Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.tert-Butyl AlcoholUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.United StatesPentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.RussiaNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Benzyl CompoundsPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.BenzaldehydesPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.KetonesPancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.EstersInterview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Republic of BelarusSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.FinlandChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.CaliforniaCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/9481)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995. (2/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

Effect of alcohol abstinence on blood pressure: assessment by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. (3/9481)

Several studies have shown that cessation of alcohol drinking reduces blood pressure (BP). However, attempts to reproduce these findings by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) have shown inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 month of proven abstinence from alcohol on the 24-hour BP profile in heavy alcohol drinkers. Forty-two men who were heavy drinkers (>100 g of pure ethanol per day) were consecutively admitted to a general ward for voluntary alcohol detoxification. On the day of admission, they received a total dose of 2 g/kg of ethanol diluted in orange juice in 5 divided doses, and a 24-hour ABPM was performed. A new 24-hour BP monitoring in the same environmental conditions was performed after 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence while the subjects were receiving the same amount of fluid but without the addition of alcohol. After 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence, BP and heart rate (HR) significantly decreased. The reduction was 7.2 mm Hg for 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) (95% CI, 4.5 to 9.9), 6.6 mm Hg for 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI, 4.2 to 9.0), and 7.9 bpm for HR (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.7). The proportion of alcoholic patients considered hypertensive on the basis of 24-hour BP criteria (daytime SBP >/=135 mm Hg or daytime DBP >/=85 mm Hg) fell from 42% during alcohol drinking to 12% after 1 month of complete abstinence. Abstinence did not modify either the long-term BP variability, assessed by SD of 24-hour BP, or its circadian profile. We conclude that abstinence in heavy alcohol drinkers significantly reduces BP assessed by 24-hour ABPM and that this reduction is clinically relevant. These results show that heavy alcohol consumption has an important effect on BP, and thus cessation of alcohol consumption must be recommended as a priority for hypertensive alcohol drinkers.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (4/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (5/9481)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats. (6/9481)

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol. (7/9481)

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (8/9481)

An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. Method: The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. Results: High alcohol consumption was underreported in ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and per capita consumption of wine. There was also a trend towards a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old females and per capita consumption of wine. No correlations between suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and per capita consumption of beer or spirits were found. In the whole population (all ages), suicide rates in males were negatively correlated with consumption of wine and positively correlated with consumption of spirits. As expected, suicide rates in males were significantly higher than in females. It is possible that the observed relationship is a result of a third factor affecting both suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and consumption of wine.. Reference. 1. Sher L. Relation ...
Washington, DC - Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all-causes, according to a new, large study of over 333,000 U.S. adults published yesterday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study findings did not differentiate between beer, wine and spirits. The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a 21 percent and 34 percent decreased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and a 13 percent and 25 percent decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, in both men and women. Similar findings were observed for light drinking among men and women.. The researchers found, "the protective effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was more pronounced in women, middle-aged and older populations.". The researchers noted that previous studies showed that "all alcoholic drinks at moderate level were associated with lower risk of heart disease, suggesting a major benefit is ...
Introduction: Although current alcohol consumption appears to be a risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), limitations related to self-reported alcohol use and confounding in observational studies limit the certainty of conclusions regarding causality. Whether cessation of alcohol consumption can protect against incident AF remains unknown.. Methods: We examined all participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a population-based cohort of 15,792 men and women aged 45-65, without prevalent AF. Past alcohol consumption was assessed via self-report during the baseline dietary intake assessment. Cases of incident AF were ascertained via study ECGs, hospital discharge ICD-9 codes, and death certificates.. Results: Among 15,262 participants with complete survey data, 2,898 (19.0%) were former drinkers. During an average follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 380 cases of incident AF in former consumers. Both before and after adjustment for potential confounders, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults Alcohol Use. AU - Thrul, Johannes. AU - Kuntsche, Emmanuel. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed ...
This resource provides information on data sources and methods used for the Status report on alcohol consumption, harm and policy responses in 30 European countries 2019.. Per capita alcohol consumption in the WHO European Region, including the European Union (EU), is the highest in the world, which results in proportionally higher levels of burden of disease attributable to alcohol use compared to other regions.. While there have been welcome improvements in terms of overall mortality and alcohol-attributable mortality in EU+ countries (EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland), there was no statistically significant decline in total alcohol per capita consumption between 2010 and 2016 and the observed decreases in heavy episodic drinking seem to have come to a halt. Assessment of alcohol policies in the 10 areas defined in the European action plan to reduce the harmful use of alcohol 2012−2020 revealed huge variability across the countries, including the implementation of the three WHO "best ...
Background: Excess alcohol consumption can lead to myocardial dysfunction. However, whether novel cardiac biomarkers tests can detect subclinical myocardial damage and wall stress in asymptomatic populations exposed to alcohol is currently unknown.. Objective: To characterize the association of alcohol consumption with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by a novel highly sensitive assay for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and wall stress, as assessed by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).. Methods: Using data from the community-based ARIC Study we examined the cross-sectional association of categories of self-reported alcohol consumption with cardiac biomarkers among 10,381 individuals without cardiovascular disease (1990-92). We also examined the prospective association of alcohol consumption with 6-year change in cardiac biomarkers in a subset of participants (n=8,972 for hs-cTnT and n=9,060 for NT-proBNP), who had each biomarker measured at two time points. Incident ...
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
Figure 4a. Estimated average alcohol consumption on the last alcohol drinking day (among last day consumers). 2015. Centilitres of 100 % alcohol. (Table 17). ...
Years of heavy alcohol consumption can lead to progressive arterial stiffness that does not seem to be reversed even when a person stops drinking, according to new data from a 25-year study of British civil servants.. "The main message of this study is that men who consistently drink above the recommended maximum alcohol intake guidelines have significantly higher arterial stiffness by early old age compared to those who drink consistently moderately-moderately defined as below the recommended maximum intake levels," study author Darragh ONeill, PhD (University College London, London, England), said in an email.. Prior research has suggested that arterial stiffness may be a marker of cardiovascular disease risk. To TCTMD, ONeill added that it "is predictive of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been shown to improve prediction of such outcomes independent of other known risk factors." In the new study, arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave artery ...
Unhealthy alcohol use threatens the health benefits seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. Although research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief interventions, motivational counseling, and medications to treat unhealthy alcohol use in HIV uninfected patients, there is limited research or use of these treatments in HIV+ patients. We have demonstrated that integrated treatment of addiction in HIV clinics is feasible. Stepped care algorithms can facilitate the evaluation of varying intensities of treatments for unhealthy alcohol use. The proposed study will compare onsite Integrated Stepped Care treatment (ISC) to treatment as usual (TAU) in three, linked, 6-month randomized clinical trials in 642 HIV+ patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Screened patients are randomized to ISC or TAU after determining that they meet criteria for either 1) at-risk drinking, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence or 3) moderate alcohol consumption in the presence of liver disease. ISC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Naloxone attenuation of voluntary alcohol consumption. AU - Froehlich, J. C.. AU - Harts, J.. AU - Lumeng, L.. AU - Li, T. K.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023275292&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023275292&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3426696. AN - SCOPUS:0023275292. SP - 333. EP - 337. JO - Alcohol and Alcoholism. JF - Alcohol and Alcoholism. SN - 0735-0414. IS - SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population. The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the
Alcohol is one of the main causes of high blood pressure. A doctor recommends cutting back on alcohol when a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. Alcohol affects the body in different ways. For example, steady alcohol consumption over a long period permanently changes the brain by reducing the amount of brain tissue. Steady alcohol consumption also deprives the heart of essential nutrients. This weakens the heart muscles and hinders its ability to pump blood. This increases blood pressure and causes heart attacks and strokes. Alcohol also affects the liver, skin, lungs and bones among other parts of the body. In addition, alcohol contains sugar and other carbohydrates that increase weight. Weight gain is another cause of high blood pressure.. How Alcohol Increases Blood Pressure There is no concrete proof as to how alcohol affects blood pressure. However, researchers believe alcohol interferes with the livers ability to metabolize hormones. Hormones such as renin and angiotensin are ...
Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol consumption (in terms of pure litres of alcohol) by individuals aged ,15 years in 2010.[1] SA has a particularly harmful pattern of drinking. This indicator considers the manner and circumstances in which alcohol is consumed, rather than the prevalence of drinking. The quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion, festive drinking, the proportion of drinking events that end in drunkenness, the proportion of drinkers who drink daily, and the prevalence of drinking outside of mealtimes and in public places are considered in compiling the pattern-of-drinking score.[2] The WHO classifies countries patterns of drinking on a five-point scale, where 1 indicates the least risky pattern of drinking and 5 the most risky pattern.[2] According to this scale, many Western European countries score a 1. At the other extreme, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are the only two countries ...
The PRIME-Alcohol model effectively demonstrates the potential impact of population usual alcohol consumption on chronic disease mortality, bringing together a wide range of risk and protective effects of alcohol, including the increased risks of many cancers and the protective effect of low-to-moderate consumption on CVD. Modelling demonstrated that the optimum population median alcohol consumption level appears to be substantially lower than the currently recommended safe levels in the current UK public health guidance. Based on this model, reducing the median population alcohol consumption among current drinkers to around half a unit (5 g of alcohol) per day would result in around 4600 fewer deaths annually, primarily due to reductions in cancers and liver cirrhosis. This level of consumption would equate to as little as one-quarter of a glass of wine or one-fifth of a pint of beer per day on average.. The model showed no additional benefit to chronic disease mortality if the proportion of ...
Most long-term studies on drinking alcohol have found that light-drinkers are less likely to die prematurely than abstainers. This study re-assesses the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on health and mortality. The team hypothesised that misclassification of former drinkers and occasional drinkers had introduced consistent errors, affecting the results of previous studies.. This study re-examines 54 all-cause mortality and 35 Coronary Heart Disease mortality studies. Most of these studies committed the consistent and serious error of including as abstainers, people who had cut down or ceased drinking alcohol due to declining health, frailty, medication use or disabilitysometimes as the result of past heavy alcohol consumption. When combined in the same group as long-term abstainers or very light drinkers, deaths among these people may have increased the apparent risk of long-term abstinence for the group as a whole.. This study shows that it is possible to perform new analyses on studies ...
The effects of chronic alcohol intake on menstrual cycle status and hormonal function were studied in 26 healthy, adult women under controlled research ward conditions. Women were classified as heavy, social or occasional alcohol users on the basis of the actual number of drinks consumed during 3 consecutive weeks of alcohol availability. Heavy, social and occasional users drank an average of 7.81 ( +/- 0.69), 3.84 ( +/- 0.19) and 1.22 ( +/- 0.21) drinks/day, respectively. This drinking pattern was highly consistent with subjects self-reports of alcohol use before the study. No evidence of menstrual cycle dysfunction or abnormality in reproductive hormone levels was found in the occasional drinkers or in two of the social drinkers who consumed less than an average of three drinks/day. In contrast, 50% of the social drinkers who consumed more than three drinks/day and 60% of the heavy drinkers had significant derangements of menstrual cycle and reproductive hormone function. The major ...
When you drink alcohol it is absorbed into your bloodstream where it circulates thus affecting the whole body. The blood alcohol concentration begins to rise ten minutes after the first sip. One drink of alcohol stays in the body for 2 hours after being consumed. The alcohol is absorbed by the stomach and the small intestines, and it is metabolized by the liver. The processing of alcohol is determined by many factors, including if your stomach is full meaning you have eaten recently, the size of your body and the rate at which you drink. A larger body has more circulating blood in its system so alcohol levels rise more slowly than in a smaller body; this explains why females tend to have more alcohol in their bloodstream compared to men. Also the amount of fat in the organism defines the alcohol levels because fat tissue does not absorb alcohol. Drinking slowly, while eating and also after meals slows the rate at which alcohol is absorbed. Liver metabolism is the process of converting alcohol ...
Most of the previous studies assessed alcohol intake at baseline; however, in this study researchers collected detailed information seven times over 40 years. "Consumption patterns usually change during life," Streppel said. "This enabled us to study the effects of long-term alcohol intake on mortality." Researchers found that the number of alcohol users nearly doubled from 45 percent in 1960 to 85 percent in the 2000 survey. Average alcohol consumption rose and then fell at various points during the study. Users consumption was eight grams a day in 1960, then survivors consumption was 18 grams a day in 1985, dropping to 13 grams per day in 2000. The percentage of wine users increased during follow-up from 2 percent in 1960 to more than 40 percent among the survivors in 2000. "One can speculate that a protective effect of light alcohol intake could be due to an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or to a reduction in blood clotting, due to an inhibition of platelet ...
Regular moderate alcohol intake was a modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation that was linked to conduction slowing and lower atrial voltage, according to a study published in HeartRhythm.“This study underscores the importance of excessive alcohol consumption as an important risk factor in AF,” Peter Kistler, MBBS, PhD, FHRS, of the Heart Centre at Alfred Hospital in Melbourne,
Both in the UK and internationally, similar alcohol consumption levels have been associated with greater impacts on the health of more deprived individuals. In a systematic review of socio-economic differences in alcohol-attributable mortality Probst et al. suggest that the poorer diet of individuals living in deprivation (e.g. more high fat and salt foods and less fruit and vegetable consumption) may interact with alcohol consumption to alter protein and vitamin absorption and increase risks of health harms [31]. They also acknowledge that interactions between higher smoking prevalence in deprived areas and alcohol consumption may contribute to an increased risk of some cancers. Moreover, they suggest that poorer access to primary care may contribute to greater harms from alcohol in deprived groups. Consequently, individuals with lower socio-economic status may face cost, transport, availability and stigma-related issues that restrict their access to services which might help with alcohol- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drinking contexts and alcohol consumption. T2 - How much alcohol is consumed in different Australian locations?. AU - Callinan, Sarah. AU - Livingston, Michael. AU - Room, Robin. AU - Dietze, Paul. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixtythree percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinkers own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who ...
Objective: There is little systematic information on the patterns of Chinese adolescents alcohol expectancies and the influence of expectancies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese high school students alcohol expectancies and gender and drinking status (non-drinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) differences in expectancies. Method: We administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Huhhot City, Chayouhou Qi, and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results: We identified eight expectancy factors: three negative (general negative consequences, harm to person/reputation, and negative uses of alcohol) and five positive (general positive perceptions, tension reduction/relaxation, drinking as social courtesy, social facilitation, and beneficial drinking/moderation). MANOVA results indicated that males had higher positive perception expectancies
A drink a night is better for your heart than none at all, according to new research published recently in the European Heart Journal. The study, involving nearly 15,000 participants over a period of 25 years, monitored rates of heart failure in four categories: former drinkers, abstainers, drinkers of up to 7 drinks/week (,7) ≥7 to 14, ≥14 to 21, and ≥21 drinks/week. Surprisingly, despite alcohol being a known cardiac toxin, those consuming a moderate level of alcohol (, 7 units a week, which equates to 7 small glasses of wine or 3.5 pints of beer) were shown to be up to 20% less likely to suffer from heart failure than those who consumed no alcohol at all, although the effect was slightly diminished (16%) for female participants. Although the study also took into account a number of other lifestyle factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol and physical activity, Professor Scott Solomon, one of the authors was still keen to point out that the lowered risk may not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol among low-level alcohol consumers. AU - Weidner, Gerdi. AU - Connor, Sonja L.. AU - Chesney, Margaret A.. AU - Burns, John W.. AU - Connor, William E.. AU - Matarazzo, Joseph. AU - Mendell, Nancy R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a sample of community-living women and men who consumed 1 drink of alcohol/day or less. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and clinical assessments of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were obtained twice, at 12 months apart. Among men, consumption of 1 drink/day or less was unrelated to levels in HDL-C. In contrast, among women alcohol consumption throughout this relatively low consumption range was positively associated with HDL-C levels. These findings indicate that the association of alcohol and higher levels of HDL-C may occur at lower intakes of alcohol in women than in men.. AB - The purpose of ...
