Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)United StatesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.tert-Butyl AlcoholMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Neurofunctional effects of developmental alcohol exposure in alcohol-preferring and alcohol-nonpreferring rats. (1/84)The neurofunctional effects of developmental alcohol exposure (3% v/v solution from day 15 of gestation to day 7 after parturition) have been investigated in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rat lines, selectively bred for opposite alcohol preference and consumption. Alcohol exposure significantly decreased the rate of ultrasonic emission in sP male pups; whereas, it did not affect this indicator of emotional reactivity in sNP animals. Perinatal alcohol intake did not influence either learning of an active avoidance task or hippocampal long-term potentiation in both offspring lines. Significant differences in time spent exploring novel objects were observed between control sP and sNP rats subjected to the novel exploration object test. Alcohol exposed sP rats, but not alcohol exposed sNP rats, apparently lost the capacity to discriminate between the novel and the familiar object, even though this difference is difficult to interpret because of the large differences in the respective responses to the novel objects. Neurochemical experiments have shown that basal levels of dopamine (DA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of sP rats with respect to sNP animals. Perinatal alcohol did not affect basal DA and HVA concentrations or amphetamine-induced DA increase and HVA decrease in the NAC of either sP or sNP offspring. These results suggest that subtle behavioral alterations induced by developmental exposure to low doses of alcohol, which do not cause malformations and/or overt neurotoxicity, may be associated with genetic factors, although not necessarily those responsible for differences in alcohol preference. (+info)
Attributable risk of common and rare determinants of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (2/84)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Smoking, hypertension, alcohol consumption, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and positive family history for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well-known risk factors for SAH. For effective prevention, knowledge about the contribution of these risk factors to the overall occurrence of SAH in the general population is pivotal. We therefore investigated the population attributable risks of the risk factors for SAH. METHODS: We retrieved the relative risk and prevalence of established risk factors for SAH from the literature and calculated the population attributable risks of these risk factors. RESULTS: Drinking alcohol 100 to 299 g/wk accounted for 11% of the cases of SAH, drinking alcohol >/=300 g/wk accounted for 21%, and smoking accounted for 20%. An additional 17% of the cases could be attributed to hypertension, 11% to a positive family history for SAH, and 0.3% to ADPKD. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and preventive treatment of patients with familial preponderance of SAH alone will cause a modest reduction of the incidence of SAH in the general population. Further reduction can be achieved by reducing the prevalence of the modifiable risk factors alcohol consumption, smoking, and hypertension. (+info)
Mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the developing nervous system. (3/84)Numerous mechanisms likely contribute to the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus and particularly the developing central nervous system (CNS). The coexistence of a multitude of mechanisms that may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among various cell types poses particular challenges to researchers. To study alcohol's effects on the fetus more easily, investigators have used animal models and tissue-culture experiments. Such approaches have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol acts on the fetus, many of which result in cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, damage to the mitochondria, interference with the activity of growth factors, effects on glia cells, impaired development and function of chemical messenger systems involved in neuronal communication, changes in the transport and uptake of the sugar glucose, effects on cell adhesion, and changes in the regulation of gene activity during development. (+info)
Teratogenic effects of alcohol on brain and behavior. (4/84)Children prenatally exposed to alcohol can suffer from serious cognitive deficits and behavioral problems as well as from alcohol-related changes in brain structure. Neuropsychological studies have identified deficits in learning and memory as well as in executive functioning both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome and in children with less severe impairments. Both groups of children also exhibit problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor socialization and communication skills. Brain imaging studies have identified structural changes in various brain regions of these children--including the basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hippocampus--that may account for the cognitive deficits. Functional brain imaging studies also have detected changes in alcohol-exposed children indicative of deficits in information processing and memory tasks. (+info)
A 47-year-old alcoholic man with progressive abnormal gait. (5/84)Central pontine myelinolysis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with a history of alcoholism and malnutrition presenting with ataxia, regardless of serum sodium values. T2-weighted images are the most sensitive imaging technique, but changes may not be evident for weeks after the insult, and in addition, the insult may not be known. Supportive care is important to prevent complications, but no treatment has been found to be effective in treating the illness. Patient outcomes vary considerably and are difficult to predict. (+info)
Ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing visual system during synaptogenesis. (6/84)PURPOSE: Ethanol is known to have deleterious effects on the human fetal nervous system (fetal alcohol syndrome), including components of the visual system, but only modest progress has been made in understanding these effects. The authors have recently demonstrated that, during the period of synaptogenesis, a single episode of ethanol intoxication lasting for several hours triggers a massive wave of apoptotic neurodegeneration in several regions of the developing rat or mouse forebrain. The present study was undertaken to determine to what extent the developing visual system is vulnerable to the apoptogenic effects of ethanol. METHODS: Infant rats and mice at ages from birth to 21 days were treated subcutaneously with a single dose of ethanol or with two doses, 2 hours apart, on a single day. Blood alcohol levels were determined, and the retinas and visual centers in the brain were examined by light and electronmicroscopy at various times from 4 to 24 hours after treatment. RESULTS: Retinal ganglion cells and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and visual cortex were all highly susceptible to ethanol's apoptogenic action, the period of peak sensitivity being postnatal days 1 to 4 for ganglion cells and 4 to 7 for the other visual neurons. A transient elevation of blood alcohol to approximately 120 mg/dL was sufficient to activate the cell death program in visual neurons. CONCLUSIONS: During synaptogenesis, a single ethanol intoxication episode triggers apoptotic cell death of neurons at all levels of the visual system from retina to the visual cortex. (+info)
Signaling cascades regulating NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. (7/84)One of the major targets for ethanol (alcohol) in the brain is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate-gated ion channel. Intriguingly, the effects of ethanol on the NMDA receptor are not homogeneous throughout the brain. This review focuses on recent studies revealing molecular mechanisms that mediate the actions of ethanol on the NMDA receptor in different brain regions via changes in NMDA receptor phosphorylation and compartmentalization. Specifically, the role of the scaffolding protein RACK1 and the regulatory protein DARPP-32 in mediating the distinct effects of ethanol is presented. (+info)
Temporally specific burst in cell proliferation increases hippocampal neurogenesis in protracted abstinence from alcohol. (8/84)Adult neurogenesis is a newly considered form of plasticity that could contribute to brain dysfunction in psychiatric disease. Chronic alcoholism, a disease affecting over 8% of the adult population, produces cognitive impairments and decreased brain volumes, both of which are partially reversed during abstinence. Clinical data and animal models implicate the hippocampus, a region important in learning and memory. In a model of alcohol dependence (chronic binge exposure for 4 d), we show that adult neurogenesis is inhibited during dependence with a pronounced increase in new hippocampal neuron formation after weeks of abstinence. This increase is attributable to a temporally and regionally specific fourfold increase in cell proliferation at day 7 of abstinence, with a majority of those cells surviving and differentiating at percentages similar to controls, effects that doubled the formation of new neurons. Although increases in cell proliferation correlated with alcohol withdrawal severity, proliferation remained increased when diazepam (10 mg/kg) was used to reduce withdrawal severity. Indeed, those animals with little withdrawal activity still show a twofold burst in cell proliferation at day 7 of abstinence. Thus, alcohol dependence and recovery from dependence continues to alter hippocampal plasticity during abstinence. Because neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampal function and/or learning, memory, and mood, compensatory neurogenesis and the return of normal neurogenesis may also have an impact on hippocampal structure and function. For the first time, these data provide a neurobiological mechanism that may underlie the return of human cognitive function and brain volume associated with recovery from addiction. (+info)
ALCOHOL REPORTS: Selective breeding for ethanol-related traits alters circadian phenotype
Previous studies in mice and rats have shown that selective breeding for high and low ethanol preference results in divergence of circadian phenotype in the selected lines. These results indicate that some alleles influencing ethanol preference also contribute to circadian rhythm regulation. Selective breeding has also been used to produce lines of mice differing in a number of other ethanol-related traits, while studies of phenotypic and genetic correlation indicate that diverse ethanol-related traits are influenced by both shared and unshared genetics. ...
Three-week dosing periods at one of six oral phenobarbital doses between 15 and 400 mg/day were used to achieve steady states for induction of plasma alpha 1-acid glycoprotein concentration (AGP) in beagle dogs. In this way, the characteristics of the dose-response relationship between phenobarbital concentration and the extent of induction could be evaluated. With the 400 mg/day dose of phenobarbital, AGP increased nearly 13-fold. The response of AGP was found to depend on the square of the phenobarbital concentration. Analysis of the decay of AGP when phenobarbital dosing was discontinued showed a kinetic pattern governed by multiple rate processes. This was the result of persistence of the phenobarbital, the turnover of some metabolic precursor to AGP, and the turnover of AGP itself. ...
A recent report by Boating Industry showed that a growing number of readers (boat dealers, manufacturers and marina personnel) are reporting ethanol-related problems, particularly with E15. According to the report, 92 percent of respondents said theyve seen damage to engines caused by ethanol. That was up from 87 percent last year and 73 percent in 2015. Eighty-five percent of readers said they are concerned with the use of E15. To view the report in its entirety, visit boatingindustry.com. ...
Overview of mouse assays of ethanol intoxication<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overview of mouse assays of ethanol intoxication. AU - Crabbe, John C.. AU - Cameron, Andy J.. AU - Munn, Elizabeth. AU - Bunning, Mark. AU - Wahlsten, Douglas. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - There are many behavioral assays to assess sensitivity to ethanol intoxication in mice. Most are simple to implement, and are sensitive to a particular dose range of ethanol. Most reflect genetic influences, and each test appears to reflect the contribution of a relatively distinct collection of genes. This genetic heterogeneity implies that no single test can claim to capture the construct "ethanol intoxication" completely. Depending on the test, and when measurements are made, acute functional tolerance to even a single dose of ethanol must be considered as a contributing factor. Whether or not a test is conducted in naïvemice or as part of a test battery can influence sensitivity, and do so in a strain-dependent manner. This unit reviews existing tests and recommends several.. AB - ...
Longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging study of the alcohol-preferring rat. Part I: Adult brain growth<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging study of the alcohol-preferring rat. Part I. T2 - Adult brain growth. AU - Sullivan, Edith V.. AU - Adalsteinsson, Elfar. AU - Sood, Rohit. AU - Mayer, Dirk. AU - Bell, Richard. AU - McBride, William. AU - Li, Ting Kai. AU - Pfefferbaum, Adolf. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - Background: The alcohol-preferring (P) rat, a Wistar strain selectively bred to consume large amounts of alcohol voluntarily, has been used as an animal model of human alcoholism for 3 decades. Heretofore, knowledge about brain morphology has been confined to postmortem examination. Quantitative neuroimaging procedures make it feasible to examine the potential longitudinal effects of alcohol exposure in vivo, while controlling modifying factors, such as age, nutrition, and exercise. To date, few imaging studies have considered what morphological changes occur with age in the rodent brain, and none has systematically applied quantitative neuroimaging approaches ...
Ethanol Intoxication / Sedation Caused By Adrenaline | Ray Peat Forum
MPD: Data set: Crabbe4
ethanol | Semantic Drupal Modules based on PoolParty Semantic Suite
Acute ethanol intoxication and endotoxemia after trauma<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute ethanol intoxication and endotoxemia after trauma. AU - Woodman, George E.. AU - Fabian, Timothy C.. AU - Croce, Martin A.. AU - Proctor, Kenneth G.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - To determine actions of acute intoxication on pathophysiologic responses to trauma, anesthetized and ventilated mongrel pigs received a 20% solution of ethanol (EtOH) by an intravenous (IV group; 2 g/kg, n = 8) or an oral (PO group; 3 g/kg, n = 12 x 60 minutes) route of administration, or the lactated Ringers vehicle (LR group; n = 12). After 60 minutes, all were subjected to soft tissue injury and 30 to 35% hemorrhage, 60-minute shock, and then resuscitation, with shed blood plus supplemental LR. After 3 days, host defense was challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (1 μg/kg x 30-minutes IV). The supplemental resuscitation was identical (50-53 mL/kg/hours), but posttraumatic acidosis was observed in the IV group and the PO group (base deficit = 4.4 ± 1.3 and 5.5 ± 0.9 ...
Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Long-Lasting Neural Circuit Dysfunction Following Developmental Ethanol Exposure
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a general diagnosis for those exhibiting long-lasting neurobehavioral and cognitive deficiencies as a result of fetal alcohol exposure. It is among the most common causes of mental deficits today. Those impacted are left to rely on advances in our understanding of the nature of early alcohol-induced disorders toward human therapies. Research findings over the last decade have developed a model where ethanol-induced neurodegeneration impacts early neural circuit development, thereby perpetuating subsequent integration and plasticity in vulnerable brain regions. Here we review our current knowledge of FASD neuropathology based on discoveries of long-lasting neurophysiological effects of acute developmental ethanol exposure in animal models. We discuss the important balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in normal neural network function, and relate the significance of that balance to human FASD as well as related disease states. Finally, we postulate
New apps read blood alcohol levels | Health24
Mouthwash ingestion leads to ethanol intoxication in a 33-month-old child | SpringerLink
Nine of the Highest Blood Alcohol Levels of All Time | America Fun Fact of the Day
Im still in awe of how Im alive. Going away party turned bad for me. Im quite small, and drank a fifth to myself in less than 2 hours. Im still asking questions about what went on that night. I blacked out about an hour into drinking, and can only recall small bits over the next 7 hours. Five hours after I was done drinking, vomiting all over myself, (taking 2 men to drag my lifeless body to the car), and only one severely embarrassing act, my husband drove me home where I proceeded to sleep in the car for an hour before coming to and stumbling out of the car (in my driveway), I guess I didnt know where I was because I walked to the road the moment a cops passed and stopped. I blew a .99 a little over 5 hours after my last drink. The jail I was in had a nurse monitor me very closely, waking me up every 30-45 mins or so to make sure I was okay. I had to ask my husband how they had found out who i was, and he said i spilled off my name and birthday. Surprised me, because I didnt even know ...
Nine of the Highest Blood Alcohol Levels of All Time | America Fun Fact of the Day
Im still in awe of how Im alive. Going away party turned bad for me. Im quite small, and drank a fifth to myself in less than 2 hours. Im still asking questions about what went on that night. I blacked out about an hour into drinking, and can only recall small bits over the next 7 hours. Five hours after I was done drinking, vomiting all over myself, (taking 2 men to drag my lifeless body to the car), and only one severely embarrassing act, my husband drove me home where I proceeded to sleep in the car for an hour before coming to and stumbling out of the car (in my driveway), I guess I didnt know where I was because I walked to the road the moment a cops passed and stopped. I blew a .99 a little over 5 hours after my last drink. The jail I was in had a nurse monitor me very closely, waking me up every 30-45 mins or so to make sure I was okay. I had to ask my husband how they had found out who i was, and he said i spilled off my name and birthday. Surprised me, because I didnt even know ...
Estimate Alcohol Level
Season 6: Delivering Your Lost Luggage
Genetic and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
Boating Industry Reader Survey Reports Ethanol Repairs Increasing : BoatUS Press Room
ALEXANDRIA, Va. July 18, 2017 - A new survey by Boating Industry magazine says those in the boating industry that manufacture, sell, repair and store recreational vessels are seeing a growing number of problems caused by ethanol-related fuels. Said one Minnesota boat dealer in the survey, "Ethanol fuels are great for our service department but bad for our customers!". The reader survey results, which appear in the magazines July 2017 issue, report that 92 percent of survey respondents said "they have seen damage…caused by ethanol…and more business for the service department." The most recent results are up from 87 percent from a similar survey last year.. The July feature "Ethanol Still a Significant Challenge, Survey Says," also reported that "more than 15 percent of readers said that based on what they are seeing in their business, more than half of the necessary repairs are being caused by ethanol-related issues." Eighty-five percent of survey takers were "very concerned" about the use ...
Feeling tipsy? New apps read blood alcohol levels, hail a taxi - Reuters
The International Charter on Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder | North West FASD Network
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Often Left Unnoticed in Kids
The Webtender: Intoximeter
With this gadget you can calculate your blood alcohol level (roughly). Different people use different time to get sober, so this is only meant as a funny gadget, not an exact measurement (in fact, it may not be that exact either as it doesnt take the time between the drinks into account).. How it works: The alcohol will add to the water in your body. An adult male consists of 60-80 percent water, and an adult female of 50-70 percent water. (That is why women get drunk quicker than men.) The blood alcohol level will be reduced by about 0.015 percent per hour. And please never drink and drive, even if you only had one beer it will affect your ability to drive safely. ...
9781284053302 - Evidence-Based Practice For Nurses: | eCampus.com
Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Canada
Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is underdiagnosed in Canada. The diagnosis of FASD is not simple and currently, the recommendation is that a comprehensive, multidisciplinary assessment of the individual be done. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual cost of FASD diagnosis on Canadian society. Methods The diagnostic process breakdown was based on recommendations from the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Canadian Guidelines for Diagnosis. The per person cost of diagnosis was calculated based on the number of hours (estimated based on expert opinion) required by each specialist involved in the diagnostic process. The average rate per hour for each respective specialist was estimated based on hourly costs across Canada. Based on the existing clinical capacity of all FASD multidisciplinary clinics in Canada, obtained from the 2005 and 2011 surveys conducted by the Canada Northwest FASD Research Network, the number of FASD cases diagnosed per year in Canada was estimated. The
Subject: Alcohol Drinking and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - C. Everett Koop - Profiles in Science Search Results
Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. AU - May, Philip A.. AU - Chambers, Christina D.. AU - Kalberg, Wendy O.. AU - Zellner, Jennifer. AU - Feldman, Haruna. AU - Buckley, David. AU - Kopald, David. AU - Hasken, Julie M.. AU - Xu, Ronghui. AU - Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon. AU - Taras, Howard. AU - Manning, Melanie A.. AU - Robinson, Luther K.. AU - Adam, Margaret P.. AU - Abdul-Rahman, Omar. AU - Vaux, Keith. AU - Jewett, Tamison. AU - Elliott, Amy J.. AU - Kable, Julie A.. AU - Akshoomoff, Natacha. AU - Daniel, Falk. AU - Arroyo, Judith A.. AU - Hereld, Dale. AU - Riley, Edward P.. AU - Charness, Michael E.. AU - Coles, Claire D.. AU - Warren, Kenneth R.. AU - Jones, Kenneth Lyons. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - IMPORTANCE Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates ...
Development of an Epigenetic Biomarker for Prediction of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The effects can include physical problems and/or difficulties with behavior and learning. When clinicians identify FASD early, intervention approaches can minimize the potential impact and lessen or even prevent disabilities. Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired.. Using dried blood spots from the umbilical cord and a heel stick of newborns, this study will use Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a novel biomarker for alcohol exposure, to identify and characterize infants exposure to alcohol before birth. Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. Epigenetic changes are heritable changes in DNA that affect DNA function but do not change DNA sequence. The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder | Read by QxMD
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD ...
Screening prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a region of the United Kingdom: a population-based birth-cohort...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are lifelong disabilities caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Prenatal alcohol use is common in the UK, but FASD prevalence was unknown. Prevalence estimates are essential for informing FASD prevention, identification and support. We applied novel screening algorithms to existing data to estimate the screening prevalence of FASD. Data were from a population-based cohort study (ALSPAC), which recruited pregnant women with expected delivery dates between 1991 and 1992 from the Bristol area of the UK. We evaluated different missing data strategies by comparing results from complete case, single imputation (which assumed that missing data indicated no exposure and no impairment), and multiple imputation methods. 6.0% of children screened positive for FASD in the analysis that used the single imputation method (total N = 13,495), 7.2% in complete case analysis (total N = 223) and 17.0% in the analysis with multiply imputed data (total N = 13,495). A positive ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Too Young To Drink - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
The range of harm to an unborn baby due to drinking during pregnancy is called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Alcohol can hurt the babys brain, heart, eyes, and other organs. Children with FASD can have a hard time learning, controlling how they act, and making friends. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause lifelong harm to the unborn child.These nine months last a lifetime. Lets keep them alcohol-free. FASD affects us all, but it is 100% preventable.
