Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United StatesStudents: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.tert-Butyl AlcoholSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)RussiaPeer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Body Dysmorphic Disorders: Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.

Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea. (1/43)

This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pathological gambling. Male alcoholics had a tendency to begin with tobacco dependence, and some male pathological gamblers first had alcohol disorders. The presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders was associated with a more severe form and the later onset of alcohol disorders, and associated with help-seeking for alcohol abuse/dependence.  (+info)

Changes in plasma noradrenaline and serotonin levels and craving during alcohol withdrawal. (2/43)

AIMS: Despite substantial preclinical evidence that supports the involvement of noradrenergic (NA) and serotonergic (5-HT) mechanisms in alcohol withdrawal, human data remain inconsistent. We examined whether plasma levels of NA and 5-HT were altered during alcohol withdrawal and whether these measures were related to craving. We also explored whether alterations in NA and 5-HT activity differ between type I and type II alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal. METHODS: Plasma measurements of NA and 5-HT and assessments of craving were performed longitudinally in 26 Caucasian alcohol-dependent men who were hospitalized for detoxification, at baseline (day 0), and on the 1st, 7th and 14th days of withdrawal. These measures were compared with NA and 5-HT levels obtained in 28 controls. RESULTS: During withdrawal, NA levels declined significantly from day 1 through day 14, whereas 5-HT levels and craving declined significantly from day 0 through day 14. The NA levels on days 0 and 1 of withdrawal were significantly higher than those in controls; however, by day 7 the NA levels were similar to the control values. In contrast, the 5-HT levels on day 0 of withdrawal resembled control values; however, the 5-HT concentrations on days 1, 7 and 14 were significantly lower than those in controls. There were no significant correlations between NA and 5-HT levels or between craving and the biological measures during withdrawal. Type I and type II patients did not differ in NA or 5-HT levels during withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that both plasma NA and 5-HT levels change during withdrawal; however, the pattern of change is different for the two measures. Also, while alterations in NA activity appear to normalize by late withdrawal, 5-HT changes seem to be more persistent. Neither craving nor subtypes of alcoholism seem to be related to alterations in NA or 5-HT during withdrawal.  (+info)

Selective breeding, quantitative trait locus analysis, and gene arrays identify candidate genes for complex drug-related behaviors. (3/43)

Acute functional tolerance to ethanol develops during a single exposure to ethanol; it has been suggested to be a predisposing factor for the development of ethanol dependence. Genetic determinants of acute functional tolerance, as well as of ethanol dependence, have been clearly demonstrated. We describe a novel approach that uses a combination of selective breeding (to segregate genes contributing to the phenotype of interest, i.e., acute functional tolerance to the incoordinating effect of ethanol), quantitative trait locus analysis (to define chromosomal regions associated with acute functional tolerance), and DNA microarray technology (to identify differentially expressed genes in the brains of the selected lines of mice) to identify candidate genes for the complex phenotype of ethanol tolerance. The results indicate the importance of a signal transduction cascade that involves the glutamate receptor delta2 protein, the Ephrin B3 ligand, and the NMDA receptor, as well as a transcriptional regulatory protein that may be induced by activation of the NMDA receptor (zinc finger protein 179) and a protein that can modulate downstream responses to NMDA receptor activation (peroxiredoxin), in mediating acute tolerance to the incoordinating effect of ethanol.  (+info)

Alcohol and tobacco use disorders in a general population: short-term and long-term associations from the St. Louis epidemiological catchment area study. (4/43)

BACKGROUND: Although research using clinical and convenience samples has shown alcohol use disorders (AUD) to be highly comorbid with tobacco dependence (TD), little work has examined this association prospectively using population-based data. The AUD-TD association was prospectively examined using data from the St. Louis Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) Study and its 1-year follow-up as well as from a 16-year follow-up on a subsample of ECA data. METHOD: Respondents were 3004 (2564, 85%, at Wave 2) participants in the St. Louis household ECA sample, including 444 participants at Year 16 follow-up. At baseline, the sample was predominately White (58%; 38% Black), female (60%), and 44.3 years. Past-year AUD and TD were diagnosed at all waves according to DSM-III criteria. RESULTS: AUDs and TDs were cross-sectionally associated at Years 1, 2, and 16. Controlling for demographics, Year 1 TD prospectively predicted Year 2 AUD, and Year 1 AUD prospectively predicted Year 16 TD. We found evidence for prediction of onset and persistence of both AUD and TD at short-term but not long-term follow-up. Prospective findings were reduced and no longer reached significance when concurrent diagnoses at follow-up were included in the regression models. CONCLUSIONS: We observed short-term and long-term associations between AUD and TD. These associations were mediated through concurrent diagnoses with the other substance use disorder.  (+info)

Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. (5/43)

Alcohol use is related to a wide variety of negative health outcomes including morbidity, mortality, and disability. Research on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality takes into account the varying effects of overall alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The results from this epidemiological research indicate that alcohol use increases the risk for many chronic health consequences (e.g., diseases) and acute consequences (e.g., traffic crashes), but a certain pattern of regular light-to-moderate drinking may have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease. Several issues are relevant to the methodology of studies of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, including the measurement of both alcohol consumption and the outcomes studied as well as study design. Broad summary measures that reflect alcohol's possible effects on morbidity, mortality, and disability may be more useful than measures of any one outcome alone.  (+info)

Harmful alcohol use. (6/43)

