Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Sexual activities of humans.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/9481)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995. (2/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

Effect of alcohol abstinence on blood pressure: assessment by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. (3/9481)

Several studies have shown that cessation of alcohol drinking reduces blood pressure (BP). However, attempts to reproduce these findings by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) have shown inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 month of proven abstinence from alcohol on the 24-hour BP profile in heavy alcohol drinkers. Forty-two men who were heavy drinkers (>100 g of pure ethanol per day) were consecutively admitted to a general ward for voluntary alcohol detoxification. On the day of admission, they received a total dose of 2 g/kg of ethanol diluted in orange juice in 5 divided doses, and a 24-hour ABPM was performed. A new 24-hour BP monitoring in the same environmental conditions was performed after 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence while the subjects were receiving the same amount of fluid but without the addition of alcohol. After 1 month of proven alcohol abstinence, BP and heart rate (HR) significantly decreased. The reduction was 7.2 mm Hg for 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) (95% CI, 4.5 to 9.9), 6.6 mm Hg for 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI, 4.2 to 9.0), and 7.9 bpm for HR (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.7). The proportion of alcoholic patients considered hypertensive on the basis of 24-hour BP criteria (daytime SBP >/=135 mm Hg or daytime DBP >/=85 mm Hg) fell from 42% during alcohol drinking to 12% after 1 month of complete abstinence. Abstinence did not modify either the long-term BP variability, assessed by SD of 24-hour BP, or its circadian profile. We conclude that abstinence in heavy alcohol drinkers significantly reduces BP assessed by 24-hour ABPM and that this reduction is clinically relevant. These results show that heavy alcohol consumption has an important effect on BP, and thus cessation of alcohol consumption must be recommended as a priority for hypertensive alcohol drinkers.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (4/9481)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (5/9481)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats. (6/9481)

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol. (7/9481)

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (8/9481)

An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. T2 - A prospective cohort study. AU - Wetherbee, Erin E.. AU - Niewoehner, Dennis E.. AU - Sisson, Joseph H.. AU - Lindberg, Sarah M.. AU - Connett, John E.. AU - Kunisaki, Ken M.. PY - 2015/7/20. Y1 - 2015/7/20. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods and measurements: We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (,1 drink/month), light-to-moderate (1-60 drinks/month), or heavy alcohol users (,60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Results: ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. Method: The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. Results: High alcohol consumption was underreported in ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
PAC1 receptor (ADCYAP1R1) genotype and problematic alcohol use in a sample of young women Wojciech Łukasz Dragan,1 Piotr M Czerski,2 Małgorzata Dragan3 1The Interdisciplinary Center for Behavior Genetic Research, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, 2Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 3Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Background: Recent studies revealed the role of the PAC1 (ADCYAP1R1) gene variability in vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Due to the relatively high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder, we hypothesized about possible associations between PAC1 gene and problematic alcohol use. Method: The sample studied consisted of 491 women aged 18–28 years (mean age =21.76 years; SD =1.83) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to assess drinking problems. We successfully genotyped 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in
Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old males and per capita consumption of wine. There was also a trend towards a negative correlation between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old females and per capita consumption of wine. No correlations between suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and per capita consumption of beer or spirits were found. In the whole population (all ages), suicide rates in males were negatively correlated with consumption of wine and positively correlated with consumption of spirits. As expected, suicide rates in males were significantly higher than in females. It is possible that the observed relationship is a result of a third factor affecting both suicide rates in 15-24-year-olds and consumption of wine.. Reference. 1. Sher L. Relation ...
Washington, DC - Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all-causes, according to a new, large study of over 333,000 U.S. adults published yesterday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study findings did not differentiate between beer, wine and spirits. The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a 21 percent and 34 percent decreased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and a 13 percent and 25 percent decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, in both men and women. Similar findings were observed for light drinking among men and women.. The researchers found, the protective effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was more pronounced in women, middle-aged and older populations.. The researchers noted that previous studies showed that all alcoholic drinks at moderate level were associated with lower risk of heart disease, suggesting a major benefit is ...
Introduction: Although current alcohol consumption appears to be a risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), limitations related to self-reported alcohol use and confounding in observational studies limit the certainty of conclusions regarding causality. Whether cessation of alcohol consumption can protect against incident AF remains unknown.. Methods: We examined all participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a population-based cohort of 15,792 men and women aged 45-65, without prevalent AF. Past alcohol consumption was assessed via self-report during the baseline dietary intake assessment. Cases of incident AF were ascertained via study ECGs, hospital discharge ICD-9 codes, and death certificates.. Results: Among 15,262 participants with complete survey data, 2,898 (19.0%) were former drinkers. During an average follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 380 cases of incident AF in former consumers. Both before and after adjustment for potential confounders, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults Alcohol Use. AU - Thrul, Johannes. AU - Kuntsche, Emmanuel. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed ...
This resource provides information on data sources and methods used for the Status report on alcohol consumption, harm and policy responses in 30 European countries 2019.. Per capita alcohol consumption in the WHO European Region, including the European Union (EU), is the highest in the world, which results in proportionally higher levels of burden of disease attributable to alcohol use compared to other regions.. While there have been welcome improvements in terms of overall mortality and alcohol-attributable mortality in EU+ countries (EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland), there was no statistically significant decline in total alcohol per capita consumption between 2010 and 2016 and the observed decreases in heavy episodic drinking seem to have come to a halt. Assessment of alcohol policies in the 10 areas defined in the European action plan to reduce the harmful use of alcohol 2012−2020 revealed huge variability across the countries, including the implementation of the three WHO best ...
Background: Excess alcohol consumption can lead to myocardial dysfunction. However, whether novel cardiac biomarkers tests can detect subclinical myocardial damage and wall stress in asymptomatic populations exposed to alcohol is currently unknown.. Objective: To characterize the association of alcohol consumption with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by a novel highly sensitive assay for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and wall stress, as assessed by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).. Methods: Using data from the community-based ARIC Study we examined the cross-sectional association of categories of self-reported alcohol consumption with cardiac biomarkers among 10,381 individuals without cardiovascular disease (1990-92). We also examined the prospective association of alcohol consumption with 6-year change in cardiac biomarkers in a subset of participants (n=8,972 for hs-cTnT and n=9,060 for NT-proBNP), who had each biomarker measured at two time points. Incident ...
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
Figure 4a. Estimated average alcohol consumption on the last alcohol drinking day (among last day consumers). 2015. Centilitres of 100 % alcohol. (Table 17). ...
Abstract: Alcohol abuse is fast becoming a public health concern among the Nigerian youths and adults strata of the society. A study on the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on haematological parameters was conducted on 130 subjects, comprising of 46 non-alcohol consumers who served as controls and 84 heavy alcohol consumers to determine the possible haematological attendant risks of the social behavior. Their ages ranged between 18-60 years. Sysmex KX-2IN instrument was used to determine the haematological parameters such as PCV, Haemoglobin, Red blood cell, Platelets, White blood cells total and differential counts of neutrophil and lymphocytes automatically. The result shows a significant difference (p,0.05) in the values obtained for alcohol drinkers which are high compared to that of the control group which could be dehydration based haemoconcentration. This study showed that abstinence from alcohol consumption had no effects on haematological parameters while its heavy consumption has ...
Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrolled between 1995 and 1996. A stochastic actor-based model is used to model the co-evolution of alcohol use and friendship connections. Selection effects play a significant role in the creation of peer clusters with similar alcohol use. Friendship nominations between two students who shared the same alcohol use frequency were 3.60 (95% CI: 2.01-9.62) times more likely than between otherwise identical students with differing alcohol use frequency. The model controlled for alternative pathways to friendship nomination including reciprocity,
Years of heavy alcohol consumption can lead to progressive arterial stiffness that does not seem to be reversed even when a person stops drinking, according to new data from a 25-year study of British civil servants.. The main message of this study is that men who consistently drink above the recommended maximum alcohol intake guidelines have significantly higher arterial stiffness by early old age compared to those who drink consistently moderately-moderately defined as below the recommended maximum intake levels, study author Darragh ONeill, PhD (University College London, London, England), said in an email.. Prior research has suggested that arterial stiffness may be a marker of cardiovascular disease risk. To TCTMD, ONeill added that it is predictive of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been shown to improve prediction of such outcomes independent of other known risk factors. In the new study, arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave artery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa. AU - in t Veld, Diana Huis. AU - Pengpid, Supa. AU - Colebunders, Robert. AU - Skaal, Linda. AU - Peltzer, Karl. N1 - NPP. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder ...
