impairments and decreased brain volumes, both of which are partially reversed during abstinence. Clinical data and animal models implicate the hippocampus, a region important in learning and memory. In a model of alcohol dependence (chronic binge exposure for 4 d), we show that adult neurogenesis is inhibited during dependence with a pronounced increase in new hippocampal neuron formation after weeks of abstinence. This increase is attributable to a temporally and regionally specific fourfold increase in cell proliferation at day 7 of abstinence, with a majority of those cells surviving and differentiating at percentages similar to controls, effects that doubled the formation of new neurons. Although increases in cell proliferation correlated with alcohol withdrawal severity, proliferation remained increased when diazepam (10 mg/kg) was used to reduce withdrawal severity. Indeed, those animals with little withdrawal activity still show a twofold burst in cell proliferation at day 7 of abstinence. Thus, alcohol dependence and recovery from dependence continues to alter hippocampal plasticity during abstinence. Because neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampal function and/or learning, memory, and mood, compensatory neurogenesis and the return of normal neurogenesis may also have an impact on hippocampal structure and function. For the first time, these data provide a neurobiological mechanism that may underlie the return of human cognitive function and brain volume associated with recovery from addiction.  (+info)

*Disease theory of alcoholism

Schuckit, M. A.; Winokur, G. A. (1972). "A short-term followup of women alcoholics". Diseases of the Nervous System. 33 (10): ... ΔFosB induces the addictive state. In 2004, the World Health Organisation published a detailed report on alcohol and other ... However, with recent advances in neuroscience, it is clear that dependence is as much a disorder of the brain as any other ... The craving that an alcoholic feels for alcohol can be as strong as the need for food or water. An alcoholic will continue to ...

*List of MeSH codes (C21)

... alcohol-induced disorders MeSH C21.739.100.087.193 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.739.100.087.193.100 ... drug-induced MeSH C21.613.705.150 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.613.705.150.100 --- alcohol amnestic ... drug-induced MeSH C21.613.589.500 --- lead poisoning, nervous system MeSH C21.613.589.500.400 --- lead poisoning, nervous ... nervous system, childhood MeSH C21.613.647.500 --- mercury poisoning, nervous system MeSH C21.613.647.500.100 --- acrodynia ...

*Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Notable causes of neurogenic bladder include disorders of the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease, multiple ... and alcohol-induced nerve damage. Individuals affected by heart failure often experience nighttime awakenings to urinate due to ... and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 ... On the other hand, a study in Japanese-American men in Hawaii found a strong negative association with alcohol intake, but a ...

*Nystagmus

... acquired or central nervous system disorders, toxicity, pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, or rotational movement. Previously ... It also may be induced temporarily by disorientation (such as on roller coaster rides) or by certain drugs (alcohol and other ... Salicylates SSRIs Thiamine deficiency Wernicke's encephalopathy Central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as with a ... Gaze induced nystagmus occurs or is exacerbated as a result of changing one's gaze toward or away from a particular side which ...

*Psychoactive drug

Hypnotics, which depress the central nervous system. Opioid analgesics, which also depress the central nervous system. These ... Mood stabilizers, used to treat bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Anxiolytics, used to treat anxiety disorders. ... To induce unconsciousness, anesthetics affect the GABA and NMDA systems. For example, propofol is a GABA agonist, and ketamine ... Alcohol and caffeine are ingested in beverage form; nicotine and cannabis are smoked or vaped; peyote and psilocybin mushrooms ...

*Alprazolam

... and borderline personality disorder (where it may induce suicidality and dyscontrol). Like all central nervous system ... Alcohol is one of the most common interactions; alcohol and alprazolam taken in combination have a synergistic effect on one ... The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system. The GABAA ... especially of panic disorder, but also in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or social anxiety disorder. It ...

*Ataxia

Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis) will cause the type of ... is also a known cause of ataxia and other neurological disorders. Ataxia can be induced as a result of severe acute radiation ... The most common example is ethanol (alcohol), which is capable of causing reversible cerebellar and vestibular ataxia. Other ... GHB accumulates in the nervous system and can cause ataxia as well as other neurological dysfunction. Wilson's disease is an ...

*Daytrana

Nervous system adverse effects may include akathisia (agitation/restlessness), irritability, dyskinesia (tics), lethargy ( ... "Methylphenidate-induced psychosis in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: report of 3 new cases and review of the ... Coingestion of alcohol (ethanol) also increases the blood plasma levels of d-methylphenidate by up to 40%. Liver toxicity from ... Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant and Daytrana is the long acting transdermal patch formulation. ...

*ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system

Drug-induced tics and other tics of organic origin (G25.8) Other specified extrapyramidal and movement disorders Restless legs ... Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol (G31.8) Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system Grey-matter ... Multi-system degeneration (G90.8) Other disorders of autonomic nervous system (G90.9) Disorder of autonomic nervous system, ... Other disorders of nervous system, not elsewhere classified (G99) Other disorders of nervous system in diseases classified ...

*Peter Propping

"Pathogenesis of disorders of the central nervous system". From 1999 to 2012 Propping coordinated the German HNPCC consortium ... In addition, the metabolism of alcohol is under genetic control. In Bonn, Propping initiated a long term study in order to ... Propping could show that the intra-animal culture of bacteria (host-mediated assay) designed to induce mutations by chemical ... In: Humangenetk, 20, 1973, S. 291-320 P. Propping: Genetic control of ethanol action on the central nervous system. An EEG ...

*Gonyautoxin

As neurotoxins, the gonyautoxins influence the nervous system. They can bind with high affinity at the site 1 of the α-subunit ... Removing these groups gives 11β-hydrosaxitoxin as a product, which will then be sulfated on the C 11-alcohol. GTX-2 is formed ... Shellfish can contain more than 10 micrograms of gonyautoxin per 100 gram weight, inducing that the consumption of a few ... Furthermore, blindness and vision disorders are also possible symptoms. Death is most likely to occur within the first twelve ...

*Clonazepam

The central nervous system depressing effects of the drug can be intensified by alcohol consumption, and therefore alcohol ... Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Clonazepam has also been found effective in treating other anxiety disorders, such ... While benzodiazepines induce sleep, they tend to reduce the quality of sleep by suppressing or disrupting REM sleep. After ... Parry GJ (1976). "An animal model for the study of drugs in the central nervous system". Proc Aust Assoc Neurol. 13: 83-8. PMID ...

*Muscle relaxant

Standaert, D.G.; Young, A.B. (2001). "Treatment Of Central Nervous System Degerative Disorders". In Goodman, L.S.; Hardman, J.G ... Muscle relaxants are thought to be useful in painful disorders based on the theory that pain induces spasm and spasm causes ... or people who suffer depression or for those with a history of drug or alcohol addiction. Because of the enhancement of ... The benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, interact with the GABAA receptor in the central nervous system. While it can be used in ...

