Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.tert-Butyl AlcoholUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.United StatesPentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.RussiaNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Benzyl CompoundsPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.BenzaldehydesPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.KetonesPancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.EstersInterview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Republic of BelarusSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.FinlandChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.CaliforniaCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/9481)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995. (2/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

Effect of alcohol abstinence on blood pressure: assessment by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. (3/9481)

Several studies have shown that cessation of alcohol drinking reduces blood pressure (BP). However, attempts to reproduce these findings by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) have shown inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 month of proven abstinence from alcohol on the 24-hour BP profile in heavy alcohol drinkers. Forty-two men who were heavy drinkers (>100 g of pure ethanol per day) were consecutively admitted to a general ward for voluntary alcohol detoxification. On the day of admission, they received a total dose of 2 g/kg of ethanol diluted in orange juice in 5 divided doses, and a 24-hour ABPM was performed. A new 24-hour BP monitoring in the same environmental conditions was performed after 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence while the subjects were receiving the same amount of fluid but without the addition of alcohol. After 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence, BP and heart rate (HR) significantly decreased. The reduction was 7.2 mm Hg for 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) (95% CI, 4.5 to 9.9), 6.6 mm Hg for 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI, 4.2 to 9.0), and 7.9 bpm for HR (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.7). The proportion of alcoholic patients considered hypertensive on the basis of 24-hour BP criteria (daytime SBP >/=135 mm Hg or daytime DBP >/=85 mm Hg) fell from 42% during alcohol drinking to 12% after 1 month of complete abstinence. Abstinence did not modify either the long-term BP variability, assessed by SD of 24-hour BP, or its circadian profile. We conclude that abstinence in heavy alcohol drinkers significantly reduces BP assessed by 24-hour ABPM and that this reduction is clinically relevant. These results show that heavy alcohol consumption has an important effect on BP, and thus cessation of alcohol consumption must be recommended as a priority for hypertensive alcohol drinkers.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (4/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (5/9481)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats. (6/9481)

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol. (7/9481)

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (8/9481)

An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

*Alcohol and sex

It is unclear whether the two are linked or the personality types of people who often drink large amounts of alcohol are more ... Alcohol and sex deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior. The effects of alcohol are balanced ... Drink portal Sexuality portal Sex and drugs World Health Organization, Mental Health Evidence and Research Team (2005). Alcohol ... Often, alcohol can influence the capacity for a woman to feel more relaxed and in turn, be more sexual. Alcohol may be ...

*Mountain Goat Beer

Alcohol content: 8.3% Fancy Pants 2013, a hoppy amber ale, brewed with Galaxy and Cascade hops. Alcohol content: 5.2% ... have been making the kinds of beers that we like to drink. Most breweries brew to a formula, something born in a focus group or ... with a higher alcohol content. The Double Hightail Ale has an alcohol content by volume of between 6.8 and 7.2% (depending on ... The alcohol volume of the Hopfweizenbock is 6.5 per cent. The brewery rotates a series of "one-off" brews, generally only ...

*Alcohol and pregnancy

... one in 10 women drink alcohol during pregnancy. Out of this population, 20% binge drink and have four or more alcoholic drinks ... Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy ... drinking alcohol may hurt one baby more than another. A child that has been affected by alcohol before birth may be appear ' ... One out of 67 women who drink alcohol during pregnancy will have a child with a birth defect. The five countries with the ...

*Ethanol metabolism

Ethanol, an alcohol found in nature and in alcoholic drinks, is metabolized through a complex catabolic metabolic pathway. ... making such organs the primary site for alcohol catabolism. Variations in genes influence alcohol metabolism and drinking ... Metabolism Bile Acid Biosynthesis Polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing genes affects drinking behavior and alcoholic liver ... Thanks to enzymes in their gut, and particularly one called ADH4, they can make use of the calories in alcohol. The average ...

*ADH1B

"Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and drinking behavior of Chinese living in Shanghai". Human Genetics. 96 (2): 151- ... Green RF, Stoler JM (2007). "Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B genotype and fetal alcohol syndrome: a HuGE minireview". Am. J. Obstet. ... Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH1B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... J. C. Burnell; L. G. Carr; F. E. Dwulet; H. J. Edenberg; T. K. Li & W. F. Bosron (August 1987). "The human beta 3 alcohol ...

*Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages

You should not get drunk or binge drink (drinking more than 7.5 UK units of alcohol on a single occasion) while you are ... paihdelinkki.fi, How to use alcohol wisely Drinking and You Drinking guidelines - units of alcohol Archived 2007-02-08 at the ... understanding of standard drinks and their use in drinking guidelines, alcohol surveys and labelling" (PDF). Reducing Alcohol ... if they do not already drink alcohol, people should not start drinking for the purported cardiovascular benefits of alcohol. ...

*Beer

... life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. As with all alcoholic drinks, drinking while ... The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the beer and the timespan ... Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall ... Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. It was ...

*Heineken brands

Former US President George W. Bush, who claimed that he gave up drinking alcoholic beverages after turning 40, drank Buckler ... Since 1995 the company named "Bravo International" launched production of alcoholic long drinks and lemonades under "Bravo" ... Cruzcampo Sin, Alcohol Free. Cruzcampo Navidad (Brewed only in Christmas) Cruzcampo Light, 2.4% ABV Big Cruzcampo. El León. ... ABC produces the local brands along with a range of soft drinks. Local Beers Stella 50cl, 33cl - 4.5% Alc/vol (Flagship Brand) ...

*Disease theory of alcoholism

These rats preferred drinking alcohol over other liquids, resulting in a tolerance for alcohol and exhibited a physical ... Edwards, G (1994). "D.L. Davies and 'Normal drinking in recovered alcohol addicts': the genesis of a paper". Drug and Alcohol ... The craving that an alcoholic feels for alcohol can be as strong as the need for food or water. An alcoholic will continue to ... people can drink a great deal without necessarily being alcoholic, and alcoholics may drink minimally or infrequently. Disease ...

*Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Withdrawal usually begins 6 to 24 hours after the last drink. It can last for up to one week. To be classified as alcohol ... When overuse of alcohol is suspected but drinking history is unclear, testing for elevated values of carbohydrate-deficient ... Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of ... Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in ...

*Diet and cancer

Obesity and drinking alcohol are confirmed causes of cancer. Lowering the drinking of beverages sweetened with sugar is ... 4: Food and Drinks §8: Alcoholic drinks" (PDF). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (July 1993). "Alcohol and Cancer". Alcohol Alert. NIAAA: National ... of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to drinking of alcohol. Breast cancer in women is linked with alcohol intake. ...

*Ban on caffeinated alcoholic drinks

Manufacturers have argued that drinking a caffeinated alcoholic energy drink is indistinguishable from drinking a couple of ... Drinkers who consume alcohol-laced energy drinks are about twice as likely as drinkers who do not report mixing alcohol with ... alcoholic drinks is a ban which prevents the marketing and distribution of any prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic drink. In the ... Caffeinated alcoholic drinks such as Four Loko, Joose, Sparks and Tilt were the most popular around the U.S. The beverages, ...

*Shot glass

"Alcohol - Standard drinks guide". alcohol.gov.au. "Standard Drinks Guide". Australia: Department of Health and Ageing. ... Alcoholic spirits measure Pony glass Alcohol measurements Drink portal Mark Pickvet (Oct 1, 1998). The Encyclopedia of Shot ... The word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot ... "Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines" (PDF). The Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. 2012. Retrieved ...

*Khas people

They are now called Matwali (alcohol-drinking) Chhetris. Khas people of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India (1868-1875) ... such as alcohol abstinence). The upper-class Khas people commissioned the Bahun (Brahmin) priests to initiate them into the ...

*Vavaʻu Code

Circumcision, tattooing and alcohol drinking were also outlawed. Sundays became a compulsory day off work, to encourage Tongans ...

*Preterm birth

Parazzini F, Chatenoud L, Surace M, Tozzi L, Salerio B, Bettoni G, Benzi G (2003). "Moderate Alcohol Drinking and Risk of ... Finally, the use of tobacco, cocaine, and excessive alcohol during pregnancy increases the chance of preterm delivery. Tobacco ...

*Cinnamon liqueur

"Rakomelo, Raki & Honey Alcohol drink". Kreta Foods. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2014. "Rakomello". Roots Premium Liquor ... Clocking in at 35 percent alcohol by volume, this syrupy hooch has about as much in common with tequila as Fireball does with ... Other alcoholic beverages that contain cinnamon include infused vodkas, such as Smirnoff's Cinna-Sugar Twist. In November 2013 ... Cinnamon liqueur may refer to one of several brands of alcoholic beverages. Cinnamon flavored liqueurs include Red Stag Spiced ...

*Rakomelo

"Rakomelo, Raki & Honey Alcohol drink". Kreta Foods. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2014. "Rakomelo a warming winter drink ... chiefly consumed during the winter as a warm drink. A similar drink is baked raki, which is a regional drink of the island of ... Rakomelo (Greek: ρακόμελο (or racomelo) from raki (ρακή) + meli (μέλι), meaning honey) is a Greek mixed alcoholic drink. It is ... Rakomelo can be found as a bottled mixed drink in liquor stores, ready to be served. Baked raki is also available mixed and ...

*Health effects of wine

Some studies found that drinking small quantities of alcohol (up to one standard drink per day for women and one to two drinks ... which included alcohol consumption. The analysis was then broken down into groups of those who drank beer, those who drank wine ... Jin, M.; Cai, S.; Guo, J.; Zhu, Y.; Li, M.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Chen, K. (2013-03-01). "Alcohol drinking and all cancer ... Alcohol drinking (PDF). Lyon: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1988. pp. 2-3. ISBN 92- ...

*Tetrahydropapaveroline

RD Myers, CL Melchior (29 Apr 1977). "Alcohol drinking: abnormal intake caused by tetrahydropapaveroline in brain". Science. ...

*Alcohol and cancer

Volume 44 Alcohol Drinking: Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation IARC Alcoholic beverages (Group 1) Ethanol in alcoholic ... Cancer risk of drinking US: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Alert No. 21-1993 Alcohol and cancer US ... 2.What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Pöschl G, Seitz HK (2004). "Alcohol and cancer". Alcohol and ... "Alcohol and Cancer". Alcohol Alert. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 21. 1993. Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn ...

*XIT Ranch

The XIT Ranch had a number of rules, including prohibitions against carrying arms; drinking alcohol; and gambling or card ...

*Ray Blades

Upon his appointment, he prohibited alcohol drinking among his players. In his first season, the Cards responded to Blades' ...

*Four Loko

Utah, which has a state-run alcoholic beverage distribution system, never allowed alcoholic energy drinks to go on sale there. ... The drink is either 6%, 7%, 8%, 12% or 14% alcohol by volume (ABV), depending on state regulations, and is packaged in 23.5 oz ... As students they had enjoyed caffeine mixed with alcohol, and recalled buying Thai energy drinks from a nearby Asian market to ... "OLCC Commissioners ban Alcoholic Energy Drinks in Oregon" (PDF) (Press release). Portland, Oregon: Oregon Liquor Control ...

*Alcohol in the Bible

Drinking a cup of strong wine to the dregs and getting drunk are sometimes presented as a symbol of God's judgement and wrath, ... R. V. Pierard (1984). "Alcohol, Drinking of". In Walter A. Elwell. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker ... Happy results ensue when it is drunk in its proper measure and evil results when it is drunk to excess. The nature of wine is ... Hence, the meanings of the words used for alcoholic beverages in each of these languages has bearing on alcohol in the Bible. ...