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Understandably, research into this topic has thus far focussed on heavy alcohol consumption and chronic alcohol addiction rather than low-level social drinking.. We are far less aware of the potential risks of irregular, light alcohol consumption during pregnancy than, for example, the likelihood of foetal alcohol syndrome in children born to mothers with severe alcohol dependency issues.. As a result, some people suggest that low-level consumption is less of a concern.. For example, a study undertaken by Harvard Medical School in 2012 found that minimal alcohol consumption in the first trimester didnt seem to be linked to low birth weights, premature births, or other pregnancy complications [2].. Likewise, they found that low-to-moderate levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy had no noticeable effect on the executive function (meaning the organising, managing, and memory) of five-year-old children [3].. Of course, despite this medical professionals still continued to recommend abstinence ...
According to existing evidence, it is true that Russians drink a lot of alcohol.. 1. Adult Per Capita Consumption The World Health Organization 2011 Global status report on alcohol and health provides us with statistics in regard to average alcohol consumption per year, for people aged 15 and above, in liters of pure alcohol. Russia ranks fourth, with 15.76 liters ( of which 6.88 liters are consumed in the form of "spirits" ), more than double the world average - 6.13.. 2. Alcoholism. The report provides no information specifically about alcoholism prevalence in Russia, but using The Global Information System on Alcohol and Health ( http://www.who.int/globalatlas/alcohol ) shows Russia as having the highest rate of males aged between 18 and 65, which are dependent on alcohol: 17.61%. 3. Mortality. The report tells us that Russia has one of the highest proportion of alcohol-attributable mortality, but doesnt give precise numbers - most of the data in this report is given by WHO subregion. ...
Alcohol policies at College Drinking, Facts about alcohol, Research on alcohol abuse, Research on binge drinking, Binge drinking and college students, Alcohol abuse and college students, College alcohol policies, College presidents and alcohol, High School Administrators and alcohol, College parents and alcohol, High school parents and alcohol, Research-based college alcohol information
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004-08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. ResultsOverall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of
TY - JOUR. T1 - A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women. T2 - Application in the Safe Passage Study. AU - Baker, Travis. AU - Haynes, Robin L.. AU - Paterson, David S.. AU - Broadbelt, Kevin G.. AU - Markianos, Kyriacos. AU - Holm, Ingrid A.. AU - Boyd, Theonia. AU - Roberts, Drucilla. AU - Goldstein, Richard G.. AU - Stein, Hanno. AU - Maggiotto, Claire. AU - Hassett, Catherine. AU - Schissler, Kathryn. AU - Habbe, Donald. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. AU - Randall, Bradley. AU - Sens, Mary Ann. AU - Van Eerden, Peter. AU - Berg, Elizabeth. AU - Friedrich, Christa. AU - Jackson, Marge. AU - Mack, Luke. AU - Swenson, Liz. AU - Tobacco, Deb. AU - Groenewald, Coen. AU - Carstens, Erna. AU - Potter, Mandy. AU - Brink, Lucy. AU - du Plessis, Carlie. AU - de Jager, Milly. AU - Nugent, J. David. AU - Condon, Carmen. AU - Isler, Joseph R.. AU - Shair, Margaret C.. AU - Thai, Tracy. AU - Yang, Joel S.. AU - Hoffman, Howard J.. AU - Li, Chuan Ming. AU - Dunty, ...
Regular alcohol consumption can lead to binge drinking among all gender and age groups, a new study suggests.. "What we found is that when people drink more often, they are more likely to drink more, take more drinks, and go to binge drinking," said Andree Demers of Universite de Montreal, the studys main researcher.. She classified binge drinking as five drinks or more per occasion.. "Usually you take one or two drinks," she said yesterday. "If you want to celebrate, youre going to take two or three or four or five drinks.". The study was conducted by researchers from the Universite de Montreal and the University of Western Ontario and published in the latest edition of Addiction.. The study established one drink as either five ounces of wine; 1.5 ounces of liquor; 12 ounces of beer or cooler; or three ounces of port, sherry or vermouth.. About 11,000 respondents - 5,743 women and 4,723 men - were asked to report on their alcohol consumption over a year. The data was gathered by the Genacis ...
Heavy alcohol use negatively impacts HIV/AIDS in several important ways. It increases HIV-risk behaviors, impairs the immune system and accelerates HIV disease progression. Heavy alcohol use also interferes with HIV care compliance, including appointment attendance and medication adherence.. Women are particularly important targets for alcohol use interventions. The threshold for harmful alcohol effects is strikingly low in women, with two drinks per day placing women at risk for negative health consequences. Heavy/hazardous alcohol use is less likely to be detected in women receiving health services. Women may be less likely to seek and or engage in alcohol treatment services, making nontraditional care settings particularly important for reaching this population.. This proposal tests the utility of a brief alcohol intervention for HIV+ women delivered in a medical setting. Hazardous/binge female drinkers will be identified in the Johns Hopkins Hospital HIV clinic and will be randomized to ...
In French men, fibrinogen concentration was strongly associated with alcohol intake in a U-shaped fashion, in particular for the intake of wine and spirits. The assessment of alcohol intake is, as for every nutritional factor, subject to flaws. Although study subjects, and especially heavy drinkers, tend to underestimate their alcohol intake, self-reported alcohol intake is the best method available.30 If underreporting takes place and heavy drinkers are included in the category with moderate alcohol consumption, it would lower the strength of relations between fibrinogen and alcohol. The results may therefore be an underestimation of the true association between fibrinogen and alcohol intake.. Many studies have investigated the association between fibrinogen and alcohol consumption.6 7 8 10 12 13 14 16 17 Although categories of alcohol intake varied from nondrinkers versus drinkers in general, to nondrinkers versus 5 different categories of drinkers, the results of these studies all suggest a ...
The interaction between diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption is complex. While regular light-tomoderate drinking may decrease the risk for diabetes, heavy drinking increases this risk (1, 2). Moreover, alcohol consumption, especially "binge" drinking (heavy episodic consumption), can worsen the course of the disease and influence its outcomes via a number of mechanisms. Recent meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and primary studies (1, 2) illustrate the multiple ways alcohol consumption can affect diabetes, and provide the basis for integrating alcohol control measures into the public health approach to diabetes prevention and management within the context of the World Health Organization (WHO) global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol (3). This article describes the association between alcohol use and diabetes within the context of new conceptual and preventive developments in the management of diabetes from a public health perspective. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN THE AMERICAS In ...
Background & Aims: High alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of severe liver disease. Current recommendations suggest it is safe for men to consume 30 grams of alcohol per day. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption early in life and later development of severe liver disease.. Methods: We used data on alcohol consumption at conscription to military service from 43,296 men (18-20 years) in Sweden between 1969 and 1970. Outcomes were defined as incident diagnoses of severe liver disease from systematic national registration of clinical events until the end of 2009. A Cox regression model adjusted for body mass index, smoking, use of narcotics, cognitive ability and cardiovascular capacity was applied.. Results: During a mean follow-up of 37.8 years, 383 men developed severe liver disease. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of development of severe liver disease in a dose-response pattern (adjusted hazard ratio for every one gram/day ...
Background & Aims: High alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of severe liver disease. Current recommendations suggest it is safe for men to consume 30 grams of alcohol per day. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption early in life and later development of severe liver disease.. Methods: We used data on alcohol consumption at conscription to military service from 43,296 men (18-20 years) in Sweden between 1969 and 1970. Outcomes were defined as incident diagnoses of severe liver disease from systematic national registration of clinical events until the end of 2009. A Cox regression model adjusted for body mass index, smoking, use of narcotics, cognitive ability and cardiovascular capacity was applied.. Results: During a mean follow-up of 37.8 years, 383 men developed severe liver disease. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of development of severe liver disease in a dose-response pattern (adjusted hazard ratio for every one gram/day ...
If you are an active drinker of alcohol that enjoys to take a glass on a number of alcoholic drinks regularly then being familiar with every alcohol fact will help you to drink alcohol securely. There are a number of misconceptions associated to alcohol and isolating them can guarantee that you are in good health and frame of mind even when you like drinking your preferred alcohol drink.. Alcohol or ethanol is produced after ethanol fermentation is produced by using yeast to a brew mash containing water and an array of grains, vegetables or fruits based in the final alcoholic beverage that has to be prepared. The final alcohol beverage will comprise a definite percentage of alcohol that is alcoholbase.com displayed as proof levels and will surely affect your capability to think and act, mainly if you take in over your bodys threshold limit. Even so, you can absolutely appreciate a number of fermented drinks such as beer and wine with your meals all the time albeit in moderation.. All alcoholic ...