*Secondary hypertension

... by pain-induced sympathetic nervous system stimulation; in the early postanesthesia period, e.g. by pain-induced sympathetic ... Heavy alcohol use Steroid use Nicotine use. Malformed aorta, slow pulse, ischemia: these cause reduced blood flow to the renal ... This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a cystic genetic disorder of the kidneys, PKD ,which is ... the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal gland. The specific mechanism involved is increased release of the "stress ...

*Brain damage

... can occur in the peripheral nervous system but is much rarer and more difficult to assist in the central nervous system (brain ... Medicine portal Mind and brain portal Brain injury Cerebral palsy Encephalopathy Epilepsy Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder ... such as the carefully placed brain lesion used to treat epilepsy and other brain disorders. These lesions are induced by ... Wernicke's encephalopathy causes bleeding in the thalamus or hypothalamus, which controls the nervous and endocrine system. Due ...

*Mood disorder

... benzodiazepine-induced sleep disorder). Like alcohol, benzodiazepines can put people to sleep but, while asleep, they disrupt ... benzodiazepines can cause or worsen depression due to being a central nervous system depressant-worsening thinking, ... Also, an individual may have a mood disorder coexisting with a substance abuse disorder. Substance-induced mood disorders can ... Depressive and Related Disorders and Bipolar and Related Disorders. Bipolar Disorders falls in between Depressive Disorders and ...

*Paresthesia

A CT scan is sometimes used to rule out some causes from the central nervous system. Medications offered can include the ... Most pressure-induced paraesthesia results from awkward posture, such as engaging in cross-legged sitting for prolonged periods ... Because of this, paresthesia can also be a symptom of vitamin deficiency and malnutrition, as well as metabolic disorders like ... or administration of anesthetic potentially contaminated with alcohol or sterilizing solutions. Other causes may include: ...

*Carbamazepine

Alcohol use while taking carbamazepine may lead to enhanced depression of the central nervous system. Less common side effects ... It is used off-label as a second-line treatment for bipolar disorder and in combination with an antipsychotic in some cases of ... As a drug that induces cytochrome P450 enzymes, it accelerates elimination of many benzodiazepines and decreases their action. ... It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second line agent in bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine appears ...

*Lactalbumin

Immunocal and preservation of glutathione as a novel neuroprotective strategy for degenerative disorders of the nervous system ... Excessive alcohol consumption can induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues and influence the antioxidant status in peripheral ... Effects of Alcohol-Induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) Pretreated Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) on ... The results indicated that PBMC pretreated with WPC might ameliorate alcohol-induced effects such as imbalance of the ...

*MicroRNA

... nervous system development and cell signaling. Altered miRNA levels were found in the medial prefrontal cortex of alcohol- ... Lippai D, Bala S, Csak T, Kurt-Jones EA, Szabo G (2013). "Chronic alcohol-induced microRNA-155 contributes to neuroinflammation ... as well as bipolar disorder and major depression and anxiety disorders. The vital role of miRNAs in gene expression is ... miRNAs appear to regulate the development and function of the nervous system. Neural miRNAs are involved at various stages of ...

*Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

... alcohol-induced brain atrophy and alcohol-related cognitive disturbances. Alcohol's impact on the nervous system can also ... Cosci F; Schruers KR; Abrams K; Griez EJ (June 2007). "Alcohol use disorders and panic disorder: a review of the evidence of a ... In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse. The long- ... Long term excessive intake of alcohol can lead to damage to the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system ...

*Surinabant

... inhibits Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced central nervous system and heart rate effects in humans". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 76: 65- ... on alcohol intake and motivational properties of alcohol in alcohol-preferring sP rats". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 40 (1): 46-53 ... with possible application in the treatment of other addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Other potential applications such ... Alcohol. 39 (3): 125-34. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2006.08.001. PMID 17127132. Louis, C; Terranova, JP; Decobert, M; Bizot, JC; ...

*Glutathione

... especially the immune system, the nervous system, the gastrointestinal system, and the lungs.[citation needed] It has a vital ... Lieber CS (November 2002). "S-adenosyl-L-methionine: its role in the treatment of liver disorders". The American Journal of ... Increase in glutathione level may induce the pigment cell to produce pheomelanin instead of eumelanin pigments. A research by ... Alcohol and Alcoholism. 29 (5): 597-604. PMID 7811344. Dröge W, Holm E (November 1997). "Role of cysteine and glutathione in ...

*Binge drinking

... musculoskeletal organ systems as well as increasing the risk of alcohol induced psychiatric disorders. A US-based review of the ... a neurotoxic effect that damages the central nervous system develops, leading to persisting impairments in verbal and nonverbal ... Binge drinking is a more important factor rather than average alcohol intake, with regard to the severity of alcohol induced ... alcohol-related birth defects as well as alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. The affected children after birth can ...

*Anxiety disorder

Occasionally, an anxiety disorder may be a side-effect of an underlying endocrine disease that causes nervous system ... Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is a subclass of the DSM-5 diagnosis of substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder. ... for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or social phobia, was determined to be the result of alcohol ... Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, personality disorder, and ...

*Rocky Mountain spotted fever

... severe manifestations of this disease may involve the respiratory system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, or ... movement disorders, and language disorders. These complications are most frequent in persons recovering from severe, life- ... Then, the bacteria induce their internalization into host cells via a receptor-mediated invasion mechanism. Researchers believe ... chronic alcohol abuse, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Deficiency of G6PD is a genetic condition ...

*Radical (chemistry)