*Daringbadi

Salpa', a drink prepared by them by mixing the juice extracted from 'Salpa' and dead palm is a hit among the alcohol ... The local drink of the tribal people is prepared by mixing the juice extracted from salap and dead palm.A wooden bungalow at ...

*Christian views on alcohol

ISBN 0-312-16124-7. West, Drinking, pp. 68ff. West, Drinking, pp. 79ff. West, Drinking, p. 86. Lender, M. E. (1987). Drinking ... E]ven if the wine Jesus drank had a lower alcohol context than today's wine, the issue is still moderation not abstinence. The ... Fifty-two percent of Evangelical leaders around the world say drinking alcohol is incompatible with being a good Evangelical. ... R. V. Pierard (1984). "Alcohol, Drinking of". In Walter A. Elwell. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker ...
Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. A study evaluated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis in postmenopausal women. Previous studies by the same research group has demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease because of an improved lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol-mediated reduction in risk may be through its effect on inflammation and hemostasis.. As part of a controlled diet study, 53 postmenopausal women each consumed a weight-maintaining diet plus 0, 15 and 30 g/day of alcohol for 8 weeks. The controlled diet contained 15%, 53% and 32% of energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased by 5% (P,0.05) with consumption of both 15 and 30 g of alcohol. Fibrinogen concentrations decreased by 4% and 6% (P,0.05) after consumption of 15 and 30 g ...
Investigates the extent to which self-reported alcohol consumption level in the Scottish population is associated with first-time hospital admission for an alcohol-related cause. Design Observational record-linkage study. A total of 23 183 respondents aged 16 and over who participated in the 1995, 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys, followed-up via record-linkage from interview date until 30 September 2005. Measurements Rate of first-time hospital admission with at least one alcohol-related diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to estimate the relative risk of first-time hospitalization with an alcohol-related condition associated with usual alcohol consumption level (1-7, 8-14, 15-21, 22-35, 36-49, 50+ units/week and ex-drinker, compared with ,1 unit per week). Findings Of the SHS participants, 527 were hospitalized for an alcohol-related cause during 135 313 person-years of follow-up [39 first admissions per 10 000 personyears, 95% confidence interval (CI) ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. Method: The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. Results: High alcohol consumption was underreported in ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
Washington, DC - Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all-causes, according to a new, large study of over 333,000 U.S. adults published yesterday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study findings did not differentiate between beer, wine and spirits. The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a 21 percent and 34 percent decreased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and a 13 percent and 25 percent decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, in both men and women. Similar findings were observed for light drinking among men and women.. The researchers found, "the protective effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was more pronounced in women, middle-aged and older populations.". The researchers noted that previous studies showed that "all alcoholic drinks at moderate level were associated with lower risk of heart disease, suggesting a major benefit is ...
Introduction: Although current alcohol consumption appears to be a risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), limitations related to self-reported alcohol use and confounding in observational studies limit the certainty of conclusions regarding causality. Whether cessation of alcohol consumption can protect against incident AF remains unknown.. Methods: We examined all participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a population-based cohort of 15,792 men and women aged 45-65, without prevalent AF. Past alcohol consumption was assessed via self-report during the baseline dietary intake assessment. Cases of incident AF were ascertained via study ECGs, hospital discharge ICD-9 codes, and death certificates.. Results: Among 15,262 participants with complete survey data, 2,898 (19.0%) were former drinkers. During an average follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 380 cases of incident AF in former consumers. Both before and after adjustment for potential confounders, a ...
Background: Excess alcohol consumption can lead to myocardial dysfunction. However, whether novel cardiac biomarkers tests can detect subclinical myocardial damage and wall stress in asymptomatic populations exposed to alcohol is currently unknown.. Objective: To characterize the association of alcohol consumption with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by a novel highly sensitive assay for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and wall stress, as assessed by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).. Methods: Using data from the community-based ARIC Study we examined the cross-sectional association of categories of self-reported alcohol consumption with cardiac biomarkers among 10,381 individuals without cardiovascular disease (1990-92). We also examined the prospective association of alcohol consumption with 6-year change in cardiac biomarkers in a subset of participants (n=8,972 for hs-cTnT and n=9,060 for NT-proBNP), who had each biomarker measured at two time points. Incident ...
There were no differences between the groups (cohort versus control and intervention; or control versus intervention) in drinking one month after baseline as a function of what participants were given to believe about the study. Accordingly, neither of the null hypotheses can be rejected. There was a large difference in the percentage of the intervention group who clicked on the alcohol information, and in the amount of time spent viewing that information, relative to the other groups, suggesting that the intervention group treated the alcohol information in the way intended, as an intervention. There was no difference between the cohort and control groups in accessing of the alcohol information, suggesting the possibility of failure in the experimental manipulation, particularly as this measure was primarily designed as a manipulation check and was not specified a priori as an outcome measure.. Strengths of the study include the low potential for selection bias, given the ...
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
Figure 4a. Estimated average alcohol consumption on the last alcohol drinking day (among last day consumers). 2015. Centilitres of 100 % alcohol. (Table 17). ...
Years of heavy alcohol consumption can lead to progressive arterial stiffness that does not seem to be reversed even when a person stops drinking, according to new data from a 25-year study of British civil servants.. "The main message of this study is that men who consistently drink above the recommended maximum alcohol intake guidelines have significantly higher arterial stiffness by early old age compared to those who drink consistently moderately-moderately defined as below the recommended maximum intake levels," study author Darragh ONeill, PhD (University College London, London, England), said in an email.. Prior research has suggested that arterial stiffness may be a marker of cardiovascular disease risk. To TCTMD, ONeill added that it "is predictive of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been shown to improve prediction of such outcomes independent of other known risk factors." In the new study, arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave artery ...
Before proceeding with a discussion of parenting influences, it is necessary to set the scene by discussing rates and levels of alcohol use among Australian adolescents. This section provides an overview of information about: the age at which Australian adolescents commence drinking; levels of adolescent alcohol consumption, distinguishing between moderate and risky levels of use; the risks associated with alcohol consumption; adolescents views of alcohol and their reasons for drinking; their source of access to alcohol; and the settings in which adolescent alcohol use takes place.
Unhealthy alcohol use threatens the health benefits seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. Although research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief interventions, motivational counseling, and medications to treat unhealthy alcohol use in HIV uninfected patients, there is limited research or use of these treatments in HIV+ patients. We have demonstrated that integrated treatment of addiction in HIV clinics is feasible. Stepped care algorithms can facilitate the evaluation of varying intensities of treatments for unhealthy alcohol use. The proposed study will compare onsite Integrated Stepped Care treatment (ISC) to treatment as usual (TAU) in three, linked, 6-month randomized clinical trials in 642 HIV+ patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Screened patients are randomized to ISC or TAU after determining that they meet criteria for either 1) at-risk drinking, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence or 3) moderate alcohol consumption in the presence of liver disease. ISC ...
Unhealthy alcohol use threatens the health benefits seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. Although research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief interventions, motivational counseling, and medications to treat unhealthy alcohol use in HIV uninfected patients, there is limited research or use of these treatments in HIV+ patients. We have demonstrated that integrated treatment of addiction in HIV clinics is feasible. Stepped care algorithms can facilitate the evaluation of varying intensities of treatments for unhealthy alcohol use. The proposed study will compare onsite Integrated Stepped Care treatment (ISC) to treatment as usual (TAU) in three, linked, 6-month randomized clinical trials in 642 HIV+ patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Screened patients are randomized to ISC or TAU after determining that they meet criteria for either 1) at-risk drinking, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence or 3) moderate alcohol consumption in the presence of liver disease. ISC ...
Complex behaviors such as the initiation and use of alcohol result from an intricate interplay between genes and environment. Genes shape physiological and behavioral responses to alcohol that can influence the likelihood that a young person will begin using alcohol and that he or she will progress to problem drinking. Youthful alcohol use also can have an impact on unfolding developmental patterns, and for some, early use becomes the entry point for pathways that lead to problems with alcohol. This article first describes research on genes that may be involved in the development of alcohol problems and how genetic factors may contribute to adolescent alcohol use. It then examines how the changes that occur during adolescent development-in alcohol metabolism, in the brain, and in the endocrine and stress response systems-may affect how a young person experiences alcohol and the likelihood that he or she will develop alcohol use problems ...
Alcohol is one of the main causes of high blood pressure. A doctor recommends cutting back on alcohol when a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. Alcohol affects the body in different ways. For example, steady alcohol consumption over a long period permanently changes the brain by reducing the amount of brain tissue. Steady alcohol consumption also deprives the heart of essential nutrients. This weakens the heart muscles and hinders its ability to pump blood. This increases blood pressure and causes heart attacks and strokes. Alcohol also affects the liver, skin, lungs and bones among other parts of the body. In addition, alcohol contains sugar and other carbohydrates that increase weight. Weight gain is another cause of high blood pressure.. How Alcohol Increases Blood Pressure There is no concrete proof as to how alcohol affects blood pressure. However, researchers believe alcohol interferes with the livers ability to metabolize hormones. Hormones such as renin and angiotensin are ...
The PRIME-Alcohol model effectively demonstrates the potential impact of population usual alcohol consumption on chronic disease mortality, bringing together a wide range of risk and protective effects of alcohol, including the increased risks of many cancers and the protective effect of low-to-moderate consumption on CVD. Modelling demonstrated that the optimum population median alcohol consumption level appears to be substantially lower than the currently recommended safe levels in the current UK public health guidance. Based on this model, reducing the median population alcohol consumption among current drinkers to around half a unit (5 g of alcohol) per day would result in around 4600 fewer deaths annually, primarily due to reductions in cancers and liver cirrhosis. This level of consumption would equate to as little as one-quarter of a glass of wine or one-fifth of a pint of beer per day on average.. The model showed no additional benefit to chronic disease mortality if the proportion of ...
The effects of chronic alcohol intake on menstrual cycle status and hormonal function were studied in 26 healthy, adult women under controlled research ward conditions. Women were classified as heavy, social or occasional alcohol users on the basis of the actual number of drinks consumed during 3 consecutive weeks of alcohol availability. Heavy, social and occasional users drank an average of 7.81 ( +/- 0.69), 3.84 ( +/- 0.19) and 1.22 ( +/- 0.21) drinks/day, respectively. This drinking pattern was highly consistent with subjects self-reports of alcohol use before the study. No evidence of menstrual cycle dysfunction or abnormality in reproductive hormone levels was found in the occasional drinkers or in two of the social drinkers who consumed less than an average of three drinks/day. In contrast, 50% of the social drinkers who consumed more than three drinks/day and 60% of the heavy drinkers had significant derangements of menstrual cycle and reproductive hormone function. The major ...
When you drink alcohol it is absorbed into your bloodstream where it circulates thus affecting the whole body. The blood alcohol concentration begins to rise ten minutes after the first sip. One drink of alcohol stays in the body for 2 hours after being consumed. The alcohol is absorbed by the stomach and the small intestines, and it is metabolized by the liver. The processing of alcohol is determined by many factors, including if your stomach is full meaning you have eaten recently, the size of your body and the rate at which you drink. A larger body has more circulating blood in its system so alcohol levels rise more slowly than in a smaller body; this explains why females tend to have more alcohol in their bloodstream compared to men. Also the amount of fat in the organism defines the alcohol levels because fat tissue does not absorb alcohol. Drinking slowly, while eating and also after meals slows the rate at which alcohol is absorbed. Liver metabolism is the process of converting alcohol ...
Most of the previous studies assessed alcohol intake at baseline; however, in this study researchers collected detailed information seven times over 40 years. "Consumption patterns usually change during life," Streppel said. "This enabled us to study the effects of long-term alcohol intake on mortality." Researchers found that the number of alcohol users nearly doubled from 45 percent in 1960 to 85 percent in the 2000 survey. Average alcohol consumption rose and then fell at various points during the study. Users consumption was eight grams a day in 1960, then survivors consumption was 18 grams a day in 1985, dropping to 13 grams per day in 2000. The percentage of wine users increased during follow-up from 2 percent in 1960 to more than 40 percent among the survivors in 2000. "One can speculate that a protective effect of light alcohol intake could be due to an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or to a reduction in blood clotting, due to an inhibition of platelet ...