This article analyses the perspectives that undergraduate students have on alcohol-related issues. Key differences and distinctions between relevant terms are introduced, namely alcoholism, alcohol abuse and heavy drinking, in an attempt to explore issues around alcohol use and abuse as perceived by Irish young adults. The research reports on a small scale qualitative study focused on interviewing three third-year college males at the University of Limerick. The interviews investigated their drinking behaviours and their experiences which revolve around alcohol consumption. Intimately tied to these facts are key socio-cultural and ideological aspects of alcohol use among young people. The results show that the young mens popular opinions related to alcohol lead them to believe that they are not in danger from heavy drinking in their daily lives. There is significant, documented, evidence in college males lifestyles of a lack of restraint in alcohol consumption. This research explores their ...
If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation-up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men-and only by adults of legal drinking age. For those who choose to drink, moderate alcohol consumption can be incorporated into the calorie limits of most healthy eating patterns. The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason; however, it does recommend that all foods and beverages consumed be accounted for within healthy eating patterns. Alcohol is not a component of the USDA Food Patterns. Thus, if alcohol is consumed, the calories from alcohol should be accounted for so that the limits on calories for other uses and total calories are not exceeded (see the Other Dietary Components section of Chapter 1. Key Elements of Healthy Eating Patterns for further discussion of limits on alcohol and calories for other uses within healthy eating patterns).. For the purposes of evaluating amounts of alcohol that may be ...
Alcohol has always been an issue in public health but it is currently assuming increasing importance as a cause of disease and premature death worldwide. This book provides an interdisciplinary source of information that links together the usually separate fields of science, policy, and public health. This volume highlights the importance of bringing scientific knowledge to bear in order to strengthen and develop alcohol public policy. The book looks at the historical evolution of alcohol consumption in society, key early studies of alcohol and disease, and the cultural and social aspects of alcohol consumption. It then goes on to cover the chemistry and biology of alcohol, patterns of consumption, gender and age-related issues, alcohol and injury, alcohol and cancer and non-malignant disease, and various current therapeutic aspects. The book concludes with a section on alcohol policy, looking at issues of poverty, the availability of alcohol and alcohol control measures.
BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These ...
Methods: Between November 2004 and March 2009, we prospectively recruited 562 consecutive adults with a spontaneous ICH. We excluded patients without information on drinking habit (n = 22). Heavy alcohol intake was defined as a regular consumption of more than 300 g alcohol/week. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) based on demographic and radiologic models. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Read more. ...
A previous study found temperature-independent effects of alcohol upon the auditory brain-stem response (ABR): another found only temperature-dependent effects. To understand these paradoxical results, we measured the ABR and brain temperature in unrestrained rats before and after 3 alcohol doses (0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg). In a separate experiment, blood ethanol concentration (BEC) curves were determined for the same 3 alcohol doses. Integration of dose- and time-related effects of alcohol upon the ABR, brain temperature, and BEC suggested that alcohol has both temperature-dependent and temperature-independent effects, which vary according to dose and BEC curve phase. Temperature-dependent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a steep slope, following a high alcohol dose. Temperature-independent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a flatter slope, when BEC is still high following a moderate alcohol dose, or during a BEC curve rising phase soon after alcohol ...
Alcohol abuse causes 79,000 deaths stemming from severe organ damage in the United States every year. Clinical manifestations of long-term alcohol abuse on the cardiac muscle include defective contractility with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and low-output heart failure; which has poor prognosis with less than 25% survival for more than three years. In contrast, low alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, however the mechanism of this phenomenon remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of apoptosis as a mediating factor in cardiac function following chronic high alcohol versus low alcohol exposure. Adult rats were provided 5 mM (low alcohol), 100 mM (high alcohol) or pair-fed non-alcohol controls for 4-5 months. The hearts were dissected, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet or immunohistochemically for caspase-3, a putative marker for apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated to determine the effects of alcohol
Alcohol policy is broadly defined as any purposeful effort on the part of governments or nongovernment groups to minimize or prevent alcohol-related consequences. Policies can involve the implementation of a specific strategy with regard to alcohol problems (e.g., age restrictions on alcohol sales) or the allocation of resources that reflect priorities with regard to prevention or treatment intervention efforts. Among the various strategies and interventions that have been used as a basis for alcohol policy are: taxation and pricing, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, countermeasures to deal with driving while intoxicated, regulating alcohol promotion, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services (1, 2). In recent years there has been an increasing interest in alcohol policy in the Americas, in part because of the growing concern over the burden of disease and disability connected to alcohol, and in part because ...
Responsible alcohol use can include choosing not to drink alcohol (especially if you are under the age of 21) or choosing to consume a moderate amount of alcohol based on your size and biology. If you do choose to drink alcohol, there are four factors that determine how alcohol affects you. Alcohol can affect people very differently, even if theyve consumed the same number of drinks. Understanding how these factors relate and affect you can help you and your friends stay safe: a) Weight: Given similar amounts of alcohol consumed, smaller people get more intoxicated than bigger people. Larger people have more water and more blood in their system and it takes larger quantities to produce the same effect than in smaller people. b) Biology: Whether you naturally produce certain hormones or use hormone replacement therapy, size, estrogen, alcohol metabolism and water content all contribute to differences if how we process alcohol. c) Quantity: Obviously, how much alcohol one drinks affects how they ...
Want to stop drinking alcohol? Overcoming an addiction to alcohol can be a long and bumpy road. At times, it may even feel impossible. But its not.. With these 8 recovery tips on how to stop drinking alcohol, you will have some self - help ideas on how to start to make the change and where to look for help and support.. Whether you are a regular drinker or you quietly drink a six pack by yourself each night, you may have fallen into the trap of alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is heavy drinking, where your drinking leads to problems-physical, mental or emotional.. On the other hand, alcohol addiction is a physical addiction or need to drink more and more. With addiction, the alcohol takes first place in your life-over family, friends, job, school and even your physical and mental health.. If youre willing to stop drinking and to get the support you need, you can recover from alcoholism and alcohol abuse-no matter how bad the addiction or how powerless you feel.. There are many things you can do to ...
The XIT Ranch had a number of rules, including prohibitions against carrying arms; drinking alcohol; and gambling or card ...
Knapp won wide acclaim for Drinking: A Love Story (1996), which described her life as a "high-functioning alcoholic" and ... Drinking: A Love Story. The Dial Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-385-31551-1. Thurber, Jon. "Caroline Knapp, 42; Wrote of Alcohol Struggle ... She followed Drinking with Pack of Two, also a best-seller, which recounted her relationship with her dog Lucille and humans' ... Alice K's Guide to Life: One Woman's Quest for Survival, Sanity, and the Perfect New Shoes (1994) Drinking: A Love Story (1996 ...
... drinking alcohol and eating meat; singing and dancing; behaving fearlessly; engaging in sexual behavior. Practices that a ...
"Leyritz jailed for drinking alcohol". ESPN.com. February 13, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2010. Leyritz To Remain Out of Jail ... The test showed he had not consumed any alcohol and a judge cleared him. On July 2, 2009, Leyritz was arrested for battery ... Leyritz ran into trouble on May 14 when he attempted to start his car but the alcohol monitoring device on the car ... Leyritz was released on US$11,000 bond and charged with two counts of drunk driving. Police collected two blood samples from ...
The morning after heavy drinking. Another song about alcohol. A song about murderous obsession. A fast guitar instrumental. The ... A song about alcohol, and the phenomenon of girls appearing prettier from glass to glass. This song is an elegiac goodbye to ... This song is about alcohol, and the band's lead singer Kevin, who weighed about 240 pounds around this time. This song is ...
Drinking alcohol (Shurb al-Khamr). The Hanafis forbid drinking alcoholic beverages other than wine only if it leads to ... drinking alcohol, highway robbery, and some forms of theft. Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy and rebellion against ... someone other than his wife and not from a uterine relative and not from her husband if it is a woman when he was not drunk and ... drunkenness, while other schools forbid all alcoholic beverages. Punished by 40 to 80 lashes, depending on the legal school. ...