In addition free radicals contribute to alcohol-induced liver damage, perhaps more than alcohol itself. Free radicals produced ... Too much bilirubin, though, can lead to jaundice, which could eventually damage the central nervous system, while too much uric ... diabetes and major disorders. Many forms of cancer are thought to be the result of reactions between free radicals and DNA, ... For example, methyl alcohol was described as consisting of a methyl "radical" and a hydroxyl "radical". Neither are radicals in ...
Hong F, Kim WH, Tian Z, Jaruga B, Ishac E, Shen X, et al. Elevated interleukin-6 during ethanol consumption acts as a potential endogenous protective cytokine against ethanol-induced apoptosis in the liver: involvement of induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) proteins. Oncogene 2002; 21: 32-43 ...
Previous studies in mice and rats have shown that selective breeding for high and low ethanol preference results in divergence of circadian phenotype in the selected lines. These results indicate that some alleles influencing ethanol preference also contribute to circadian rhythm regulation. Selective breeding has also been used to produce lines of mice differing in a number of other ethanol-related traits, while studies of phenotypic and genetic correlation indicate that diverse ethanol-related traits are influenced by both shared and unshared genetics. ...
Three-week dosing periods at one of six oral phenobarbital doses between 15 and 400 mg/day were used to achieve steady states for induction of plasma alpha 1-acid glycoprotein concentration (AGP) in beagle dogs. In this way, the characteristics of the dose-response relationship between phenobarbital concentration and the extent of induction could be evaluated. With the 400 mg/day dose of phenobarbital, AGP increased nearly 13-fold. The response of AGP was found to depend on the square of the phenobarbital concentration. Analysis of the decay of AGP when phenobarbital dosing was discontinued showed a kinetic pattern governed by multiple rate processes. This was the result of persistence of the phenobarbital, the turnover of some metabolic precursor to AGP, and the turnover of AGP itself. ...
A recent report by Boating Industry showed that a growing number of readers (boat dealers, manufacturers and marina personnel) are reporting ethanol-related problems, particularly with E15. According to the report, 92 percent of respondents said theyve seen damage to engines caused by ethanol. That was up from 87 percent last year and 73 percent in 2015. Eighty-five percent of readers said they are concerned with the use of E15. To view the report in its entirety, visit boatingindustry.com. ...
For such cases, potassium bromide becomes the next best choice. The phenobarbital dose is generally cut back and potassium bromide is given at a high dose for a day or two before dropping to a maintenance bromide dose. Bromides reach therapeutic levels very slowly (months) thus, in most cases, bromides and phenobarbital are used in combination. When both drugs are used together, their side effects become added together so, for example, if one did not see sedation or excessive water consumption as a side effect of significance with phenobarbital alone, one is much more likely to see them now.. Between 25% and 30% of epileptic dogs are still uncontrolled despite excellent blood levels of phenobarbital and/or potassium bromide, and there is a long list of anti-seizure drugs available for people. Many dog owners wonder why we seem limited to two medications when it comes to dogs. In fact, most of the drugs used on humans are either prohibitively expensive for dogs or must be used with a very ...
I came across this during research into increasing dopaminergic activity without also increasing adrenergic tone. Apparently, the feeling of getting...
Crabbe JC, Cotnam CJ, Cameron AJ, Schlumbohm JP, Rhodes JS, Metten P, Wahlsten D. Strain differences in three measures of ethanol intoxication in mice: the screen, dowel and grip strength tests. Genes Brain Behav. 2003 Aug;2(4):201-13. PubMed 12953786 ...
Featured Blood Alcohol Level News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Blood Alcohol Level From The latimes (Page 4 of 5)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a general diagnosis for those exhibiting long-lasting neurobehavioral and cognitive deficiencies as a result of fetal alcohol exposure. It is among the most common causes of mental deficits today. Those impacted are left to rely on advances in our understanding of the nature of early alcohol-induced disorders toward human therapies. Research findings over the last decade have developed a model where ethanol-induced neurodegeneration impacts early neural circuit development, thereby perpetuating subsequent integration and plasticity in vulnerable brain regions. Here we review our current knowledge of FASD neuropathology based on discoveries of long-lasting neurophysiological effects of acute developmental ethanol exposure in animal models. We discuss the important balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in normal neural network function, and relate the significance of that balance to human FASD as well as related disease states. Finally, we postulate
Before getting behind the wheel, drivers can test their blood alcohol level with new apps that not only give a blood alcohol reading, but also calls a cab.
Xingnaojing (XNJ) is a standardized Chinese herbal medicine product derived from An Gong Niu Huang Pill. It may be involved in neuroprotection in a number of neurological disorders. Exposure to anesthetic agents during the brain growth spurt may trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Thus the present study aimed to identify whether there was a neuroprotective effect of XNJ on anesthesiainduced neuroapoptosis. Sevendayold rats received treatment with 2.1% sevoflurane for 6 h. Rat pups were injected intraperitoneally with 1 or 10 ml/kg XNJ at 0.2, 24 and 48 h prior to sevoflurane exposure. The striata of neonatal rats were collected following administration of anesthesia. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of activated caspase 3, Bax and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT) in the striatum. It was found that activated caspase 3 and Bax expression were upregulated in the striatum following sevoflurane treatment. Preconditioning with ...
Seth/Chad: How can you not like an episode of Lost that includes James drinking himself to the point of acute ethanol toxicity while listening to the l ...
ALEXANDRIA, Va. July 18, 2017 - A new survey by Boating Industry magazine says those in the boating industry that manufacture, sell, repair and store recreational vessels are seeing a growing number of problems caused by ethanol-related fuels. Said one Minnesota boat dealer in the survey, "Ethanol fuels are great for our service department but bad for our customers!". The reader survey results, which appear in the magazines July 2017 issue, report that 92 percent of survey respondents said "they have seen damage…caused by ethanol…and more business for the service department." The most recent results are up from 87 percent from a similar survey last year.. The July feature "Ethanol Still a Significant Challenge, Survey Says," also reported that "more than 15 percent of readers said that based on what they are seeing in their business, more than half of the necessary repairs are being caused by ethanol-related issues." Eighty-five percent of survey takers were "very concerned" about the use ...
The International Charter on Prevention of FASD has been published in The Lancet Global Health, one of the worlds most influential public-health journals. The Charter - also known as the
With this gadget you can calculate your blood alcohol level (roughly). Different people use different time to get sober, so this is only meant as a funny gadget, not an exact measurement (in fact, it may not be that exact either as it doesnt take the time between the drinks into account).. How it works: The alcohol will add to the water in your body. An adult male consists of 60-80 percent water, and an adult female of 50-70 percent water. (That is why women get drunk quicker than men.) The blood alcohol level will be reduced by about 0.015 percent per hour. And please never drink and drive, even if you only had one beer it will affect your ability to drive safely. ...
Hi ! Is there anyone who happens to know any information on the effect of ethanol on a dividing cell? What are some of the abnormalities that it causes? Please send me an E-Mail of post on this newsgroup about some of the references concerning it. Thank you for your time ...
9781284053302 Our cheapest price for Evidence-Based Practice For Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research is $22.24. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD ...
The range of harm to an unborn baby due to drinking during pregnancy is called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Alcohol can hurt the babys brain, heart, eyes, and other organs. Children with FASD can have a hard time learning, controlling how they act, and making friends. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause lifelong harm to the unborn child.These nine months last a lifetime. Lets keep them alcohol-free. FASD affects us all, but it is 100% preventable.
The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is revising its guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
Fetuses exposed to alcohol in the womb might develop Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), a condition that can cause physical and mental problems.
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of birth defects that is only found in babies of mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects...
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term that is used to describe the range of effects that can occur in an individual who was prenat
Care for children and their families dealing with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is to be expanded in Queensland following new funding for a Griffith University project.
This application provides the latest information related to the use of alcohol during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). From women...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Learn more about signs, treatments, and what you can do about FASDs.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Date Presented 4/1/2017. The first study to investigate functional abilities in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder advanced knowledge in three ways: (1) Psychosocial skills have to be tested for guiding treatments, (2) functional skills explain the severity of disease, and (3) the psychosocial element has to be added to the diagnostic guidelines.. Primary Author and Speaker: Ada Leung. Additional Authors and Speakers: Sharon Brintnell. Contributing Authors: Monty Nelson, Joshua Kwon ...