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders | Health24
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Clinical features and diagnosis
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | IU Health
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) | CDC
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders<B>Error processing SSI...
Functional and Neuropsychological Assessment in Adults With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder | American Journal of Occupational...
Date Presented 4/1/2017. The first study to investigate functional abilities in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder advanced knowledge in three ways: (1) Psychosocial skills have to be tested for guiding treatments, (2) functional skills explain the severity of disease, and (3) the psychosocial element has to be added to the diagnostic guidelines.. Primary Author and Speaker: Ada Leung. Additional Authors and Speakers: Sharon Brintnell. Contributing Authors: Monty Nelson, Joshua Kwon ...
September is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Awareness Month | Harbor Village - Harbor Village
Can Fetal Alcohol Damage Be Undone? | HealthyWomen
WEDNESDAY, July 19, 2017 (HealthDay News)-Animal research may have yielded a potential treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in children. Two common medications reversed memory and learning problems in rats exposed to alcohol while in the womb, according to researchers at Northwestern University in Chicago.. "Weve shown you can interfere after the damage from alcohol is done. Thats huge," study senior author Eva Redei said in a university news release.. Currently, there is no treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, added Redei, a professor of psychiatric diseases affecting children and adolescents. In the United States, 1 percent to 5 percent of children are born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The condition is linked with low IQ; learning, memory and behavioral problems; high risk of depression; and heart and other health problems.. For 10 days after birth, rat pups that were exposed to alcohol in the womb were given either the hormone thyroxine or the drug metformin. ...
Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | Articles | Pediatrics
RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index childs father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) | AFM - Addictions Foundation Manitoba
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Forum | Ontario Health Promotion E-Bulletin
November 12, 2012. Join us in Waterloo Region to hear the world-renowned FASD Specialist Dan Dubovsky, from the SAMHSA FASD Centre of Excellence in Washington and Dr. Karen McLeod, registered clinical and forensic psychologist. The FASD Diagnostic team will close out the day.. Improving Outcomes for Individuals with an FASD, Their Families, and Those Who Serve Them. Learning Objectives Include:. ...
Over 400 conditions co-occur with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), study finds | ConductDisorders - A soft place to...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder | Health Promotion
It is important to get an early diagnosis so that early interventions and support can be provided.. With the right support and early interventions, good outcomes across a range of life goals are more likely to be achieved.. A circle of collaboration between health professionals, the family, school and service providers ensures the best opportunities for people with FASD.. Read some of the common myths about alcohol use and pregnancy here ...
Commentary: Addressing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Addiction Treatment | Addiction Prevention Coalition
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders - Daily Press
Medical Home Portal - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Alcohol News: December 2016
Alcoholism - Letter to the Editor Regarding Coles, Gailey, Mulle, Kable, Lynch, and Jones (2016): A Comparison Among 5 Methods for the Clinical Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisordersIN THIS LETTER to the Editor, I discuss a study conducted by Coles and colleagues (2016) that took on the important task of comparing the outcomes of 5 fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic systems when retroactively applied to the records of 1,581 patients ...
Blood Alcohol Level Test Strip
Imprinted Drunk Driving Pamphlet & Pocket Slider- Drinking And Driving: Blood Alcohol Level Calculator | geiger.com
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Chronic Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Disrupts WNT Signaling In Adolescent Cerebella | OMICS International
FASD: Advocacy Advice from the Experts
by Vicky McKinney, from Spring 2004 Adoptalk Suppose you had a brain tumor. Would you want an operation performed by someone who has only read about brain surgery or would you seek an experienced neurosurgeon? In our world of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), treatment and care issues are similarly complicated, b
Drinking alcohol and pregnancy- more concerns
Its a shocking number of diseases, 428. Thats the number of diseases determined to co-occur in people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a broad range of disabilities that can occur in people who were exposed to alcohol in the womb. Symptoms vary depending on such issues as…
Expert Info During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Now Available Via Text
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Will a person who drinks 10 shots of alcohol (eg bourbon)
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Occupational health psychology
DeQuattro, V., & Hamad, R. (1985). The role of stress and the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension and ischemic heart ... 3.4 Mental disorder *3.4.1 Alcohol abuse. *3.4.2 Depression. *3.4.3 Personality disorders ... Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE). *Coalworker's pneumoconiosis ("black lung"). *Concussions in sport ... Alcohol abuse. Main article: Alcohol abuse. Workplace factors can contribute to alcohol abuse and dependence of employees ...
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... It induced a state of deep and prolonged sleep. But this was not used for long because of adverse side effects. ... Examples of GABAA PAMs include alcohol (ethanol), benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax), Z-drugs ... studies have shown that alprazolam and adinazolam have antidepressant activities in patients with major depressive disorder. ...
"ADF - Alcohol & Drug Foundation. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. *^ "Import restrictions: Kava and Khat , Office of Drug Control". www. ... Khat consumption induces mild euphoria and excitement, similar to that conferred by strong coffee. Individuals become very ... As with all illegal drugs, operating a motor vehicle with detectable levels of Khat or its metabolites in one's system can also ... In mice, cathinone produces the same types of nervous pacing or repetitive scratching behaviours associated with amphetamines.[ ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Experimentally induced disorders. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... Often this is done after the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which causes production of additional urine as well as a ... Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centers ...
... has good penetration across the blood brain barrier with peak plasma levels within the central nervous system ... Panic disorder. Moclobemide is useful in the treatment and management of panic disorder. Panic disorder is mentioned as an ... Tiller JW (1990). "Antidepressants, alcohol and psychomotor performance". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 360: 13-7. PMID 2248062. ... induced cognitive impairments thus making moclobemide a good choice in the depression in the elderly and those with dementia.[ ...
... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, ... Spencer RL, Hutchison KE (1999). "Alcohol, aging, and the stress response". Alcohol Research & Health. 23 (4): 272-83. PMID ... Horton TH (Jan 2005). "Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: animal models of induced life history variation". Am. J. Hum ...
Corneal disorders (2.6%). *Malignant neoplasms of the brain and nervous system (1.5%) ... Methylated spirits are sometimes used by alcoholics as a desperate and cheap substitute for regular ethanol alcoholic beverages ... corticosteroid-induced; and 4) a heterogonous mechanism associated with structural change and chronic inflammation. In ... a b c Morello, C. M. "Etiology and Natural History of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview." American Journal of Health-System ...
... often caused by behavior disorders or a personal history of abuse. Dosage of alcohol intensifies these effects of myopia.[ ... "Alcohol affects goal commitment by explicitly and implicitly induced myopia". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 121 (2): 524-529 ... and therefore lead him or her to engage in activities or social situations that would normally make her or him nervous or ... Alcohol and Native Americans. *Alcoholism in adolescence. *Alcoholism in family systems. *Collaborative Study on the Genetics ...
White blood cell
... and disease of the spleen and central nervous system. They are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the ... Toxins - alcohol, benzenes. *Intrinsic disorders - Fanconi's, Kostmann's, cyclic neutropenia, Chédiak-Higashi. *Immune ... Medication induced - corticosteroids (for example, prednisone, β-agonists, lithium). *Cancer - either by growth factors ... Disorders. The two commonly used categories of white blood cell disorders divide them quantitatively into those causing ...
"Yohimbine pharmacokinetics and interaction with the sympathetic nervous system in normal volunteers". European Journal of ... "Enhancing exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder". Review. ... Kaumann AJ (June 1983). "Yohimbine and rauwolscine inhibit 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of large coronary arteries ... Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
This can be caused by drugs or alcohol, or it can be caused by neurological problems or other disorders. Some people have more ... as is avoiding medications that relax the central nervous system (for example, sedatives and muscle relaxants). Weight loss is ... There is also a theory that long-term snoring might induce local nerve lesions in the pharynx in the same way as long-term ... This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used with patients who have other coexisting respiratory problems and/or who ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Nervous. system. *Alcohol-related dementia. *Alcoholic hallucinosis. *Hangover. Cardiovascular. system. *Alcoholic ... F05) Delirium, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances. *(F06) Other mental disorders due to brain damage and ... Alcohol intoxication Harmful use of alcohol Alcohol dependence syndrome Alcohol withdrawal syndrome Delirium tremens Alcoholic ... F25) Schizoaffective disorders *(F25.0) Schizoaffective disorder, manic type. *(F25.1) Schizoaffective disorder, depressive ...
In the central nervous system (CNS), the major mediators of the symptoms of anxiety disorders appear to be norepinephrine, ... Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which ... Substance-inducedEdit. Several drugs can cause or worsen anxiety, whether in intoxication, withdrawal or from chronic use. ... Anxiety disordersEdit. Main article: Anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Systemic atrophies primarily affecting the central nervous system. *Cytoskeletal defects. *Neuromuscular disorders ... The zebrafish has transparent embryos that can be injected with DNA or RNA and has a lifespan of up to two years. Induced ... as well as alcohol and tobacco use during military service. ... Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349 ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ...
胎兒酒精譜系障礙 - 维基百科，自由的
Central nervous system deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.. The Nurse practitioner. 13 April 2015, 40 (4): 24-33. PMID ... "Sex differences in vulnerability to developmental spatial learning deficits induced by limited binge alcohol exposure in ... partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome，簡稱pFAS）、酒精相關性神經發育障礙（alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder，簡稱ARND）以及酒精相關性先天缺陷（alcohol- ... Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2001, 36 (2): 147-59. PMID 11259212.. *. Clarren S. Central
Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun (2005-01-01). "Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system". Annual Review of ... Memory disorder. *Memory implantation. *Methods used to study memory. *The Seven Sins of Memory ... New York: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.. *^ a b Freud, Sigmund (1953). Three essays on the ... Memory talk allows children to develop memory systems in order to categorize generic versus unique events. ...