Alcohol misuse can harm people other than the drinker, and can have negative consequences for society as a whole. It is commonly believed to play a role in decreased worker productivity, increased unintentional injuries, aggression and violence against others, and child and spouse abuse. Research findings support the idea that drinking is involved in or associated with many of these social harms, but do not offer evidence that it causes these effects. Methodological flaws characterize much of the research in this area. Use of better design and statistical methodology is necessary in order to clarify the relationship between drinking and the harmful consequences it is believed to cause.  (+info)

Intracellular proteolytic systems in alcohol-induced tissue injury. (7/43)

The body constantly produces proteins and degrades proteins that are no longer needed or are defective. The process of protein breakdown, called proteolysis, is essential to cell survival. Numerous proteolytic systems exist in mammalian cells, the most important of which are the lysosomes, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and enzymes called calpains. Lysosomes are small cell components that contain specific enzymes (i.e., proteases) which break down proteins. Alcohol interferes with the formation and activity of lysosomes and thus may contribute to protein accumulation in the liver, which can have harmful effects on that organ. In the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, proteins that are to be degraded are first marked by the addition of ubiquitin molecules and then broken down by large protein complexes called proteasomes. Alcohol impairs this proteolytic system through several mechanisms, possibly leading to inflammation and even cell death. Calpains are proteases that are involved in several physiological processes, including the breakdown of proteins that give cells their shape and stability. In contrast to the lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome systems, calpains in brain cells are activated by alcohol, to potentially detrimental effect.  (+info)

A practical clinical approach to diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: clarification of the 1996 institute of medicine criteria. (8/43)

BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of alcohol on the developing human represent a spectrum of structural anomalies and behavioral and neurocognitive disabilities, most accurately termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The first descriptions in the modern medical literature of a distinctly recognizable pattern of malformations associated with maternal alcohol abuse were reported in 1968 and 1973. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in developing specific criteria for defining and diagnosing this condition. Two sets of diagnostic criteria are now used most widely for evaluation of children with potential diagnoses in the FASD continuum, ie, the 1996 Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria and the Washington criteria. Although both approaches have improved the clinical delineation of FASD, both suffer from significant drawbacks in their practical application in pediatric practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to present specific clarifications of the 1996 IOM criteria for the diagnosis of FASD, to facilitate their practical application in clinical pediatric practice. METHODS: A large cohort of children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol were identified, through active case-ascertainment methods, in 6 Native American communities in the United States and 1 community in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The children and their families underwent standardized multidisciplinary evaluations, including a dysmorphology examination, developmental and neuropsychologic testing, and a structured maternal interview, which gathered data about prenatal drinking practices and other demographic and family information. Data for these subjects were analyzed, and revisions and clarifications of the existing IOM FASD diagnostic categories were formulated on the basis of the results. RESULTS: The revised IOM method defined accurately and completely the spectrum of disabilities among the children in our study. On the basis of this experience, we propose specific diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome. We also define alcohol-related birth defects and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder from a practical standpoint. CONCLUSIONS: The 1996 IOM criteria remain the most appropriate diagnostic approach for children prenatally exposed to alcohol. The proposed revisions presented here make these criteria applicable in clinical pediatric practice.  (+info)