Health, ...Heavier alcohol consumption increases the risk of ESCC. There are syne...This study performed by a team led by Dr. Yan-Mei Guo is described i...ESCC is the seventh leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemio...In the view of the authors no clear explanation has to date existed...,Alcohol,consumption,and,polymorphisms,of,cytochromes,P4502E1,are,high,risks,for,ESCC,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Many have questioned the validity of self reported alcohol intake, but until now one of the available methods to obtain the information (sales reports, collateral information, etc) has proved to be more valid.20 We made no attempt to validate the subjects reported histories. Trained staff went through the histories as reported in the questionnaire with the subject. Subjects had no reason to deny their alcohol intake, as may be the case, for example, in data collected for insurance purposes. Still, the alcohol intake may have been underreported. If the underreporting was equal at all levels the observed risk function would be moved to the left of the true risk function, which means that the present study would overestimate the risk of dying from given reported levels of alcohol intake in the groups with higher alcohol intake, while the nadir, also moving to the left, would be at a lower intake. If the underreporting was unequal and stated abstainers actually included drinkers or former drinkers, ...
Globally, alcohol use is the leading cause of ill health and life years lost in adolescents, although its clinical impact is often overlooked, particularly in England where most research is based in schools. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and age of onset with health and social consequences among adolescents presenting to emergency departments (EDs). Methods Consecutive attenders (n = 5,576) aged 10-17 years at 10 EDs were included. Information was collected on general health and functioning, quality of life, alcohol use, and alcohol-related health and social consequences. Results Nearly 40% of adolescents reported the consumption of alcohol that was more than a sip in their lifetime. Age of the first alcohol consumption before the age of 15 years was associated with tobacco use (p , .001), lower quality of life (p = .003), and evidence of an alcohol use disorder (p = .002). It was also associated with general ...
Both in the UK and internationally, similar alcohol consumption levels have been associated with greater impacts on the health of more deprived individuals. In a systematic review of socio-economic differences in alcohol-attributable mortality Probst et al. suggest that the poorer diet of individuals living in deprivation (e.g. more high fat and salt foods and less fruit and vegetable consumption) may interact with alcohol consumption to alter protein and vitamin absorption and increase risks of health harms [31]. They also acknowledge that interactions between higher smoking prevalence in deprived areas and alcohol consumption may contribute to an increased risk of some cancers. Moreover, they suggest that poorer access to primary care may contribute to greater harms from alcohol in deprived groups. Consequently, individuals with lower socio-economic status may face cost, transport, availability and stigma-related issues that restrict their access to services which might help with alcohol- ...
Objective: There is little systematic information on the patterns of Chinese adolescents alcohol expectancies and the influence of expectancies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese high school students alcohol expectancies and gender and drinking status (non-drinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) differences in expectancies. Method: We administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Huhhot City, Chayouhou Qi, and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results: We identified eight expectancy factors: three negative (general negative consequences, harm to person/reputation, and negative uses of alcohol) and five positive (general positive perceptions, tension reduction/relaxation, drinking as social courtesy, social facilitation, and beneficial drinking/moderation). MANOVA results indicated that males had higher positive perception expectancies
The cardiovascular benefits of consuming alcohol have been of particular interest during the last decade. Studies included in this meta-analysis by Rimm et al for effects on lipoproteins and other biological markers had relatively small sample sizes, involved predominantly younger (,50 y of age) and male (82% of total sample) participants, and studied the effects of alcohol consumption over a short duration (range 1 day to 3 mo). Meta-analytic methods enable pooling of studies to enhance the sample size and the effect of the intervention.. In everyday terms, "moderate alcohol consumption" represents approximately 30 g of alcohol per day (eg, 24 oz or 720 ml of regular beer; 10 oz or 300 ml of table wine; 2 oz or 60 ml of spirits).1-2 As the authors indicate, there is "a decreased first pass metabolism of alcohol among women that may accentuate... (its) effects". In fact, recommendations exist that women and lighter weight people consume one half of the alcohol that is recommended for ...
China Digital Wine Alcohol Tester Breath Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breathalyzer Sensor, Find details about China Digital Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breath Tester, Breathalyzer from Digital Wine Alcohol Tester Breath Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breathalyzer Sensor - Shenzhen Ipopman Technology Limited
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004-08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. ResultsOverall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of
Regular alcohol consumption can lead to binge drinking among all gender and age groups, a new study suggests.. "What we found is that when people drink more often, they are more likely to drink more, take more drinks, and go to binge drinking," said Andree Demers of Universite de Montreal, the studys main researcher.. She classified binge drinking as five drinks or more per occasion.. "Usually you take one or two drinks," she said yesterday. "If you want to celebrate, youre going to take two or three or four or five drinks.". The study was conducted by researchers from the Universite de Montreal and the University of Western Ontario and published in the latest edition of Addiction.. The study established one drink as either five ounces of wine; 1.5 ounces of liquor; 12 ounces of beer or cooler; or three ounces of port, sherry or vermouth.. About 11,000 respondents - 5,743 women and 4,723 men - were asked to report on their alcohol consumption over a year. The data was gathered by the Genacis ...
In French men, fibrinogen concentration was strongly associated with alcohol intake in a U-shaped fashion, in particular for the intake of wine and spirits. The assessment of alcohol intake is, as for every nutritional factor, subject to flaws. Although study subjects, and especially heavy drinkers, tend to underestimate their alcohol intake, self-reported alcohol intake is the best method available.30 If underreporting takes place and heavy drinkers are included in the category with moderate alcohol consumption, it would lower the strength of relations between fibrinogen and alcohol. The results may therefore be an underestimation of the true association between fibrinogen and alcohol intake.. Many studies have investigated the association between fibrinogen and alcohol consumption.6 7 8 10 12 13 14 16 17 Although categories of alcohol intake varied from nondrinkers versus drinkers in general, to nondrinkers versus 5 different categories of drinkers, the results of these studies all suggest a ...
The interaction between diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption is complex. While regular light-tomoderate drinking may decrease the risk for diabetes, heavy drinking increases this risk (1, 2). Moreover, alcohol consumption, especially "binge" drinking (heavy episodic consumption), can worsen the course of the disease and influence its outcomes via a number of mechanisms. Recent meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and primary studies (1, 2) illustrate the multiple ways alcohol consumption can affect diabetes, and provide the basis for integrating alcohol control measures into the public health approach to diabetes prevention and management within the context of the World Health Organization (WHO) global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol (3). This article describes the association between alcohol use and diabetes within the context of new conceptual and preventive developments in the management of diabetes from a public health perspective. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN THE AMERICAS In ...
Alcohol has always been an issue in public health but it is currently assuming increasing importance as a cause of disease and premature death worldwide. This book provides an interdisciplinary source of information that links together the usually separate fields of science, policy, and public health. This volume highlights the importance of bringing scientific knowledge to bear in order to strengthen and develop alcohol public policy. The book looks at the historical evolution of alcohol consumption in society, key early studies of alcohol and disease, and the cultural and social aspects of alcohol consumption. It then goes on to cover the chemistry and biology of alcohol, patterns of consumption, gender and age-related issues, alcohol and injury, alcohol and cancer and non-malignant disease, and various current therapeutic aspects. The book concludes with a section on alcohol policy, looking at issues of poverty, the availability of alcohol and alcohol control measures.
BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These ...
Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. The harmful use of alcohol causes a large disease, social and economic burden in societies. Environmental factors such as economic development, culture, availability of alcohol and the level and effectiveness of alcohol policies are relevant factors in explaining differences and historical trends in alcohol consumption and related harm.. Alcohol-related harm is determined by the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking, and, on rare occasions, the quality of alcohol consumed. The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries. The latest causal relationships established are those between alcohol consumption and incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.. A wide range of effective global, regional and ...
Methods: Between November 2004 and March 2009, we prospectively recruited 562 consecutive adults with a spontaneous ICH. We excluded patients without information on drinking habit (n = 22). Heavy alcohol intake was defined as a regular consumption of more than 300 g alcohol/week. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) based on demographic and radiologic models. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Read more. ...
Alcohol abuse causes 79,000 deaths stemming from severe organ damage in the United States every year. Clinical manifestations of long-term alcohol abuse on the cardiac muscle include defective contractility with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and low-output heart failure; which has poor prognosis with less than 25% survival for more than three years. In contrast, low alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, however the mechanism of this phenomenon remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of apoptosis as a mediating factor in cardiac function following chronic high alcohol versus low alcohol exposure. Adult rats were provided 5 mM (low alcohol), 100 mM (high alcohol) or pair-fed non-alcohol controls for 4-5 months. The hearts were dissected, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet or immunohistochemically for caspase-3, a putative marker for apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated to determine the effects of alcohol
Alcohol policy is broadly defined as any purposeful effort on the part of governments or nongovernment groups to minimize or prevent alcohol-related consequences. Policies can involve the implementation of a specific strategy with regard to alcohol problems (e.g., age restrictions on alcohol sales) or the allocation of resources that reflect priorities with regard to prevention or treatment intervention efforts. Among the various strategies and interventions that have been used as a basis for alcohol policy are: taxation and pricing, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, countermeasures to deal with driving while intoxicated, regulating alcohol promotion, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services (1, 2). In recent years there has been an increasing interest in alcohol policy in the Americas, in part because of the growing concern over the burden of disease and disability connected to alcohol, and in part because ...
A retrospective study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in post-mortem blood samples sent for toxicological analysis in Cork City and County in 2003 and 2004. Post mortem reports of these deaths were reviewed for the presence or absence of alcohol at the time of autopsy, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of death, age and sex of the decedents. Of samples sent for blood alcohol analysis (BAA), 38.4% were positive for alcohol. Significant differences were found between the proportions of alcohol positive cases by cause of death. Alcohol positive cases were significantly younger (44.3 +/- 17.8 years) than alcohol negative cases (51.9 +/- 19.4 years) and fifty two percent of drivers were positive for alcohol at the time of death. Awareness of the harmful and potentially fatal effects of alcohol should continue to be raised within the community, so as to prevent future fatalities ...
Want to stop drinking alcohol? Overcoming an addiction to alcohol can be a long and bumpy road. At times, it may even feel impossible. But its not.. With these 8 recovery tips on how to stop drinking alcohol, you will have some self - help ideas on how to start to make the change and where to look for help and support.. Whether you are a regular drinker or you quietly drink a six pack by yourself each night, you may have fallen into the trap of alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is heavy drinking, where your drinking leads to problems-physical, mental or emotional.. On the other hand, alcohol addiction is a physical addiction or need to drink more and more. With addiction, the alcohol takes first place in your life-over family, friends, job, school and even your physical and mental health.. If youre willing to stop drinking and to get the support you need, you can recover from alcoholism and alcohol abuse-no matter how bad the addiction or how powerless you feel.. There are many things you can do to ...
...Moderate alcohol intake is associated with higher levels of omega-3 fa...The IMMIDIET study examined 1604 citizens from three geographical are...Omega-3 fatty acids mainly derived from fish are considered as prote... Several studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption includi...,A,little,wine,boosts,omega-3,in,the,body:,Researchers,find,a,novel,mechanism,for,a,healthier,heart,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: MICROARRAY-BASED RESEARCH ON ALCOHOLS EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR, NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION, AND ORGAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY RFA-AA-00-004. NIAAA
A number of previous studies has found that moderate alcohol consumers experience a 30-40% reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (3,4,6-12). The findings of this study are in line with these observations. With regard to high alcohol consumption, we find no support for an increased risk in men as suggested previously (1-7) or for a protective effect, as indicated by others (9). Lean to normal weight women who consume comparatively high amounts of alcohol were found to have an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, these results must be interpreted with caution as very few women consumed large amounts of alcohol, and there may be confounding from social, dietary, or other factors that we could no fully take into account.. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes in a prospective study of twins allowing us to control for hereditary and early childhood factors. Small numbers seriously hampered the twin/cotwin ...
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a chronic and relapsing condition characterized by harmful alcohol intake and behavioral-cognitive changes. AUD is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy in alcoholic patients affected with liver disease. Medical recommendations, brief motivational interventions and psychosocial approach are essential pieces of the treatment for these patients; however, their efficacy alone may not be enough to achieve total alcohol abstinence. The addition of pharmacological treatment could improve clinical outcomes in AUD patients. Moreover, pharmacological treatments for AUD are limited in patients with advanced liver disease, since impaired liver function affects drugs metabolism and could increase the risk of drugs-related hepatotoxicity. At present, only baclofen has been tested in RCTs in patients with advanced liver disease. This medication was effective to reduce alcohol intake, to promote alcohol abstinence and