... the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and decrease voltage-sensitive sodium channels. ... schizoaffective disorder, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.[needs update] ... Lamotrigine can induce a type of seizure known as a myoclonic jerk, which tends to happen soon after the use of the medication. ... Bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is approved in the US for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder and bipolar II ...
An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of ... This is the basis for the so-called fight-or-flight response, but such stimulation can also be induced by stimulants such as ... Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result in tachycardia ... Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial ...
An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of ... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/arrhythmias-and-conduction-disorders/long-qt-syndrome-and-torsades- ... This is the basis for the so-called fight-or-flight response, but such stimulation can also be induced by stimulants such as ... Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result in tachycardia ...
Shah E, Pongracic J (2008). "Food-induced anaphylaxis: who, what, why, and where?". Pediatr Ann. 37 (8): 536-41. PMID 18751571. ... Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... "Allergies and EGIDs , American Partnership For Eosinophilic Disorders". Apfed.org. Retrieved 31 March 2014.. ... and most alcoholic beverages. However, some meat, poultry, and egg processed products may contain allergenic ingredients. ...
... a location in the nervous system that mediates nausea) at the floor of the fourth ventricle (a location near the brain). It ... To induce lactation, domperidone is used at a dosage of 10 to 20 mg 3 or 4 times per day by mouth. Effects may be seen ... Mechanical bowel disorders such as bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal haemorrhage or bowel perforation ... Due to blockade of D2 receptors in the central nervous system, D2 receptor antagonists like metoclopramide can also produce a ...
Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and neuroepigenetic mechanisms and ... In this organisms, DNA methylation is associated with relics of a genome defense system called RIP (repeat-induced point ... Chapter: "Nervous System Development" in "Epigenetics," by Benedikt Hallgrimsson and Brian Hall ... Ruffle JK (November 2014). "Molecular neurobiology of addiction: what's all the (Δ)FosB about?". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 40 (6 ...
Alcohol use and sleep
Nervous. system diseases. *Alcohol-related dementia (ARD). *Alcohol intoxication. *Hangover. Neurological. disorders. * ... Psychoactive substance-related disorder. General. *SID *Substance intoxication / Drug overdose. *Substance-induced psychosis ... a b c d e f Roehrs, T., and Roth, T. Sleep, sleepiness, and alcohol use. Alcohol Research & Health. 2001; 25(2):101-109. ... Alcohol consumption and sleep improvements. Low doses of alcohol (one 360.0 ml (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) beer) are ...
Reynolds E (2006). "Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system". Lancet Neurol. 5 (11): 949-960. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06 ... Zittoun J (1993). "Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism". La Revue du praticien (in ... Keshava C, Keshava N, Whong WZ, Nath J, Ong TM (1998). "Inhibition of methotrexate-induced chromosomal damage by folinic acid ... Folate deficiency is accelerated by alcohol consumption, possibly by interference with folate transport. ...
... comorbid disorders (such as a seizure disorder) and urinary system functioning. Progressive steps might include redirection, ... Swift, R.; Davidson, D. (1998-01-01). "Alcohol hangover: mechanisms and mediators". Alcohol Health and Research World. 22 (1): ... Jose, C. J.; Evenson, R. C. (1980-08-01). "Antecedents of self-induced water intoxication. A preliminary report". The Journal ... The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 168 (4): 246-248. doi:10.1097/00005053-198004000-00011. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 7365485 ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
... dopamine in the central nervous system. In contrast with several other antidepressant drugs, venlafaxine can induce a rapid ... and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ... Duloxetine has also been associated with cases of hepatic failure and should not be prescribed to patients with chronic alcohol ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...
Alcohol consumption does this by repeatedly stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing inflammation in the atria, ... Finally, nicotine induces the formation of patterns of collagen type III in the atrium and has profibrotic effects. All this ... Sepsis also increases the risk of developing new-onset atrial fibrillation. Disorders of breathing during sleep, such ... Alcohol. Acute alcohol consumption can directly trigger an episode of atrial fibrillation. Regular alcohol ...
... drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which ... alcohol to treat pain has also been observed to lead to negative outcomes including excessive drinking and alcohol use disorder ... Opioid-induced hyperalgesia is when exposure to opioids increases the sensation of pain (hyperalgesia) and can even make non- ... Alcohol. See also: Ethanol. Describing the effects of using alcohol to treat pain is difficult. Alcohol has ...
Abuse of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants is common. Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. *Long-term effects of cannabis. *Neurotoxicity. *Overdose. *Passive smoking *of tobacco or ... In contrast, much larger doses of amphetamine are likely to impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown.[50 ... Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment ...
... by pain-induced sympathetic nervous system stimulation; in the early postanesthesia period, e.g. by pain-induced sympathetic ... E: Erythropoietin, Endocrine Disorders . References. *^ Ecder T, Schrier RW (April 2009). "Cardiovascular ... Drugs: In particular, alcohol, nasal decongestants with adrenergic effects, NSAIDs, MAOIs, adrenoceptor stimulants, and ... the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal gland. The specific mechanism involved is increased release of the "stress ...
Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System
... *Alcohol Dependence. Date: 2013-08-30. Interventions: Other: Mobile health cognitive ... Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System - 9 Studies Found. Status. Study Recruiting. Study Name: Health Mobile Cognitive ... Study Name: A Trial Evaluating Pitolisant (BF2.649) in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment. Condition: Alcohol Abuse, Nervous System ... Study Name: Efficacy of Keppra in Acute Alcohol Related Seizure Control--A Pilot Study. Condition: Seizure, Alcohol Related. ...
Valproate for Mood Swings and Alcohol Use Following Head Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Trauma, Nervous System. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders ... Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Craniocerebral Trauma. ... Frequency of Alcohol Use [ Time Frame: Weeks 1-10 ]. Frequencies of alcohol use/misuse will be measured weekly utilizing the ... history of Axis I bipolar disorder or anxiety disorder prior to the TBI ...
Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®) for Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) and Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (AWD) - Full Text View...
Chemically-Induced Disorders. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. Neurotoxicity Syndromes. Poisoning. Alcohol-Induced ... Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. Neurocognitive Disorders. Mental Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. ... Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium Alcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis Alcohol ... Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists. ...
Development of an Epigenetic Biomarker for Prediction of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Chemically-Induced Disorders. Ethanol. Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Anti-Infective Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants ... Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Fetal Diseases. Alcohol-Induced Disorders. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Pregnancy Complications ... Development of an Epigenetic Biomarker for Prediction of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. The safety and scientific validity of ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed ...
VRT as a Biomarker of Cerebellar Dysfunction in Chronic Cannabis Use - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. ... Group 2 - Alcohol dependence Individuals between 18 and 50 years old diagnosed with alcohol use disorder according to DSM-V ... Daily consumption of cannabis for at least 2 years (cannabis group) or diagnosed Alcohol Use Disorder (alcohol group) ... 3 groups will be included: 1) chronic cannabis users; 2) individuals with an alcohol use disorder; and 3) healthy controls. All ...
QuickStats: Rate of Alcohol-Induced Deaths Among Persons Aged ≥25 Years, by Age Group - National Vital Statistics System, 1999...
Rates of alcohol-induced deaths for persons aged 45-64 years increased from 17.3 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 26.0 in 2017 ... Rates of alcohol-induced deaths for persons aged 45-64 years increased from 17.3 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 26.0 in 2017 ... mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use; G31.2, degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol; G62.1, alcoholic ... alcoholic gastritis; K70, alcoholic liver disease; K85.2, alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis; K86.0, alcohol-induced chronic ...
Time-frequency visualization of alcohol withdrawal tremors
... we propose a signal processing method of assessing the severity tremors caused by alcohol withdrawal (AW) syndrome. We have ... Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / diagnosis* * Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / physiopathology ... Time-frequency visualization of alcohol withdrawal tremors Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:5474-7. doi: 10.1109/ ... In this paper, we propose a signal processing method of assessing the severity tremors caused by alcohol withdrawal (AW) ...
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Catapres-TTS-1 - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki
... alcohol and more. Learn more about Catapres-TTS-1 ... Alcohol-induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Attention Deficit ... She was later recognized for her contributions to research in the area of alcohol dependence. She went o... ... 0.1 mg patch or changing to a larger system (0.2 or 0.3 mg). ... Alcohol may intensify some of the side effects of this ...
Duraclon - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki
Alcohol-induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity. *Diarrhea. *Dysmenorrhea ... She was later recognized for her contributions to research in the area of alcohol dependence. She went o... ... alcohol and more. Learn more about Duraclon ... Alcohol may intensify some of the side effects of this ...
Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of Psychiatry
Effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1953; 32: 526- 73. ... Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder was diagnosed only if a primary psychotic disorder had been ruled out. In alcohol-induced ... The outcome of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder - a follow-up study of men with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.] Tampere ... Assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium. Diagnostic assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorders and ...
Muscle function loss: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Drug-induced myopathy (statins, steroids). *Muscular dystrophy. Diseases of the nervous system that cause muscle function loss ... Alcohol-associated myopathy. *Congenital myopathies (most often due to a genetic disorder) ... A disease of the nervous system: Nerve damage (neuropathy), spinal cord injury (myelopathy), or brain damage (stroke or other ... Neuromuscular disorders. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
Alcohol Addiction Treatment South Padre TX | Vero Beach FL
Origins Recovery Center provides alcohol addiction treatments in West Palm Beach FL, Vero Beach FL & South Padre TX. Call 844- ... Alcoholism is a self-induced central nervous system disorder. It is as real as any other disease, however its generally the ... Alcohol Addiction , Alcoholism. At Origins, we take great pride in our ability to treat the alcoholic.. While you have perhaps ... The classic alcoholic tends to fit the following model where an individuals intake of alcohol progressed from the initial ...