Unhealthy alcohol use threatens the health benefits seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. Although research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief interventions, motivational counseling, and medications to treat unhealthy alcohol use in HIV uninfected patients, there is limited research or use of these treatments in HIV+ patients. We have demonstrated that integrated treatment of addiction in HIV clinics is feasible. Stepped care algorithms can facilitate the evaluation of varying intensities of treatments for unhealthy alcohol use. The proposed study will compare onsite Integrated Stepped Care treatment (ISC) to treatment as usual (TAU) in three, linked, 6-month randomized clinical trials in 642 HIV+ patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Screened patients are randomized to ISC or TAU after determining that they meet criteria for either 1) at-risk drinking, 2) alcohol abuse or dependence or 3) moderate alcohol consumption in the presence of liver disease. ISC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Naloxone attenuation of voluntary alcohol consumption. AU - Froehlich, J. C.. AU - Harts, J.. AU - Lumeng, L.. AU - Li, T. K.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 3426696. AN - SCOPUS:0023275292. SP - 333. EP - 337. JO - Alcohol and Alcoholism. JF - Alcohol and Alcoholism. SN - 0735-0414. IS - SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population. The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the
Alcohol is one of the main causes of high blood pressure. A doctor recommends cutting back on alcohol when a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. Alcohol affects the body in different ways. For example, steady alcohol consumption over a long period permanently changes the brain by reducing the amount of brain tissue. Steady alcohol consumption also deprives the heart of essential nutrients. This weakens the heart muscles and hinders its ability to pump blood. This increases blood pressure and causes heart attacks and strokes. Alcohol also affects the liver, skin, lungs and bones among other parts of the body. In addition, alcohol contains sugar and other carbohydrates that increase weight. Weight gain is another cause of high blood pressure.. How Alcohol Increases Blood Pressure There is no concrete proof as to how alcohol affects blood pressure. However, researchers believe alcohol interferes with the livers ability to metabolize hormones. Hormones such as renin and angiotensin are ...
Firstly, alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of HCC. As the median amount of alcohol intake was low in consumers (15 g/day, 95% CI: 5-20), we can conclude that light-to-moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of HCC in HCV patients with compensated cirrhosis. In addition, the amount of alcohol intake did not impact the risk of HCC, suggesting that there is no safe threshold for alcohol in these patients. This is a major finding as alcohol use and HCV infection frequently coexist [30. Daily intake of small amounts of alcohol is usually considered non-detrimental to general health or to the liver, and sometimes is even considered beneficial. Several studies have shown that the mortality rate in the general population is increased in people who never drink alcohol compared to people who drink less than 20 g per day [31. The results of the present study contrast with these concepts and with the results of the first report of the CirVir prospective cohort study that has been ...
Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol consumption (in terms of pure litres of alcohol) by individuals aged ,15 years in 2010.[1] SA has a particularly harmful pattern of drinking. This indicator considers the manner and circumstances in which alcohol is consumed, rather than the prevalence of drinking. The quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion, festive drinking, the proportion of drinking events that end in drunkenness, the proportion of drinkers who drink daily, and the prevalence of drinking outside of mealtimes and in public places are considered in compiling the pattern-of-drinking score.[2] The WHO classifies countries patterns of drinking on a five-point scale, where 1 indicates the least risky pattern of drinking and 5 the most risky pattern.[2] According to this scale, many Western European countries score a 1. At the other extreme, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are the only two countries ...
ARPS - Alcohol Related Problems Survey. Looking for abbreviations of ARPS? It is Alcohol Related Problems Survey. Alcohol Related Problems Survey listed as ARPS
The PRIME-Alcohol model effectively demonstrates the potential impact of population usual alcohol consumption on chronic disease mortality, bringing together a wide range of risk and protective effects of alcohol, including the increased risks of many cancers and the protective effect of low-to-moderate consumption on CVD. Modelling demonstrated that the optimum population median alcohol consumption level appears to be substantially lower than the currently recommended safe levels in the current UK public health guidance. Based on this model, reducing the median population alcohol consumption among current drinkers to around half a unit (5 g of alcohol) per day would result in around 4600 fewer deaths annually, primarily due to reductions in cancers and liver cirrhosis. This level of consumption would equate to as little as one-quarter of a glass of wine or one-fifth of a pint of beer per day on average.. The model showed no additional benefit to chronic disease mortality if the proportion of ...
Most long-term studies on drinking alcohol have found that light-drinkers are less likely to die prematurely than abstainers. This study re-assesses the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on health and mortality. The team hypothesised that misclassification of former drinkers and occasional drinkers had introduced consistent errors, affecting the results of previous studies.. This study re-examines 54 all-cause mortality and 35 Coronary Heart Disease mortality studies. Most of these studies committed the consistent and serious error of including as abstainers, people who had cut down or ceased drinking alcohol due to declining health, frailty, medication use or disabilitysometimes as the result of past heavy alcohol consumption. When combined in the same group as long-term abstainers or very light drinkers, deaths among these people may have increased the apparent risk of long-term abstinence for the group as a whole.. This study shows that it is possible to perform new analyses on studies ...
The effects of chronic alcohol intake on menstrual cycle status and hormonal function were studied in 26 healthy, adult women under controlled research ward conditions. Women were classified as heavy, social or occasional alcohol users on the basis of the actual number of drinks consumed during 3 consecutive weeks of alcohol availability. Heavy, social and occasional users drank an average of 7.81 ( +/- 0.69), 3.84 ( +/- 0.19) and 1.22 ( +/- 0.21) drinks/day, respectively. This drinking pattern was highly consistent with subjects self-reports of alcohol use before the study. No evidence of menstrual cycle dysfunction or abnormality in reproductive hormone levels was found in the occasional drinkers or in two of the social drinkers who consumed less than an average of three drinks/day. In contrast, 50% of the social drinkers who consumed more than three drinks/day and 60% of the heavy drinkers had significant derangements of menstrual cycle and reproductive hormone function. The major ...
When you drink alcohol it is absorbed into your bloodstream where it circulates thus affecting the whole body. The blood alcohol concentration begins to rise ten minutes after the first sip. One drink of alcohol stays in the body for 2 hours after being consumed. The alcohol is absorbed by the stomach and the small intestines, and it is metabolized by the liver. The processing of alcohol is determined by many factors, including if your stomach is full meaning you have eaten recently, the size of your body and the rate at which you drink. A larger body has more circulating blood in its system so alcohol levels rise more slowly than in a smaller body; this explains why females tend to have more alcohol in their bloodstream compared to men. Also the amount of fat in the organism defines the alcohol levels because fat tissue does not absorb alcohol. Drinking slowly, while eating and also after meals slows the rate at which alcohol is absorbed. Liver metabolism is the process of converting alcohol ...
Most of the previous studies assessed alcohol intake at baseline; however, in this study researchers collected detailed information seven times over 40 years. Consumption patterns usually change during life, Streppel said. This enabled us to study the effects of long-term alcohol intake on mortality. Researchers found that the number of alcohol users nearly doubled from 45 percent in 1960 to 85 percent in the 2000 survey. Average alcohol consumption rose and then fell at various points during the study. Users consumption was eight grams a day in 1960, then survivors consumption was 18 grams a day in 1985, dropping to 13 grams per day in 2000. The percentage of wine users increased during follow-up from 2 percent in 1960 to more than 40 percent among the survivors in 2000. One can speculate that a protective effect of light alcohol intake could be due to an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or to a reduction in blood clotting, due to an inhibition of platelet ...
Regular moderate alcohol intake was a modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation that was linked to conduction slowing and lower atrial voltage, according to a study published in HeartRhythm.“This study underscores the importance of excessive alcohol consumption as an important risk factor in AF,” Peter Kistler, MBBS, PhD, FHRS, of the Heart Centre at Alfred Hospital in Melbourne,
Alcohol gets into your bloodstream quickly.. The amount and type of food in your stomach can change how quickly this occurs. For example, high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods can make your body absorb alcohol more slowly.. Certain types of alcoholic drinks get into your bloodstream faster. Stronger drinks tend to be absorbed faster.. Alcohol slows your breathing rate, heart rate, and how well your brain functions. These effects may appear within 10 minutes and peak at around 40 to 60 minutes. Alcohol stays in your bloodstream until it is broken down by the liver. The amount of alcohol in your blood is called your blood alcohol level. If you drink alcohol faster than the liver can break it down, this level rises.. Your blood alcohol level is used to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls between 0.08 and 0.10 in most states. Below is a list of blood alcohol levels and the likely symptoms:. ...