Influence of CYP3A Activity on the Efficacy and Safety of Fluvoxamine in Patients Depressive Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Use Disorder
Our results herein suggest that the circadian gene CLOCK is associated with comorbid depression and AUD, but not with AUD only. The haplotype TTGC formed by SNPs rs3805151, rs2412648, rs11240, rs2412646 was suggestively associated with increased risk for the comorbidity, with the odds ratio of 1.65. The SNPs of importance for this suggestive association were rs11240 and rs2412646, indicating location of the functional variation downstream of rs2412648. No indication of association with CLOCK was found when comparing AUD with healthy controls. Accordingly, the suggestive association to CLOCK was seen when comparing comorbid cases with combined group of healthy controls and persons diagnosed with AUD. This CLOCK variation may be a vulnerability factor for depression given the alcohol exposure in AUD but not considerably increasing the risk for depression without AUD. This view is supported by the findings from other studies of the Finnish general population through the Health 2000 Study. They ...
The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect
Refusing to take a test may deprive the prosecution of damning evidence, but it will also usually result in a license suspension. In some situations, a refusal post-arrest can be overcome, and a non-consensual blood test may be allowed.
Redman, C.M.; Banerjee, D.; Manning, C.; Huang, C.Y.; Green, K., 1978: In vivo effect of colchicine on hepatic protein synthesis and on the conversion of proalbumin to serum albumin
BackgroundThe associations between nicotine dependence and specific variants in the nicotinic receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 subunit genes are irrefutable with replications in many studies. The relationship between the newly identified genetic risk variants for nicotine dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders is unclear.
On Thursday, Sept. 4, OKCupid founder Christian Rudder wrote an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal addressing the dating sites use of personal user information for testing purposes. The announcement of these tests were met with outrage in July when the companys blog post concerning the user tests went viral, with many publications citing Rudder, "But guess what, everybody: if you use the Internet, youre the subject of hundreds of experiments at any given time, on every site. Thats how websites work.". The tongue-in-cheek post, written after the announcement of Facebooks algorithm experiment on users, was likely meant to attract buzz and controversy. Though, the extent of that controversy was unforeseen for OKCupid, much as it was for Facebook after their announcement, and has since raised privacy and transparency concerns for users of both platforms and, to a larger extent, of all digital platforms.. For most users, the issue wasnt in the testing itself, but, rather, in the lack of ...
vision blackout - MedHelps vision blackout Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for vision blackout. Find vision blackout information, treatments for vision blackout and vision blackout symptoms.
The Porcellian Club's statement came in response to a report that found 47 percent of female Harvard seniors who have participated in clubs have suffered non-consensual sexual contact.
In an attempt to increase the number of organs available for transplantation, section 43 of the Human Tissue Act 2004 provides, for the first time, a statutory basis for the non-consensual preservation of organs. However ...
What does it mean if you get frequent blackouts - What does it mean if you get frequent blackouts? May mean alcoholIsm. If blackouts occur after alcohol use, consider attending an aa meeting. In any case, consult a physician.
Earwigs are one of those semi-good guys that sometimes become a nuisance (kind of like moles). Although they occasionally chomp on our flowers, they also have the habit of chomping on aphids and certain pest larvae. Make sure that what is eating your plants really are earwigs -- go out at night with a flashlight. To protect seedlings, surround them with a sticky barrier, such as cardboard coated with petroleum jelly, and if the critters try to scale it, theyll get stuck. Earwigs like cool, shady spots to hide out in. You can trap earwigs with small boards, pieces of hose, bamboo, or even moistened rolled newspaper laid in the shade. Pick them up in the morning and dump into a can of soapy water. Also keep your garden free from plant debris and rubbish, where earwigs love to hide. If this trapping method dosnt catch what you have, diatomaceous earth sprinkled sparsely on and liberally around the seedlings will discourage them as well. Diatomaceous earth is available from Gardeners Supply Co. ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a general diagnosis for those exhibiting long-lasting neurobehavioral and cognitive deficiencies as a result of fetal alcohol exposure. It is among the most common causes of mental deficits today. Those impacted are left to rely on advances in our understanding of the nature of early alcohol-induced disorders toward human therapies. Research findings over the last decade have developed a model where ethanol-induced neurodegeneration impacts early neural circuit development, thereby perpetuating subsequent integration and plasticity in vulnerable brain regions. Here we review our current knowledge of FASD neuropathology based on discoveries of long-lasting neurophysiological effects of acute developmental ethanol exposure in animal models. We discuss the important balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in normal neural network function, and relate the significance of that balance to human FASD as well as related disease states. Finally, we postulate
Now, obviously the Nozickian libertarian will insist that, even if not all obligations that are non-consensual and odious amount to slavery, the specific obligations that democratic and other governments impose on us do amount to slavery, at least when they go beyond the functions of the minimal state. The trouble is that we now need a separate argument for this claim; merely appealing to the odious and non-consensual nature of these obligations will not suffice, for the reasons weve seen. That is another reason I say that Nozicks thought experiment is underdescribed. To know whether his case 9 amounts to slavery - and thus to know whether the demands democratic and other governments make of us amount to slavery - we need to know what specifically are the demands that the 10,000-headed master (or such governments) are making of us, and why these specific demands amount to slavery when other odious and non-consensual demands to not. But in that case the Tale of the Slave itself - with its ...
Sexual assault is non-consensual sexual conduct, excluding rape, including but not limited to oral copulation, penetration by a foreign object, sexual touching/battery of a persons genitalia or other "sexual" areas, and attempted assault with the intent to commit rape. People of all genders, sexualities, abilities, races, ages, marital statuses, etc. can be perpetrators and survivors of sexual assault. Rape is a non-consensual act of sexual intercourse, including sexual penetration, under any of the following circumstances: 1) by force, violence, duress, menace or fear of immediate and unlawful bodily injury to the survivor or another; 2) by preventing resistance by any intoxicating and anesthetic substance (such as alcohol or drugs) and this condition was known or should have been known by the accused; 3) when a person is unconscious of the nature of the act and the rapist knows it; 4) when a person is incapable of giving legal consent because of a disorder, disability, intoxication, or is ...