Results A total of 1905 cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 428,497 person-years of follow-up. A 7.5 g/day (∼half a glass) increase in alcohol consumption over four years was associated with lower diabetes risk among initial nondrinkers (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-1.00) and drinkers initially consuming ,15 g/day (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) but not among men initially drinking ≥15 g/day (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.02; Pinteraction , 0.01). A similar pattern was observed for levels of total adiponectin and hemoglobin A1c, with a better metabolic profile among abstainers and light drinkers who modestly increased their alcohol intake, compared with men who either drank less or among men who were already moderate drinkers and increased their intake. Likewise, compared to stable light drinkers (0-4.9 g/day), light drinkers who increased their intake to moderate levels (5.0-29.9 g/day) had a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 0.75; 95% CI ...
Alcohol and sex deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior. The effects of alcohol are balanced between its suppressive effects on sexual physiology, which will decrease sexual activity, and its suppression of psychological inhibitions, which may increase the desire for sex. Alcohol is a depressant. After consumption, alcohol causes the bodys systems to slow down. Often, feelings of drunkenness are associated with elation and happiness but other feelings of anger or depression can arise. Balance, judgment, and coordination are also negatively affected. One of the most significant short term side effects of alcohol is reduced inhibition. Reduced inhibitions can lead to an increase in sexual behavior. Mens sexual behaviors can be affected dramatically by alcohol. Both chronic and acute alcohol consumption have been shown in most (but not all) studies to inhibit testosterone production in the testes. This is believed to be caused by the metabolism of alcohol reducing ...
1 Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used in past research to study the correlates and consequences of alcohol use (Porjesz et al., 2005). In particular, reduced amplitude of the P3 (P300) component is related to risk for alcoholism and other disorders of inhibition (e.g., Iacono et al. 2003). Recent research has shown that social drinkers at risk for alcoholism due to (self-reported) low alcohol sensitivity also exhibit reduced P3 amplitude in general, but that they exhibit increased P3 amplitude to alcohol cues, compared to social drinkers with higher self-reported sensitivity to alcohol (Bartholow et al., in press). A number of questions remain concerning the relationship between low alcohol sensitivity, reactivity to alcohol-related cues, and risk for alcohol-related problems. Specifically: It is unclear whether enhanced cue reactivity among low-sensitivity drinkers is attributable simply to the arousing nature of alcohol-related stimuli. If so, low-sensitivity drinkers, relative to ...
Alcohol in the Liver Unlike foods, which needs a digestion period, alcohol gets metabolized very quickly. In fact, it mainly at the head of the class when it comes to being absorbed and metabolized prior to most other nutrients. About one-fifth of alcohol gets absorbed in the stomach where it breaks down. This, and the fact that another 10% of alcohol gets expelled via the urine and breath, means that about 30% of the alcohol does not enter the blood.. The blood that contains alcohol makes its way to the liver through the veins and capillaries of the digestive tracts. This impacts just about every liver cell. Thats because the liver cells are the only ones that are able to produce enough alcohol dehydrogenase which oxidizes alcohol at a quick rate.. While alcohol affects other organs, the liver bears the brunt of the impact. Fatty livers develop because the liver cells metabolize alcohol first which allows other fatty acids the liver is supposed to metabolize to accumulate. Eventually, this ...
The regional study was published in the January issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and the authors cite previous research that identified early initiation of alcohol use (before the age of 14) as one risk factor for problems with alcohol later in life.. Each year that kids delay experimenting with alcohol can help them avoid some of the serious consequences that drinking at a young age can contribute to, including drinking and driving and alcohol dependence, says the lead author of the study James Sargent, professor of pediatrics at DMS. This study is aimed at the prevention of early alcohol use and our hope is that parents of young children become more aware that drinking in films is common and that seeing these depictions can lead to early experimentation with drinking.. In his previous studies, Sargent found that images and scenarios depicted in movies are among the strongest influences on young children, rivaling several other factors such as drinking by parents and peers. In his ...
Here is rule, the drinking alcohol and driving a person receives his or her body and its ability to process alcohol like it did in the drinking alcohol and driving and how under the drinking alcohol and driving of moderate alcohol drinkers. Another study investigated the drinking alcohol and driving of moderate alcohol consumption may lead to alcoholic hepatitis, a severe inflammation of the drinking alcohol and driving a very sick person, and neither do the drinking alcohol and driving around them. For example, police reports have demonstrated 24 percent of motor vehicle accidents and other cultural rituals that were purported to put people in contact with supernatural forces.. When a person create emotional attachments out side the drinking alcohol and driving that alcohol abuse not only was alcohol used for medicinal purposes, it was also employed for religious ceremonies. For example, alcoholics and people that alcoholism is the drinking alcohol and driving to become more severe if alcohol ...
Monday, March 4, 2002. What is meant in warnings to pregnant women not to drink alcohol? Research has shown that even small levels of alcohol consumed during pregnancy may affect the fetus in damaging ways. In pregnant women, alcohol is not only carried to all organs and tissues, but also to the placenta, where it easily crosses through the membrane separating maternal and fetal blood systems. In this way, alcohol is transported directly to the fetus and to all its developing tissues and organs. When a pregnant woman drinks an alcoholic beverage, the concentration of alcohol in her unborn babys bloodstream is the same level as her own. Unlike the mother, however, the liver of a fetus cannot process alcohol at the same adults rate of one ounce every two hours. High concentrations of alcohol, therefore, stay in the fetus longer, often for up to 24 hours. In fact, the unborn babys blood alcohol concentration is even higher than the mothers during the second and third hour after a drink is ...
The dose-risk relationship for alcohol consumption and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was examined in the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study, which is a multicenter, prospective, case-control study.. The study recruited 1,000 non-Hispanic white patients, 1,000 non-Hispanic black patients, and 1,000 Hispanic patients with ICH. Cases were matched 1:1 to ICH-free controls by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic area. Comprehensive interviews included questions regarding alcohol consumption. Patterns of alcohol consumption were categorized as none, rare (,1 drink per month), moderate (≥1 drink per month and ≤2 drinks per day), intermediate (,2 drinks per day and ,5 drinks per day), and heavy (≥5 drinks per day). ICH risk was calculated using the noalcohol use category as the reference group. Multivariable analyses demonstrated an ordinal trend for alcohol consumption: rare (odds ratio [OR] 0.57, p , 0.0001), moderate (OR 0.65, p , 0.0001), intermediate (OR ...
College campuses are notorious for high alcohol consumption and risky drinking behavior. Seek professional treatment to prevent alcohol from derailing a young persons life.
The study also showed that the vast majority of fathers living with adolescents (68.1 percent) used alcohol, but did not have a drinking disorder. About one third, (33.2 percent) of these fathers adolescent children engaged in underage drinking in the past year. Nearly 1 in 4 fathers living with adolescents (24.2 percent) abstained from drinking alcohol in the past year. On the other hand, 1 in 12 fathers living with adolescents (7.9 percent) met the clinical definition of having an alcohol use disorder.. The study also indicates that paternal alcohol use affects the likelihood of adolescent use of illicit drugs. Adolescents living with fathers who abstained from alcohol were far less likely to use illicit drugs in the past year than their counterparts living with fathers who had alcohol use disorders (14.0 percent versus 24.2 percent). The rate among adolescents living with fathers who drank, but did not have drinking disorders was 18.4 percent.. Fathers Alcohol Use and Substance Use among ...
Background: At-risk alcohol use is associated bi-directionally to unemployment, and decreases chances of re-employment. Brief alcohol interventions (BAI) can reduce at-risk alcohol use. This study aimed to investigate 15-month effects of BAI on unemployment among persons with at-risk alcohol use. Methods: As part of the randomized controlled Trial on proactive alcohol interventions among job-seekers, TOPAS, 1243 18- to 64-year-old job-seekers with at-risk alcohol use were systematically recruited at three job agencies in Germany (2008/09), and randomized to (i) a stage tailored intervention based on the trans-theoretical model of intentional behavior change (ST), (ii) a non-stage tailored intervention based on the theory of planned behavior (NST) and (iii) assessment only (AO ...
Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with ...
The main result of the present analysis is that, in a referral population of subjects at high risk for CVD alcohol consumption was associated with less coronary atherosclerosis at angiography and reduced cardiac mortality at follow-up. Specifically, after accounting for all other major CVD risk factors moderate alcohol consumption (in our cohort, ,231 g/wk in men, ,154 g/wk in women) was associated with a reduction in the ATS score comparable to that predicted by a 1-mmol decrement in serum total cholesterol concentrations. Although the data suggest that lighter alcohol consumption may not carry such benefit, a clear threshold or J-shaped relationship16 could not be identified because our cohort included too few women (who drank less than men) and very few heavy drinkers. Also, the ATS score decreased across drinking category somewhat, but the change was more evident in women than in men, ie, in the smaller group. Accordingly, when the multivariate analysis of ATS predictors was performed ...
Individuals who have consumed a moderate amount of alcohol before a traumatic event tend to report more flashbacks than those who have had no alcohol
We suggest you to remove LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE from your computer as soon as possible. LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE is known as: Backdoor.SuspectCRC [Ikarus]. MD5 of LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE = C278AF783AB675D5E9F011DB05513BB0 LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE size is 75169 bytes. Full path on a computer: %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE Related Files: %COMMONDESKTOPDIR%\ALCOHOL 120%.LNK %TEMP%\NSR5.TMP %TEMP%\NSG6.TMP\USERINFO.DLL %PROGRAMS%\ALCOHOL 120%\A.C.I.D. WIZARD.LNK %PROGRAMS%\ALCOHOL 120%\ALCOHOL 120%.LNK %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL.EXE %SYSTEM%\LDR_ALCOHOL_R.EXE
ALCOHOLS EFFECTS ON FEMALE REPRODUCTION. The following section details alcohols effects on puberty, the female reproductive system, and postmenopause, as revealed by human and animal studies.. Alcohol and Puberty. Rapid hormonal changes occurring during puberty make females especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of alcohol exposure during this time. Thus, the high incidence of alcohol consumption among middle school and high school students in the United States is a matter of great concern. A national survey of students revealed that 22.4 percent of 8th graders and 50 percent of 12th graders reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days before the survey (Johnston et al. 2001). Little research on the physiological effects of alcohol consumption during puberty has focused on human females. However, one study found that estrogen levels were depressed among adolescent girls ages 12 to 18 for as long as 2 weeks after drinking moderately (Block et al. 1993). This finding suggests the ...
An overview of the newly-revised 2010 U.S. Dietary Guidelines and the science underlying the alcohol guideline. The Guidelines, released jointly every five years by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Health and Human Services (HHS), serve as the basis for nutrition policy in the United States.. ◦According to the Guidelines, "The consumption of alcohol can have beneficial or harmful effects, depending on the amount consumed, age and other characteristics of the person consuming the alcohol.". ◦The 2010 Guidelines define moderate drinking as consuming up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. ◦The Guidelines define a standard drink as 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol) distilled spirits, 5 ounces of wine (12% alcohol), or 12 ounces of regular beer (5% alcohol). Each of these standard drinks contains 0.6 ounces of alcohol. ◦Moderate evidence suggests that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages is not associated with weight gain.. ◦The potential ...
Alcohol and the global burden of disease According to the Global status report on alcohol and health (WHO, 2014) alcohol consumption led to 3.3 million deaths in 2012. In other words 5.9% of all deaths globally resulted from using alcohol. To put that in context, alcohol led to more deaths than HIV/AIDS (2.8%), violence (0.9%) and tuberculosis (1.7%) combined.. Alcohol is also responsible for 5.1% of the global burden of disease or 139 DALYs (disability adjusted life years) and there is evidence of strong links between alcohol use and occurrence of more than 200 diseases. This includes its role as one of the main risk factors behind the rise of non communicable diseases (NCDs) i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung diseases.. It also includes alcohols role in aggravating the incidence and progression of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.. This makes alcohol one of the leading avoidable risk factors contributing to premature death, disability and ...
FRANCE Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 3 25 Litres of pure alcohol Beer Spirits Wine Year Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture
Mental and behavioural disorders as a consequence of excessive alcohol consumption accounted for more than half of alcohol-related mortality in 2002. It mainly concerns alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Liver diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption are the second most important cause of death of all alcohol-related deaths.. The share of mental disorders slightly rose from 56 percent in 1996 to 59 percent in 2002, whereas the share of liver diseases caused by alcohol consumption decreased by 37 percent in 1996 to 34 percent in 2002.. Anouschka van der Meulen (Statistics Netherlands), Jacqueline Verdurmen and Margriet van Laar (Trimbos-instituut in Utrecht). ...
Sure, drinking alcohol can take a toll on your liver, but a new study hopes to illuminate just how much damage -- and from how much alcohol -- it can ...
Secretary of State - Operators who receive a combination of two alcohol convictions within seven years, or any combination of three alcohol convictions within ten years, are presumed to be habitual alcohol violators.
DA LUZ, PROTASIO L. and COIMBRA, SILMARA R.. Alcohol and atherosclerosis. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2001, vol.73, n.1, pp.51-55. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652001000100006.. Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic ...