Abstract: The effectiveness of dietary changes as a means of reducing blood lipid levels and ultimately controlling the development of coronary heart disease has been debated for many years. The possible effects of alcohol consumption on blood lipids were usually not considered. Our findings indicate a significant positive correlation between the extent of coronary artery occlusion and total plasma cholesterol levels and a negative association between the coronary occlusion and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Since moderate alcohol consumption increases the HDL cholesterol levels, one can also postulate that it affects coronary artery lesions. The attenuating effect of alcohol on the coronary occlusion was negated by sporadic drinking of large amounts of alcohol. In evaluating the possible effect of alcohol on coronary artery disease, it is also necessary to consider Its addictive potential as well as other untoward sequelae of alcohol consumption such as hypertension, damage to the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Drinking contexts and alcohol consumption. T2 - How much alcohol is consumed in different Australian locations?. AU - Callinan, Sarah. AU - Livingston, Michael. AU - Room, Robin. AU - Dietze, Paul. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixtythree percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinkers own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who ...
Objective: There is little systematic information on the patterns of Chinese adolescents alcohol expectancies and the influence of expectancies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese high school students alcohol expectancies and gender and drinking status (non-drinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) differences in expectancies. Method: We administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Huhhot City, Chayouhou Qi, and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results: We identified eight expectancy factors: three negative (general negative consequences, harm to person/reputation, and negative uses of alcohol) and five positive (general positive perceptions, tension reduction/relaxation, drinking as social courtesy, social facilitation, and beneficial drinking/moderation). MANOVA results indicated that males had higher positive perception expectancies
A drink a night is better for your heart than none at all, according to new research published recently in the European Heart Journal. The study, involving nearly 15,000 participants over a period of 25 years, monitored rates of heart failure in four categories: former drinkers, abstainers, drinkers of up to 7 drinks/week (,7) ≥7 to 14, ≥14 to 21, and ≥21 drinks/week. Surprisingly, despite alcohol being a known cardiac toxin, those consuming a moderate level of alcohol (, 7 units a week, which equates to 7 small glasses of wine or 3.5 pints of beer) were shown to be up to 20% less likely to suffer from heart failure than those who consumed no alcohol at all, although the effect was slightly diminished (16%) for female participants. Although the study also took into account a number of other lifestyle factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol and physical activity, Professor Scott Solomon, one of the authors was still keen to point out that the lowered risk may not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol among low-level alcohol consumers. AU - Weidner, Gerdi. AU - Connor, Sonja L.. AU - Chesney, Margaret A.. AU - Burns, John W.. AU - Connor, William E.. AU - Matarazzo, Joseph. AU - Mendell, Nancy R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a sample of community-living women and men who consumed 1 drink of alcohol/day or less. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and clinical assessments of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were obtained twice, at 12 months apart. Among men, consumption of 1 drink/day or less was unrelated to levels in HDL-C. In contrast, among women alcohol consumption throughout this relatively low consumption range was positively associated with HDL-C levels. These findings indicate that the association of alcohol and higher levels of HDL-C may occur at lower intakes of alcohol in women than in men.. AB - The purpose of ...
Alcohol may stay in our breath which d epending on the alcohol degree, the duration of alcohol leaving in your breath varies. For instance, to detect alcohol in your breath, a Breathalyser is used. They can detect alcohol in your breath for up to 24 hours after consumption. On average, the liver can metabolize 1 standard drink per hour for men, or about 0.015g/100mL/hour (i.e., a reduction of blood alcohol level, or BAC, by 0.015 per hour). Coffee, cold showers, and sleeping it off will not sober you up. Mouth Wash. The bloodstream moves the alcohol throughout your body, and the smell of it on your breath originates from your lungs. Alcohol can leave the body through the breath, perspiration and urine, though a majority will be broken down with the metabolism. Time is the only thing that can lower your BAC, so be smart about your drinking and always have a backup plan to get home. Your breath alcohol level has a direct relation to the amount of alcohol in your blood. Alcohol has two exit paths ...
China Digital Wine Alcohol Tester Breath Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breathalyzer Sensor, Find details about China Digital Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breath Tester, Breathalyzer from Digital Wine Alcohol Tester Breath Alcohol Tester Alcohol Breathalyzer Sensor - Shenzhen Ipopman Technology Limited
Understandably, research into this topic has thus far focussed on heavy alcohol consumption and chronic alcohol addiction rather than low-level social drinking.. We are far less aware of the potential risks of irregular, light alcohol consumption during pregnancy than, for example, the likelihood of foetal alcohol syndrome in children born to mothers with severe alcohol dependency issues.. As a result, some people suggest that low-level consumption is less of a concern.. For example, a study undertaken by Harvard Medical School in 2012 found that minimal alcohol consumption in the first trimester didnt seem to be linked to low birth weights, premature births, or other pregnancy complications [2].. Likewise, they found that low-to-moderate levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy had no noticeable effect on the executive function (meaning the organising, managing, and memory) of five-year-old children [3].. Of course, despite this medical professionals still continued to recommend abstinence ...
According to existing evidence, it is true that Russians drink a lot of alcohol.. 1. Adult Per Capita Consumption The World Health Organization 2011 Global status report on alcohol and health provides us with statistics in regard to average alcohol consumption per year, for people aged 15 and above, in liters of pure alcohol. Russia ranks fourth, with 15.76 liters ( of which 6.88 liters are consumed in the form of spirits ), more than double the world average - 6.13.. 2. Alcoholism. The report provides no information specifically about alcoholism prevalence in Russia, but using The Global Information System on Alcohol and Health ( ) shows Russia as having the highest rate of males aged between 18 and 65, which are dependent on alcohol: 17.61%. 3. Mortality. The report tells us that Russia has one of the highest proportion of alcohol-attributable mortality, but doesnt give precise numbers - most of the data in this report is given by WHO subregion. ...
Alcohol policies at College Drinking, Facts about alcohol, Research on alcohol abuse, Research on binge drinking, Binge drinking and college students, Alcohol abuse and college students, College alcohol policies, College presidents and alcohol, High School Administrators and alcohol, College parents and alcohol, High school parents and alcohol, Research-based college alcohol information
Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004-08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. ResultsOverall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of
TY - JOUR. T1 - A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women. T2 - Application in the Safe Passage Study. AU - Baker, Travis. AU - Haynes, Robin L.. AU - Paterson, David S.. AU - Broadbelt, Kevin G.. AU - Markianos, Kyriacos. AU - Holm, Ingrid A.. AU - Boyd, Theonia. AU - Roberts, Drucilla. AU - Goldstein, Richard G.. AU - Stein, Hanno. AU - Maggiotto, Claire. AU - Hassett, Catherine. AU - Schissler, Kathryn. AU - Habbe, Donald. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. AU - Randall, Bradley. AU - Sens, Mary Ann. AU - Van Eerden, Peter. AU - Berg, Elizabeth. AU - Friedrich, Christa. AU - Jackson, Marge. AU - Mack, Luke. AU - Swenson, Liz. AU - Tobacco, Deb. AU - Groenewald, Coen. AU - Carstens, Erna. AU - Potter, Mandy. AU - Brink, Lucy. AU - du Plessis, Carlie. AU - de Jager, Milly. AU - Nugent, J. David. AU - Condon, Carmen. AU - Isler, Joseph R.. AU - Shair, Margaret C.. AU - Thai, Tracy. AU - Yang, Joel S.. AU - Hoffman, Howard J.. AU - Li, Chuan Ming. AU - Dunty, ...
Regular alcohol consumption can lead to binge drinking among all gender and age groups, a new study suggests.. What we found is that when people drink more often, they are more likely to drink more, take more drinks, and go to binge drinking, said Andree Demers of Universite de Montreal, the studys main researcher.. She classified binge drinking as five drinks or more per occasion.. Usually you take one or two drinks, she said yesterday. If you want to celebrate, youre going to take two or three or four or five drinks.. The study was conducted by researchers from the Universite de Montreal and the University of Western Ontario and published in the latest edition of Addiction.. The study established one drink as either five ounces of wine; 1.5 ounces of liquor; 12 ounces of beer or cooler; or three ounces of port, sherry or vermouth.. About 11,000 respondents - 5,743 women and 4,723 men - were asked to report on their alcohol consumption over a year. The data was gathered by the Genacis ...