Coffee Can Induce Mental Disorders - BI
... lists caffeine intoxication among the many disorders known to psychiatry. ... A bitter-tasting stimulant, it revs up the central nervous system, ideally making someone feel awake, alert and energetic. ... The DSM groups this disorder with others associated with substances ranging from alcohol and nicotine to cannabis and ... Coffee-drinkers, beware: Your caffeine habit could induce a temporary mental disorder. The new edition of the mental health ...
The Diagnostic Criteria of Substance-Induced Disorders
The DSM-5 category called Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders includes two sub-categories: substance use disorders and ... Intoxication occurs because chemical substances (such as drugs) directly affect the central nervous system. This leads to ... clinicians diagnose substance intoxication when someone arrives in an emergency room under the influence of alcohol or another ... The Diagnostic Criteria Of Substance-Induced Disorders The Diagnostic Criteria of Substance-Induced Disorders. The DSM-5 ...
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System Development | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia
... and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). ... Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System Development Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a ... "Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Damage to the Developing Nervous System." Alcohol Research & Health 25 (2001): 175-84. ... Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System Development. By: Erica ONeil ...
Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries
ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of ... Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ... Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders. ... Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, ...
Possible Causes for Developmental Delays | Education.com
Drug-induced delays-prenatal exposure to prescription drugs, sedatives, vitamins, alcohol, or drug abuse; ... Degenerative diseases-conditions that affect the nervous system and cause gradual deterioration of it; ... Traumatic disorders-injuries to the head, spine, hands, feet, or legs;. *Infections of the brain-conditions caused by viruses ... Inherited disorders such as metabolic conditions (e.g., PKU) or syndromes (e.g., fragile-X) are examples of genetic factors ...
NIH Guide: RESEARCH ON ALCOHOL AND SLEEP
5. Health Consequences of Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disturbances Alcohol and Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Alcohol facilitates the ... Merrill, J.E., Jonakait, G.M. (1995) Interactions of the nervous system and immune systems in development, normal brain ... While previous clinical studies have provided basic information on alcohol-induced sleep disorders, they relied on small ... Animal models of alcohol dependence and relapse are now available that could be used for controlled studies of alcohol-induced ...
These disorders deprive the individual of sleep and a healthy, functioning central nervous system. A British study concluded ... caffeine induced anxiety disorder, caffeine induced sleep disorder, and, a not yet fully defined, caffeine induced disorder. ... Caffeine withdrawal is not dangerous or life-threatening like withdrawal from alcohol or other substances, and does not require ... Caffeine induced anxiety disorder and caffeine induced sleep disorders are rarely diagnosed, but are generated by long-term ...
감성과학 |간행물 | KISS
Alcohol Use Disorders Anger Autonomic Nervous System Electrodermal Activity 알코올 사용 장애 분노 자율신경계 심박률 피부전기 활동 ... The present study intended to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses induced by anger in individuals with ... Anger is the most common emotional trigger causing relapses in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). ... 한편 참조 신호를 획득하기 위해 BIOPAC Systems, Inc.의 SS5LB를 착용하게 한 후 동시에 측정하였다. 센서의 종류, 측정 위치, 동작 상태의 총 8개 조합의 집단 간 측정 성능의 차이를 검증하기 위해서 ...
Frontiers | Eye movements reveal sexually dimorphic deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder | Neuroscience
Moreover, prenatal alcohol exposure may have a sexually dimorphic impact on eye movement metrics, with males and females ... Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore ... Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore ... We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) ...
... and alcohol. These intolerances manifest as multisystem symptoms that frequently involve the central nervous system and often ... Developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), now ... This disease process has been called "toxicant-induced loss of tolerance." Some affected individuals may not recall a ... immune system dysfunction, and gastrointestinal disorders, further increasing the demand on primary care practices.6,7 Primary ...
Prenatal Vitamin - Trip Database
Protection against Prenatal Alcohol-Induced Damage (PubMed). Protection against Prenatal Alcohol-Induced Damage 16605309 2006 ... [email protected] eng Comment Journal Article 2006 04 18 United States PLoS Med 101231360 1549-1277 0 Central Nervous System ... Animal Ethanol toxicity Female Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders prevention & control Humans Mice Niacinamide pharmacology ... Protection against prenatal alcohol-induced damage. e196 Spong Catherine Y CY Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch, The National ...
Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia: MedlinePlus Genetics
Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia is a disorder of the nervous system that causes episodes of involuntary movement ... Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia is a disorder of the nervous system that causes episodes of involuntary movement ... Episodes are not induced by exercise or sudden movement and do not occur during sleep. An episode is characterized by irregular ... Methylglyoxal is found in alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, and cola. Research has demonstrated that this chemical has a toxic ...
Transgenic Control of Mitochondrial Fission Induces Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Relieves Diabetic Oxidative Stress | Diabetes
Mitochondrial disorders in the nervous system. Annu Rev Neurosci 2008;31:91-123pmid:18333761. ... Mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Biol Chem 2004;279:32345-32353pmid:15166226. ... High glucose-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons. FASEB J 2002;16:1738-1748pmid:12409316. ... In addition, hyperglycemia induced a loss of renal function in control mice, as indicated by an increase in the blood urea ...
Sleep Disorders facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Sleep Disorders
Make research projects and school reports about Sleep Disorders easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Sleep Disorders at Encyclopedia.com. ... SUBSTANCE-INDUCED SLEEP DISORDERS. The use of drugs, alcohol, ... Colored light therapy . Treatment with true green light can balance the nervous system and may relieve insomnia. ... SLEEP DISORDERS RELATED TO MENTAL DISORDERS. Many mental disorders, especially depression or one of the anxiety disorders, can ...
Professor Adam Guastella - The University of Sydney
Alvares, G., Quintana, D., Hickie, I., Guastella, A. (2016). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and ... Onuoha, R., Quintana, D., Lyvers, M., Guastella, A. (2016). A Meta-analysis of Theory of Mind in Alcohol Use Disorders. Alcohol ... Iorfino, F., Alvarez, G., Guastella, A., Quintana, D. (2016). Cold face test-induced increases in heart rate variability are ... Alvares, G., Quintana, D., Hickie, I., Guastella, A. (2016). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and ...
Mental DisordersDependenceAlcoholismAddictionAbusePrenatal alcoholDiseasesBipolar DisorderMood disordersAnxietyFetal Alcohol SBrainSeizureMechanismsCentral nervous sysAcutePrevalenceConsumptionFASDSeizuresPsychotic disorderDysfunctionWithdrawalMedicationsSymptomsNerveSecondaryDevelopmentalSynaptic plasticityDeaths per 100,000DepressantNeuropsychiatric disordersToxicityImpairmentSchizophreniaDeliriumSyndromeOverdoseHallucinosisFooling the semicircular canalsDrugsDisturbancesAbnormalitiesExcessiveNeurologicalEffects of alcoCaffeine intoxicationOccursAlcoholicsOrthostaticDrugLiverEthanolIntoxication
- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders defines caffeine addiction into four psychiatric disorders: caffeine intoxication, caffeine induced anxiety disorder, caffeine induced sleep disorder, and, a not yet fully defined, caffeine induced disorder. (treatment4addiction.com)
- Primary sleep disorders are distinguished from those that are not caused by other mental disorders, prescription medications, substance abuse, or medical conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
- The mental health professional's handbook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) includes this disorder among the sexual dysfunctions, along with premature ejaculation, dyspareunia, and others. (onlymyhealth.com)
- Sleepwalking disorder is one of several sleep disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , often called DSM-IV-TR , produced by the American Psychiatric Association and used by most mental health professionals in North America and Europe to diagnose mental disorders. (minddisorders.com)
- Loxapine is used to treat a variety of mental disorders including anxiety , mania, depression , and psychotic disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
- Along with treating addictions, patients with mental disorders and schizophrenia also receive high quality help and undergo treatment here, at the Eurasian Center for Mental Health - a subdivision within the center. (nazaraliev.com)
- Clinical depression and other mental disorders can also be treated here at MCN. (nazaraliev.com)
- In the modern medical profession, the three most used diagnostic tools in the world, the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM),the World Health Organization 's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and ICRIS Medical organization Related Health Problems (ICD), no longer recognize 'drug abuse' as a current medical diagnosis. (academic.ru)
- Alcohol use disorder is the official term for recurring alcohol consumption that causes clinically significant impairment and an inability to meet responsibilities, according to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (drugrehab.com)
- Successful treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced mood lability may reduce or eliminate drinking behaviors in persons with alcohol abuse/dependence (AA/D) and affective lability following TBI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To investigate the epidemiology of AIPS, the risk factors for developing AIPS among people with alcohol dependence, and mortality associated with alcohol dependence with or without AIPS, in a sample drawn from the general population of Finland. (rcpsych.org)
- Younger age at onset of alcohol dependence, low socioeconomic status, father's mental health or alcohol problems and multiple hospital treatments were associated with increased risk of AIPS. (rcpsych.org)
- Alcohol abuse and dependence causes social problems such as domestic violence and loss of productivity in work place as well as traffic accident-related injuries and chronic organ disorders. (hindawi.com)
- Alcohol misuse and dependence. (edu.au)
- Naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a randomised controlled trial of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting. (edu.au)
- Substance dependence When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. (academic.ru)
- Prescription misuse has been variably and inconsistently defined based on drug prescription status, the uses that occur without a prescription, intentional use to achieve intoxicating effects, route of administration, co-ingestion with alcohol , and the presence or absence of abuse or dependence symptoms. (academic.ru)
- Alcoholism is a self-induced central nervous system disorder. (originsrecovery.com)
- PURPOSE The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is seeking grant applications to conduct research on alcohol's effects on sleep. (nih.gov)
- In those with alcoholism, sleep patterns may never return to normal, and continuing sleep problems may be a core factor in alcohol relapse. (nih.gov)
- Despite the adverse effects of alcohol on sleep and the serious implications for alcoholism treatment, the topic of alcohol and sleep is currently an understudied area. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to stimulate research on alcohol and sleep in areas that are of particular interest because of the potential contribution to our understanding of the etiology and treatment of alcoholism. (nih.gov)