Measuring alcohol use and abuse goes far beyond just testing DUI suspects, and during a morning presentation titled "Role of the Laboratory in the Science of Drinking: From Blood Alcohol Levels and Markers of Alcohol Abuse to Pharmacogenomics," on Monday, July 26, both Dr. Dasgupta and Dr. Loralie Langman, Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, will outline the complex and changing role labs are playing not only in measuring and interpreting blood alcohol levels, but also in measuring biomarkers of alcohol abuse and researching genetic variations that can provide insight into why individuals metabolize alcohol in different ways. These presentations will be offered during AACCs 2010 Annual Meeting, which is being held at the Anaheim Convention Center ...
As women develop alcohol-related health complications earlier than men, it is likely that, if current trends continue, we will see significantly higher numbers of middle-aged women at increased risk of dying as a result of alcohol-related conditions. [x]. Factors influencing changing drinking patterns. There are a number of factors that have influenced this change in drinking patterns. Alcohol has become more available, the liberalisation of licensing laws having led to a massive jump in the number of off-licences, with alcohol available from an increased range of outlets including convenience stores, supermarkets and petrol stations. In addition, alcohol has become more affordable - at current prices, a woman can reach her low-risk weekly limit for about €6.30 a week.. Alcohol marketing has become more focused and intense in targeting women, often with drinks high in alcohol content such as wine and spirits. Note how such drinks are marketed to women through the sponsorship of TV programmes ...
Although tobacco use has been proven to increase the risk of oral cancer, people who use both alcohol and tobacco are at an especially high risk of contracting the disease. Scientists now believe that these substances synergistically interact, increasing each others harmful effects.. Alcohol abuse (when defined as more than 21 standard drinks in one week) is already the second largest risk factor for the development of oral cancer. More than 30 years ago, a study focusing on heavy alcohol consumption as a significant factor in the development of cancer also found that in Utah, a state whose population is approximately two-thirds Mormon, incidences of oral cancer were less than that of other western states. In fact, the rate was less than the nation as a whole. This is likely due to the Mormons religious beliefs requiring them to abstain completely from alcohol and tobacco.. Alcohols effect on the mouth may be the key to understanding how it works with tobacco to increase the risk of ...
To assess the prevalence of drinking among medical students a questionnaire on smoking, exercise, drinking, and weight was distributed among the students available. A total of 260 replies were received from an estimated available population of 350 students (134 men and 126 women). The mean alcohol consumption obtained by a quantity-frequency measure was 20.5 units/week for male students and 14.6 units/week for female students. Retrospective diary reports showed mean (SE) consumptions of 18 (2) units/week for men (n = 134) and 11 (1) units/week for women (n = 126). Consumption among the men closely matched consumption among men matched for age in the general population. Women, however, drank more than women matched for age. Male and female medical students exceeded the suggested maximum for their sex in equal proportions. Quantity-frequency data showed that 31 (23%) men drank over 35 units/week and 28 (22%) women drank over 21 units/week. Of the 59 students exceeding these limits, 51 responded ...
After it enters your stomach, alcohol is absorbed into your bloodstream. Since blood circulates through your whole body, it carries the alcohol to your brain, liver, and other vital organs. In your brain, alcohol slows down your neurotransmitters. That makes you feel tired, alters your mood, and affects the way you behave. One particular neurotransmitter, the one that controls memory, is particularly affected by alcohol. Thats why people sometimes "black out" and cant remember a night of heavy drinking.. Your liver breaks down alcohol and removes it from your body, but it can only handle a little at a time. If you drink more alcohol than your body can break down in a given period of time, the alcohol builds up in your body. More than 2 million Americans have liver disease related to alcohol consumption. It is dangerous to combine alcohol and acetaminophen (Tylenol). That cocktail produces dangerous byproducts that are toxic to your liver.. You might feel sick when you drink too much, because ...
We humans have been making and drinking alcohol for thousands of years.. Its a strange liquid. We can use it as a fuel or germ-killer, use it to preserve human heads or other body parts in jars for years on end, or to strip oil stains from the garage floor.. And yet, in small quantities we use alcohol as a social lubricant.. But over time, too much alcohol can set off diabetes and malnutrition, and diseases of the central nervous system and the liver.. A short-term side-effect is excessive urination. In Shakespeares play, Macbeth, the porter says that alcohol promotes "nose-painting, sleep and urine".. But even today we still dont fully understand how alcohol causes this excessive urination.. After all, beer is about 95 per cent water and only five per cent alcohol. And the liver converts that five per cent of alcohol into roughly the same mass of water and some carbon dioxide.. So if you drink 200 millilitres of beer, the end result is 200 millilitres of water. But you dont urinate just 200 ...
in Journal of Hepatology (2016), 65. Background & Aims:Whether alcohol intake increases the risk of complications in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of alcohol intake and ... [more ▼]. Background & Aims:Whether alcohol intake increases the risk of complications in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of alcohol intake and viral eradication on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), decompensation of cirrhosis and death. Methods: Data on alcohol intake and viral eradication were prospectively collected in 192 patients with compensated HCVrelated cirrhosis. Results: 74 patients consumed alcohol (median alcohol intake: 15 g/day); 68 reached viral eradication. During a median followup of 58 months, 33 patients developed HCC, 53 experienced at least one decompensation event, and 39 died. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate of HCC was 10.6% (95% CI: 4.6-16.6) ...
Rev. 5/24/2016 4:00:43 PM--2015]. CHAPTER 484C - DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE. GENERAL PROVISIONS. NRS 484C.010 Definitions. NRS 484C.020 Concentration of alcohol of 0.08 or more in his or her blood or breath defined. [Effective until the date of the repeal of the federal law requiring each state to make it unlawful for a person to operate a motor vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 percent or greater as a condition to receiving federal funding for the construction of highways in this State.]. NRS 484C.020 Concentration of alcohol of 0.10 or more in his or her blood or breath defined. [Effective on the date of the repeal of the federal law requiring each state to make it unlawful for a person to operate a motor vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 percent or greater as a condition to receiving federal funding for the construction of highways in this State.]. NRS 484C.030 Concentration of alcohol of 0.18 or more in his or her blood ...
Do you feel anxious when youre in the spotlight or under scrutiny?. According to a recent study from researchers at Yale University and Florida State University, social anxiety - and fear of scrutiny, specifically - appears to serve as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders (Buckner & Schmidt, 2009). Future research into how observation anxiety can lead to excessive alcohol use will likely provide useful guidance for alcohol recovery. For now, it appears that individuals with both observation anxiety and excessive alcohol use will likely need to learn to manage their observation anxiety in order to achieve a stable alcohol recovery.. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) are highly comorbid. According to one study, 48 percent of individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of SAD also meet criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of AUD (Grant et al., 2005). Such comorbidity often leads to more severe symptoms of both disorders. Several models posit that people with SAD use alcohol ...
What Is A Chronic Liver Disease Caused By Excessive Alcohol Consumption Is Known As age does not work then make sure you are overdosing on acetaminophen Mix all ingredients extra vi
HDL increases about 5% for each drink consumed on a daily basis. HDL are good for the body as they help in lowering the Cholesterol levels. Though mild to moderate alcohol is good for health, more is definitely not better. This can be sited by a study conducted amongst Russias general population. Russia enjoys a higher mean HDL level than any other country but then the rates of Heart Diseases are significantly higher than those noted in Western Europe or USA, which can be further explained by the adverse effects of excessive intake of alcohol such as high blood pressure, predisposition to accidents, impaired cardiac function and carcinogenicity, when the dose of ethanol exceeds about 15 to 20 grams/day. Former US President Harry Truman started off each day, with bourbon whiskey, before his daily morning walk. Although this a bit seems ill advised, it might have contributed to Trumans long life. Just like exercise, alcohol consumption, is most beneficial when done daily but in moderation. On ...
In 2001, an estimated $128.6 billion was spent on alcohol in the U.S. Of this amount, $22.5 billion (17.5 percent) was the value of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers and $36.3 billion (28.3 percent) was attributable to abusive or dependent drinking by both underage and adult drinkers. Of individuals aged 12 to 20 years, 47.1 percent were current drinkers and 25.9 percent of them met criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence, compared to only 9.6 percent of drinkers 21 years and older who were classified as being abusive of or dependent on alcohol. Pathological drinkers consumed three times as much alcohol per month as drinkers without abuse or dependence problems. The combined monetary value of underage drinking and adult pathological drinking was at least $48.3 billion, more than one-third of all consumer expenditures for alcohol ...
This chapter begins with a discussion on alcohol, its uses, and its effects, both positive and negative, followed by a review of the recent research on its cumulative effects on health. The history of alcohol as a public health issue is also briefly reviewed. Although the new public health approach gained ground among researchers from the 1970s onwards, it has often been resisted in the policy process. Seven main strategies to prevent or control alcohol problems are described, and their effectiveness briefly assessed. The chapter concludes with a consideration of paths forward in public health action on alcohol policy. At the international level, an international convention on alcohol control or scheduling of alcohol under the drug treaties could counter the influence of trade agreements and the globalization of alcohol production, distribution, and promotion. At national and local levels substantially reducing alcohol-related problems will require political will and coordinated action.
LONDON (Reuters) - Drinking alcohol produces a harmful chemical in the body which can lead to permanent genetic damage in the DNA of stem cells, increasing the risk of cancer developing, according to research published on Wednesday.. Working with mice in a laboratory, British scientists used chromosome analysis and DNA sequencing to examine the genetic damage caused by acetaldehyde, a harmful chemical produced when the body processes alcohol.. Their findings offered more detail about how alcohol increases the risk of developing 7 types of cancer, including common forms such as breast and bowel cancer. It also showed how the body seeks to defend against the damage alcohol can do.. "Some cancers develop due to DNA damage in stem cells. While some damage occurs by chance, our findings suggest that drinking alcohol can increase the risk of this damage," said Ketan Patel, a professor at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, who co-led the study.. The World Health ...
See related article, pages 13-19 In a review of the topic, Gorelick noted that alcohol consumption has been recognized as a possible risk factor for stroke for over 3 centuries.1 Subsequent studies find that the association between drinking alcohol and stroke risk is not straightforward. Literature on the subject is complicated by nonstandardized definitions of the level of alcohol consumption, varying study designs, inadequate sample sizes, differing inception cohorts, as well as case-ascertainment and other potential biases. It is therefore not surprising that a systematic literature review revealed that individual studies report inconsistent relationships between the overall amount of alcohol use and stroke (although most show an association between recent use and increased stroke risk).2 However, the weight of available evidence indicates that light to moderate drinking is associated with a protective effect, whereas heavy consumption is associated with an increased risk of stroke (a ...
After taking account of various factors that could affect the results such as age, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease or heart attacks, body mass index, cholesterol levels, physical activity, education and smoking, men who consumed up to seven drinks a week had a 20% reduced risk of developing heart failure compared to abstainers, while the risk was reduced by 16% in women consuming the same amount. Former drinkers had the highest risk of developing heart failure -- a 19% and 17% increased risk among men and women respectively compared to abstainers. Interestingly, among both men and women consuming the most amount of alcohol (14 or more drinks a week), the risk of heart failure was not significantly different compared to the risk for abstainers. Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over a long period of time is known to increase the risk of cardiomyopathy. However, the number of very heavy drinkers in the study was small, which could have limited its power to detect such an ...
Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Good For The Heart | Norwegian University | Teenmaar News, Watch V6 special program Teenmaar news with Savitri, Bithiri sathi &
The study appears today in the CDC journal Preventing Chronic Disease.. Excessive drinking includes binge drinking (four or more drinks on an occasion for women, five or more drinks on an occasion for men); consuming eight or more drinks a week for women or 15 or more drinks a week for men; or any alcohol use by pregnant women or those under the minimum legal drinking age of 21.. Alcohol dependence is a chronic medical condition that typically includes a current or past history of excessive drinking, a strong craving for alcohol, continued use despite repeated problems with drinking, and an inability to control alcohol consumption. "This study shows that, contrary to popular opinion, most people who drink too much are not alcohol dependent or alcoholics," said Robert Brewer, M.D., M.S.P.H., Alcohol Program Lead at CDC and one of the reports authors. "It also emphasizes the importance of taking a comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that includes evidence-based community ...
Latest news - Avoid Alcohol Alcohol, Photos - Avoid Alcohol Alcohol, Videos - Avoid Alcohol Alcohol.Avoid Alcohol Alcohol updates on Rediff News
The hypothesis that alcohol metabolism contributes to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) dates back to 2000 when Cope et al 1 reported elevated alcohol concentration in the breath of ob/ob mice and demonstrated that breath alcohol concentration can be reduced by gut microbial intervention with neomycin. In the last 15 years, accumulating evidence in support of this hypothesis has been reported by several groups (reviewed at ref. 2), including the group led by Bergheim, who first reported elevated serum alcohol in NAFLD.3 Previous studies indicated that the elevated alcohol level in NAFLD is associated with increased representation of alcohol producing bacteria in the gut microbiome.4 ,5 However, a recent report by Bergheim and her colleagues suggested a very different mechanism for the … ...
Question - Difficulty in sleeping, sick feeling, blood traces in vomit after excessive alcohol intake. Suggestion?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Vomiting, Ask an Addiction Medicine Specialist