Heavy alcohol use negatively impacts HIV/AIDS in several important ways. It increases HIV-risk behaviors, impairs the immune system and accelerates HIV disease progression. Heavy alcohol use also interferes with HIV care compliance, including appointment attendance and medication adherence.. Women are particularly important targets for alcohol use interventions. The threshold for harmful alcohol effects is strikingly low in women, with two drinks per day placing women at risk for negative health consequences. Heavy/hazardous alcohol use is less likely to be detected in women receiving health services. Women may be less likely to seek and or engage in alcohol treatment services, making nontraditional care settings particularly important for reaching this population.. This proposal tests the utility of a brief alcohol intervention for HIV+ women delivered in a medical setting. Hazardous/binge female drinkers will be identified in the Johns Hopkins Hospital HIV clinic and will be randomized to ...
Alcohol drinking and related malignancy, alcohol risk, alcohol and associated malignancy, alcohol and cancer, alcohol use and cancer, alcohol cancer risk, alcohol risk of cancer, alcohol risks to health
A minimum price of 50p per unit of alcohol should be introduced for all alcohol sales along with prohibition of all alcohol advertising and sponsorship, according to a report from the Alcohol Health Alliance, British Liver Trust and University of Stirling. Health first - an evidence based alcohol strategy for the UK also wants to see at least one third of every alcohol label given over to an evidence based health warning and for the sale of alcohol in shops to be restricted to specific times of the day and designated areas.. The document is supported by organisations including Alcohol Concern, Cancer Research UK and ten royal colleges, and among its other recommendations are for the tax on every alcohol product to be proportionate to the volume of alcohol it contains, a tightening of the drink driving limit and the development of guidelines for the portrayal of alcohol in television and film. Public health and community safety should be given priority in all alcohol policy making, it ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas high serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, whether light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is still related to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease irrespective of GGT level is uncertain. METHODS We performed a 12.5-year cohort study of 2336 men (excluding exdrinkers) who were free from cardiovascular disease. They were classified into 4 groups according to alcohol consumption: never, and current light, moderate, or heavy drinker. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of alcohol consumption for incidence of coronary artery disease, total stroke, and ischemic stroke compared with those of never drinkers were assessed with stratification by GGT median (32 IU/L). RESULTS In participants with GGT |32 IU/L, the hazard ratios of all current drinkers for total and ischemic stroke were higher than those of never drinkers.
A new study by a research team including scientists from the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation provides a systematic review of research that examines relationships between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents and young adults. The researchers identified 38 cross-sectional studies that examined the relationship between alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors over a 40-year period. Across types of alcohol use outcomes, such as lifetime alcohol use and alcohol problems, exposure to marketing such as alcohol advertising, alcohol-related merchandise, and alcohol promotion and media sources, such as television and billboards, the researchers concluded that alcohol marketing exposure was positively associated with young peoples alcohol use. In general, relationships for alcohol promotion, such as alcohol-sponsored events, and owning alcohol-related mer-chandise were more consistently positive than for other ...
Background: Alcohol consumption is a frequently studied risk factor for chronic diseases, but many studies are hampered by self-report of alcohol consumption. The urinary metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG), reflecting alcohol consumption during the past 72 h, is a promising objective marker, but population data are lacking.. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of EtG as a marker for habitual alcohol consumption compared with self-report and other biomarkers in the general population.. Methods: Among 6211 participants in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, EtG concentrations were measured in 24-h urine samples. EtG was considered positive when concentrations were ,= 100 ng/mL. Habitual alcohol consumption was self-reported by questionnaire (categories: no/almost never, 1-4 units per month, 2-7 units per week, 1-3 units per day or ,= 4 units per day). Plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine lifetime drinking patterns in men and women with alcohol-induced pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with patients with alcoholic use disorder (AUD) without pancreatic disease. METHODS: Alcohol consumption patterns were assessed using a validated questionnaire, the Lifetime Drinking History (LDH), during an outpatient visit. Patients diagnosed with AIP were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years) with patients with AUD in addiction treatment. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with AIP (35 males, 10 females) and 45 AUD patients were included. Alcohol consumption patterns were not significantly different between males and females with AIP and those with history of acute AIP and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Alcohol consumption patterns of AIP and AUD patients were similar in terms of onset age and duration of alcohol consumption, lifetime alcohol intake and drinks per drinking day. A higher proportion of binge drinking was found among patients with AUD than those with AIP (median ...
FERREIRA, Luciano Nery et al. Prevalence and associated factors of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2013, vol.18, n.11, pp.3409-3418. ISSN 1413-8123. The scope of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction and the respective associated factors in the urban population of a city of northeastern Brazil. It is a population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the consumption of alcohol of 270 people living in the urban area of Jequié, State of Bahia. Alcohol abuse, defined by a score of , 8 from responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol addiction was identified by a score , 2 obtained in the application of the Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE). The analysis used the logistic regression model. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.5%. For alcohol addiction it was 10.4%. After adjusted analysis, the groups ...
Background Changes in per capita alcohol consumption are temporally linked to changes in rates of alcohol-related harm. Methodological approaches for analysing this relationship have been suggested, however, the problem of time lags is not well-addressed. This study provides a review of time lag specifications, looking at (a) time to first effect on harm, (b) time to full effect and (c) the functional form of the effect accumulation from first to full effect to inform modelling of the relationship between changes in aggregate alcohol consumption and changes in rates of harm. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched and citation and reference checking was used to identify studies. Included studies were time series analyses of the relationship between aggregated population alcohol consumption and rates of alcohol-related harms where time lag specifications had been derived or tested. Results 36 studies were included with liver cirrhosis, heart disease and suicide dominating the evidence base. ...
Background Because the effects of susceptibility genes on alcohol use may differ as a function of age throughout adolescence and young adulthood, prospective study designs, in addition to cross-sectional ones are needed in genetic association studies. The short, low activity allele of a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been related to alcohol dependence. In the current study we tested whether 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with adolescent alcohol use both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods Non-regular drinkers (n=202) were selected from Dutch, nationwide sample of adolescents (mean age 13.4 at baseline) who were assessed across five annual waves. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to examine individual development of alcohol use over time, by estimating the initial level of alcohol use at Wave 2 (intercept), and the rate of change in alcohol use across time (slope). Results The 5-HTTLPR short allele predicted adolescents growth (slope) in ...
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and alcohol consumption are prevalent and have health consequences among people living with HIV infection or AIDS (PLWHA). Food insecurity could be associated with unhealthy alcohol use via hunger or other mechanisms. However, it is not well-known whether the two (food insecurity and unhealthy alcohol use) are associated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine an association between food insecurity and unhealthy alcohol use in people with HIV/AIDS and substance use disorder. It was hypothesized that food insecurity, compared to food security, would be associated with unhealthy alcohol use in this population. METHODS: This study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from adults with HIV infection and current alcohol or other drug dependence or ever injection drug use, who were participants in a cohort study known as the Boston Alcohol Research Collaboration on HIV/AIDS (ARCH) study. Food insecurity, the independent variable, was assessed ...
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption may affect the course of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART). The authors investigated the association between self-reported alcohol consumption and HIV surrogate markers in both treated and untreated individuals. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, the authors analyzed 2 groups of individuals in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: (1) ART-naïve individuals remaining off ART and (2) individuals initiating first ART. For individuals initiating first ART, time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between alcohol consumption, virological failure, and ART interruption. For both groups, trajectories of log-transformed CD4 cell counts were analyzed using linear mixed models with repeated measures. RESULTS: The authors included 2982 individuals initiating first ART and 2085 ART naives. In individuals initiating first ART, 241 (8%) experienced virological failure. Alcohol consumption was
Background: Leukemia is the most frequently occurring cancer in children. Although its etiology is largely unknown, leukemia is believed to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Among different potential risk factors, the possible role of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been questioned.. Methods: To assess the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and childhood leukemia, a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies was done.. Results: Twenty-one case-control studies were included in categorical and dose-response meta-analyses. No cohort study was identified. Analyses were conducted by type of leukemia, childrens age at diagnosis, and type of alcoholic beverage and trimester of pregnancy at alcohol use. Alcohol intake during pregnancy (yes versus no) was statistically significantly associated with childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) [odds ratio (OR), 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.15] but ...