- These research areas include the neural mechanisms of alcohol- induced sleep disturbances, persistent poor sleep as a risk marker for development of alcoholism in adolescents and non-alcoholic young adults, sleep disorders as a predictor of relapse in abstinent alcoholics, and the health consequences of alcohol's disruptive effects on sleep particularly the interaction with age, ethnicity, and gender. (nih.gov)
- Alcohol and Alcoholism , 46(6), 714-720. (edu.au)
- Although chronic alcoholism is the most common cause of Wernicke's encephalopathy, various other conditions not related to alcohol consumption such as bariatric surgery, acute pancreatitis, hyperemesis gravidarum, prolonged fasting and gastrointestinal surgery have been implicated in its aetiology. (readbyqxmd.com)
- But many people who drink alcohol, even those who attempt to consume it responsibly, develop a chronic disease called alcoholism . (drugrehab.com)
- Alcoholism, also referred to as alcohol addiction or an alcohol use disorder, is a disease that changes the way the brain works. (drugrehab.com)
- Fortunately, alcoholism is the most widely studied substance use disorder. (drugrehab.com)
- The terms alcoholism, alcohol addiction and alcohol use disorder are often used interchangeably. (drugrehab.com)
- The term alcoholism encompasses addictions to each type of alcohol. (drugrehab.com)
- The criteria for alcoholism have nothing to do with how much someone drinks, how long they have been drinking or the type of alcohol they drink. (drugrehab.com)
- If you don't feel like talking about your alcohol addiction just yet, you may also click below to contact us via email. (originsrecovery.com)
- Alcohol addiction is a chronic recurring disorder that it characterized by repetitive patterns of alcohol consumption leading to a loss of control due to alcohol intake [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Alcohol effect initiation starts in early adolescence, and therefore is connected with alcohol abuse and addiction in adulthood, which confirms the necessity for provision of an early prophylactic protection for juveniles, even before entering the phase of early adolescence. (aaem.pl)
- Electroencephalographic oscillations induced within the range of the theta and delta waves (Event-Related Oscillation- ERO), considered as endophenotypes and markers of increased vulnerability for addiction, present three groups of genes and three types of neurotransmitters, with gamma aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine and glutamate as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. (aaem.pl)
- The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIAID) estimates that between 40% and 60% of people who have gone through treatment for alcohol addiction will experience relapse. (genengnews.com)
- The risk for opioid abuse is increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depressive disorder). (aol.com)
- Drinking alcohol may increase the chances of the development of a drug induced mental health disorder and an addiction. (brighthubeducation.com)
- However, in recent years, with rising rates of prescription drug abuse and fatal overdoses, there is a growing public awareness of the extreme downside involved in using psychoactive pharmaceuticals, namely addiction (also called a substance use disorder ). (solutions-recovery.com)
- But alcohol addiction has been stigmatized as a moral failing for centuries. (drugrehab.com)
- Studies show that people who try alcohol at young ages are more likely to develop an addiction to alcohol because the brain is more vulnerable while it's developing. (drugrehab.com)
- Divalproex sodium has been shown to ameliorate mood disorders, even in those with substance abuse problems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Alcohol abuse causes disorder in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function related to synaptic plasticity [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Substance abuse, including alcohol. (onlymyhealth.com)
- Accumulating evidence over the past decade indicates that STEP dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, epileptogenesis, alcohol-induced memory loss, Huntington's disease, drug abuse, stroke/ischemia, and inflammatory pain. (aspetjournals.org)
- Not due to substance use or abuse: Sleepwalking disorder is not diagnosed if the cause is related to drug abuse, medication, or a general medical condition. (minddisorders.com)
- A nutritional neuropathy secondary to chronic alcohol abuse, which is exacerbated by specific nutritional deficiencies-e.g., thiamin and vitamin B12 deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Substance Abuse Disorders: Evidence and Experience , (pp. 125-145). (edu.au)
- Alcohol abuse can result in detrimental multisystem effects. (preprints.org)
- In this review article, we will discuss the multisystemic effects of alcohol abuse and explore in greater detail alcohol's impact on two main systems that result in pathophysiological changes i.e. the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. (preprints.org)
- Substance abuse is a form of substance-related disorder . (academic.ru)
- Rather than accepting the loaded terms alcohol or drug "abuse," many public health professionals have adopted phrases such as "substance and alcohol type problems" or "harmful/problematic use" of drugs. (academic.ru)
- These, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders. (academic.ru)
- Teenage alcohol abuse is an uncomfortable subject for many. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Education regarding alcohol and the effects of alcohol abuse is a proactive way of preventing use. (brighthubeducation.com)
- If you suspect teenage alcohol abuse there is help available. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Librium is indicated for the treatment of different conditions, including anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, for symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, to induce amnesia before surgery, and during withdrawal for alcohol abuse. (solutions-recovery.com)
- No other substance of abuse is consumed as publicly or commonly as alcohol. (drugrehab.com)
- This can occur through many disorders but in numerical terms the most important disorders are probably diabetes mellitus, kidney or liver failure, and alcohol abuse. (escardio.org)
- Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal alcohol exposure levels with epigenetic changes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover, prenatal alcohol exposure may have a sexually dimorphic impact on eye movement metrics, with males and females exhibiting differential patterns of deficit. (frontiersin.org)
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the full range of adverse effects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. (frontiersin.org)
- Studies conducted in animal models have found behavioral and physiological sex differences in offspring as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. (frontiersin.org)
- There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioral and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). (frontiersin.org)
- Cell therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is emerging as a clinical option for various diseases in which dysregulation of the immune system is involved 15 . (nature.com)
- This group of cases would include many diseases which appear to be geneti- cally determined as well as those which are inflammatory, meta- bolic, endocrine and drug/alcohol induced in nature. (exoticindia.com)
- Primary autonomic failure comprises primary degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. (escardio.org)
- Secondary autonomic failure indicates damage to the autonomic nervous system caused by other diseases. (escardio.org)
- Observed clinically, the symptoms of poorly regulated affective expression of AA/D+TBI patients who reach alcohol abstinence do not appear to be those of an idiopathic mood or anxiety disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- These symptoms do not present the severity or the same natural courses as do Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Illness, or Anxiety Disorder, for example. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Caffeine induced anxiety disorder and caffeine induced sleep disorders are rarely diagnosed, but are generated by long-term overuse of caffeine. (treatment4addiction.com)
- A British study concluded one in ten caffeine drinkers suffer from either caffeine-induced anxiety disorder or caffeine induced sleep disorder. (treatment4addiction.com)
- This has the potential to revolutionize how mental health professionals treat anxiety disorders in the community. (edu.au)
- 3 CNS depressants such as sedative hypnotics (e.g., benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and barbiturates) are commonly used in the management of insomnia and anxiety as well as in inducing sedation for surgical and other medical procedures, treatment of alcohol withdrawal, seizure control, and relaxation of skeletal muscles. (cadth.ca)
- The exact mode of action of loxapine has not been precisely determined, but this drug has a tranquilizing effect on patients with anxiety, mania, and other psychotic disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
- In other instances, a prescribed Librium user, such as someone who takes this drug for an anxiety disorder, may want to feel greater relaxation faster and take more Librium. (solutions-recovery.com)
- However, it is widely prescribed in Russia, Latvia and Ukraine for treating insomnia, depression, post traumatic stress disorder and anxiety. (addict-help.com)
Fetal Alcohol S2
- Unfortunately, you already know how this ends, because once the alcohol hits your brain your resolution to drink in modest quantity quickly dissolves, consideration for tomorrow is gone and in the best case scenario you were just a bit hung-over at the meeting in the morning, whereas often the reality is generally much worse. (originsrecovery.com)
- These advances have made it possible to visualize the effect of alcohol on the developing brain at all stages of life, from the prenatally affected child through the developmentally mature adult. (asu.edu)
- In severe cases this decrease in brain size leads to microcephaly , a disorder in which the cranium of an individual is abnormally small (two standard deviations less than the developmental norm) due to stunted brain development. (asu.edu)
- ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. (hindawi.com)
- Effective screening tools that can accurately assess brain function in a non-invasive manner could facilitate the early and accurate identification of alcohol-exposed children. (frontiersin.org)
- Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug that strongly activates certain systems in the brain. (uleth.ca)
- Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. (healthgrades.com)
- Pathways to alcohol-induced brain impairment in young people: A review. (edu.au)
- Researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, have shown how acetate that is produced when the liver breaks down alcohol travels to the brain, where it is involved in epigenetic processes that impact on the expression of genes involved in learning and memory. (genengnews.com)
- The findings also demonstrated that the acetate resulting from alcohol breakdown in pregnant rats is involved with histone acetylation in the developing fetal brain. (genengnews.com)
- To our knowledge, this data provides the first empirical evidence indicating that a portion of acetate derived from alcohol metabolism directly influences epigenetic regulation in the brain. (genengnews.com)
- Berger, together with colleagues including first authors Philipp Mews, PhD, who is now a postdoctoral fellow at the Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, and Gabor Egervari, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Berger lab, reported their studies in Nature , in a paper titled, " Alcohol metabolism contributes to brain histone acetylation . (genengnews.com)
- For their current study the team was interested to discover whether acetate produced from the breakdown of alcohol directly contributes to acetylation of histones in the brain. (genengnews.com)
- Histone acetylation in neurons may thus be under the influence of acetate that is derived from alcohol, with potential effects on alcohol-induced gene expression in the brain, and on behavior. (genengnews.com)
- The team used isotopically labeled alcohol and advanced mass spectrometry to track where the alcohol and its breakdown products were transported to in the body and brain. (genengnews.com)
- Their results showed that alcohol metabolism rapidly impacted histone acetylation in the hippocampus-the learning and memory center of the brain-by directly depositing alcohol-derived acetyl groups onto histones via the ACSS2 enzyme. (genengnews.com)