WEDNESDAY, July 19, 2017 (HealthDay News)-Animal research may have yielded a potential treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in children. Two common medications reversed memory and learning problems in rats exposed to alcohol while in the womb, according to researchers at Northwestern University in Chicago.. "Weve shown you can interfere after the damage from alcohol is done. Thats huge," study senior author Eva Redei said in a university news release.. Currently, there is no treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, added Redei, a professor of psychiatric diseases affecting children and adolescents. In the United States, 1 percent to 5 percent of children are born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The condition is linked with low IQ; learning, memory and behavioral problems; high risk of depression; and heart and other health problems.. For 10 days after birth, rat pups that were exposed to alcohol in the womb were given either the hormone thyroxine or the drug metformin. ...
RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index childs father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). ...
Table 1: Protein identification of differentially expressed spots from 2D gel analysis of alcohol-treated embryos. The spot assignments, number of peptides used for identification, UniProtKB accession number, gene name, and the protein identification for each spot. Proteins are grouped by their pattern of expression (up- or downregulated) in alcohol-treated embryos relative to control ...
Online Staff Report The Arc of Winnebago, Boone and Ogle Counties received a grant to educate people living in the communities they serve about Fetal Alcohol
Information, Tools, and Resources to aid Primary Care Physicians in caring for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and providing a Medical Home for all of their patients.
Eventbrite - Public Health Seminar Series at the University of Salford presents Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders--a hidden epidemic? - Thursday, 17 March 2016 at Room MS271. Find event and ticket information.
Alcoholism - Letter to the Editor Regarding Coles, Gailey, Mulle, Kable, Lynch, and Jones (2016): A Comparison Among 5 Methods for the Clinical Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisordersIN THIS LETTER to the Editor, I discuss a study conducted by Coles and colleagues (2016) that took on the important task of comparing the outcomes of 5 fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic systems when retroactively applied to the records of 1,581 patients ...
Specialized in saliva test strips to suit your unique needs including saliva test strip, saliva test strip, urine and saliva screen and saliva alcohol test etc. products available at reduced prices and many with free shipping.
|span class=productSubhead>Gain exposure while giving them reasons to not drink and drive with this brochure! |/span>|br /> |span class=productSize>|/span>|br /> |span class=productBullet>• This brochure is designed to operate like a slide rule, match bullets for additional information.|/span>|br /> |span class=productBullet>• Made in the USA with information pertaining to the dangers of drinking and driving.|/span>|br /> |span class=productBullet>• Features a cost calculator to give an idea of how many drinks can be consumed before legally "drunk".|/span>|br /> |span class=productBullet>• Fits perfectly in a #10 envelope for the option to easily put in the mail.|/span>|br /> |span class=productSize>|/span>|br /> |span class=productSize>Size:|/span>|span class=productBullet> 3 3/4"W x 8 1/2"H |/span>|br /> |span class=productSize>Imprint:|/span>|span class=productBullet> One color. Multiple colors available for additional
Its a shocking number of diseases, 428. Thats the number of diseases determined to co-occur in people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a broad range of disabilities that can occur in people who were exposed to alcohol in the womb. Symptoms vary depending on such issues as…
Brentwood, TN (PRWEB) September 08, 2015 -- As the world prepares to recognize Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Awareness Day on September 9th,
straight have a higher blood alcohol level than if that same person was to drink it diluted (eg with coke)over the same time period ...
Recent data from the U.S. Department of Energy shows that gasoline consumed in 25 states and the District of Columbia contained more than 10 percent ethanol on average in 2015, demonstrating that the so-called "E10 blend wall" continues to crumble. ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last month, and ...
Directory of Fetal Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Services, Help and Support for Niagara Regional Municipality, ON including St. Catherines, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, Port Colborne and Grimsby
Neuropsychological Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Mother Safe Conference 2013.04.16. Goun Jeong , M.D. Department of Pediatrics, Cheil General Hospital & Womens Healthcare Center. Introduction. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) The most severe form of FASD Slideshow 2076167 by xue
He shared his positive experience at Minnesota Virtual Academy with state Rep. Denny McNamara and Sen. Katie Sieben in February at the Capitol.. "We need them to support legislation to basically improve the special education programs, more specifically for those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder," he said. "I want others to be able to take more complex math and science classes if they want.. "Just because they are in special education doesnt mean they are less," he added. "Our current system treats us as less, and it really bothers me.". Along with advocating for more opportunities for fellow students with the disorder, Riege is also spreading the word about just how preventable FASD is.. "There is recognition but not enough, in my mind," he said. "Theres still going to be a problem but we need to realize that its preventable and we need to reduce the number of people that end up having it.". And for those with FASD, he said its all about support, now and in the future.. "We need that ...
A new study has confirmed that the left parietal area is important for mathematical abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
This report describes the behavioural characteristics and diagnostic criteria for people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and mental health disorders and provides an overview of both similarities and differences between these diagnoses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liver Injury, Endotoxemia, and Their Relationship to Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Alcohol-Preferring Rats. AU - Posteraro, Brunella. AU - Paroni Sterbini, Francesco. AU - Petito, Valentina. AU - Rocca, Stefano. AU - Cubeddu, Tiziana. AU - Graziani, Cristina. AU - Arena, Vincenzo. AU - Vassallo, Gabriele A.. AU - Mosoni, Carolina. AU - Lopetuso, Loris. AU - Lorrai, Irene. AU - Maccioni, Paola. AU - Masucci, Luca. AU - Martini, Cecilia. AU - Gasbarrini, Antonio. AU - Sanguinetti, Maurizio. AU - Colombo, Giancarlo. AU - Addolorato, Giovanni. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Background: There is strong evidence that alcoholism leads to dysbiosis in both humans and animals. However, it is unclear how changes in the intestinal microbiota (IM) relate to ethanol (EtOH)-induced disruption of gut-liver homeostasis. We investigated this issue using selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats, a validated animal model of excessive EtOH consumption. Methods: ...
This review summarizes the research literature to date on the issues and challenges of estimating the prevalence of FASD, and presents the prevalence rates reported in several studies from a wide range of jurisdictions and populations. Estimating the prevalence of FASD is a daunting task, whether one is intent on determining the rate of the condition in the general population or with a specific population known to have a higher risk of FASD. There are arguments as to why both themes are important in understanding the rate of FASD, as one approach lends itself to describing the breadth of occurrence throughout the general population, while the other helps to describe the depth of occurrence as it pertains to vulnerable populations, which will be discussed more extensively in this review. In particular, the review focuses on the need for prevalence rates of FASD in child welfare child-in-care populations. This is a population at high risk for FASD due to the frequency that parental substance abuse ...
Previous studies have shown that exposure of the immature brain to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread neuroapoptosis. Almost all currently used general anesthetics have either NMDA receptor blocking or GABA(A) receptor enhancing properties. Propofol, a new intravenous anesthetic, is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice whose neurotoxicity on brain development remains unknown. We investigated the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on neuroapoptosis and long-term spatial learning/memory functions. Propofol was administered to 7 day-old rats either as a single dose or in 7 doses at concentrations sufficient to maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a significant increase in the levels of caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region after propofol administration. At postnatal day 34, light microscopic observations revealed a significant reduction in neuronal ...
Efforts to successfully prevent or ameliorate the teratogenic effects of alcohol have been impeded, at least in part, by a limited understanding of the mechanis...
The new guidelines include a step-by-step diagnostic algorithm for use in the clinical setting, as well as a special emphasis on neurobehavioral impairment.
Information, Tools, and Resources to aid Primary Care Physicians in caring for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and providing a Medical Home for all of their patients.
You can anticipate stiffer charges if it is your second offense with a blood alcohol level of.08.And an increase in blood alcohol levels means a boost in charges. For instance, a very first offense with blood alcohol level of.15 is a minimum of thirty days in prison. You substance abuse counseling could spent as much as 180 in jail.. I consider my great-grandfather Hugh, and my grandmother Doris, the two most significant influences on my sound. If you ever see my program, you will notice that I have actually never had any proper training; I learned by viewing them, and I make exactly what most refer to as a "careless G chord" using my thumb and middle finger, just as my seniors did. I decline to learn anymore chords than the five or 6 I discovered from them; these few chords have served me well, as Ive taped over four-hundred songs, more than a hundred of them originals.. substance abuse treatment Irvine and other locations have actually also been found. The main scene that we anticipate to see ...
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Measuring alcohol use and abuse goes far beyond just testing DUI suspects, and during a morning presentation titled "Role of the Laboratory in the Science of Drinking: From Blood Alcohol Levels and Markers of Alcohol Abuse to Pharmacogenomics," on Monday, July 26, both Dr. Dasgupta and Dr. Loralie Langman, Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, will outline the complex and changing role labs are playing not only in measuring and interpreting blood alcohol levels, but also in measuring biomarkers of alcohol abuse and researching genetic variations that can provide insight into why individuals metabolize alcohol in different ways. These presentations will be offered during AACCs 2010 Annual Meeting, which is being held at the Anaheim Convention Center ...