Observational studies suggest that lower educational attainment (EA) may be associated with risky alcohol use behaviors; however, these findings may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using summary statistics from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with |780,000 participants to assess the causal effects of EA on alcohol use behaviors and alcohol dependence (AD). Fifty-three independent genome-wide significant SNPs previously associated with EA were tested for association with alcohol use behaviors. We show that while genetic instruments associated with increased EA are not associated with total amount of weekly drinks, they are associated with reduced frequency of binge drinking ≥6 drinks (ßIVW = −0.198, 95% CI, −0.297 to -0.099, PIVW = 9.14 × 10−5), reduced total drinks consumed per drinking day (ßIVW = −0.207, 95% CI, −0.293 to -0.120, PIVW = 2.87 × 10−6), as well as lower weekly distilled spirits intake
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood mental ability and adult alcohol intake and alcohol problems: the 1970 British cohort study. AU - Batty, G. David. AU - Deary, Ian J.. AU - Schoon, Ingrid AU - Emslie, Carol. AU - Hunt, Kate. AU - Gale, Catharine R.. N1 - ET 27-7-12. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - This study examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years.. AB - This study examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST. AU - Pleil, Kristen E.. AU - Helms, Christa M.. AU - Sobus, Jon R.. AU - Daunais, James B.. AU - Grant, Kathleen A.. AU - Kash, Thomas L.. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory ...
Alcohol use disorder is a diagnosis made when an individual has severe problems related to drinking alcohol. Alcohol use disorder can cause major health, social, and economic problems, and can endanger affected individuals and others through behaviors prompted by impaired decision-making and lowered inhibitions, such as aggression, unprotected sex, or driving while intoxicated.. Alcohol use disorder is a broad diagnosis that encompasses several commonly used terms describing problems with drinking. It includes alcoholism, also called alcohol addiction, which is a long-lasting (chronic) condition characterized by a powerful, compulsive urge to drink alcohol and the inability to stop drinking after starting. In addition to alcoholism, alcohol use disorder includes alcohol abuse, which involves problem drinking without addiction.. Habitual excessive use of alcohol changes the chemistry of the brain and leads to tolerance, which means that over time the amount of alcohol ingested needs to be ...
To assess the role of acute alcohol ingestion as a risk factor for cerebral infarction, we administered a pretested questionnaire to 205 middle-aged and elderly acute ischemic stroke patients and 410 outpatient controls matched by age, sex, race, and method of hospital payment. Paired Mantel-Haenszel analysis revealed that alcohol ingestion within 24 (p = 0.07) and 72 (p = 0.001) hours of stroke onset and medical histories of smoking (p less than 0.0001), hypertension (p less than 0.001), and transient ischemic attacks (p = 0.051) were more common among stroke index cases than controls. Matched multiple logistic analysis revealed that both hypertension (p less than 0.05) and smoking (p less than 0.05) were independently associated with stroke, while alcohol consumption was not. In analyses to assess the possibility of mutual confounding effects of independent variables, the effect of alcohol ingestion was lost when adjusting for smoking. We conclude that acute alcohol ingestion is not an ...
Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Positive and negative alcohol-related consequences. T2 - Associations with past drinking. AU - Lee, Christine M.. AU - Maggs, Jennifer. AU - Neighbors, Clayton. AU - Patrick, Megan E.. PY - 2011/2/1. Y1 - 2011/2/1. N2 - While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image) and negative (Physical, Behavioral, Driving) consequences of alcohol use among individuals with prior drinking histories who completed surveys the summer before their first year at university. Fun/Social consequences were reported more frequently than any negative consequences. Alcohol consequences were associated with drinking behaviors. In particular, positive Fun/Social consequences and negative Physical and ...
Objectives. The extensive consumption of alcohol can be defined as a major problem in Western countries. Primarily students are affected by negative health outcomes resulting from alcohol consumption. The most popular theory to explain Behavior is the Theory of Planned Behavior. Although, the Theory of Planned Behavior a valid method to predict human behavior regarding alcohol consumption, its predictive value is limited. In response to these limitations, there are other schools of thought which lead to an explanatory value to alcohol-related behavior. A crucial factor for the prediction of alcohol consumption is personality. Based on literature the personality traits Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking were chosen for this study. Although, most people know the negative consequences of drinking alcohol it is still a popular practice. The knowledge of the negative consequences and the and the contradictory desire to drink create a state of cognitive dissonance. To reduce this dissonance the ...
Information regarding alcohol consumption in Mauritius based on the World Health Organisations 2018 Global Health Report on Alcohol.
Alcohol refers to a group of organic compounds with a vast range of forms and uses in cosmetics and in other types of products and solutions. For skin, there are good alcohols and bad alcohols, corresponding to high-molecular-weight alcohols and low-molecular-weight alcohols, respectively, which can have emollient properties (cetyl alcohol) or act as detergent cleansing agents like isopropanol. There also are benign forms, including glycols, which are used as humectants to help hydrate and deliver ingredients into skins uppermost layers.. Alcohols with low molecular weights-the bad-for-skin kind-can be drying and sensitizing. The alcohols to be concerned about in skincare products are ethanol or ethyl alcohol, denatured alcohol, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, SD alcohol, and benzyl alcohol. The concern is when one or more of these are listed among the main ingredients; tiny amounts in an otherwise good formula arent a problem.. In addition to being drying and sensitizing, these alcohols can ...
Alcohol is a depressant drug involved in modulating thinking and behavior by affecting brain. Alcohol had been in use since ancient times and its use can be traced back to 8000 BC. Alcohol belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. It is chemically known by other names such as ethanol; ethyl alcohol; methylcarbinol; grain alcohol; ethyl hydroxide. Ethanol (alcohol) is a naturally occurring byproduct of the yeast metabolism and can also be commonly found in overripe fruit. Pure alcohol (Ethanol) was first discovered by Iranian/Persian alchemist named Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi during wine distillation. Alcohol is normally produced by the fermentation process, and also by distillation of various fruits, vegetables or grains. Fermented beverages such as beer and wine possess maximum alcohol content (about 15 per cent). Distilled beverages, also known as hard liquor or spirits, (rum, whisky and vodka), also have high alcohol content. Alcoholic beverages are ...
Binge drinking is the most common pattern of excessive alcohol use in the United States and those who binge drink tend to do so frequently and with high intensity. According to the latest estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, excessive alcohol use is responsible for 88,000 deaths in the United States each year, including 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults aged 20-64 years.^1^ Estimates also suggest that over 700 Utahns die from alcohol-attributable causes each year and Utah is ranked seventh in the nation for alcohol poisoning deaths.^2^ Excessive alcohol use is also associated with many health and social harms, including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, unintentional injuries, violence and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Excessive drinking cost the United States $249 billion in 2010.^3^ In 2014, the cost of excessive alcohol use in Utah was estimated to be $1.2 billion.^4^[[br]][[br]] ---- #Preventing Chronic Disease, 2014, Contribution of ...
Changes to alcohol promotion regulation are much needed due to the known harms associated with youth alcohol consumption, the sheer volume of alcohol advertising to which young people are exposed and changes in the platforms used by alcohol marketers to promote their products. Addressing alcohol promotion in sports-related contexts is an especially important component of such regulatory change. This is due to the heavy exposure of young people to alcohol advertising in these environments and the ability for such promotion to embed alcohol at the sociocultural level via subconscious means, thereby bypassing the cognitive defence mechanisms that may otherwise be employed to protect against the effects of advertising.. In Australia, the importance of upgrading current alcohol advertising restrictions is explicitly mentioned in the Draft Alcohol Strategy (Department of Health, 2018), which notes the need to strengthen the codes and operation of them to reduce the exposure of alcohol advertising to ...
According to, it is not advisable to drink alcohol while taking Prednisone, one of the more commonly prescribed oral steroids. Many drugs can interact with Drinking beer after taking Prednisone? , Yahoo Answers Drinking beer after taking Prednisone? I just think its odd that in order for me to find out that I shouldnt drink alcohol while on Prednisone, PredniSONE - Corticosteroid - Endocrine-Metabolic Agent If you drink alcohol along with using this medication for a long time, Ask your doctor how much alcohol, if any, is safe while you are taking prednisone. If I Am on Prednisone 50 Mg for 5 Days Can I Drink Alcohol IF I AM ON PREDNISONE 50 MG FOR 5 DAYS CAN I DRINK t drink alcohol, esp since you Is it harmful to drink alcoholic beverages while taking prednisone Is it ok to drink while taking prednisone and azathioprine Is it ok to drink while taking prednisone and azathioprine? Drinking while taking Aza is especially hard on the liver. Not sure about meds and alcohol, Prednisone ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal growth and preterm birth and to estimate the effect of dose and timing of alcohol exposure in pregnancy. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study linked to birth information on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System. SETTING: Western Australia. POPULATION: A 10% random sample of births restricted to nonindigenous women who had delivered a singleton infant (n= 4719) in 1995-1997. METHODS: The impact of alcohol consumption in pregnancy on fetal growth (small-for-gestational-age [SGA] and large-for-gestational-age infants [LGA]) and preterm birth (|37 weeks of gestation) was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis and adjusting for confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios and 95% CI, attributable risk, and population attributable risk were calculated. RESULTS: The percentage of SGA infants and preterm birth increased with higher levels of prenatal alcohol exposure; however, the
However, alcoholic beverages consumption, especially excessive consumption, can impact health, including likelihood of cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization classified the consumption of alcoholic beverages as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1 agent) in 2007. Studies from around the world have consistently shown that regular alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and oesophageal cancers. When compared with people who do not drink, consumption of about 50g of alcohol (about 5.3 units) daily will increase the risk of the above cancers two to three times. Another research has found that daily consumption of 50g of alcohol will increase the risk of breast cancer 1.5 times when compared with non-drinkers.. The effect of smoking and drinking on cancer seems to multiply the risk. Additionally, many studies suggest that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for liver cancer. Drinking can also cause ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to care for an infant after the birth if the drinking continues. The use of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with domestic violence and potential harm to the infant. Different body systems in the infant grow, mature and develop at specific times during gestation. The consumption of alcohol ...