"Does Drinking Alcohol Affect Sleep?". Alcohol & Drug Counseling, Assessment, & Prevention Services, WSU. Washington State ... Timothy Roehrs & Thomas Roth (Feb 25, 2011). "Sleep, Sleepiness, and Alcohol Use". National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... Alcohol can also affect REM sleep; it suppresses it during the first half of the night, leading to a rebound four to five hours ... Although alcohol can decrease the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, it will cause a disruption in the sleep cycles. REM ...
Absinthe Denatured alcohol Elixir History of alcoholic drinks History of medicine in the United States History of pharmacy in ... Rourke, Steven (March 14, 2017). "Drink Up! Alcohol as Medicine Through History". Medscape. "Medicinal Alcohol". American ... The alcohol prohibition law, better known as the Volstead Act, was amended twelve years before by the 67th United States ... Konstantinovsky, Michelle (October 2, 2017). "Ridiculous History: When Doctors 'Prescribed' Alcohol During Prohibition". How ...
The legal drinking age is 18. Muslims are prohibited from drinking alcohol. The PK-Cinq area is known for its smaller ... Alcoholic beverages served are locally brewed beer, palm wine and banana wine. Non-alcoholic beverages that are drunk include ... Palm wine Banana wine Soft drinks Traditional beer used sorghum Beer brands include Mocaf and Export (beer brand) Alcohol made ... Ginger beer Karkanji is a hibiscus flower drink from the north. ...
In 2018 Bravo quit drinking alcohol. Jiu Jitsu Unleashed (2005) Mastering the Rubber Guard (2006) Mastering the Twister (2007) ...
They call it "pre-drinking," "pre-partying" or "pre-funking," and it usually involves chugging cheap alcoholic drinks before ... "Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study". BMC ... Local bars might sell only one or two drinks to students who have consumed alcohol heavily earlier in the night. In addition, ... Pregaming (also pre-drinking or pre-loading) is the process of getting drunk prior to going out socializing, typically done by ...
Drinking or selling alcohol is forbidden. Sexual intercourse is only permitted between a husband and wife, and thus premarital ...
Sezgin, Pam (2010). "Drinking Glasses and Vessels". In Black, Rachel. Alcohol in Popular Culture: An Encyclopedia. Santa ... Lamprey, Zane (2010). Three Sheets: Drinking Made Easy! 6 Continents, 15 Countries, 190 Drinks, and 1 Mean Hangover!. New York ... In each the stem allows the drinker to hold the glass without affecting the temperature of the drink, making them readily ... A Champagne glass is a form of stemware designed specifically to enhance the pleasure of drinking champagne. The two most ...
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Ruoh is often seen drinking alcohol. He is also Chouyu's Master and is one of the four Cooking Elders of Guangzhou. Shouan ...
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However, they found him drinking alcohol. The delegation told him to behave in a proper manner. In reply he scolded them, told ... He was known to be an alcoholic who publicly consumed alcohol. The tipping point came the day al-Waleed entered the mosque ... drunk to lead Fajr Namaz (morning prayer). He was so intoxicated that he read four Raka'ats. At the end of his fourth raka'at, ...
... of college students drink alcohol, with estimated 40% report binge drinking in the past 2 weeks, and about 25% report having ... suggesting that binge drinking starts earlier than college for some. Alcohol use among college students Alcohol advertising on ... Individual and environmental factors for experiencing alcohol-related consequences have been identified such as drinking during ... "College Drinking" (PDF). Pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-14. Dodd, L.J., Al-Nakeeb, Y., Nevill, A. and Forshaw, M.J., ...
"Take two drinks.." Windsor Star. 1985-10-23. Retrieved 2011-03-26. "Alcohol and nutrition". Government of Ontario. Retrieved ... The Caesar is an unusual drink in that it can be mixed in bulk and stored for a period of time before drinking. Though it was ... In Europe, the drink can be found wherever there are higher concentrations of Canadians. The drink's anonymity outside Canada ... He reasoned that the mixture of clams and tomato sauce would make a good drink, and mashed clams to form a "nectar" that he ...
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"Season's Drink: Coolers". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2015. editor, Rachel Black, (2010). Alcohol in popular culture ... A wine cooler is an alcoholic beverage made from wine and fruit juice, often in combination with a carbonated beverage and ... It is often of lower strength alcoholic content. Traditionally home-made, wine coolers have been bottled and sold by commercial ... distributors since the early 1980s, especially in areas where their lower alcohol content causes them to come under less ...
... 酒 alcoholic drink; 酎 sake; 酌 serve alcohol; 酢 vinegar; 漬 pickle; 汁 juice, soup; 茶 tea; 炊 cook; 焼 bake; 煎 roast, boil; 蒸 steam; ... 飲 drink; 米 rice; 飯 cooked rice, meal; 餅 rice cake; 麦 wheat or barley; 粒 grain; 穀 cereal; 穂 ear of grain; 果 fruit; 実 fruit; 菜 ... 島 island See also Food and Drink 犬 dog; 狗 dog; 猫 cat; 鼠 mouse; 兎 rabbit; 馬 horse; 牛 cow; 羊 sheep; 豚 pig; 鹿 deer; 獣 beast; 畜 ... 爪 claw See also Food and Drink 植 plant; 木 tree; 樹 tree; 林 grove; 森 forest; 松 pine; 杉 cedar; 桜 cherry; 梅 plum; 梨 pear; 柿 ...
For example: 他(tā) 喝(hē) 酒(jiǔ)。 He drink alcohol. (He drinks alcohol.) Chinese can also be considered a topic-prominent ... "drink coffee read paper", i.e. "drink coffee and read the paper". Each verb may independently be negated or given the le aspect ... He want me invite him drink beer, i.e. He wants me to treat him beer. Chinese has a number of sentence-final particles - these ...
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... for Alcohol mixed with Energy Drinks)-but its an especially bad mix, a new study warns. ... The practice of combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks has become so common, it has its own acronym (AmED, ... "Drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks are more likely than drinkers who do not mix alcohol with energy drinks to report ... Combining alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks increases the risk of injury, warns a Canadian review of 13 studies, published ...
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15.0 drinks v. 15.8 drinks) or in alcohol consumption (318.2 g v. 299.1 g per week). ... Alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome in alcohol dependence. The lifetime prevalence of AIPS among participants who were alcohol- ... Participants were asked at what age they took their first drink of alcohol. Current weekly consumption of alcohol, and parental ... 11 In alcohol treatment settings, 2-7% of patients with alcohol dependence had alcohol hallucinosis,8,9 5-11% delirium tremens, ...
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Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines provide information to moderate alcohol consumption and reduce alcohol related ... Communicating Alcohol-Related Health Risks: Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines *Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking ... Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and ... long-term alcohol-related harm. The Guidelines recommend no more than two drinks a day, 10 per week for women, and three drinks ...
A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ...
Drinking during pregnancy is roundly frowned upon, for good reason. Its a huge risk factor for lots of post-natal problems. ... Loose Women Discuss Drinking Whilst Pregnant , Loose Women - Duration: 6:31. Loose Women Recommended for you ... Drinking during pregnancy is roundly frowned upon, for good reason. Its a huge risk factor for lots of post-natal problems. ... Is Drinking Tea Good for You? - Duration: 6:52. Healthcare Triage 247,525 views ...
This article looks at the possible health benefits of drinking. ... the health benefits of moderate drinking have been widely ... For example, I drink 10 drinks a month. But 10 drinks a month is very different for someone who has them all on one night vs. ... We usually define moderate drinking as up to one drink per day for adult women who aren't pregnant and up to two drinks ... or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. ...
All the alcohol news from 2009, including beer summits, bacon-infused vodka, Tigers mistresses, Hennessy and other ... November 29: Alcohol, Now in Pill Form A professor in Russia created an alcohol pill, which the Times of India argues will ... Winter 2009: Alcohol Mixes with Music Jamie Foxxs late 2008 single, Blame It became his first No. 1 single. Meanwhile, Pink ... The Year in Drinking: A Timeline. From beer summits to bacon-infused vodka, from blaming it on Tigers mistresses to blaming it ...
... scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in ... the students were also told they could drink as much beer and wine or soft drinks as they liked.. The most alcohol anyone drank ... scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in ... "The results were straightforward and substantial; those who watched both the alcoholic film and commercials drank, on average ...