Research announced today at the International Liver CongressTM 2013 has revealed the deadly impact that alcohol and body weight have on liver disease.. Women should forgo the wine and doughnuts after a new study found the harmful combination of high alcohol intake and high body mass index (BMI) causes an increased risk of chronic liver disease. The study analyzed a cohort of over 107,000 women to investigate how a females weight and alcohol consumption affected their chances of suffering and dying from chronic liver disease.. EASLs Scientific Committee Member Dr. Daniele Prati said this research involved a large study to investigate the combined influence of a persons alcoholic intake and BMI on the liver.. Dr. Prati said: "Its well known that alcohol and a persons weight are major causes of chronic liver disease however there has been a need for a large population study to compare these factors influences on each other. Interestingly, the research found the combination of a womans ...
The results showed that behavioral control and resiliency predicted the onset of alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescence. Children who have lower levels of behavioral control at ages 3 to 5 and those whose levels of behavioral control increased slower over time were more likely to drink at an early age (i.e., age 14), to report having been drunk, to have more alcohol-related problems and to have used drugs other than alcohol. Additionally, adolescents with higher resiliency in early childhood were less likely to start drinking and experience drunkenness at an early age. They were also less likely to show signs of sadness, anxiety, aggressiveness or delinquent behavior.. The researchers also found that while having an alcoholic parent significantly increased the risk of early use of alcohol use and subsequent alcohol problems, it didnt increase the likelihood of illicit drug use.. "These findings are very important because we know that early drinking (at age 14 or earlier) is associated with ...
... is a thoughtful condition. Do you have What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar or are you at risk for What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. But if you treat it carefully you can provent What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. But bont worry about What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar? Youve come to the right place. This quick guide for What Is The Effect Of Alcohol On Blood Sugar. These tutorial will get you started.
WORLD PEACE NEWSLETTER. COM. World Peace Newsletter - The greatest thing in life is internal peace, external peace and global peace! Peace is the key ingredient to.. Those who did not drink at all had the highest risk. Research on alcohol consumption is complex, however, because studies finding either a health benefit or health risk to alcohol often define moderate consumption differently. Experts.. By definition suicide is synonymous with a loss of hope. many of which have been irreversible. My stomach has become increasingly dysfunctional, so for the.. Those who did not drink at all had the highest risk. Research on alcohol consumption is complex, however, because studies finding either a health benefit or health risk to alcohol often define moderate consumption differently. Experts.. ,,Gene Expression covers all aspects of the gene including its structure, functions and regulation in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses; molecular and cell.. Feeling bloated? Youre not alone. Abdominal ...
Alcoholism is a serious problem in the United States. Long term use of alcohol leads to many known problems. Alcohol is known to damage neurons when taken in large amounts, leading to permanent peripheral nerve damage. Cirrhotic livers result from scar tissue formation after liver cell death. Liver failure is 9th leading cause of death in the United States. Habitual alcohol use has been implicated in reproductive, hormonal, and immune problems. Constant use also leads to ulcers in the stomach, esophagus, and intestines. Hypertension and enlarged hearts are often found in alcoholics. It is estimated that between 10-15 percent of Americans are alcoholics, thus subject to suchdamaging affects. It should be noted that alcohol abuse does not affect the drinker alone. Families, friends, employers, and even strangers are all affected by an individuals drinking. It is estimated that 3 out of every 100 deaths in this country can be tied to alcohol use. For instance in 1990, 19,990 people died in alcohol ...
Mortality from liver cancer in humans is increasingly attributable to heavy or long-term alcohol consumption. The mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its carcinogenic effect are not well understood. In this study, the role of alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in liver cancer development was investigated using an animal model with a liver knockout of the chaperone BiP and under constitutive hepatic ER stress. Long-term alcohol and high fat diet (HFD) feeding resulted in higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), impaired ER stress response, and higher incidence of liver tumor in older (aged 16 months) knockout females than in either middle-aged (6 months) knockouts or older (aged 16 months) wild type females. In the older knockout females, stronger effects of the alcohol on methylation of CpG islands at promoter regions of genes involved in the ER associated degradation (ERAD) were also detected. Altered expression of ERAD factors including derlin 3, Creld2 (cysteine
Since the Paleo Diet is an attempt to follow a pre-agricultural diet well have to use our imaginations to answer that question. Were paleolithic people (or monkeys or australopithecus) who drank alcohol more likely to reproduce and pass along their genes? Lets guess yes on reproduction. Survival of offspring . . . might depend on how drunk, how often. Lets guess the occasional handful of fermented berries would have given best odds.. Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2010). Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13 (1), 189-93 PMID: 19230764. Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2012). The effects of acute alcohol consumption and eccentric muscle damage on neuromuscular function. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme, 37 (1), 63-71 PMID: 22185621. Vella LD, & Cameron-Smith D (2010). Alcohol, ...
Since the Paleo Diet is an attempt to follow a pre-agricultural diet well have to use our imaginations to answer that question. Were paleolithic people (or monkeys or australopithecus) who drank alcohol more likely to reproduce and pass along their genes? Lets guess yes on reproduction. Survival of offspring . . . might depend on how drunk, how often. Lets guess the occasional handful of fermented berries would have given best odds.. Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2010). Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13 (1), 189-93 PMID: 19230764. Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2012). The effects of acute alcohol consumption and eccentric muscle damage on neuromuscular function. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme, 37 (1), 63-71 PMID: 22185621. Vella LD, & Cameron-Smith D (2010). Alcohol, ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling has been shown to modulate stress responses and to be involved in regulation of alcohol intake and dependence. The present study explores the possibility that blockade of NPY Y2 autoreceptors using a novel, blood-brain barrier penetrant NPY Y2 receptor antagonist, JNJ-31020028 (N-(4-{4-[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-fluorophenyl)-2-pyridin-3-ylbenzamide), may achieve a therapeutically useful activation of the NPY system in alcohol- and anxiety-related behavioral models. We examined JNJ-31020028 in operant alcohol self-administration, stress-induced reinstatement to alcohol seeking, and acute alcohol withdrawal (hangover)-induced anxiety. Furthermore, we tested its effects on voluntary alcohol consumption in a genetic animal model of alcohol preference, the alcohol-preferring (P) rat. Neither systemic (0, 15, 30, and 40 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]) nor intracerebroventricular (0.0, 0.3, and 1.0 nmol/rat) administration of JNJ-31020028 ...
When studying long-term effects of alcohol consumption on health, the stability of alcohol consumption should be known. In this paper the development and stability of alcohol consumption were investig
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas high serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, whether light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is still related to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease irrespective of GGT level is uncertain. METHODS We performed a 12.5-year cohort study of 2336 men (excluding exdrinkers) who were free from cardiovascular disease. They were classified into 4 groups according to alcohol consumption: never, and current light, moderate, or heavy drinker. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of alcohol consumption for incidence of coronary artery disease, total stroke, and ischemic stroke compared with those of never drinkers were assessed with stratification by GGT median (32 IU/L). RESULTS In participants with GGT |32 IU/L, the hazard ratios of all current drinkers for total and ischemic stroke were higher than those of never drinkers.
Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcoho ➥ Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcohol use disorder moderate Alcohol use disorder in remission Alcohol use disorder identification test Alcohol use disorder symptoms Alcohol use disorder statistics Alcohol use disorder axis Alcohol use disorder assessment Alcohol use disorder and depression Alcohol use disorder and alcoholism Alcohol use disorder australia Alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities Alcohol use disorder audit Alcohol use disorder ati Alcohol-use disorder as the dsm-5 Alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence
Allen JP, Litten RZ, Anton RF, Cross GM: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a measure of immoderate drinking: Remaining issues. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18,799-812 (1994). Anton RF, Moak DH: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and -glutamyltransferase as markers of heavy alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18/3,747-754 (1994). Anton R, Bean P: Two methods for measuring carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in inpatient alcoholics and healthy controls compared. Clin Chem 40/3,364-368 (1994). Arndt T, Gressner AM, Kropf J: Labordiagnostik und Kontrolle des Alkoholabusus. Med Welt 45,247-257 (1994). Behrens U, Worner TM, Braly LF et al: Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin, a Marker for Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Different Ethnic Populations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,427-432 (1988). Behrens UJ, Worner TM, Lieber CS: Changes in Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin levels after alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,539-542 (1988). Bell H, Tallaksen C, Sjahem T, Weberg R et al: Serum ...
Office of Scientific Affairs (M.J.E.), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland; Psychopharmacology Research Unit (S.E.F.), University of London, Guys Hospital, Division of Pharmacology, London, United Kingdom; Dipartimento Di Neuroscienze (G.L.G.), UniversitaDegli Studi Di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology (K.A.G.), The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas (C.G.), Valencia, Spain; Department of Pharmacology (P.L.H.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado; Department of Pharmacology (H.K.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Neuropharmacology (G.F.K.), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California; Indiana University School of Medicine (T.-K.L.), Indianapolis, Indiana; and Department of Pharmacology (B.T.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado. ...
14Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.. The role of the appetite stimulant and suppressing hormones ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), respectively, in alcohol reinforcement has been established in preclinical studies. In clinical studies exogenous ghrelin has been shown to induce craving in patients with alcohol use disorder while three months treatment with a GLP-1 agonist lowered alcohol intake in a small pilot study comprising type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore it is not farfetched to assume that genetic variations (SNPs) in these systems could affect reward and addiction regulatory mechanisms. For the past decade we have investigated variations in genes of the gut-brain axis in various cohorts. Our analyses identify mainly two SNPs in the ghrelin system and one in the GLP-1 receptor as being more frequently associated with reward-related phenotypes including alcohol use disorder, alcohol use ...
Introduction Alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, are used in clinical practice for disinfection and infection prevention. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that alcohols may enhance biofilm production in Staphylococci. Methods We quantified biofilm formation in the presence of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in six different, well-characterized strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h of biofilm development, each strain was exposed to normal saline (NS), ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol (40%, 60%, 80% and 95%) for additional 24 h incubation. Adherent biofilms were stained and optical density was determined. Viability of strains was also determined after alcohol exposure. Results Ethanol increased biofilm formation in all six strains compared to normal saline (p | 0.05). There was increased biofilm formation with increasing ethanol concentration. Isopropyl alcohol also increased biofilm formation with increasing alcohol concentration in all six strains (p
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use. Symptoms typically include anxiety, shakiness, sweating, vomiting, fast heart rate, and a mild fever. More severe symptoms may include seizures, seeing or hearing things that others do not, and delirium tremens (DTs). Symptoms typically begin around six hours following the last drink, are worst at 24 to 72 hours, and improve by seven days. Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in alcohol intake. The underlying mechanism involves a decreased responsiveness of GABA receptors in the brain. The withdrawal process is typically followed using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, revised (CIWA-Ar). The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam. Often the amounts given are based on a persons symptoms. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delivering alcohol screening and alcohol brief interventions within general dental practice. T2 - British Dental Journal. AU - McAuley,A.. AU - Goodall,C. A.. AU - Ogden,G. R.. AU - Shepherd,Simon. AU - Cruikshank,K.. PY - 2011/5/13. Y1 - 2011/5/13. N2 - Alcohol consumption and affordability in the UK has increased over the last 50 years and is associated with a range of adverse oral health outcomes, the most serious of which, oral cancer, is also increasing in incidence. Despite this, routine screening and intervention relating to alcohol consumption within general dental practice remains uncommon. This review of the literature describes the background and outlines the evidence base for undertaking alcohol screening and delivering brief interventions in general dental practice. Consideration will be given to the rationale for, and range of issues related to, introducing this into general dental practice.. AB - Alcohol consumption and affordability in the UK has increased over ...
0020] As for the alcohols as the D) component, any of alcohols including one hydroxyl group and polyhydric alcohols including two or more hydroxyl groups can be used without limitation if these alcohols have a boiling point of 110° C. or more. Examples of preferable alcohols can be 1-butanol, t-butyl alcohol, 1-pentanol, isoamyl alcohol, s-amyl alcohol, t-amyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 4- methyl-2-pentanol, isohexyl alcohol, methyl-1-pentanol, s-hexanol, 1-heptanol, isoheptyl alcohol, 2,3-dimethyl-1-pentanol, 1-octanol, 2-ethyl hexanol, isooctyl alcohol, 2-octanol, 3-octanol, 1-nonanol, isononyl alcohol, 3,5,5-trimethylhexanol, 1-decanol, isodecyl alcohol, 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, isododecyl alcohol, higher alcohol having 6 to 11 carbons, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1,3 propanediol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 2-methyl-2,4 pentanediol, ...