This is male vore, so really not my thing, but Im including it here because the quality of this video (realistic animation) is astounding. It shows a man swallowing a shrunken woman and follows her all the way through digestion, in rather gory detail. Its so well done that I was able to overcome my distate for the type of vore and for the gender of the pred, and appreciate it as the outstanding work that it is. M/f, human/human, shrunken prey, oral soft vore, non-consensual, explicit and gory full digestion. This is the initial comment that I left in the thread: "Wow! In terms of quality as a film, its fantastic! The details, the transitions between scenes, the sound and camera effects, the contrast between his behaviour and what shes going through... Youre not just showing us the basics of a digestive process; youre building a story, drawing us into a scene, involving us emotionally. (Such as when we see her underwear in her liquified remains, and we have a flashback to what she was ...
Warning! This story contains language, violence and GRAPHIC descriptions of yaoi (sexual acts between two men), as well as some bondage and non-consensual stuff. If you are not 18 or if you are offended easily, please do not read this! If you chose to ignore this warning, I will not be held responsible for any psychiatric care you require. ^_^ I will also ignore any flames that you send because you feel that Squall and Zell do not make a cute couple or because you hate yaoi. (Face it: theres a LOT of us yaoi fic-writers out there who do what we like, and this IS on a yaoi site, after all! At least, it SHOULD be, unless someone else put it where it doesnt belong.) This fic is a MAJOR what-if; dont be surprised if almost nothing in here fits into the FFVIII storyline. Thanks to Miracle Shining for her inspiration on this one, too. You just rock, Miracle-san! Thanks also to Serdar for his inspiration; a little of the blackness of Dark Age got in here, I think! ^_^ ...
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This post looks at hangover cures 101 and debunks the common hangover myths like does a greasy meal cure a hangover and many more!
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The Big Blackout trope as used in popular culture. A sudden blackout cuts the electricity to an entire city, state, country, etc. This is probably caused by …
You know where those head pounding, stomach churning symptoms came from. Here are several hangover remedies how to deal with hangover next
Ok, so for the last couple months not on a regular basis sometimes I get up and I somewhat blackout for a few seconds but I dont literally faint or fall down and it only last for abt 15 seconds. My e...
KARACHI: Anti-terrorism court (ATC) has warned Muttahida Qaumi Movement s (MQM) Dr Farooq Sattar of media blackout while reissued non-bailable arrest warrant of
Discover how people might react if the entire America is subjected to a blackout because of a cyberattack. Will the fear take over or will the human spirit win?. ...
Although hangovers are extremely common and experienced by almost everybody, surprisingly little scientific literature has been published on the topic. There is also disagreement among scientific circles about what the exact definition of a
Hangovers have long been the price of a night of overindulgence - and come January 1, you may be feeling the effects of one yourself. So how can you make
Stop sabotaging your gains. If you always feel smashed the day after training, youre doing something wrong. Heres how to fix it.
We all know the feeling: you had one tipple too many, and now it’s the morning after the night before and you are PAYING FOR IT.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic protein synthesis rate of liver specimens as a predictor of viability in rat cold ischemia liver transplantation model. AU - Matsui, Yoshifumi. AU - Asano, Takehide. AU - Nakagohri, Toshio. AU - Yokoro, Yoshiharu. AU - Kainuma, Osamu. AU - Kenmochi, Takashi. AU - Isono, Kaich. PY - 1997/11. Y1 - 1997/11. N2 - Background/Aims: We have previously reported that the hepatic protein synthesis rate, calculated as the uptake rate of L-[4.5 3H] leucine by the fraction during a 10-min incubation of a 16-G needle biopsy specimen of liver tissue, represents a high level of liver function and is therefore useful for evaluating liver function. We investigated the hepatic protein synthesis rate level in a pretransplant liver to learn if it might predict the outcome in a rat orthotopic liver transplantation model. Methods: Grafts were stored, liver specimens were obtained using a 21-G Chiba type II skinny needle, and the hepatic protein synthesis rate was calculated. Subsequently, liver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. AU - May, Philip A.. AU - Chambers, Christina D.. AU - Kalberg, Wendy O.. AU - Zellner, Jennifer. AU - Feldman, Haruna. AU - Buckley, David. AU - Kopald, David. AU - Hasken, Julie M.. AU - Xu, Ronghui. AU - Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon. AU - Taras, Howard. AU - Manning, Melanie A.. AU - Robinson, Luther K.. AU - Adam, Margaret P.. AU - Abdul-Rahman, Omar. AU - Vaux, Keith. AU - Jewett, Tamison. AU - Elliott, Amy J.. AU - Kable, Julie A.. AU - Akshoomoff, Natacha. AU - Daniel, Falk. AU - Arroyo, Judith A.. AU - Hereld, Dale. AU - Riley, Edward P.. AU - Charness, Michael E.. AU - Coles, Claire D.. AU - Warren, Kenneth R.. AU - Jones, Kenneth Lyons. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - IMPORTANCE Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates ...
Directory of Fetal Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Services, Help and Support for Niagara Regional Municipality, ON including St. Catherines, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, Port Colborne and Grimsby
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, or Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is one of the effects of prenatal exposure to drugs and alcohol. Learn more from Childrens Health.
A baby born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have many problems. This is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
The range of harm to an unborn baby due to drinking during pregnancy is called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Alcohol can hurt the babys brain, heart, eyes, and other organs. Children with FASD can have a hard time learning, controlling how they act, and making friends. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause lifelong harm to the unborn child.These nine months last a lifetime. Lets keep them alcohol-free. FASD affects us all, but it is 100% preventable.
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term that is used to describe the range of effects that can occur in an individual who was prenat
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a group of birth defects that is only found in babies of mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy.
This report describes the behavioural characteristics and diagnostic criteria for people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and mental health disorders and provides an overview of both similarities and differences between these diagnoses.
When alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, a child may suffer from Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, which include mental and health problems.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Learn more about signs, treatments, and what you can do about FASDs.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Date Presented 4/1/2017. The first study to investigate functional abilities in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder advanced knowledge in three ways: (1) Psychosocial skills have to be tested for guiding treatments, (2) functional skills explain the severity of disease, and (3) the psychosocial element has to be added to the diagnostic guidelines.. Primary Author and Speaker: Ada Leung. Additional Authors and Speakers: Sharon Brintnell. Contributing Authors: Monty Nelson, Joshua Kwon ...
September is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Awareness Month. Heres what all mothers to be need to know about drinking and pregnancy.
RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index childs father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). ...
This review summarizes the research literature to date on the issues and challenges of estimating the prevalence of FASD, and presents the prevalence rates reported in several studies from a wide range of jurisdictions and populations. Estimating the prevalence of FASD is a daunting task, whether one is intent on determining the rate of the condition in the general population or with a specific population known to have a higher risk of FASD. There are arguments as to why both themes are important in understanding the rate of FASD, as one approach lends itself to describing the breadth of occurrence throughout the general population, while the other helps to describe the depth of occurrence as it pertains to vulnerable populations, which will be discussed more extensively in this review. In particular, the review focuses on the need for prevalence rates of FASD in child welfare child-in-care populations. This is a population at high risk for FASD due to the frequency that parental substance abuse ...
The International Charter on Prevention of FASD has been published in The Lancet Global Health, one of the worlds most influential public-health journals. The Charter - also known as the
It is important to get an early diagnosis so that early interventions and support can be provided.. With the right support and early interventions, good outcomes across a range of life goals are more likely to be achieved.. A circle of collaboration between health professionals, the family, school and service providers ensures the best opportunities for people with FASD.. Read some of the common myths about alcohol use and pregnancy here ...
[ATTACH] (Image credit: Epop - Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons) Most severe cases have high levels of hearing loss, impaired...
Efforts to successfully prevent or ameliorate the teratogenic effects of alcohol have been impeded, at least in part, by a limited understanding of the mechanis...
Diane Malbin has studied the disorder for more than 25 years and conducts seminars for everyone from teachers to prosecutors. She enlightened us on this common, but still misunderstood, disability.
"Alcohol-induced disruption of endocrine signaling". Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 31 (8): 1269-1285. doi: ... Osteoclasts are prominent in the tissue destruction found in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatology disorders. The human body is ... "Low bone accrual is associated with osteocyte apoptosis in alcohol-induced osteopenia". Bone. 49 (3): 543-552. doi:10.1016/j. ... whereas apoptotic osteocytes tend to induce osteoclast stimulation. Stimulation of osteocyte apoptosis by alcohol exposure may ...
Morgan, Christopher J.; Abdulla, A.-B. Badawy (2001). "Alcohol-induced euphoria: exclusion of serotonin". Alcohol and ... Affective disorders such as unipolar mania or bipolar disorder can involve euphoria as a symptom. Continuous physical exercise ... "Bipolar and Related Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). American Psychiatric ... Mulu M (2010). "The Interictal Dsyphoric Disorder of Epilepsy". In Miyoshi K, Morimura Y, Maeda K. Neuropsychiatric Disorders. ...
Raimo, E. B.; R. A. Roemer; M. Moster; Y. Shan (June 1999). "Alcohol-Induced Depersonalization". Biological Psychiatry. 45 (11 ... bipolar disorder, schizophrenia,[3] schizoid personality disorder, hypothyroidism or endocrine disorders,[4] schizotypal ... In case of dissociative identity disorder or DD-NOS as a developmental disorder, in which extreme developmental trauma ... personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraines, and sleep deprivation; it can ...
Alcohol-induced[edit]. Main article: Alcohol use and sleep. Alcohol is often used as a form of self-treatment of insomnia to ... Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, ... However, alcohol use to induce sleep can be a cause of insomnia. Long-term use of alcohol is associated with a decrease in NREM ... Benzodiazepine-induced[edit]. Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are ...
More often than not psychiatric disorders among drug or alcohol abusers disappear with prolonged abstinence. Substance induced ... There are diagnoses for substance-induced mood disorders and substance-induced anxiety disorders and thus such overlap can be ... Comorbidity of addictive disorders and other psychiatric disorders, i.e., dual disorders, is very common and a large body of ... among major depressive disorder with and without Co-occurring Substance Use Disorders and Substance-Induced Depressive disorder ...
Guidelines for the medical management of patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis. Drug and Alcohol Services: South ... Substance abuse / Substance use disorder / Substance-related disorders. *Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / ... Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p ... Brady KT, Lydiard RB, Malcolm R, Ballenger JC (1991). "Cocaine-induced psychosis". J Clin Psychiatry. 52: 509-512.. ...
... www.komu.com/news/mu-study-finds-disordered-eating-and-alcohol-don-t-mix/ "Disordered eating patterns and alcohol misuse in ... also appeared to have engaged in self-induced vomiting after alcohol consumption. Participants that reported self-induced ... www.eatingdisorders.org.au/eating-disorders/eating-disorders-a-other-health-problems/eating-disorders-drug-a-alcohol-addiction ... Eating Disorders (2014). Eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction. Eating Disorders. Retrieved from http:// ...
... musculoskeletal organ systems as well as increasing the risk of alcohol induced psychiatric disorders.[3][4] A US-based review ... Binge drinking is a more important factor rather than average alcohol intake, with regard to the severity of alcohol induced ... which can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.[6] Binge drinking during adolescence is ... alcohol-related birth defects as well as alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. The affected children after birth can ...
... is reported to help reduce liver cholesterol and prevent metabolic disorders induced by chronic alcohol ... Cholesterol Regulation by Leptin in Alcoholic Liver Disease". In Patel, Vinood. Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition. ... "Effects of Persimmon-Vinegar on Lipid Metabolism and Alcohol Clearance in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats". Journal of Medicinal Food ...