- Here, using in vivo stable-isotope labeling in mice, we show that the metabolism of alcohol contributes to rapid acetylation of histones in the brain, and that this occurs in part through the direct deposition of acetyl groups that are derived from alcohol onto histones in an ACSS2-dependent manner," the investigators noted. (genengnews.com)
- This finding represents a newly discovered route by which alcohol affects the brain and contributes to histone acetylation in neurons via ACSS2 enzyme, which plays an important role not only in gene expression but also in alcohol-related learning. (genengnews.com)
- Professor Nazaraliev demonstrated to his American colleagues how a medically induced coma may correct impulses in the human brain and restructure hormonal imbalances. (nazaraliev.com)
- Covering various drugs - including the major classes of medications working primarily on the brain, specifically antipsychotics and antidepressants - this all-encompassing review of medication-induced movement disorders aids early recognition and improved treatment. (ebooksmedicine.net)
- It discusses the best options for evaluation and treatment, including medical imaging and deep brain stimulation, and guides the clinician in managing the disorder, making this a vital reference for medical specialists and consultants in neurology and neuropharmacology and any clinician seeing patients on medications crossing the blood brain barrier. (ebooksmedicine.net)
- There are three types of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric) receptors in the brain: GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C. Benzodiazepines work in the central nervous system, selectively occupying certain protein areas in the brain called GABA-A receptors. (drugs.com)
- Once alcohol is absorbed it is circulated throughout the body including the brain, where it slows down the Central Nervous System. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Glutamate receptor subtype expression in human postmortem brain tissue from schizophrenics and alcohol abusers. (springer.com)
- Davis S, Rodger J, Hicks A, Mallet J, Laroche S. Brain structure and task-specific increase in expression of the gene encoding syntaxin 1B during learning in the rat: a potential molecular marker for learning-induced synaptic plasticity in neural networks. (springer.com)
- Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. (hindawi.com)
- The purpose of this review is to highlight phenomenological evidence for alcohol-induced ER stress in select organ disorders and to discuss potential molecular mechanisms causing alcoholic ER stress. (hindawi.com)
Central nervous sys2
- Do not use in patients with known hypersensitivity to phenothiazines Do not use in comatose states or in the presence of large amounts of central nervous system depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, narcotics, etc.), in pediatric surgery, or in pediatric patients under 2 years of age or under 20 lbs. (pediatriconcall.com)
- They are, as a class, central nervous system depressants (as is alcohol). (solutions-recovery.com)
- It is well documented that acute and chronic alcohol consumption cause sleep disturbances. (nih.gov)
- The research, which is published today (Wednesday) in the European Heart Journal , is the first study to investigate the link between acute alcohol consumption and cardiac arrhythmias in a large number of people in a prospective fashion i.e. examining them as they were drinking, rather than asking them to remember at some point afterwards how much they had drunk, when, and for how long. (eurekalert.org)
- Heavy drinking over a short period of time (acute alcohol consumption) has been linked to "Holiday heart syndrome" in which people without any previous history of heart problems develop arrhythmias and sometimes atrial fibrillation, but the evidence for this has tended to come from small, retrospective studies. (eurekalert.org)
- We confirmed an association between sinus tachycardia and chronic alcohol consumption in the KORA study, but the size of the effect was remarkably smaller than with the acute alcohol consumption at the Octoberfest. (eurekalert.org)
- This syndrome is defined by atrial fibrillation triggered by acute alcohol consumption. (eurekalert.org)
- When taken at higher than normal doses, phenibut can induce auditory and visual hallucinations as well as acute psychosis. (addict-help.com)
- The effects of alcohol include both direct acute actions on central nervous system as well as central volume depletion. (escardio.org)
- 7 - 9 Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of alcohol-induced psychotic disorders are lacking. (rcpsych.org)
- Therefore, using data from a comprehensive general population survey, we estimated the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and mortality of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium - hereinafter called alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome (AIPS) - in the general population. (rcpsych.org)
- The prevalence of alcohol consumption and its acceptance by society creates the misconception that the beverage is safe. (drugrehab.com)
- Between 2005 and 2009, emergency room visits associated with the consumption of caffeine-laden energy drinks, often in combination with alcohol and other drugs, increased tenfold. (businessinsider.com)
- Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. (hindawi.com)
- After its consumption, alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes which affect virtually all organs and biological processes in the body. (hindawi.com)
- Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and astrocyte dysfunction, proposed to perpetuate alcohol consumption and to promote conditioned relapse-like binge drinking. (nature.com)
- Alcohol consumption, because of damaging effects on various tissues including nerves system, causes a major problem in human societies. (omicsonline.org)
- Experimental studies have shown the structural and functional changes in neurons and astrocytes with chronic alcohol consumption [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The neural changes induced by alcohol consumption may be related to the disorder of signaling pathways such as protein expression and gene transcription at the cellular level [ 8 , 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The researchers also looked at the effect of habitual, long-lasting (chronic) alcohol consumption in 4131 participants in a study called KORA S4 (Co-operative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), recruited from the general population. (eurekalert.org)
- There was a small, but still significant, association between alcohol consumption and sinus tachycardia. (eurekalert.org)
- In our study, we were not able to directly demonstrate that atrial fibrillation occurs consecutive to alcohol consumption. (eurekalert.org)
- Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical, neurological, behavioral, and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). (asu.edu)
- We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared with typically developing control children. (frontiersin.org)
- This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder. (frontiersin.org)
- Epidemiological data on alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium (alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome, AIPS) are scarce. (rcpsych.org)
- Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder is a severe mental disorder with poor outcome. (rcpsych.org)
- 2 , 3 Psychotic symptoms can occur in several clinical conditions related to alcohol such as intoxication, withdrawal, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium. (rcpsych.org)
- In alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, the psychotic symptoms should be prominent and in excess of those usually associated with alcohol intoxication or withdrawal with perceptual disturbances, and severe enough to warrant clinical attention. (rcpsych.org)
- The relationship between alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium still needs clarification, but the two have been assumed to be different manifestations of the same process. (rcpsych.org)
- As per research, occurrence of nervous disorders is found to be as a main cause giving rise to the risk of erectile dysfunction. (sooperarticles.com)
- Wernicke's encephalopathy is a rare neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, characterised by ocular motor dysfunction, ataxia and impairment in consciousness. (readbyqxmd.com)
- The elderly are particularly affected, especially those who have high blood pressure or autonomic nervous dysfunction. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- This drug has also shown positive results as an alternate medication to benzodiazapines in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, significantly reducing the progression of withdrawal symptoms in patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of dexmedetomidine versus placebo, with lorazepam rescue, for the management of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) in critically ill adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In this paper, we propose a signal processing method of assessing the severity tremors caused by alcohol withdrawal (AW) syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Alan Budney, who served on the DSM-5 working group for substance-use disorders, explained the rationale for including caffeine withdrawal to Medscape Medical News in 2011. (businessinsider.com)
- Caffeine withdrawal is not dangerous or life-threatening like withdrawal from alcohol or other substances, and does not require mental health supervision. (treatment4addiction.com)
- 16,17 Similarly, several other studies indicate that concomitant use of opioids and CNS depressants - most prominently benzodiazepines - increase risk of harms such as cognitive disorder, accidental injuries including motor vehicle accidents, falls and fractures, substance use disorder, neonatal drug withdrawal, overdose, and death. (cadth.ca)
- Alcohol and some medications (e.g., anti-epilepsy medications) can induce or exaggerate nystagmus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Medications that may produce movement disorders are widely used. (ebooksmedicine.net)
- Benzodiazepines are a class of medications that work in the central nervous system and are used for a variety of medical conditions. (drugs.com)
- This observation suggests that TBI survivors represent a patient group for whom treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms following TBI may alleviate both TBI-related affect lability and also heavy ethanol use by treating the condition that is contextually related to excessive alcohol use. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In general, two to three symptoms indicate a mild substance use disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
- Four to five symptoms would ordinarily be called a moderate substance use disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
- If six or more symptoms are present, this would be classified as a severe substance use disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
- Individuals with familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia usually begin to show signs and symptoms of the disorder during childhood or their early teens. (medlineplus.gov)
- The history (i.e., timing and duration of symptoms, provoking factors, associated signs and symptoms) and physical examination (especially of the head and neck and neurologic systems, as well as special tests such as the Dix-Hallpike maneuver) provide important clues to the diagnosis. (aafp.org)
- Dipraglurant is an oral, small molecule allosteric modulator that inhibits selectively the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a Class C G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), with potential to be used in combination with levodopa or dopamine agonists or as a standalone treatment for Parkinson's disease levodopa-induced dyskinesia (PD-LID), motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Librium is not known to cure any disorders, but rather helps individuals manage symptoms associated with an underlying disorder or condition. (solutions-recovery.com)
- In Pure Autonomic Failure (PAF) other neurological systems are never affected, but in Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) Parkinsonian, pyramidal and/or cerebellar symptoms occur at some stage in the disease. (escardio.org)
- In other parts of the world, however, hypotension is itself considered to be a disorder that can cause various symptoms, including depression, lethargy and fatigue. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Nerve Root Injury and Plexus Disorders (incl. (healthgrades.com)
- Muira puama has been gaining in popularity in the United States, where herbalists and health care practitioners are using it for impotence, depression, menstrual cramps and PMS, nerve pain, and central nervous system disorders. (life-enthusiast.com)