Drinking alcohol wards off asthma. Booze. Is there anything it cant do?. By Lewis Page 26 Sep 2011 at 10:46 ... Scientists have discovered that drinking booze prevents one from developing asthma.. The new research is to be announced today ... Booze has also lately been shown to reduce heart disease and senile dementia, not to mention acting as a useful remedy against ... on this vital and beneficent substance and finally introduce a lower safe limit on the amount of alcohol people should drink as ...
Teens who had already tried drinking were more likely to increase their alcohol consumption by a greater amount the more they ... The study found no evidence that television ads for alcohol products encouraged teens to start drinking, but that doesnt mean ... have an especially powerful impact in spurring teens to start drinking or increase the amount they drink, a new study suggests. ... Advertising that links alcohol with everyday life -- such as supermarket store displays -- appears to have more influence on ...
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. For more on underage drinking, check out the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... Those students who owned alcohol merchandise were significantly more likely to start drinking alcohol than those who did not. ... Public possession of alcohol by minors was similarly made illegal.. However, the law did not actually outlaw underage drinking ... The researchers further found that 15 percent of the students said they now drank alcohol to some degree. ...
Source for information on Alcohol: History of Drinking: Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco: Learning About Addictive Behavior ... A complex array of customs, attitudes, beliefs, and values surround the use-or avoidance-of alcohol. ... alcohol has played a role in religion, economics, sex, politics, and many other aspects of societies around the world. Its role ... Alcohol: History of DrinkingOver the course of human history, ... "Alcohol: History of Drinking ." Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco: ...
Home › Q & A › Questions › Drinking alcohol on Zoloft?. Drinking alcohol on Zoloft?. Asked. 24 Dec 2017 by shaunnamarie. Active ... I never go crazy when drinking (usually only 2 vodka lemonades when i do go out). So i was wondering if i could drink on zoloft ... For the Zoloft to work most effectively you should not drink alcohol with it. ... You should avoid or limit the use of alcohol while being treated with sertraline. Alcohol can increase the nervous system side ...
Victoria Moore: avoid manipulated low-alcohol wines and go for good half bottles instead Premium ...
... the researchers tracked the alcohol intake of 664 people, assessed their cognitive functioning with a handful of tests, and ... "As long as you dont get intoxicated and stop doing the things you need to do, drinking alcohol seems to be OK," she said. ... And even though moderate alcohol intake - that is, two or three drinks per day - was linked to improved memory, Zanjani is not ... Related: 7 Shocking Health Benefits of Drinking Alcohol (in Moderation). So should all of us start sipping, stat? Not ...
Yet, myths remain about drinking and drinking problems. Learn the facts about alcohol use so you can make healthy decisions. ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. ... You do not need to drink every day to have a problem with alcohol. Heavy drinking is defined by how much alcohol you have in a ... You need to drink more than you did to get the same effect from alcohol. Or, the number of drinks you are used to having now ...
Putting a stop to your drinking may be done through behavior changes you make on your own. ... If you abuse alcohol, you can take control of the problem. ... means you drink four or five alcoholic drinks in a row. You may ... Limited Alcohol Consumption. Some people who drink too much, but are not dependent on alcohol, can become moderate drinkers. ... Many of them choose not to drink again or do not experience drinking problems. But about 17 million people have an alcohol use ...
For some, alcohol is constipating. For others, alcohol can have the opposite effect. Learn more about how alcohol is ... Drink water. Aim for drinking a glass of water each time you drink an alcoholic beverage. You can also drink an electrolyte- ... Can drinking alcohol make you poop?. In a word - yes. Drinking alcohol can irritate the intestinal lining, leading to pooping, ... Alcohol affects the digestive tract in many ways, depending upon what types of alcohol, and how much of it, youre drinking. ...
Should You Drink Alcohol to Induce Labor?. You might think that reaching for a few glasses of wine during those halcyon days of ... Turns out that drinking alcohol in the later stages of pregnancy has the opposite effect most women intend for it to have. It ... But long ago, intravenous (IV) alcohol was used to treat and stop preterm labor. The effect of alcohol on the uterus really ... It was during those times that I may suggest having a beer to see if the alcohol would calm or relax the uterus," says Ross. So ...
... high-strength alcohol, ministers are hopeful Scotlands drinking habits have changed. ... Image caption Danny is an alcoholic and has to beg for money for drink Danny, 45, is an alcoholic who says he "drinks as much ... "And Im not a bad person, Im an alcoholic. Ive got serious problems, issues inside and I consume the drink to help with the ... It is a year since the introduction of a minimum price for drinks depending on how many alcohol units they contained. ...
  • HealthDay News -- Adolescents who collect and brandish promotional hats, shirts, bags and other merchandise displaying popular alcohol logos are far more likely to start drinking while still underage, according to a new study. (redorbit.com)
  • David Jernigan, research director at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., echoes the sentiment that the alcohol industry must take responsibility for its influence on underage drinking. (redorbit.com)
  • However, if children do drink alcohol underage, it shouldn't be until they are at least 15. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Everyone knows the legal drinking age is 21, but Georgia is one of 45 states that has an exception to allow for underage consumption in some circumstances. (ajc.com)
  • Any smell of alcohol on an underage driver behind the wheel, you go to jail," said William C. Head, an Atlanta attorney who has represented more than 4,500 defendants in criminal cases involving alcohol, including DUIs. (ajc.com)
  • Research has shown that underage drinking can have a long-term impact on the brain , which hasn't fully developed until a person is well into their 20s or even 30s. (ajc.com)
  • The controversy exploded in October, when nine underage students at Central Washington University were hospitalized after drinking Four Loko, both on its own and mixed with other drinks, police reported. (cnn.com)
  • Alcohol (chemical name ethyl alcohol or ethanol) is a liquid made from sugars by the action of yeast. (healthyplace.com)
  • Within the context of 'at risk' adolescents, prior exposure to ethanol may, among other things, worsen the consequences of alcohol-related social interaction by increasing teenagers' propensity to engage in such settings,' he added. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Traditionally, prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) from maternal consumption of alcohol, was thought to solely impact directly exposed offspring, the embryo or fetus in the womb. (eurekalert.org)
  • If those figures were included, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest alcohol-related deaths would be closer to 90,000. (mercola.com)
  • According to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 4,300 deaths of minors each year are attributed to excessive drinking, and alcohol was linked to 189,000 trips to the emergency room for people under the age of 21 in 2010. (ajc.com)
  • The most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on alcohol -related deaths come from 2006 to 2010, when each year on average there were 88,000 deaths from alcohol poisoning, traffic accidents or consumption-related chronic conditions. (rollcall.com)
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome disorders can leave children with abnormal facial features, stunted heights, low body weight, smaller heads, bad coordination, hyperactivity, poor memory, learning disabilities and more, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (miamiherald.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a 10 percent increase in taxes leads to a 5 to 8 percent decline in drinking. (greenbaypressgazette.com)
  • HealthDay News -- Magazine and supermarket ads featuring alcohol, as well as beer concession stands at sports and music events, have an especially powerful impact in spurring teens to start drinking or increase the amount they drink, a new study suggests. (redorbit.com)
  • A second report from the ONS published today suggests that most drinking takes place at home, rather than in pubs or bars. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In fact, some will even buy the booze, on the theory that a little tippling makes for a happier employee-and maybe, too, as a new study suggests, a more creative one. (go.com)
  • Research suggests that children are less likely to drink alcohol when their parents show that they don't agree with it. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study suggests that, unlike the associations with cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption does not have any protective effect on brain volume. (eurekalert.org)
  • But here's the thing: new research suggests that what's long been considered a healthy approach to drinking (2 drinks a day for men, 1 a day for women) is now under fire. (menshealth.com)
  • If you are frightened of showing your loving for alcohol to people and hide it in places like the car or truck, personal cupboard, bathroom, and the like, it too suggests that you are getting dependent to it. (dailystrength.org)
  • What doctors usually consider a drink is basically a medium glass of wine, a 1.5 oz shot of spirits, or a can or bottle of beer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An experiment with students showed that volunteers exposed to a film and commercials where alcohol featured predominately drank an average one-and-a-half bottles of beer more during the hour they were watching. (france24.com)
  • During the one-hour film in the laboratory fitted with leather couches and comfortable chairs, the students were also told they could drink as much beer and wine or soft drinks as they liked. (france24.com)