This project attempts to measure more accurately the level of alcohol consumption in different societies by factoring in the amount of unrecorded consumption. Unrecorded production of alcoholic beverages contributes significantly to overall alcohol availability, especially in developing countries and countries in the former Soviet Union. In some countries production in the informal sector is as high as 80%. Data from this project can be used for more precise estimates of per capita alcohol use and the burden associated with alcohol. As the consumption of home brews and other forms of non-commercial beverages is a problem in many countries, it is important to determine the extent of this form of alcohol use and its public health impact. The WHO project on unrecorded alcohol consumption was conducted in four mega-countries: Brazil, China, India and Nigeria. Data collection has been completed in all countries and analysis of data is currently taking place. ...
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is not a single disease but a range of disorders which include numerous physical and mental problems, as well as various developmental defects, that may occur as a result of alcohol consumption by the mother while pregnant. No amount of alcohol is considered safe during pregnancy since alcohol passes easily through the placenta to reach the fetus, where it may also affect the fetal brain. Consuming even a small amount of alcohol carries the potential danger of irreversible birth defects in the baby. However, the risk may be lower with occasional drinking than with regular heavy drinking.. The whole spectrum of disorders associated with alcohol use and its effect on the unborn baby is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which may range from mild learning disorders to severe birth defects. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the extreme form of FASD and may include features such as facial abnormalities, small head (microcephaly), growth disorders, learning ...
Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and disability in the world and is a major driver of NCDs including cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis of the liver and various cancers. Harmful alcohol use is also associated with several infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol also causes harm far beyond diminishing the physical and psychological health of the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others and put them at risk of traffic accidents. Alcohol costs more than 1% of the gross national product in high-income and middle-income countries and is linked to poverty. Apart from money spent on drinks, heavy alcohol consumers may suffer other economic problems such as lower wages, lost employment opportunities and increased medical and legal expenses. Evidence-based regulations can reduce the negative costs of alcohol use. An analysis of the strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, ...
Despite the age old warnings against the use of alcohol during pregnancy, and the abundance of scientific research that links Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) with prenatal maternal alcohol ingestion, FAS/FAE remains one of the leading causes of birth defects and mental retardation. It is critical to explore the reasons why women may choose to drink alcohol during their pregnancies to identify areas which may direct interventions and future research. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was completed using Beekers Health Belief Model (1974) as a guide to exploring the phenomena of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A researcher designed self-reporting questionnaire that incorporated previously used tools and open-ended questions was used to gather information from the 117 pregnant study participants regarding their knowledge, beliefs, behaviours, and decision making related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A small number of study participants continued to ...
BACKGROUND Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among tuberculosis (TB) patients are associated with nonadherence and poor treatment outcomes. Studies from Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC), Chennai have reported that alcoholism has been one of the major reasons for default and mortality in under the DOTS programme in South India. Hence, it is planned to conduct a study to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and AUDs among TB patients attending the corporation health centres in Chennai, India. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional cohort study covering 10 corporation zones at Chennai and it included situational assessment followed by screening of TB patients by a WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test AUDIT scale. Four zones were randomly selected and all TB patients treated during July to September 2009 were screened with AUDIT scale for alcohol consumption. RESULTS Out of 490 patients, 66% were males, 66% were 35 years and above, 57% were married, 58% were from the low monthly income
We have tested for effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genotypes on self-reported alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol dependence, recorded on three occasions up to 15 years apart, in 377 male and female subjects of European descent. ADH2 genotype had significant effects on both consumptio …
Downloadable! In this paper, we analyze the impact of smoking bans on restaurant and at-home alcohol consumption using rational addiction model. We use a pseudo-panel data approach which has many advantages compared to aggregate and panel data. While cigarette and restaurant alcohol consumptions fit well with the rational addiction model, at-home-alcohol consumption does not. This result might be due to possible inventory effects. Our results suggests that although cigarettes and alcohol reinforce each other in consumption, consumers substitute them when there are permanent changes in prices. In the semi-reduced system, the cross-price elasticity of restaurant(at-home) alcohol demand with respect to cigarette price is positive and significant. We find that smoking bans increase restaurant alcohol consumption, but decrease at-home alcohol consumption. After a smoking ban is imposed, nonsmokers are likely to stay longer at restaurants and consume more alcohol. On the other hand, when smokers are not
Background. The number of patients with alcohol-related burns admitted to burn units has increased. It has been reported previously that alcohol-related burns are an indicator of alcohol dependence, but there are few studies addressing alcohol use several years after burn injury.. Objective. To investigate alcohol consumption 2-7 years after burn injury and to examine possible contributing factors.. Methods. Consecutive adult patients with burns (n = 67) were included during hospitalization, and an interview was performed at 2-7 (mean = 4.6) years after burn. Data assessed at baseline were injury characteristics, sociodemographic variables, coping, and psychiatric disorders. At follow-up, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to identify at-risk drinking.. Results. Overall, 22% of the burns were alcohol-related; however, this was not associated with at-risk drinking at follow-up. Of the former patients with burns, 17 (25%) were identified as having an at-risk drinking pattern at ...
BACKGROUND: A recent switch in methadone formulation from methadone (1 mg/mL) to Methadose (10 mg/mL) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was associated with increased reports of opioid withdrawal and increases in illicit opioid use. Impacts on other forms of drug use have not been assessed. Since alcohol use is common among people receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), we assessed if switch was associated with increased prevalence of heavy alcohol use. METHODS: Drawing on data from two open prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, BC, generalized estimating equations (GEE) model examined relationship between methadone formulation change and heavy alcohol use, defined by National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). A sub-analysis examined relationship with heavier drinking defined as at least eight drinks per day on average in last six months. RESULTS: Between June 2013 and May 2015, a total of 787 participants on methadone were eligible for the ...
Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil. Between December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a
Millions of individuals use alcohol every day; however, not everyone experiences a problem due to such use. It is therefore helpful to conceptualize alcohol use as ranging on a continuum from nonproblematic social use (e.g., a glass of wine with dinner) to alcohol misuse (e.g., a one-time incident of binge drinking), to excessive use or abuse (e.g., frequent use of alcohol that results in a negative impact on the life of the individual and those around him or her, such as recurrent driving under the influence of alcohol), and finally, to physical dependence or addiction to alcohol (e.g., a chronic disorder that may require medical detoxification and/or formal treatment). While not used professionally, the commonly used term alcoholism has been used synonymously with alcohol addiction and refers to the compulsive use of alcoholic beverages. Both terms imply a progressive deterioration of the individuals social, physical, and mental status combined with the inability to stop using alcohol even ...
Define alcoholic drink. alcoholic drink synonyms, alcoholic drink pronunciation, alcoholic drink translation, English dictionary definition of alcoholic drink. Noun 1. alcoholic drink - a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; alcohol ruined him alcohol, alcoholic beverage, inebriant, intoxicant...
ARG has long been a leader in survey methodology and alcohol intake measurement. With many of our alcohol consumption measures being used throughout the US and around the world, including estimates of specific beverage types, alcohol content and life-course consumption, we continue to design, conduct and analyze national and regional studies to advance the field of alcohol research. Past investigations have included the assessment of alcohol content in drinks consumed at home and in bars and restaurants, providing information that enabled the development of individual estimations in the National Alcohol Survey (NAS) and produced the only study of calorie content of measured drinks. Our methodological research also extends to include estimates of US per capita alcohol consumption, alcohol tax rates and affordability, and the development of protocols for emergency room assessment of alcohol and injuries.. ...