This study demonstrates for the first time that a single intoxicating EtOH dose produces major changes in GABAAR subunit composition and function, which are accompanied by altered behavioral and in vitro pharmacological sensitivity to diazepam, isoflurane and EtOH itself. Importantly, these changes are fully reversible by 2 weeks or less after intoxication, unlike the persistent alterations induced by CIE treatment. Acute tolerance to EtOH enhancement of GABAAR-mediated Itonic is observed within 1 h after in vivo EtOH exposure, suggesting that this physiological mechanism may underlie the acute behavioral tolerance to EtOH observed in animals and humans, (Khanna et al., 1996; Fillmore et al., 2005).. Tonic inhibitory currents are thought to be mediated by extrasynaptic GABAARs activated by low ambient [GABA] as well as by GABA spillover from presynaptic sites (Mody and Pearce, 2004; Semyanov et al., 2004; Farrant and Nusser, 2005). Evidence indicates that the relative densities and subunit ...
An emotional Bam Margera broke down at the site where his best friend and Jackass co-star Ryan Dunn was killed in a fiery car crash, and told of a premonition he had before Dunns death.
Despite significant efforts to educate women to not drink during pregnancy, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders has not declined making it importa...
Up to five percent of American children in a new study were found to be affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The research involved more than 6,000 first-graders ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Background. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an under-diagnosed condition in South Africa (SA). Fetal alcohol syndrome and FASD community prevalence studies were undertaken in 17 towns in three of the nine provinces in SA. Objective. The objective for all the studies was to determine the FASD prevalence rates by assessing the grade 1 learners in all the studies, using international FASD diagnostic criteria. Methods. The same methodology was used for all the studies in Gauteng, Western and Northern Cape provinces. Consenting grade 1 learners received anthropometric screening, clinical examinations and neurodevelopmental assessments. Structured interviews were used to assess maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Results. Reported prevalence rates ranged from 29 to 290 per 1 000 live births. Conclusion. FASD rates from studies conducted in SA are among the highest worldwide. FASD affects all communities in SA and is therefore a major public health concern in SA. Multidisciplinary and
Background: We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared with typically developing control children. Previous studies have found that children with FASD produce saccades that are quantifiably different from controls. Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, we hypothesized that eye movement measures will show sexually dimorphic results.Methods: Children (aged 5-18 years) with FASD (n=71) and typically developing controls (n=113) performed a visually-guided saccade task. Saccade metrics and behavior were analyzed for sex and group differences. Results: Female control participants had greater amplitude saccades than control males or females with FASD. Accuracy was significantly poorer in the FASD group, especially in males, which introduced significantly greater variability in the data. Therefore, we conducted additional
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to a range of negative developmental outcomes that result from maternal drinking during pregnancy. Children with FASD can suffer from many problems, including epilepsy, a disorder characterized by spontaneous recurrence of unprovoked seizures that affects 0.6 percent of the general population. A new study has found a much higher prevalence of epilepsy or history of seizures in individuals with FASD.. Results will be published in the June 2010 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.. "There are very few studies that have examined the relationship between seizures and epilepsy among individuals with FASD," noted James Reynolds, a senior scientist with the department of pharmacology and toxicology and the Centre for Neuroscience Studies, at Queens University. Reynolds is one of the studys authors.. "Many patients with epilepsy have a history of exposure to a prenatal insult, so we reasoned that ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
This area of research holds more promise than ever," says Dr. Joanne Weinberg, co-author of the review. Fetal alcohol syndrome was coined nearly 40 years ago, and is the most severe end of the FASD spectrum, characterized by distinctive facial features and extreme cognitive delays. However, the spectrum is quite broad and depends on many factors including the level of alcohol exposure and genetic background. At the milder end of the spectrum, symptoms can be as inconspicuous as minor cognitive delays.. The exact cellular mechanisms behind FASD remain unknown, but scientists suspect epigenetics is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of this disorder. "Epigenetics provides an attractive mechanism to study FASD because its a very robust system that regulates cell types and functions, but is also sensitive to environmental influences," says co-author Alexandre Lussier, a Kids Brain Health PhD student. "Its that balance between plasticity and stability over time that makes it ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders In Foster and Adopted Traumatized Children: Recognizing the Symptoms; Learning Effective Interventions Lois A. Pessolano Ehrmann PhD, LPC, CAC- Diplomate Registered ATTACh Therapist/ EMDR (EMDRIA) Clinician The Individual and Family CHOICES Program 2214 Atherton Street, Suite 4 State College, PA 16803 (814) 237-0567 www.individualandfamilychoices.com 1 Spider Web Walking… 2 Learning Objectives By the end of this training participants will: • Have an increased awareness about the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the domestic and international populations of adopted/fostered children based upon available research and formalized studies. • Have increased knowledge regarding the negative consequences of prenatal alcohol and drug exposure on the psychological, physical, emotional, cognitive, interpersonal, and neurological systems of children exposed to substances in utero regardless of birth or adopted status. • Gained important knowledge ...
Information, Tools, and Resources to aid Primary Care Physicians in caring for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and providing a Medical Home for all of their patients.
Alcohol screening and brief intervention, coupled with regular discussion of the patients reproductive life plan and ready access to effective contraception, can help ensure a healthier next generation while respecting womens autonomy.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Another name for Acute Alcohol Withdrawal is Alcohol Withdrawal. Home care for alcohol withdrawal includes: * Strict avoidance of alcohol. * Increase ...
P2X receptors (P2XRs) are a family of cation-permeable, ligand-gated ion channels gated by synaptically released extracellular adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP). Of the seven P2XR subtypes (P2X1-P2X7), P2X4 is the most abundantly expressed subtype in the central nervous system and to date is the most ethanol sensitive when measured in recombinant expression systems. Previous work demonstrates that ethanol inhibits ATP-activated currents in rat and mouse neurons, suggesting a role for P2X4Rs in ethanol-related behaviors. A recent in vivo study identified p2rx4 as a candidate gene linked to ethanol intake and/or preference in rodents. Despite these reports, the lack of specific agonists and antagonists has hampered our ability to directly determine the role that P2X4Rs play in regulating ethanol-induced behaviors. The availability of p2rx4 null (i.e., knockout; KO) mice has partially overcome this limitation. However, transgenic animal models do not allow for brain-regional analysis of P2X4R ...
Background: We measured blood alcohol content (BAC) levels of attendees at professional sporting events and assessed the factors associated with higher BACs.. Methods: We conducted BAC tests of 362 adult attendees following 13 baseball games and three football games. We ran multivariate analyses to obtain factors associated with the risk of having a higher BAC.. Results: In this assessment, 40% of the participants had a positive BAC, ranging from 0.005 to 0.217. Those who reported tailgating before the event had 14 times the odds of having a BAC , 0.08 and those under age 35 had nearly 8 times the odds of having a BAC , 0.08 (both compared to a zero BAC). Attendees of Monday night football games were more likely to have positive BACs compared to attendees at all other games.. Conclusions: We found that it is feasible to assess BAC levels of attendees at professional sporting events. Our findings suggest that a significant number of attendees at professional sporting events may have elevated BAC ...
Description of alcoholism Definition of alcoholism and alcohol dependence Clinical definition of alcoholism Brief description of alcoholism A description of alcoholism Description of end stage alcoholism Description about alcoholism Description of drinkin ➥ Abstract Background Complex diseases, such as alcohol dependence, are influenced by genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and by interactions... ➤ Description of alcoholism Definition of alcoholism and alcohol dependence Clinical definition of alcoholism Brief description of alcoholism A description of alcoholism Description of end stage alcoholism Description about alcoholism Description of drinkin on the site ➦ alcohol-ism.info
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD ...
Unlike conditions of similar prevalence, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Incidence of FASD is rising steadily in the developed world, and approximately two to five per cent of the population of the UK is thought to have the condition (in comparison, ASD is thought to affect one per cent). But whereas many teachers would be able to describe at least one strategy for supporting pupils with ASD in their school, the same is not true of FASD.
I pulled some interesting statistics out of the Wine Companion database covering all Barossa Shirazs tasted for the 2012 and 2013 Wine Companions. In all, there were 62 shirazs with an alcohol level of 14% or less that rated 90 points or above. This compared with 352 shirazs rated 90 points or above with alcohol levels in excess of 14%. The one consolation is that the overwhelming majority of those were in fact at 14.5%. ...
Develop the first plate over a path of 10 cipro price walgreens using a mixture of 25 volumes of ethanol R and 75 volumes of trimethylpentane R. D, Wallgreens digest of diabetic neural retina shows capillary with a decreased pericyte-to-endothelial cell nuclei ratio. This is be- ing increasingly performed laparoscopically. Walgrens of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Hi, Ive been reading about using Ethanol for declotting lines with lipids. Is anyone doing this out there and where do you get the ethanol? Thanks