Study Links Diet Quality with Alcohol Drinking Patterns | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)Study Links Diet Quality with Alcohol Drinking Patterns | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

Examining diet quality of individuals who drink any kind of alcoholic beverage, researchers found that people who drink the ... according to a new study by researchers at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National ... Unhealthy alcohol drinking patterns may go hand-in-hand with unhealthy eating habits, ... largest quantities of alcohol - even infrequently - have the poorest quality diets. ...
more infohttps://www.niaaa.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/study-links-diet-quality-alcohol-drinking-patterns

Alcohol and Caffeinated Energy Drinks: A Bad Mix | Berkeley WellnessAlcohol and Caffeinated Energy Drinks: A Bad Mix | Berkeley Wellness

... for Alcohol mixed with Energy Drinks)-but its an especially bad mix, a new study warns. ... The practice of combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks has become so common, it has its own acronym (AmED, ... "Drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks are more likely than drinkers who do not mix alcohol with energy drinks to report ... Combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks increases the risk of injury, warns a Canadian review of 13 studies, published ...
more infohttp://www.berkeleywellness.com/node/3890

Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy: TreatmentAlcoholic Cardiomyopathy: Treatment

There is no cure for alcoholic cardiomyopathy, but treatment can control symptoms ... ... Another name for Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy is Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy. ... Stop drinking alcohol. * Healthy heart diet:. * Low cholesterol diet.. * Low fat diet. ... Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Low Sodium Diet. A person with alcoholic cardiomyopathy may benefit from a low sodium diet.. Increased ...
more infohttp://www.freemd.com/alcoholic-cardiomyopathy/treatment.htm

Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of PsychiatryAlcohol-induced psychotic disorder and delirium in the general population | The British Journal of Psychiatry

15.0 drinks v. 15.8 drinks) or in alcohol consumption (318.2 g v. 299.1 g per week). ... Alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome in alcohol dependence. The lifetime prevalence of AIPS among participants who were alcohol- ... Participants were asked at what age they took their first drink of alcohol. Current weekly consumption of alcohol, and parental ... 11 In alcohol treatment settings, 2-7% of patients with alcohol dependence had alcohol hallucinosis,8,9 5-11% delirium tremens, ...
more infohttp://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/197/3/200

Antabuse how long after last drink : Azithromycin zithromax 200mg/5mlAntabuse how long after last drink : Azithromycin zithromax 200mg/5ml

Is it fine if I drink alcohol the day after.. drinking, chewing gum,. • Long-sleeved shirt and long pants. plant other crops ... following the last drink.when can i drink after taking antabuse how long after taking antabuse is it safe to drink antabuse ... Also, refrain from drinking alcohol for a. needs on how long it will.How long after eating do I have to wait until/before ... plane the most hardened alcoholic may well enough conclude not to nip after. could drink that. for Antabuse. He has been on it ...
more infohttp://btcninja.tk/wocyg/antabuse-how-long-after-last-drink-ruk.php

Alcoholic cardiomyopathyAlcoholic cardiomyopathy

Definition of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, symptoms of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, treatment of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and ... prevention of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Exams and Tests Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. ... Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a consequence of years of excessive alcohol use. Do not use alcohol in excess. If you drink heavily ... Cardiomyopathy - alcoholic Causes. Drinking alcohol in large quantities has a toxic effect on heart muscle cells. Alcoholic ...
more infohttp://diseasereference.net/info/alcoholic-cardiomyopathy/206917.html

Drinking Guidelines | Canadian Centre on Substance Use and AddictionDrinking Guidelines | Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction

Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines provide information to moderate alcohol consumption and reduce alcohol related ... Communicating Alcohol-Related Health Risks: Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines *Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking ... Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and ... long-term alcohol-related harm. The Guidelines recommend no more than two drinks a day, 10 per week for women, and three drinks ...
more infohttp://www.ccsa.ca/Eng/topics/alcohol/drinking-guidelines/Pages/default.aspx

Responsible alcohol drinking | MNN - Mother Nature NetworkResponsible alcohol drinking | MNN - Mother Nature Network

Responsible alcohol drinking. Our writer suggests that if you want to be responsible while enjoying an alcoholic beverage, ... 7. Thou shall not drink adulterated alcohol: Contaminated alcohol was the cause of close to 50 deaths in Ecuador earlier this ... Thou shall not covet thy friends drinking abilities: Dont hate those who can drink alcohol like camels with no visible ... So drink with caution, drink slowly, and drink in moderation. Let someone else entertain the YouTube audience. ...
more infohttps://www.mnn.com/food/beverages/stories/responsible-alcohol-drinking

A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking foundA gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found

The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between ... The group showed that mice carrying this mutation were willing to work to obtain the alcohol-containing drink by pushing a ... UK researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and when faulty can cause excessive drinking. They ... However, mice with a genetic mutation to the gene Gabrb1 overwhelmingly preferred drinking alcohol over water, choosing to ...
more infohttps://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/1113/271113-A-gene-mutation-for-excessive-alcohol-drinking-found

A Liver Hormone Regulates Your Alcohol DrinkingA Liver Hormone Regulates Your Alcohol Drinking

It acts as a brake on wild drinking behavior. Mice in the lab who lacked this gene tended to drink alcoholic samples to excess ... A Liver Hormone Regulates Your Alcohol Drinking. Posted: Nov 29 2016, 7:34am CST , by Sumayah Aamir, in Latest Science News ... Excess in drinking alcohol is a plague and it causes untold damage to the fabric of society. ... Scientists have found that a gene responsible for alcohol imbibing may be the causal factor behind this one-drink-too-many ...
more infohttps://www.i4u.com/2016/11/118247/liver-hormone-regulates-your-alcohol-drinking

what to eat before heavy alcohol drinking? | Yahoo Answerswhat to eat before heavy alcohol drinking? | Yahoo Answers