The research found that universal screening of admissions for alcohol misuse is feasible and can identify a group of patients with frequent emergency department attendances, recurrent admission and elevated risk of alcohol related liver disease. There were 53,165 admissions and 48,211 (90.68%) completed screening. Of these, 1,122 (2.3%) were classified as increasing, and 1,921 (4.0%) as high risk of alcohol harm. High risk patients had more hospital admissions in the three previous years (average 4.74) than the low (3.00) and increasing (2.92) risk groups (p ,0.001). The high-risk patients also had more frequent emergency department attendances (7.68) than the lower (2.64) and increasing (3.81) groups (p ,0.001 for both).. A total of 1,396 (72.6%) of the high-risk group were seen by the Alcohol Specialist Nurse Service and 1,135 (81.2%) had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score over 20 with 527 (37.8%) recording the maximum value of 40. Compared to the other groups, high ...
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Read More ...
Alcoholism is not a switch that can be turned off and on. It and other alcohol use disorders develop over time, and usually involve certain preexisting risk factors that make the individual more susceptible to developing it if they drink alcohol. The substance abuse treatment can help individuals identify whether their levels of alcohol consumption put them at risk of developing alcohol dependence and help such persons develop a plan to change their drinking habits. The NIAAA defines low-risk drinking as no more than 4 drinks on any single day or 14 drinks per week for men, and no more than 3 drinks on any single day or 7 drinks per week for women. About one-quarter of those who exceed such limits already has an alcohol use disorder, and the rest are at increased risk of developing such a condition which will be fixed easier at an Alcohol detox center.. According to the intensive outpatient program alcohol addiction is often a divisive topic, separating those who follow the addiction as a ...
Teens and young adults who binge drink in college may be raising their risks of cardiovascular disease later in life, a U.S. researcher says. Shane Phillips of the University of Illinois at Chicago looked for early signs of heart disease by comparing 19 binge drinkers to 17 non-drinkers ages 18-25. Even though these individuals are young and healthy and dont have any other overt cardiovascular signs of disease, these data would suggest they may be on the road to developing problems, Phillips said in a statement. Phillips examined the ability of small blood vessels such as those in the arm to dilate, or widen. Reduction in dilating is a sign of an early tendency toward heart disease. Phillips found changes in the binge drinker group. The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, found the binge drinkers had a reduction in the ability of the main artery of the upper arm to respond to stress-induced increased blood flow by widening, as compared to their non-drinking ...
Alcohol intoxication Harmful use of alcohol Alcohol dependence syndrome Alcohol withdrawal syndrome Delirium tremens Alcoholic ... F05) Delirium, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances. *(F06) Other mental disorders due to brain damage and ... F04) Organic amnesic syndrome, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances ... F10) use of alcohol Acute alcohol intoxication/. ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). *Fetal alcohol syndrome ...
Drug and Alcohol Services: South Australia 2006.. *^ Sarampote CS, Efron LA, Robb AS, Pearl PL, Stein MA (2002). "Can stimulant ... Cerimele, J. M.; A. P. Stern; D. Jutras-Aswad (September 2010). "Psychosis following excessive ingestion of energy drinks in a ... Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p ...
Drinking alcohol (Shurb al-Khamr).[28] The Hanafis forbid drinking alcoholic beverages other than wine only if it leads to ... drinking alcohol, highway robbery, and some forms of theft.[8][9] Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy from Islam and ... drunkenness, while other schools forbid all alcoholic beverages. Punished by 40 to 80 lashes, depending on the legal school.[4] ...
Mixed drink. Primary alcohol by volume. *Rum. Served. Blended with ice (frozen style). ... In 1950 The New York Times reported that "Drinks in the West Indies range from Martinique's famous rum punch to Cuba's pina ... In 1978 Puerto Rico proclaimed the cocktail its official drink.[5][12] ... There are two versions of the drink, both originating in Puerto Rico. ...
Drinking enough alcohol to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03-0.12% typically causes a flushed, red appearance ... With alcohol consumption, a drunk driver's level of intoxication is typically determined by a measurement of blood alcohol ... "Alcohol and Driving". Retrieved 7 October 2014.. *^ a b c d e Grand Rapids Effects Revisited: Accidents, Alcohol and Risk, H.-P ... "Underage Drinking." National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, pubs. ...
Alcohol[edit]. Main article: Drunk drivers. With alcohol consumption, a drunk driver's level of intoxication is typically ... Drinking enough alcohol to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03-0.12% typically causes a flushed, red appearance ... Alcohol-related crimes. *Drunk drivers *Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States) ... "Alcohol and Driving". Retrieved 7 October 2014.. *^ a b c d e Grand Rapids Effects Revisited: Accidents, Alcohol and Risk, H.-P ...
Alcohol-related crimes. *Drunk drivers *Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States) ... List of countries by alcohol consumption per capita *Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States ... ACA offers a program to recover from the effects of growing up in an alcoholic or otherwise dysfunctional family. It is not ... Self-help organizations for alcohol and drug problems: Toward evidence-based practice and policy; Keith Humphreys et al; ...
Drinking alcohol is forbidden in Ahmedabad.[124] There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and ...
"Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol to Drink)". Retrieved 6 October 2014.. ... Gin /ˈdʒɪn/ is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).[1][2 ... Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin ... Juniper-flavoured spirit drinks may also be sold under the names Wacholder or Ginebra.. Gin. This is a juniper-flavoured spirit ...
... 酒 alcoholic drink; 酎 sake; 酌 serve alcohol; 酢 vinegar; 漬 pickle; 汁 juice, soup; 茶 tea; 炊 cook; 焼 bake; 煎 roast, boil; 蒸 steam; ... 飲 drink; 米 rice; 飯 cooked rice, meal; 餅 rice cake; 麦 wheat or barley; 粒 grain; 穀 cereal; 穂 ear of grain; 果 fruit; 実 fruit; 菜 ... 島 island See also Food and Drink 犬 dog; 狗 dog; 猫 cat; 鼠 mouse; 兎 rabbit; 馬 horse; 牛 cow; 羊 sheep; 豚 pig; 鹿 deer; 獣 beast; 畜 ... 爪 claw See also Food and Drink 植 plant; 木 tree; 樹 tree; 林 grove; 森 forest; 松 pine; 杉 cedar; 桜 cherry; 梅 plum; 梨 pear; 柿 ...
"Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis Following Binge Drinking". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 47 (2): 140-142. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agr154 ...
"Alcohol - Standard drinks guide". *^ "Standard Drinks Guide". Australia: Department of Health and Ageing. ... "Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines" (PDF). The Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. 2012. Retrieved ... The word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot ... "a drink"). An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and typically consumed quickly, in one gulp, may also be known as a " ...
Drinking alcoholic beverages temporarily increases a Watcher's powers. Both Cassie and Pop Girl are second generation Watchers ...
Boffetta P, Hashibe M, La Vecchia C, Zatonski W, Rehm J (August 2006). "The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol drinking ... Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone ... Women may reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, drinking less alcohol, being physically active ... Dietary factors which may increase risk include a high fat diet,[46] high alcohol intake,[47] and obesity-related high ...
Despite this 1 in 10 pregnant women report drinking alcohol, 1 in 33 binge drink. Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal ... Regular heavy drinking and binge drinking (four or more drinks on any one occasion) pose the greatest risk for harm, but lesser ... Medical organizations strongly discourage drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Alcohol passes easily from the mother's ... Key Findings: Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013". 24 September 2015. ...
1551 spirits, ethyl alcohol. *1552 wines. *1553 malt liquors and malt. *1554 soft drinks, mineral waters ... Other goods, such as pre-packaged foods, soft drinks, chocolate, candies, toiletries, and cleaning products, have high turnover ...
Letterman no longer drinks alcohol. On more than one occasion, he said that he had once been a "horrible alcoholic" and had ... When he is shown drinking what appears to be alcohol on Late Night or the Late Show, it is actually replaced with apple juice ... I was one of those guys, I looked around, and everyone else had stopped drinking and I couldn't understand why."[150][151] ... begun drinking around the age of 13 and continued until 1981 when he was 34. He recounts in 1981, "I was drunk 80% of the time ...
Now he drinks only non-alcoholic drinks. His body, he said, reacted quickly to alcohol and he could get drunk on a single glass ... Alcohol[edit]. Maertens drank champagne during races.[11] And he was for a while salesman for Lanson, a champagne company. ... I was asked to give you your drink and I put something in it. You were too good for my guy, so I put something in it to block ... He knew how much and how often his son trained, what he ate and drank, how much he slept, who he went around with. He imposed a ...