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous SystemAlcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System

... *Alcohol Dependence. Date: 2013-08-30. Interventions: Other: Mobile health cognitive ... Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System - 9 Studies Found. Status. Study Recruiting. Study Name: Health Mobile Cognitive ... Study Name: A Trial Evaluating Pitolisant (BF2.649) in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment. Condition: Alcohol Abuse, Nervous System ... Study Name: Efficacy of Keppra in Acute Alcohol Related Seizure Control--A Pilot Study. Condition: Seizure, Alcohol Related. ...
more infohttp://webhealthnetwork.com/clinicaltrials-search.php?q=Alcohol-Induced+Disorders%2C+Nervous+System

Duraclon  - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWikiDuraclon - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki

Alcohol-induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity. *Diarrhea. *Dysmenorrhea ... She was later recognized for her contributions to research in the area of alcohol dependence. She went o... ... alcohol and more. Learn more about Duraclon ... Alcohol may intensify some of the side effects of this ...
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Clonidine  - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWikiClonidine - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki

Alcohol-induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity. *Diarrhea. *Dysmenorrhea ... She was later recognized for her contributions to research in the area of alcohol dependence. She went o... ... your dose may be increased by your doctor by adding another clonidine 0.1 mg patch or changing to a larger system (0.2 or 0.3 ... alcohol and more. Learn more about Clonidine ... Alcohol may intensify some of the side effects of this ...
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Collections: Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 / Recently Added: Within 6 Months / Copyright: Public domain / Genre: Lecture...Collections: Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 / Recently Added: Within 6 Months / Copyright: Public domain / Genre: Lecture...

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. Syphilis -- complications. Refine by: Collections *Medicine in the Americas, 1610- ... Nervous System Diseases. 8. A clinical lecture on chlorosis Author(s):. Tyson, James, 1841-1919, author. Publication:. ... 7. Clinical lectures on diseases of the nervous system Author(s):. Hammond, William A. (William Alexander), 1828-1900, author. ...
more infohttps://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f%5Bdrep2.isMemberOfCollection%5D%5B%5D=DREPMIA&f%5Bdrep2.recentlyadded%5D%5B%5D=withinsixmonths&f%5Bdrep2.rightsFacet%5D%5B%5D=Public+domain&f%5Bdrep2.subjectGenre%5D%5B%5D=Lecture&f%5Bdrep2.subjectGenre%5D%5B%5D=Case+Reports

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Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System;Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 ... Academic Dissertations -- South Carolina;Ethanol Induced Nervous System Disorders;Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1. ... Role of the complement system in cigarette smoke induced emphysema development and progression ... Behavioral and physiological neuroadaptations of the endocannabinoid system following chronic treatment with ethanol ...
more infohttp://digital.library.musc.edu/cdm/search/searchterm/modulatory

Languages: English / Genre: Case Reports and Lecture / Dates by Range: 1850-1899 - Digital Collections - National Library of...Languages: English / Genre: Case Reports and Lecture / Dates by Range: 1850-1899 - Digital Collections - National Library of...