... just wondering whats good to eat before lots of drinking (besides water). e.g. is bread good, vegetables, etc? ... Bread is good to eat before drinking heavily as it absorbs the alcohol. I personally like to eat pizza before drinking. Deep ... Anything heavy, also drink LOTS of water. Alcohol absorbs water, NOT FAT. So the more water you have in your body the slower u ... 2 hours before you stop partying, stop and drink 2-3 glasses of water. It will sober you up, dilute alcohol, hydrate you, and ...
more infohttps://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071018223400AAeaHiV&sort=N

Teenage Alcohol DrinkingTeenage Alcohol Drinking

Underage drinking laws do help, but education and involved parents are most important. Advice and tips on how to prevent teens ... Teenage Alcohol Drinking. We all know that teenage alcohol drinking is against the law. In fact, there are underage drinking ... Preventing Teenage Alcohol Drinking. Teenagers tend to be impulsive and risk-takers, and therefore they will often drink ... Do these underage drinking laws really stop teenage alcohol drinking? Well, thats debatable. Some research says yes, some says ...
more infohttps://www.learn-about-alcoholism.com/teenage-alcohol-drinking.html

FDA calls 7 caffeine-alcohol drinks unsafe - CNN.comFDA calls 7 caffeine-alcohol drinks unsafe - CNN.com

Food and Drug Administration told the manufacturers of seven caffeinated alcoholic beverages Wednesday that their drinks are a ... If youre going to drink caffeine, drink it responsibly. If youre going to drink alcohol, drink it responsibly, said OBrien ... Critics say drinks like Four Loko mix caffeine equal to the amount in three cups of coffee with the alcoholic equivalent of ... Find out whats inside alcoholic energy drinks Washington (CNN) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration told the manufacturers ...
more infohttp://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/11/17/alcohol.caffeine.drinks/index.html

Role of Alcohol Drinking in the Risk of CancerRole of Alcohol Drinking in the Risk of Cancer

A very detailed and rather complex paper describing the association between alcohol consumption and cancer has been published ... Alcohol Addiction and Women. Social drinking amongst women has become a fad. Stop it before it finishes you. ... Alcohol use disorder or alcoholism is an inability to control drinking. It can cause short term and long term physical, as well ... Bubbles and Brews - Alcohol Facts. There is more to alcohol than mere intoxication. Infamous because of its social abuse but ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/Role-of-Alcohol-Drinking-in-the-Risk-of-Cancer-83958-1.htm

FDA calls 7 caffeine-alcohol drinks unsafe - CNN.comFDA calls 7 caffeine-alcohol drinks unsafe - CNN.com

Food and Drug Administration told the manufacturers of seven caffeinated alcoholic beverages Wednesday that their drinks are a ... If youre going to drink caffeine, drink it responsibly. If youre going to drink alcohol, drink it responsibly, said OBrien ... Critics say drinks like Four Loko mix caffeine equal to the amount in three cups of coffee with the alcoholic equivalent of ... Find out whats inside alcoholic energy drinks Washington (CNN) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration told the manufacturers ...
more infohttp://edition.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/11/17/alcohol.caffeine.drinks/index.html

CAMH: Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking GuidelinesCAMH: Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines

Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines. Page Content. Drinking is a personal choice. If you choose to drink, these ... Alcohol can harm the way your brain and body develop. If you are drinking, plan ahead, follow local alcohol laws and stay ... Reduce your long-term health risks by drinking no more than:. *10 drinks a week for women, with no more than 2 drinks a day ... While drinking may provide health benefits for certain groups of people, do not start to drink, or increase your drinking, for ...
more infohttp://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/a_z_mental_health_and_addiction_information/alcohol/Pages/low_risk_drinking_guidelines.aspx

Effects of Alcohol Drinking Among People Over 65Effects of Alcohol Drinking Among People Over 65

... but enjoying alcohol in moderation has health benefits, especially for cardiovascular diseases. ... Excessive drinking later in life may be cause for concerns, ... Alcohol Drinking Among People Over 65. A recent report from The ... may be more sensitive to the effects of alcohol, however they add, in moderation, drinking has benefits that shouldnt be ... If you or a loved one are concerned about the amount of alcohol being consumed, keep a record of daily intake over the course ...
more infohttps://www.parentgiving.com/elder-care/alcohol-drinking-among-people-over-65/

I need a drink - diabetes alcohol drinks | Ask MetaFilterI need a drink - diabetes alcohol drinks | Ask MetaFilter

The drinks I have given to people who dont like the taste of alcohol. but do like these drinks. Shots of Baileys. If youre ... Long Island Iced Teas dont taste like alcohol to me, usually, but they are almost completely booze. Like, dont drink more ... Teach me to drink alcohol like an adult April 22, 2015. What are the best sugar-free simple cocktails? May 5, 2014. Not love ... Remember, alcohol may also cause a sugar spike, so nibble on some peanuts or something while youre drinking.. Enjoy your ...
more infohttps://ask.metafilter.com/201966/I-need-a-drink

Latest: Caffeinated Alcohol Drinks Cause Heart Attacks - Opposing ViewsLatest: Caffeinated Alcohol Drinks Cause Heart Attacks - Opposing Views

... the main hazard of caffeinated alcoholic beverages such as Joose, Torque, and Four Loko was supposed to be that they keep you ... Latest: Caffeinated Alcohol Drinks Cause Heart Attacks. Author:. Reason Foundation. Updated:. Mar 2, 2018. Original:. Oct 25, ... One New Jersey college banned the drinks this month after 23 students were hospitalized with alcohol-related problems. At least ... R.I.P. Four Loko: The Day the Alcohol/Caffeine Drink Died. ... In truth, though, drinking six cans of Bud Light (or even one) ...
more infohttps://www.opposingviews.com/politics/have-a-drink-have-a-heart-attack

Heavy Alcohol Drinking Linked to Worse HIV Disease in U.S. Veterans | TheBodyHeavy Alcohol Drinking Linked to Worse HIV Disease in U.S. Veterans | TheBody

... but new research suggests that heavy alcohol consumption exacerbates the negative effects of HIV in people living with the ... We already know some of the dangers of drinking too much alcohol, ... We already know some of the dangers of drinking too much alcohol, but new research suggests that heavy alcohol consumption ... Heavy Alcohol Drinking Linked to Worse HIV Disease in U.S. Veterans. Mark Mascolini ...
more infohttps://www.thebody.com/article/heavy-alcohol-drinking-linked-to-worse-hiv-disease

Fun Spinner Spin The Shot Roulette Glass Alcohol Drinking Game Party Gift Cup  | eBayFun Spinner Spin The Shot Roulette Glass Alcohol Drinking Game Party Gift Cup | eBay

... used options and get the best deals for Fun Spinner Spin The Shot Roulette Glass Alcohol Drinking Game Party Gift Cup at the ... Spinner Spin The Shot Turntable Glass Alcohol Drinks Drinking Game Roulette Toy ... Details about Fun Spinner Spin The Shot Roulette Glass Alcohol Drinking Game Party Gift Cup. ... Fun Spinner Spin The Shot Roulette Glass Alcohol Drinking Game Party Gift Cup ...
more infohttps://www.ebay.com/itm/Fun-Spinner-Spin-The-Shot-Roulette-Glass-Alcohol-Drinking-Game-Party-Gift-Cup/162710068378?_trkparms=aid%3D555018%26algo%3DPL.SIM%26ao%3D1%26asc%3D20190212102350%26meid%3Db4d0e3c99528441989cd4dbc2acd260f%26pid%3D100012%26rk%3D12%26rkt%3D12%26sd%3D202694160928%26itm%3D162710068378%26pmt%3D1%26noa%3D0%26pg%3D2047675&_trksid=p2047675.c100012.m1985

Kids drinking alcohol - LA TimesKids drinking alcohol - LA Times

A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ...
more infohttp://www.latimes.com/health/la-heb-teen-alcohol-network-20110929-001-photo.html

Drinking Alcohol And BenefitsDrinking Alcohol And Benefits

This article looks at the possible health benefits of drinking. ... the health benefits of moderate drinking have been widely ... For example, I drink 10 drinks a month. But 10 drinks a month is very different for someone who has them all on one night vs. ... We usually define moderate drinking as up to one drink per day for adult women who aren't pregnant and up to two drinks ... or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/3968.php

Excessive Alcohol Drinking and HypercholesterolemiaExcessive Alcohol Drinking and Hypercholesterolemia

Alcohol can have a double effect on cholesterol levels. On one hand, it can be beneficial by increasing the good or HDL ... Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Hypercholesterolemia. Alcohol can have a double effect on cholesterol levels. On one hand, it ... Alcohol is metabolized in the liver, the solid organ in the abdomen responsible for metabolizing fats also. When drinking is ... Thus, excessive alcohol consumption can cause hypercholesterolemia.. According to several studies moderate drinking, especially ...
more infohttp://www.coalition4healthcare.org/excessive-alcohol-drinking-and-hypercholesterolemia/

A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found : Press releases : ...  : News : University of SussexA gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found : Press releases : ... : News : University of Sussex

The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between ... A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found. Sussex researchers are among a team of UK scientists who have discovered ... The group showed that mice carrying this mutation were willing to work to obtain the alcohol-containing drink by pushing a ... However, mice with a genetic mutation to the gene Gabrb1 overwhelmingly preferred drinking alcohol over water, choosing to ...
more infohttp://www.sussex.ac.uk/news/media-centre/press-releases/id/22222?id=22222
  • This is a very useful finding that refines our understanding of the relationship between patterns of alcohol consumption and other aspects of health behavior," notes NIAAA Director Ting-Kai Li, M.D. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease and death, notes first author Rosalind A. Breslow, Ph.D., an epidemiologist in NIAAA's Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research. (nih.gov)
  • Clarifying the relationship between alcohol consumption and diet quality is an important step in determining the extent to which diet influences studies of alcohol and cardiovascular outcomes," explains Dr. Breslow. (nih.gov)
  • Data included alcohol consumption information as well as Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores, a widely used measure of total diet quality. (nih.gov)
  • They therefore suggest that alcohol drinking patterns -- as measured by quantity and frequency -- rather than average alcohol consumption, should be considered in future studies of the relationship between alcohol consumption and health outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • In that regard, I think it's important that women have not more than 1 drink per day and that men have not more than 2 drinks per day -- the alcohol consumption recommendations set forth in the sixth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the federal government's science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of chronic diseases through nutrition and physical activity. (nih.gov)
  • Unhealthy alcohol drinking patterns may go hand-in-hand with unhealthy eating habits, according to a new study by researchers at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (nih.gov)
  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, part of the National Institutes of Health, is the primary U.S. agency for conducting and supporting research on the causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and alcohol problems. (nih.gov)
  • Examining diet quality of individuals who drink any kind of alcoholic beverage, researchers found that people who drink the largest quantities of alcohol - even infrequently - have the poorest quality diets. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers also found that HEI scores were not significantly different between those who drank the highest average daily volume compared with those who drank the lowest average daily volume. (nih.gov)
  • Additional alcohol research information and publications are available at www.niaaa.nih.gov . (nih.gov)
  • To that end, the purpose of our study was to determine the association between drinking patterns and diet quality in the U.S. population. (nih.gov)
more