  • The study of 3,111 South Dakota teens concluded that those who frequently saw prominent beer advertising displays in grocery and convenience stores were more likely to start drinking alcohol than teens who saw fewer of those kinds of advertising displays. (redorbit.com)
  • Teens who had already tried drinking were more likely to increase their alcohol consumption by a greater amount the more they saw alcohol ads in magazines and the more they observed beer concessions stands at sporting and music events, the study said. (redorbit.com)
  • In the United States many people who regularly drink beer in large quantities do not think of themselves as using alcohol. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anyways, anytime I take an SSRI, I can get a hangover from one beer let alone getting drunk. (drugs.com)
  • A drink is defined as 12 fluid ounces (355 mL) of beer, 5 fluid ounces (148 mL) of wine, or 1½ fluid ounces (45 mL) of liquor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fermented drinks and non-distilled alcoholic beverages (think beer, lager, cider, and wine) increase acid secretion in the stomach by stimulating gastrin secretion. (healthline.com)
  • It was during those times that I may suggest having a beer to see if the alcohol would calm or relax the uterus," says Ross. (parents.com)
  • Many side effects from alcohol consumption can be tied to its properties as a vasodilator (blood vessel widener), including the so-called "beer blanket" phenomenon. (livescience.com)
  • Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers have more. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A drink is defined as 12 ounces (350 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (150 milliliters) of wine, or 1.5 ounces (45 milliliters) of liquor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Drinking a lot of beer is like consuming lots of bread or other carbs. (yahoo.com)
  • A page devoted to "drinking like a man" warns that men who have more than five drinks a day are twice as likely to die of a stroke, and that having a beer belly can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea and cancer. (cnn.com)
  • On a daily basis, it's more than two to three drinks (about a 175 ml glass of 13% wine) for women and three to four drinks (equivalent to a pint and a half of 4% beer) for men. (cnn.com)
  • 1 unit of alcohol is about half a pint of normal-strength beer or a single measure (25ml) of spirits. (www.nhs.uk)
  • However, if you're 16 or 17 and accompanied by an adult, you can drink (but not buy) beer, wine or cider with a meal. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The products may be drunk in their original form (for example, beer and wines), or after strengthening (for example, sherry, port and spirits). (healthyplace.com)
  • The studies reported here focused on beer advertisements because beer ads are more pervasive than those for other kinds of alcohol and the ads are more likely to appear where young people might see them. (rand.org)
  • 12-ounces of beer (5% alcohol content). (cdc.gov)
  • Kallman described Moonshot as a craft beer that has about 4 percent alcohol by weight, about two-thirds the caffeine of a cup of coffee and is sold in only three cities -- 'and yet it's being singled out with Four Loko and Joose. (cnn.com)
  • Critics say drinks like Four Loko mix caffeine equal to the amount in three cups of coffee with the alcoholic equivalent of three cans of beer and are designed to appeal to younger consumers accustomed to consuming high-caffeine energy drinks. (cnn.com)
  • Deaths linked to alcohol are significantly more common than drug overdose deaths, but lawmakers may promote more drinking through a two-year tax break for producers of beer, wine and spirits as part of the Senate's tax code overhaul. (rollcall.com)
  • Those people in the Mediterranean who have a glass of wine at lunch and dinner, and spread that out through the week, they might drink more units of alcohol than someone who goes out on a Friday night in very cold Finland and has fifteen units of beer," Skehan said. (euractiv.com)
  • All alcohol, including beer, wine, whiskey and other alcoholic beverages, can thin the blood and strip the mucosa from the lining of the esophagus. (livestrong.com)
  • If you are put on a yeast-free diet, you should only drink domestic beer. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Adding six ounces of water will create one drink that is 10 percent alcohol by volume, about the strength of a high-alcohol beer or a low-alcohol wine. (rand.org)
  • All of which is to say: It is highly unlikely that powdered alcohol is about to shake up the U.S. market for beer, wine and spirits. (rand.org)
  • A drink is one 12-ounce beer, four ounces of wine, one and a half ounces of 80-proof spirits, or one ounce of 100-proof spirits. (psychcentral.com)
  • When at a party, a student sees another teenager drinking a beer. (bartleby.com)
  • She also drank beer and ouzo. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Root beer, orange, grape, and cherry soda, and various other fruit and herb-flavored soft drinks are used, but typically they have not been as popular as the drinks listed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 21-year longitudinal analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on young adult drinking. (medscape.com)
  • However, we now have evidence that the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure could persist transgenerationally and negatively impact the next-generations of offspring who were never exposed to alcohol," Huffman said. (eurekalert.org)
  • In our study we tried to figure out the drinking pattern that's most closely tied to lower heart attack risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What we found in a study of about 38,000 men was that the key factor wasn't what men were drinking, or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to a study, Dutch scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in viewers. (france24.com)
  • This is the first experimental study to show a direct effect of exposure to alcohol portrayals on TV on viewers' immediate drinking behaviour," Engels said in a statement. (france24.com)
  • The study found no evidence that television ads for alcohol products encouraged teens to start drinking, but that doesn't mean it has no long-term impact. (redorbit.com)
  • In light of the apparent connection, the authors of the study recommended that the alcohol industry officially halt the practice of distributing and selling alcohol-related paraphernalia -- much as the tobacco industry did with tobacco-related items in 1998. (redorbit.com)
  • According to the study authors, the alcohol industry currently spends more than $1 billion a year on all aspects of marketing -- a figure that includes expenditures for such youth-oriented promotional items as baseball caps, backpacks and t-shirts. (redorbit.com)
  • The research team established that none of the children had ever had a drink at the onset of the study. (redorbit.com)
  • Sargent said the alcohol industry should pick up on big tobacco's cue -- noting that he expects a larger national study of teens he is currently conducting to further underline the urgency for such action. (redorbit.com)
  • In a mouse study, scientists from the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) in New York found that drinking the equivalent to around 2.5 alcoholic drinks per day could reduce brain inflammation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The new study provides further evidence of the potential brain benefits of moderate drinking, after finding that a couple of drinks every day could help to clear the brain of toxins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the team found that mice that were given 'low' doses of alcohol - which, in this study, was the equivalent of consuming around 2.5 alcohol beverages per day - not only demonstrated a reduction in brain inflammation, but their glymphatic function was also improved, compared with a control group that was not exposed to alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A study of 550 people over 30 years finds that even moderate alcohol consumption is tied to raised risk of hippocampus degeneration and mental decline. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is the first research study to measure the influence of alcohol use in movies and, using data from more than 600 films and 5,000 students, found that movies play a significant role in an adolescent's decision to drink. (dartmouth.edu)
  • James Sargent is lead author of a new study that identifies a correlation between exposure to alcohol use in movies and adolescent drinking. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The regional study was published in the January issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and the authors cite previous research that identified early initiation of alcohol use (before the age of 14) as one risk factor for problems with alcohol later in life. (dartmouth.edu)
  • This study is aimed at the prevention of early alcohol use and our hope is that parents of young children become more aware that drinking in films is common and that seeing these depictions can lead to early experimentation with drinking. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In his current study, his research team found that 92 percent of the films in a sample of 601 contemporary movies depicted the use of alcohol. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, a 2013 study showed that many people who drink heavily develop depression. (medicinenet.com)
  • According to one recent study, consumption of alcohol among women ages 18 to 24 increased by 33 percent in five years. (go.com)
  • Data for this study came from three different questionnaires the students filled out: a baseline drinking survey at the start of grade 7, a survey about alcohol advertising and TV viewing at the end of grade 8, and a survey about past-year drinking at the end of grade 9. (rand.org)
  • Because moderate drinking may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and other diseases of ageing, the study results are "encouraging," the authors write. (bmj.com)
  • But a new study of healthy women over 50 found that moderate alcohol consumption -- one or two drinks a day -- also can improve their response to insulin and reduce their blood levels of triglycerides, blood fats that. (wsj.com)
  • Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to alcohol consumption: a prospective study among male British doctors. (medscape.com)
  • Ruidavets JB, Ducimetiere P, Evans A, Montaye M, Haas B, Bingham A. Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME). (medscape.com)