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. Syphilis -- complications. 25. Syringomyelia: clinical lecture delivered at the ... Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Stress, Psychological. 8. Chronic tuberculosis: a study of four cases : a clinical lecture ... Nervous System Diseases. 14. Clinical observations upon the treatment of uterine fibroids: with a case illustrating the ... Clinical lectures on diseases of the nervous system Author(s):. Hammond, William A. (William Alexander), 1828-1900, author. ...
more infohttps://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f%5Bdrep2.language%5D%5B%5D=English&f%5Bdrep2.subjectGenre%5D%5B%5D=Case+Reports&f%5Bdrep2.subjectGenre%5D%5B%5D=Lecture&f%5Bexample_query_facet_field%5D%5B%5D=years_1850&per_page=50&sort=drep3.titleSortForm+asc

List of MeSH codes (C21) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (C21) - Wikipedia

... alcohol-induced disorders MeSH C21.739.100.087.193 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.739.100.087.193.100 ... drug-induced MeSH C21.613.705.150 --- alcohol-induced disorders, nervous system MeSH C21.613.705.150.100 --- alcohol amnestic ... drug-induced MeSH C21.613.589.500 --- lead poisoning, nervous system MeSH C21.613.589.500.400 --- lead poisoning, nervous ... nervous system, childhood MeSH C21.613.647.500 --- mercury poisoning, nervous system MeSH C21.613.647.500.100 --- acrodynia ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(C21)

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Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System;Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 ... Academic Dissertations -- South Carolina;Ethanol Induced Nervous System Disorders;Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1. ... Glutamic Acid;Central Nervous System;Neurons;Neurotransmitter Agents;Carrier Proteins;Corpus Striatum;Cyclic AMP-Dependent ... Glutamic Acid;Central Nervous System;Neurons;Neurotransmitter Agents;Carrier Proteins;Corpus Striatum;Cyclic AMP-Dependent ...
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Alcohol Addiction Treatment South Padre TX | Vero Beach FLAlcohol Addiction Treatment South Padre TX | Vero Beach FL

Origins Recovery Center provides alcohol addiction treatments in West Palm Beach FL, Vero Beach FL & South Padre TX. Call 844- ... Alcoholism is a self-induced central nervous system disorder. It is as real as any other disease, however its generally the ... Alcohol Addiction , Alcoholism. At Origins, we take great pride in our ability to treat the alcoholic.. While you have perhaps ... The classic alcoholic tends to fit the following model where an individuals intake of alcohol progressed from the initial ...
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Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of PsychiatryAlcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of Psychiatry

Effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1953; 32: 526- 73. ... Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder was diagnosed only if a primary psychotic disorder had been ruled out. In alcohol-induced ... The outcome of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder - a follow-up study of men with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.] Tampere ... Assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium. Diagnostic assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorders and ...
more infohttp://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/197/3/200

Valproate for Mood Swings and Alcohol Use Following Head Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govValproate for Mood Swings and Alcohol Use Following Head Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Trauma, Nervous System. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders ... Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Craniocerebral Trauma. ... Frequency of Alcohol Use [ Time Frame: Weeks 1-10 ]. Frequencies of alcohol use/misuse will be measured weekly utilizing the ... history of Axis I bipolar disorder or anxiety disorder prior to the TBI ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01760785

Coffee Can Induce Mental Disorders - BICoffee Can Induce Mental Disorders - BI

... lists caffeine intoxication among the many disorders known to psychiatry. ... A bitter-tasting stimulant, it revs up the central nervous system, ideally making someone feel awake, alert and energetic. ... The DSM groups this disorder with others associated with substances ranging from alcohol and nicotine to cannabis and ... Coffee-drinkers, beware: Your caffeine habit could induce a temporary mental disorder. The new edition of the mental health ...
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NIH Guide:  RESEARCH ON ALCOHOL AND SLEEPNIH Guide: RESEARCH ON ALCOHOL AND SLEEP

5. Health Consequences of Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disturbances Alcohol and Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Alcohol facilitates the ... Merrill, J.E., Jonakait, G.M. (1995) Interactions of the nervous system and immune systems in development, normal brain ... While previous clinical studies have provided basic information on alcohol-induced sleep disorders, they relied on small ... Animal models of alcohol dependence and relapse are now available that could be used for controlled studies of alcohol-induced ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-AA-00-005.html

Residual Effects of Intoxication on Student Performance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govResidual Effects of Intoxication on Student Performance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced ... Neurobehavioral Evaluation System. Family history of alcohol use. Alcoholic Consumption. Unhealthy alcohol use. Alcohol. ... Mental Disorders. Ethanol. Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Anti-Infective Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Keywords provided by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): Alcohol abuse. Alcoholic beverages (beer). ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00183170

Pharmacotherapies for alcoholism: the old and the new.  - PubMed - NCBIPharmacotherapies for alcoholism: the old and the new. - PubMed - NCBI

Nervous System/drug therapy*. *Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System/metabolism. *Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System ... Alcohol Deterrents/therapeutic use. *Alcohol-Induced Disorders, ... Alcoholism and other alcohol use disorders are major public ... but curbing active alcohol consumption and craving. The development of improved pharmacotherapies that could be used as ... for use in the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism--disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. Yet medication compliance ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232494?dopt=Abstract

Benign prostatic hyperplasia - WikipediaBenign prostatic hyperplasia - Wikipedia

Notable causes of neurogenic bladder include disorders of the central nervous system such as Parkinsons disease, multiple ... and alcohol-induced nerve damage. Individuals affected by heart failure often experience nighttime awakenings to urinate due to ... and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 ... On the other hand, a study in Japanese-American men in Hawaii found a strong negative association with alcohol intake, but a ...
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Alcoholic polyneuropathy | definition of alcoholic polyneuropathy by Medical dictionaryAlcoholic polyneuropathy | definition of alcoholic polyneuropathy by Medical dictionary

What is alcoholic polyneuropathy? Meaning of alcoholic polyneuropathy medical term. What does alcoholic polyneuropathy mean? ... Looking for online definition of alcoholic polyneuropathy in the Medical Dictionary? alcoholic polyneuropathy explanation free ... alcohol-induced Cushings syndrome; mental/behavioral disorders due to alcohol; degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol; ... 189 189 Alcoholic Psychoses 46 6 52 Alcohol Dependence Syndrome 416 117 533 Alcohol Abuse 70 21 91 Epilepsy 21 16 37 Alcoholic ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/alcoholic+polyneuropathy