Alcohol-induced blackouts can occur with blood alcohol levels higher than 0.06g/dl.[32] A systematic review of the literature ... sleep disorder called REM Behavior Disorder (or REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, RSBD).[4] More accurate data about sleep is due to ... or drug-induced blackouts, which can result in amnesia for events similar to sleepwalking. During an alcohol-induced blackout ( ... similarity and distinction among episodes of alcohol-induced memory loss. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 64, 547-550. doi:https ...
The nitrazepam-induced symptomatology can lead to a misdiagnosis of brain disease in the elderly, for example dementia, and can ... Alcohol in combination with nitrazepam may cause a synergistic enhancement of the hypotensive properties of both ... Nitrazepam has been associated with severe hepatic disorders, similar to other nitrobenzodiazepines. Nitrobenzodiazepines such ... Oishi R, Nishibori M, Itoh Y, Saeki K (May 27, 1986). "Diazepam-induced decrease in histamine turnover in mouse brain". Eur J ...
Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs, can induce symptomatology which resembles mental illness. This can occur ... In most cases these drug-induced psychiatric disorders fade away with prolonged abstinence. Symptoms can sometimes come and go ... Severe anxiety and depression are commonly induced by sustained alcohol abuse which in most cases abates with prolonged ... In some cases these substance-induced psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxification, such as prolonged psychosis ...
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Clonazepam has also been found effective in treating other anxiety disorders, such ... The central nervous system depressing effects of the drug can be intensified by alcohol consumption, and therefore alcohol ... While benzodiazepines induce sleep, they tend to reduce the quality of sleep by suppressing or disrupting REM sleep. After ... Alcohol alone was responsible for over twice as many ED visits than clonazepam in the same study. The study examined the number ...
... time to revise the DSM criteria for alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder?". International Journal of Psychiatry in ... is also associated with this disorder. Cortical dysfunction may have arisen from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, ... This neurological disorder is caused by a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain, and is also often exacerbated by the ... Parkin A. J.; Montaldi D.; Leng N. R.; Hunkin N. M. (1999). "Contextual cueing effects in the remote memory of alcoholic ...
This disorder is similar in it signs to alcoholic liver disease, but the patient does not have an alcohol history. A biopsy is ... Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-01-25. Huang H; et al ... Alcoholic cirrhosis caused by alcohol abuse is treated by abstaining from alcohol. Treatment for hepatitis-related cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcoholic cirrhosis develops for 10-20% of individuals who drink heavily for a decade or more. ...
"Exercise-based treatments for substance use disorders: evidence, theory, and practicality". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 41 (1): 7 ... Aerobic exercise induces short- and long-term effects on mood and emotional states by promoting positive affect, inhibiting ... Box 2: Depressive Disorders Other Than Major Depression That May Benefit From Exercise Programs. Box 3: The Characteristics of ... Aerobic exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria ...
"HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i increase, alter [Ca2+]i homeostasis and induce ... CNS and Neurological Disorders. 3 (3): 169-79. doi:10.2174/1568007043337409. PMID 15180478. King JE, Eugenin EA, Buckner CM, ... Nagy J (June 2004). "The NR2B subtype of NMDA receptor: a potential target for the treatment of alcohol dependence". Current ... Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, Ushijima H, Müller WE (1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- and HIV-1 gp120 induced neuronal cell ...
Alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations of gene expression appear to lead to liver injury and ultimately carcinoma. Obesity is ... Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to disorders caused by various drugs. ... High consumption of alcohol can lead to several forms of liver disease including alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fatty liver ... Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic ...
Alcohol is also known to induce alcohol-related sleep disorders. The anxiolytic effects of solvents act as positive modulators ... social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Healthcare providers can also help by ... Similarly to alcohol, people with anxiety disorders are more likely to become addicted to opioids due to their anxiolytic ... Some recreational drugs such as alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) induce anxiolysis initially; however, studies show ...
... and the risk is far greater in individuals with an alcohol-induced cirrhotic liver. There are a few disorders that are known to ... Reducing alcohol abuse, obesity, and diabetes would also reduce rates of liver cancer. Diet control in hemochromatosis could ... The viruses induce malignant changes in cells by altering gene methylation, affecting gene expression and promoting or ... In 2015, 263,000 deaths from liver cancer were due to hepatitis B, 167,000 to hepatitis C, and 245,000 to alcohol. Higher rates ...
Alcohol abuse can occasionally cause the development of a chronic, substance-induced psychotic disorder via a kindling ... including bipolar disorder,[122] borderline personality disorder,[123] drug intoxication, and drug-induced psychosis. Delusions ... avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizotypal personality disorder has symptoms that are ... Gabbard GO (15 May 2007). Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, Fourth Edition (Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders). ...
... and thought disorder. Drugs in the class of amphetamines, or substituted amphetamines, are known to induce "amphetamine ... Guidelines for the medical management of patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis. Drug and Alcohol Services: South ... The disorders are often distinguished by a rapid resolution of symptoms in amphetamine psychosis, while schizophrenia is more ... Cocaine-induced psychosis shows sensitization toward the psychotic effects of the drug. This means that psychosis becomes more ...
"Impact of TLR4 on behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammatory damage". Brain, ... Kelley KW, Dantzer R (June 2011). "Alcoholism and inflammation: neuroimmunology of behavioral and mood disorders". Brain, ... LPS stimulation induces a series of interactions with several accessory proteins which form the TLR4 complex on the cell ... IRF3 activation induces the production of type 1 interferons. A fifth TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein called Sterile α ...