- It calms down nerve cells and improves the functioning of central nervous system. (sooperarticles.com)
- It calms down nerve cells and reduces the risk of ED due to nervous disorders. (sooperarticles.com)
- There is no evidence that the symp- toms are wholly secondary to the disordered functions of cen- tral or peripheral nervous system. (exoticindia.com)
- Chronic headaches may be primary or -secondary to another disorder. (mhmedical.com)
- Secondary sex characteristics, such as hair pattern, can point to hormone problems, which involve the endocrine system. (uhhospitals.org)
- The developmental consequences of ethanol exposure to the CNS was first observed in the late 1960s and early 1970s by contemporaneous teams of French and American scientists studying birth defects affecting children born to mothers who had heavily abused alcohol during pregnancy . (asu.edu)
- After a developmental timeline for these defects was established, it was recognized that ethanol-induced abnormalities to the CNS could occur in the absence of the characteristic facial defects of FAS. (asu.edu)
- Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ArND) was defined to encompass the continuum of neurological, cognitive, and behavioral deficiencies that could occur as a result of prenatal ethanol exposure, outside of the narrow window of developmental sensitivity that generates ethanol-induced craniofacial defects. (asu.edu)
- Delays based on genetic influences are estimated to account for about 15 to 25 percent of developmental disorders. (education.com)
- Developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), now affect 1 in 6 children in the United States, 1 a trend that is changing the spectrum of patients who visit family physicians. (jabfm.org)
Deaths per 100,0001
- As ketamine itself can induce overdose and is also a central nervous system depressant, co-use with other depressant drugs (including alcohol and opioids) can be dangerous. (canada.ca)
- Although it is commonly mistaken as a stimulant, a lcohol is a central nervous system depressant. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Alcohol's effects act as any central nervous system (CNS) depressant. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Developed in the 1960's at the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute in the USSR, phenibut is a central nervous system depressant with sedative and anxiolytic effects. (addict-help.com)
- This comprehensive review discusses STEP expression and regulation and highlights how disrupted STEP function contributes to the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. (aspetjournals.org)
- Proteins enriched in presynaptic terminals are frequently used as postmortem markers for neural connectivity in neuropsychiatric disorders. (springer.com)
- For a diagnosis of sleepwalking disorder to be made, the person must experience a significant amount of social, occupational, or other impairment related to the sleepwalking problem. (minddisorders.com)
- Respiratory depression -A significant impairment of the respiratory system . (encyclopedia.com)
- Elderly patients may have liver impairment and trouble eliminating the drugs from their system. (drugs.com)
- Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a milder form of idiopathic partial periferal dysautonomic disease in which the impairment of the autonomic nervous system to respond to upright position is partially counteracted by a compensatory tachycardia. (escardio.org)
- Some changes, such as cognitive function and fine gross-motor performance are also observed in children by the fetal alcohol syndrome [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Pituitary conditions (Cushing's syndrome, excessive production of the hormone that induces lactation called prolactin). (onlymyhealth.com)
- The study also concluded that the incidence of alcohol hallucinosis was significantly and consistently higher in younger age group patients and the incidence of alcoholic polyneuropathy , Wernicke's encephalopathy, Wernicke's-Korsakoff syndrome were significantly and consistently higher in very older age group patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
- and to discover mutations in genes that cause neurodevelopmental disorders including Christianson Syndrome. (brown.edu)
- Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. (readbyqxmd.com)
- The co-ingestion of alcohol with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may result in an increase of plasma levels and potentially fatal overdose of oxymorphone. (aol.com)
- In the past, benzodiazepines, especially when used as a sedative-hypnotic for sleep, were touted as safer alternatives to the older barbiturates , which could lead to fatal overdose, particularly when combined with alcohol. (drugs.com)
- The study also concluded that incidence of alcohol hallucinosis was significantly and consistently higher in patients with lesser duration of alcohol intake, whereas the incidence of alcoholic polyneuropathy and WernickeKorsakoff encephalopathy was significantly and consistently higher in patients with longer duration of alcohol intake. (thefreedictionary.com)
Fooling the semicircular canals1
- Intoxication occurs because chemical substances (such as drugs) directly affect the central nervous system. (mentalhelp.net)
- This type of response is more likely to occur after an unwanted pregnancy, when the mother has a serious or chronic illness, or while the mother is addicted to alcohol or other drugs (Evrand & Scola, 1990). (education.com)
- Alcohol and drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Medically Induced Coma (Central Cholinolytic Blockade), in parallel with detox, help to restore metabolism, hormonal balance, relieve pathological craving for drugs and unlock the blocks in the central and peripheral nervous system. (nazaraliev.com)
- Willamette University abides by the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments of 1989, Public Law 101-226, as a condition of receiving funds or any other form of financial assistance under any federal program, to certify that it has adopted and implemented a program to prevent the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol by students and employees. (willamette.edu)
- If you believe that you, a friend, or a family member is harmfully involved with alcohol or other drugs, seek help. (willamette.edu)
- Psychotic -Having a mental disorder characterized by disturbances of personality and a loss of normal association with reality. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is used as a neuromuscular tonic for weakness and paralysis, dyspepsia, menstrual disturbances, chronic rheumatism (applied topically), sexual impotency, grippe, and central nervous system disorders. (life-enthusiast.com)
- In Germany, muira puama is employed as a central nervous system tonic, for hookworms, menstrual disturbances, and rheumatism. (life-enthusiast.com)
- Excessive alcohol use is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and is responsible for 3.8% of deaths worldwide [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Smoking, excessive alcohol use, being overweight, and not exercising can also lead to ED. (uhhospitals.org)
- Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. (readbyqxmd.com)
- An estimated 88,000 Americans die from excessive alcohol use each year. (drugrehab.com)
- Sleepwalking disorder is seen in only 1-5% of children and occurs more frequently in boys. (minddisorders.com)
- Gaze induced nystagmus occurs or is exacerbated as a result of changing one's gaze toward or away from a particular side which has an affected central apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
- Peripheral nystagmus occurs as a result of either normal or diseased functional states of the vestibular system and may combine a rotational component with vertical or horizontal eye movements and may be spontaneous, positional, or evoked. (wikipedia.org)
- Cough-induced headache occurs with structural lesions of the posterior fossa, but in many instances no specific cause can be found. (mhmedical.com)
- When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, destroying the structure of the cell's cytoskeleton which collapses the neuron's transport system. (cafedemarco.com)
- Whether you are of the classic variety or the binge drinking variety, or some other unfortunate permutation, the tie that binds all alcoholics is the fact that once you ingest an amount of alcohol, you generally have no true idea of when you will actually stop drinking… if at all. (originsrecovery.com)
- Orthostatic intolerance syndromes occur when the autonomic nervous system is incapacitated and fails to respond to the challenges imposed by the upright position. (escardio.org)
- Drug-induced autonomic failure is probably the most frequent cause of orthostatic intolerance. (escardio.org)
- Moreover, contrary to the other syndromes of orthostatic intolerance in which there is a failure of the autonomic nervous system to respond to upright position, in the reflex syncopes an "iperactive" reflex is generally thought to be triggered by various stimuli, among which standing is one of the most important. (escardio.org)
- Any factors which increase venous pooling in the lower limb, such as, for example, hot weather or alcohol ingestion, also worsen orthostatic hypotension. (escardio.org)
- 5 Despite the central role of alcohol in substance use disorders, 6 recent studies on substance-induced psychotic disorders have generally focused on psychoses induced by illicit drug use. (rcpsych.org)
- Typically, clinicians diagnose substance intoxication when someone arrives in an emergency room under the influence of alcohol or another drug. (mentalhelp.net)
- Alcohol is the most socially accepted addictive drug. (hindawi.com)
- When people mix cocaine and alcohol, they are compounding the danger each drug poses and unknowingly causing a complex chemical interaction within their bodies. (uleth.ca)
- Management of Alcohol and Drug Problems , (pp. 124-140). (edu.au)
- Loxapine is a prescription-only drug used to treat serious mental, nervous, and emotional disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
- Loxapine is typically not administered to people who are in severe drug-induced states or in a coma. (encyclopedia.com)
- Anticholinergic -Related to the ability of a drug to block the nervous system chemical acetylcholine. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007: 57.9 million youths ages 12 and older used alcohol at least once in their lifetime. (brighthubeducation.com)
- The National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Referral Routing Service is available at https://csat.samhsa.gov/ or at 1-800-662-HELP (4357). (brighthubeducation.com)
- Geneva, Switzerland /Chicago, USA, 19 January 2015 - Addex Therapeutics (SIX: ADXN), a leading company pioneering allosteric modulation-based drug discovery and development and the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) announced today entering a collaboration to explore the use of dipraglurant to treat dystonia, the third most common movement disorder following essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. (fiercebiotech.com)
- It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. (bireme.br)
- More than 15 million Americans aged 12 and older had an alcohol use disorder in 2015, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. (drugrehab.com)
- He has been working in the drug and alcohol field for nearly 20 years. (addict-help.com)
- Alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) is better characterized than in other organs. (hindawi.com)
- Alcohol-induced perturbations of homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have evolved as an important factor contributing to fatty liver disease, which has been reviewed by a few comprehensive reviews [ 19 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Researchers have found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol to manufacture a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects and possibly increases the risk of sudden death. (uleth.ca)
- The increasing mortality rates from alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) are a public health concern. (biomedcentral.com)
- Notably, the breakdown of alcohol in the liver leads to a rapid increase in levels of blood acetate, and alcohol is therefore a major source of acetate in the body," the investigators wrote. (genengnews.com)
- Alcohol is broken down by the liver and then exits the body. (brighthubeducation.com)
- Ethanol-induced defects affecting CNS development can be observed through the use of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. (asu.edu)
- These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. (frontiersin.org)
- Academic Dissertations -- South Carolina;Ethanol Induced Nervous System Disorders;Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1. (musc.edu)