Study of an Emergency Department-based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Older Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...Study of an Emergency Department-based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Older Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Ethanol. Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Anti-Infective Agents. Central Nervous ... Alcohol misuse [ Time Frame: 6 months ]. Self-reported alcohol misuse is defined as patient self-report of either drinking ,7 ... Alcohol misuse [ Time Frame: 3 months, 12 months ]. Alcohol misuse is defined as patient self-report of either drinking ,7 ... Patients with hazardous or harmful alcohol use will follow-up with a primary care physician; patients with alcohol abuse or ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02236494

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Notable causes of neurogenic bladder include buy non prescription phentermine disorders of the central nervous system such as ... and alcohol-induced nerve damage. In the mid to late-1970s disco club scene, there was a thriving drug subculture, particularly ... and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 ... Gender systems are often dichotomous and hierarchical. The creation of a positive sleep environment may also be helpful in ...
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Notable causes of neurogenic bladder include disorders of the central nervous system such as Parkinsons disease, multiple ... and alcohol-induced nerve damage. The University has made extended plans since its establishment in the year 1995 to construct ... and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 ... Opioids bind to specific opioid receptors in the nervous system and other tissues. The title coined the term materia medica. ...
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Glycine : The amino acid that is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate. - Bliss ReturnedGlycine : The amino acid that is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate. - Bliss Returned

... inhibits alcohol-induced fatty liver; and lessens the risk of heart disorders. « Bliss Returned ... strong immune system. 2 Replies to "Glycine : The amino acid that is necessary for central nervous system function and a ... Glycine : The amino acid that is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate.. prostate_cancer (Photo ... Glycine is used by the nervous system and functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which makes it important to help prevent ...
more infohttps://blissreturned.wordpress.com/2012/04/09/glycine-the-amino-acid-that-is-necessary-for-central-nervous-system-function-and-a-healthy-prostate/

CYP2E1 polyclonal antibody - (PAB8667) - Products - AbnovaCYP2E1 polyclonal antibody - (PAB8667) - Products - Abnova

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Alcoholism. *Alzheimer Disease. *Anemia, Aplastic. *Aneuploidy. *Arteriosclerosis ... This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is induced by ethanol, the diabetic state, and starvation. The enzyme ...
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ADH4 (Human) Recombinant Protein (P01) - (H00000127-P01) - Products - AbnovaADH4 (Human) Recombinant Protein (P01) - (H00000127-P01) - Products - Abnova

Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Alcoholism. *Cleft Lip. *Cleft Palate. *Cluster Headache ... This gene encodes class II alcohol dehydrogenase 4 pi subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members ... Class II alcohol dehydrogenase is a homodimer composed of 2 pi subunits. It exhibits a high activity for oxidation of long- ... This gene is localized to chromosome 4 in the cluster of alcohol dehydrogenase genes. [provided by RefSeq ...
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Drug Therapy for Alcohol Detoxification - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDrug Therapy for Alcohol Detoxification - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Mental Disorders. Lorazepam. Carbamazepine. Anticonvulsants. Antiemetics. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. ... Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. ... Central Nervous System Depressants. Anti-Anxiety Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. GABA Modulators. GABA Agents ... Meets criteria for alcohol dependence and uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.. *Ability to provide informed consent, ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000441

The Diagnostic Criteria of Substance-Induced DisordersThe Diagnostic Criteria of Substance-Induced Disorders

The DSM-5 category called Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders includes two sub-categories: substance use disorders and ... Intoxication occurs because chemical substances (such as drugs) directly affect the central nervous system. This leads to ... clinicians diagnose substance intoxication when someone arrives in an emergency room under the influence of alcohol or another ... The Diagnostic Criteria Of Substance-Induced Disorders The Diagnostic Criteria of Substance-Induced Disorders. The DSM-5 ...
more infohttps://www.mentalhelp.net/addiction/diagnostic-criteria-of-substance-induced-disorders/
  • Whether you are of the classic variety or the binge drinking variety, or some other unfortunate permutation, the tie that binds all alcoholics is the fact that once you ingest an amount of alcohol, you generally have no true idea of when you will actually stop drinking… if at all. (originsrecovery.com)
  • This double-blind, placebo- controlled clinical trial will compare the effectiveness of lorazepam (Ativan) and carbamazepine (Tegretol) in alcoholics who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The classic alcoholic tends to fit the following model where an individual's intake of alcohol progressed from the initial stages of drinking just social amounts, to the intermediate stages of drinking very high amounts and finally to the advanced and late stages where they drink continuously, sometimes for days and weeks on end and with no regard whatsoever for time of day. (originsrecovery.com)
  • The investigators' primary hypothesis is that intoxication (0.10g% blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) with an alcoholic beverage impairs next-day academic performance, as measured by scores on quizzes, standardized academic achievement tests, and standardized neurobehavioral assessments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study also concluded that incidence of alcohol hallucinosis was significantly and consistently higher in patients with lesser duration of alcohol intake, whereas the incidence of alcoholic polyneuropathy and WernickeKorsakoff encephalopathy was significantly and consistently higher in patients with longer duration of alcohol intake. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 13 As the CIDI is inadequate for diagnosing psychoses, 14 , 15 a second-phase investigation - the Psychoses in Finland study - was performed to find and diagnose people with psychotic disorders. (rcpsych.org)
  • Prolonged or high dose use of psychostimulants can alter normal functioning, making it similar to the manic phase of bipolar disorder. (cafedemarco.com)
  • The goal of this project is to perform a pilot, randomized, controlled trial of a brief intervention and referral for treatment among older adults in the emergency department (ED) with alcohol misuse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If you don't feel like talking about your alcohol addiction just yet, you may also click below to contact us via email. (originsrecovery.com)
  • Serine : The amino acids that is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies. (wordpress.com)
  • NIAAA strongly encourages collaboration between experts in sleep research and established alcohol researchers to facilitate the development of research proposals in the area of alcohol and sleep. (nih.gov)
  • Effective screening tools that can accurately assess brain function in a non-invasive manner could facilitate the early and accurate identification of alcohol-exposed children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, prenatal alcohol exposure may have a sexually dimorphic impact on eye movement metrics, with males and females exhibiting differential patterns of deficit. (frontiersin.org)
  • finding of alcohol in blood) are not publicly available for confidentiality reasons. (edu.au)
  • Please feel free to contact us at any time to receive more information on how we can help you stop drinking alcohol. (originsrecovery.com)
  • Most find that they have to drink more and more for a similar calming effect, and they soon become dependent on alcohol. (clinicaltrials.gov)