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine ... Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs, can induce symptomatology which resembles mental illness. This can occur ... In NIAAA: Social work education for the prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders (NIH publication). Washington, D.C. ... Severe anxiety and depression are commonly induced by sustained alcohol abuse, which in most cases abates with prolonged ...
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). At the forefront of FASD (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder) research and the development of screening ... Chen N, Aleksa K, Woodland C, Rieder M, Koren G (April 2008). "N-Acetylcysteine prevents ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in ... Gareri J, Chan D, Klein J, Koren G (January 2005). "Screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder". Canadian Family Physician. ... Koren G, Nulman I, Chudley AE, Loocke C (November 2003). "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder". CMAJ. 169 (11): 1181-5. PMC 264960 ...
Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking ... DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, ... Sensitization may also contribute to psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, panic anxiety and mood ...
Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder was diagnosed only if a primary psychotic disorder had been ruled out. In alcohol-induced ... The outcome of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder - a follow-up study of men with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.] Tampere ... Assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium. Diagnostic assessment of alcohol-induced psychotic disorders and ... alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium. In alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, the psychotic symptoms should be ...
... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and depression, antisocial personality ... such as isolation-induced aggression between male pairs, resident-intruder encounters, and possibly frustration-induced ... J Stud Alcohol 40:89-116. Crabbe JC, Belknap JK, Buck KJ (1994a): Genetic animal models of alcohol and drug abuse. Science 264: ... J Stud Alcohol 41:242-249. Schuckit MA (1984): Subjective responses to alcohol in sons of alcoholics and controls. Arch Gen ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ...
"Alcohol-Induced Disorders"浏览Publications. 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * ...
Psychology definition for Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnesic Disorder in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, ... Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnesic Disorder. Alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder, included in substance induced ... Alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder is also a cause of generalized cerebral atrophy. This lack of nutrients also causes ... persisting amnestic disorder, is also known as Wernickes encephalopathy. It is caused by a lack of thiamine in the diet which ...
2015/16 ICD-10-CM F10.96 Alcohol use, unspecified with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder ... Disorder - see also Disease*. amnestic (see also Amnestic syndrome) 294.8. *. alcohol-induced peristing 291.1 ... Home > 2007 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Mental Disorders 290-319 > Organic Psychotic Conditions 290-294 > Alcoholic psychoses ... Neuropathy, neuropathic (see also Disorder, nerve) 355.9. *. alcoholic 357.5. *. with psychosis 291.1 ...
Alcohol use disorder, mild, with alcohol-induced bipolar or related disorder. *Alcohol use disorder, mild, with alcohol-induced ... unspecified with alcohol-induced mood disorder. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Alcohol induced ... Alcohol abuse with alcohol-induced mood disorder. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code *F10.14 is a billable/ ... Alcohol use, unspecified with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code ...
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I know a 51 yr old alcoholic male who has an involuntarily movement of his arm when he drinks. No otc or rx meds, elevated ...
... *Alcohol Dependence. Date: 2013-08-30. Interventions: Other: Mobile health cognitive ... Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System - 9 Studies Found. Status. Study Recruiting. Study Name: Health Mobile Cognitive ... Study Name: A Trial Evaluating Pitolisant (BF2.649) in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment. Condition: Alcohol Abuse, Nervous System ... Study Name: Efficacy of Keppra in Acute Alcohol Related Seizure Control--A Pilot Study. Condition: Seizure, Alcohol Related. ...
8.1.4.1 Immediate alcohol-induced headache is much rarer than 8.1.4.2 Delayed alcohol-induced headache. The effective dose of ... 8.1.4.1 Immediate alcohol-induced headache Hartmut Gobel 2018-01-31T11:08:52+00:00 *8. Headache attributed to a substance or ... Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis. *11. Headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of the cranium, neck, eyes ... Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis. *11. Headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of the cranium, neck, eyes ...
F10.28 Alcohol dependence with other alcohol-induced disorders F10.280 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced anxiety disorder ... F10.281 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction F10.282 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced sleep ... Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code * ... Alcohol use, unspecified with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code ...
Alcohol-induced psychosis is characterized by severe hallucinations and delusions. Learn about the symptoms and treatment ... Alcohol-Induced Paranoia. In severe cases, alcohol-induced delusions can consist of alcohol-induced paranoias. Alcohol-induced ... Alcohol-induced psychosis, also known as alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD), is a psychotic state caused by alcohol ... Alcohol-Induced Hallucinations. Alcohol-induced hallucinations are common in those with alcohol-induced psychosis. ...
Neuroscientists have unlocked the secret behind alcohol-induced amnesia, otherwise known as a blackout, which can last ... Bipolar Disorder*Bipolar Disorder Symptoms. *Bipolar Disorder Treatment. *Bipolar Disorder Test. *Depression*Depression ... New Insights into Alcohol-Induced Blackouts. By Traci Pedersen Associate News Editor ... Neuroscientists have unlocked the secret behind alcohol-induced amnesia, otherwise known as a "blackout," which can last ...
... ... Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores are elevated in antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. Journal of ... Alcohol use disorder is commonly comorbid with schizophrenia and low availability of striatal DRD2 may predispose individuals ... These data suggest that by lowering dosage, or switching to another antipsychotic agent, the risk for alcohol use disorder in ...
Alcohol Induced Anxiety Disorder?. Room1 on 10-18-2007 10-19-2007 01:41 AM. by Room1 ... Are you looking for drug or alcohol treatment options? Most places accept insurance, provide financing options, or can help you ... Hi again - Big day 4 me today, im telling my parents im an alcoholic.. ...
... schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, and more. ... Learn about the symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, ... Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder. When you start or stop certain drugs, you may get substance-induced psychotic disorder. ... If you have a problem with drugs or alcohol, get help from your doctor or a substance abuse program. ...