  • If in 1981 you were using alcohol, compared to people your same age who weren't using alcohol, you lived longer," Dr. Claudia Kawas, a professor of neurology and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine, and one of the co-principal investigators for The 90+ Study, said at an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) conference on Saturday (Feb. 17). (livescience.com)
  • Moderate and hazardous drinking were associated with few sleep problems," the study authors write. (medscape.com)
  • This analysis was part of the Worksite Alcohol Study phase II conducted in 1994. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To extend the generalizations of previous social-norms research, this study was conducted in a wide range of organizations with different dominant occupations and managerial attitudes toward drinking. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A large study combined the two by looking at how drinking alcohol while taking HRT affected breast cancer risk. (breastcancer.org)
  • According to this study, there appears to be an association between regularly drinking alcohol while taking HRT and increased breast cancer risk. (breastcancer.org)
  • A study published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) journal found that a gene known as RASGRF-2 plays a crucial role in controlling how alcohol stimulates the brain to release dopamine, triggering feelings of reward. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • For this study, scientists initially looked at mice who had been modified to have the RASGRF2 gene removed, to see how they reacted to alcohol. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • What this is saying is, if you're really concerned about your longevity, don't have more than a drink a day," David Jernigan, an alcohol researcher at Johns Hopkins University who was not involved in the study, told the AP . (medicinenet.com)
  • Our study is the first to show that people's motivations for mixing A+EDs can help to predict whether or not they experience negative outcomes like aggression and violence, alcohol-related injury, and can also indicate their risk for AD," said Droste. (psychcentral.com)
  • This study is unique because it is the first to link the distinctive motives for combined A+ED use with negative outcomes and increased alcohol consumption. (psychcentral.com)
  • Mothers who drink alcohol during lactation could be affecting their breastfed baby's cognitive abilities, according to a new study published by the American Academy of Pediatrics. (thestar.com)
  • The study found that when infants were exposed to alcohol through their mother's breast milk, the child had a dose-dependent reduction in his or her cognitive ability by ages 6 and 7. (thestar.com)
  • Louisa Gibson, a co-author of the study, said that while she wasn't able to measure the cognitive reductions in a child once they reached 10 or 11 years old, that "doesn't mean that the child has grown out of it, or that the effects of the mother's alcohol consumption aren't there anymore. (thestar.com)
  • Children exposed to alcohol in the womb exhibit changes in brain structure and metabolism that are visible using various imaging techniques, according to a new study. (sify.com)
  • Citing a 2015 study about the effects of alcohol on the brain when we sleep, Leon explains that alcohol has been linked to low wave non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM delta power) sleep, which can mean waking up more often in the night. (menshealth.com)
  • A study by a survey by the Independent Insurance Agents & Brokers of America (IIABA) and its local Trusted Choice member agencies discovered that one-third of homeowners do not think or do not know if they could be held responsible for an alcohol-related accident in their home. (insure.com)
  • This study is part of an ongoing Smoking Toolkit Study and Alcohol Toolkit Study, designed to provide tracking information about smoking, alcohol consumption and related behaviors in England. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combined effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation lasted two to three hours, the study found. (reuters.com)
  • When men were deprived of sleep and also given alcohol, they were most impaired about 90 minutes after they drank, the study team reports in Human Psychopharmacology. (reuters.com)
  • Even so, the findings suggest that people who no longer feel "buzzed" from drinking may still be unsafe behind the wheel, said Russell Griffin, a researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham who wasn't involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • According to the ongoing Monitoring the Future study run by the University of Michigan, alcohol consumption rates for college students have been decreasing slowly but steadily for the past three decades. (theatlantic.com)
  • In fact, the only area in which non-students out-drink students, the study authors point out, is in daily drinking (although that accounts for a pretty small portion of respondents in both groups). (theatlantic.com)
  • This type of study is useful for looking at links between factors - such as between alcohol consumption and sickness absence - but can't tell us whether one factor causes the other. (www.nhs.uk)
  • During follow-up telephone interviews conducted one to two years later, Sargent and his team found that 14 percent of the students said they now owned at least one alcohol-related promotional item. (redorbit.com)
  • Although it is impossible to say exactly where or when Homo sapiens first sampled alcohol, chemical analysis of the residues found in pots dating from 3500 B.C.E. shows that wine was already being made from grapes in Mesopotamia (now Iraq). (encyclopedia.com)
  • High alcohol exposure, however, was found to impair glymphatic function and increase brain inflammation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Additionally, high alcohol exposure was found to impair cognitive functioning and motor skills in the mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In his previous studies, Sargent found that images and scenarios depicted in movies are among the strongest influences on young children, rivaling several other factors such as drinking by parents and peers. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Broken down by ratings, they found that alcohol was used in 52 percent of G-rated films, 89 percent for PG, 93 percent for PG-13 and 95 percent for R. (dartmouth.edu)
  • A student at Onondaga Community College, in Syracuse, New York, was also found dead earlier this year as a result of hypothermia and alcohol intoxication, according to syracuse.com . (livescience.com)
  • Autopsy results found her blood alcohol content was 0.436 percent -- five times the legal limit. (go.com)
  • Research has found that both drinking alcohol and taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can increase breast cancer risk. (breastcancer.org)
  • They found the lack of RASGRF-2 was linked to a significant reduction in alcohol-seeking activity. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • They found that those with the RASGRF-2 gene variation drank more often at the age of 16 than those without it. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • They also found that A+ED users had higher blood alcohol concentration readings than non-A+ED users. (psychcentral.com)
  • Isopropyl alcohol is commonly found in many cosmetics and food products. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Gibson found that the higher the mother's drinking score, the lower the child's abstract reasoning ability, such as problem solving and thinking through a situation. (thestar.com)
  • It is quite possible that the association we found between alcohol and depression can be explained by other factors. (timesofmalta.com)
  • We found that even moderate alcohol consumption - one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men - may raise a person's risk of a heart attack or stroke approximately two-fold within the hour following consumption compared to other times," Mostofsky said. (psychcentral.com)
  • Human beings have grown up alongside alcohol: Beverage alcohol has been found at the site of every early center of civilization . (psychologytoday.com)
  • According to the Insurance Information Institute, 37 states have adopted some form of "social host" law or set a legal precedent that allows you to be found liable if a guest injures himself or someone else as a result of alcohol consumption at your party (see list) . (insure.com)
  • Excessive drinking is notorious for causing deficiency in thiamine, or vitamin B-1, which is found mainly in whole or enriched grains, beans and seeds. (livestrong.com)
  • Blood alcohol levels rise more rapidly in those who drink on an empty stomach, so resist the urge to drink anything until you've had a decent meal or a filling snack. (mnn.com)
  • Maternal blood alcohol levels must attain 300 mg/dl before significant side effects are reported in the infant. (llli.org)
  • Alcohol poisoning, a medical emergency that results from high blood alcohol levels. (cdc.gov)
  • I never go crazy when drinking (usually only 2 vodka lemonades when i do go out). (drugs.com)
  • Sam Spady was drinking vanilla-flavored vodka the night she died, and investigators believe she may have consumed as many as 40 drinks. (go.com)
  • 1.5-ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol content) distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, whiskey). (cdc.gov)
  • Vodka is considered the purest of all alcohol. (ehow.co.uk)
  • But there's is a short list of booze that gets the modern Paleo greenlight, vodka is one of them. (menshealth.com)
  • Tequila-as well as vodka, rum, and gin-all have zero grams of carbs, so they won't raise your blood sugar if you drink them straight up. (menshealth.com)
  • It shows the effect of heavy drinking on vital organs, and is part of the continuing effort to convince people to drink within the recommended healthy limits. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In September 2005, a "panel of scientific experts" at the European Food Safety Authority concluded, "after examining a dossier on propan-2-ol (isopropanol, IPA) put forward by the European Flavour and Fragrance Association (EFFA), [that] soft drink makers should propose limits for heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons used as carrier solvents for flavouring preparations in soft drinks. (sourcewatch.org)
  • If you choose to drink, keep the amount of alcohol you drink within the recommended limits. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Drinking at the upper limits should only happen once in a while, not every day or week. (healthlinkbc.ca)