How to Treat Substance Induced Psychotic Disorder. A psychotic episode can result from taking recreational drugs or from an ... Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-1.jpg\/v4-460px-Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl ... Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl ... Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Treat-Substance-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-Step-3.jpg","bigUrl ...
Alcohol-induced mood disorders. High rates of major depressive disorder occur in heavy drinkers and those with alcoholism. ... substance-related disorder. alcohol (acute alcohol intoxication, drunkenness, alcohol dependence, alcoholic hallucinosis, ... Substance-induced mood disorders. A mood disorder can be classified as substance-induced if its etiology can be traced to the ... Benzodiazepine-induced mood disorders. Long term use of benzodiazepines which have a similar effect on the brain as alcohol and ...
F10.25 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder NON-BILLABLE * * BILLABLE F10.250 Alcohol dependence with ... alcohol-induced psychotic disorder with delusions * BILLABLE F10.251 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder ... Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder NON-BILLABLE Non-Billable Code Non-Billable means the code is not ... ICD-10-CM Alphabetical Index References for F10.25 - Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder The ICD-10-CM ...
Alcohol dependence with other alcohol-induced disorder BILLABLE Billable Code Billable codes are sufficient justification for ... F10.288 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of alcohol dependence with other alcohol-induced disorder. A ... ICD-10-CM Alphabetical Index References for F10.288 - Alcohol dependence with other alcohol-induced disorder The ICD-10-CM ... Indicates that the ICD code is referenced in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version 5) ...
Users comments and reviews on article Alcohol Abuse and Anxiety Disorder Relationship by Debbie Strange This topic is answered ... Alcohol induced general anxiety disorder over a year ago. Comments and reviews on article Anxiety, Depression and Self- ... Are You At Risk Of Alcohol Addiction? Worst Complications Of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol Abuse And Eating Disorders Have Something In ... Alcohol Abuse and Anxiety Disorder Relationship Social Anxiety Disorder And Drinking For Stress Relief: ...
Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only … ... Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different ... Alcohol induced disorders. originalarbeit. Ethik und ärztliches Ethos im Medizinstudium und im Gesundheitswesen. ... Bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and cytokines in alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010; 45:427-30. ... Adult-onset alcohol consumption induces osteopenia in female rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:746-54. CrossRefPubMed ...
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 Sep;42(9):1572-1590. doi: 10.1111/acer.13811. Epub 2018 Jul 5. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Role for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells?. Prytkova I1, Goate A1,2,3, Hart RP4, Slesinger PA ... Addiction; Alcohol Use Disorder; Genomewide Association Studies; Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells; Neuropsychiatric Disease ... Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Role for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? ...
... mood disorders (bipolar and major depression) and anxiety disorders. Source for information on Alcohol and related disorders: ... Long-term and uncontrollable harmful consumption can cause alcohol-related disorders that include: antisocial personality ... Definition Alcoholism is defined as alcohol seeking and consumption behavior that is harmful. ... Substance-induced anxiety disorder; Substance-induced psychotic disorder. Resources. BOOKS. Goldman, Lee, J. Claude Bennett. ...
  • Ertradiol protects against ethanol-induced bone loss by inhibiting up-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB in osteoblasts. (springermedizin.at)
  • Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and downstream activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL-signaling cascade to osteoblasts accounts for the protective effects of estradiol on ethanol-induced bone loss. (springermedizin.at)
  • MicroRNAs play a role in many different physiological and pathophysiological states including in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) [ 4 ] and microRNAs were suggested to be a master regulator of ethanol-induced multi-organ injury [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3/Shaggy mediates ethanol-induced excitotoxic cell death of Drosophila olfactory neurons. (sjsu.edu)
  • Intoxication with the following classes of substances can be associated with panic or anxiety: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, phencyclidine and other hallucinogens, inhalants, stimulants (including cocaine), and other (or unknown) substances. (mdguidelines.com)
  • Brian Wilson, founding member of the Beach Boys, has schizoaffective disorder. (webmd.com)
  • A Case Report of Schizoaffective Disorder with Pseudoseizures in a 42-year-old Male. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal alcohol exposure levels with epigenetic changes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on placental genes involved in growth and on the size of affected newborns were explored in the study performed at the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital in Finland. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified ( DD-NOS ) is designated by the code 311 for depressive disorders that are impairing but do not fit any of the officially specified diagnoses. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder (MDD). (medscape.com)
  • Newer generation antipsychotics have reduced, but not eliminated, the risk of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. (medscape.com)
  • A needle-free intranasal glucagon preparation was compared with intramuscular glucagon for treatment of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • median diabetes duration, 18 years) to compare intranasal (3 mg) versus intramuscular (1 mg) glucagon for treatment of hypoglycemia induced by intravenous insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Intranasal glucagon was highly effective in treating insulin-induced hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, further reductions in blood glucose can lead to hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction, which may make it impossible for an individual to take appropriate corrective measures to restore normal blood glucose ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This review examined the latest evidence for its efficacy in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and transdiagnostic samples. (medscape.com)
  • Insomnia , also known as sleeplessness , is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping . (wikipedia.org)
  • Delayed sleep phase disorder can be misdiagnosed as insomnia, as sleep onset is delayed to much later than normal while awakening spills over into daylight hours. (wikipedia.org)