The pigs start to resemble humans, as they walk upright, carry whips, drink alcohol, and wear clothes. The Seven Commandments ... Soon after, Napoleon and Squealer partake in activities associated with the humans (drinking alcohol, sleeping in beds, trading ... The animals revolt after Jones drinks so much he does not care for them. ... such as pigs or alcohol.[58] In the same manner, Animal Farm has also faced relatively recent issues in China. In 2018, the ...
"No Drink For You? India's Dry States". Full Stop India.. *^ "Bangaram Island Resort Official Website". ... "Kerala, one of the highest consumers of alcohol, to bid goodbye to booze". The Economic Times. ET bureau. 21 August 2014. ... Alcohol prohibition in India is in force in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, and Nagaland as well as in the Union Territory of ... "Alcohol Ban in Bihar from April Next Year, Says Chief Minister Nitish Kumar". 26 November 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016 ...
Many were drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana,[3]:23 and some were having sex.[9] ... Leigh's blood alcohol reading was 0.128,[3]:63 a level which, according to the University of Notre Dame, would have caused " ... "Blood Alcohol Concentration". University of Notre Dame. Archived from the original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October ... and the adult who admitted to supplying her with alcohol prior to the party was never charged.[3]:x NC1 admitted to having sex ...
She eventually divorced him after he tried to force his extremist beliefs on her.[85] He used to drink alcohol.[86] He lived ...
Gately, Iain (2008). Drink: A Cultural History Of Alcohol. New York: Penguin Group. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-592-40464-3. .. .mw- ... a platter-like stemmed drinking vessel, and flung them at a target. Another feature of the symposia were skolia, drinking songs ... In ancient Greece, the symposium (Greek: συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a ... In a Greek symposium, wine was only drunk after dinner, and women were not allowed to attend.[5] The wine was drawn from a ...
... or consume non-alcoholic beverages such as water, juice, tea, coffee, non-alcoholic soft drinks, virgin drinks, mocktails, and ... Gately, Iain (May 2009). Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. New York: Gotham Books. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-592-40464-3. .. ... "Top 10 Famous Footballers Who Don't Drink Alcohol (Pictures Below) - Opera News". Retrieved 26 June 2021.. ... "Daniel Radcliffe: why I don't drink alcohol any more". Retrieved 3 July 2021.. ...
Gately, Iain (2009). Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. New York: Gotham Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-59240-464-3.. ... Prior to this, he would probably consume an important ceremonial drink of sake. He would also give his attendant a cup meant ...
Traditional foods and drinksEdit. Beer and alcoholEdit. A flip cocktail made with brandy, egg and sweetener ... Drinks in the Colonial era were made with local ingredients like honey, molasses, apples, hops and wild berries. These drinks ... Moxie was America's first mass-produced soft drink and is the official state soft drink. It is known for its strong aftertaste ... The beverage was warmed by plunging a hot poker into the drink to caramelize the sugars creating the drink's characteristic hot ...
... drinking, or not paying attention • shuffling through papers, cleaning out a backpack or purse during lecture • showing up to ... class under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Mobile device Use in the Classroom (USA)[edit]. Statistics ...
Police attributed her death to snorting cheese and drinking alcohol. On November 1, 2006, 17-year-old Keith Witherspoon died in ...
... drinking alcohol; of warily watching her father through the corner of her eye wherever she was sitting or standing; expressing ... On one occasion when Anna Marie was aged 13 or 14, Rose took her to a local pub, insisting she drink several glasses of barley ... In her subsequent statement to police, Owens stated that, at Cromwell Street, she was given a drugged cup of tea to drink, then ...
A 2017 survey found that 30% of high school students have drank alcohol and 14% of high schoolers have binge drank. In 2020, ... Too much and drinking too often can lead to alcoholism. People who consume alcohol before the age of fourteen are more likely ... Students who drink alcohol can also experience consequences such as higher risk of suicide, memory problems, and misuse of ... "College Alcoholism - Alcohol Abuse in College - AlcoholRehabGuide". Alcohol Rehab Guide. Retrieved 2018-12-15. "Underage ...
... and their alcohol concentration may be much higher than allowed in conventional drugs.[168] ... Ready-to-drink traditional Chinese medicine mixture. Alternative medical systems may be based on traditional medicine practices ...
a b Alcoholic Drinks: Euromonitor from trade sources/national statistics (2012). *^ "Our first ever UK cider ... The Bulmers Strongbow vat is the largest alcoholic container in the world, with a capacity of 1.5 million gallons (6.8 million ... Previously Strongbow White was available in Australia, which had a much higher alcohol content (8.5%). It ceased production ... The Times (London) 27 March 2001, Tuesday Cider joins favourite pub drinks ...
Live long in praise, be happy and fortunate upon thy golden throne, drink immortality from the Cup of Jamshid; and keep in ... "Booze and relative freedom lure Iranians to Christian enclave to the north". Los Angeles Times ... "Iran's festive drink and drugs binge". BBC World News. March 27, 2009.. ... Falooda dessert (Parsis): A sweet milk drink made from vermicelli and flavored with rose essence ...
"Alcohol, Fishing, Jealousy, and Good Day" (酒、釣り、嫉妬、ごきげんよう, Sake, Tsuri, Shitto, Gokigen'yō). October 26, 2006. Shizuka Itō (Rei ... "From a Daytime, We Are Drunk and Say Good Day" (昼間っから酔っ払ってごきげんよう, Hirumakkara Yopparatte Gokigen'yō). July
... but even the allegedly best-ever all-conquering Australian team drinks alcohol (and rather heavily too it seems) in the middle ... Andrew Symonds even turned up totally drunk once and only got a one-game suspension, when the countries listed above immediate ... Heck, the Olympic teams of all serious countries have alcohol bans on their athletes, ...
... drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids as well as treating symptoms.[1] Atoltivimab/ ... some lipid solvents such as some alcohol-based products, detergents, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or calcium hypochlorite ( ...
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains the recreational drug ethanol, a type of alcohol produced ... Females on average drink 0.7 drinks per day while males drink 1.7 drinks per day.[4] The rates of drinking varies significantly ... Distilled drinksEdit. Main article: Distilled beverage. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by ... A standard drink is a notional drink that contains a specified amount of pure alcohol. The standard drink is used in many ...
She is a loose woman, who likes nothing better than to drink champagne every day, and party the night away. Although she is a ... Late in the series she develops a fondness for alcohol and loose relationship with businessmen. ... Her husband Mogens Lamborg breaks his arm in a drunk-driving auto accident with the company car - while out carousing with Iben ...
In Japanese, the word "sake" (kanji: 酒; 'liquor'; also pronounced shu in some compounds) can refer to any alcoholic drink, ... This 3rd-century Chinese text speaks of the Japanese drinking and dancing.[5] Alcoholic beverages (Japanese: 酒) are mentioned ... Amazake (甘酒) is a traditional sweet, low-alcoholic Japanese drink made from fermented rice. ... Typically, hot sake is a winter drink, and high-grade sake is not drunk hot, because the flavors and aromas will be lost. This ...
"Presidential Candidate Says Federal Law Should Treat Pot Like Alcohol". NORML. December 4, 2003. Retrieved December 27, 2019.. ... Of course, they should be able to drink at age 18, and they should be able to vote at age 16. ... Kucinich and Mike Gravel were the only two candidates who favored lowering the legal drinking age to 18 as it is in the vast ... "sets reasonable boundaries for marijuana use by establishing guidelines similar to those already in place for alcohol".[89] ...
Nutrition science (theoretical focus) and dietetics (practical focus) is the study of the relationship of food and drink to ... alcohol). ...
"Drunk driving after the passage of smoking bans in bars". The Economist. 3 April 2008.. ... Drug and Alcohol Review. 37 (7): 912-921. doi:10.1111/dar.12848. PMID 30051520.. ... Since smoking is banned in Baden-Württemberg in all public rooms where food or drinks are served for consumption on the spot, ... In bars (which mainly serve drinks) with maximum 1 room and less than 75 square meters, smoking can be permitted if they are ...
... renewable energy sources and sustainable drinking water supplies.[34] ... and alcohol and other drug education.[53] ...
低酒精啤酒(英語:Low-alcohol beer). *黑麥汁(英語:Malta (soft drink)),製程略同黑啤酒,一般缺少酒發酵過程,原料多用黑麥芽,口感介於啤酒與薑糖汁(薑母茶),無明顯酒精味,偶爾當成孕婦生產後補充糖水的替代性飲料。 ... British Soft Drinks Association. [2006-09-12].. *^ M. A. Bassiouny, J. Yang, "Influence of drinking patterns of carbonated ... Fizzy drinks 'affect children's sleep'. BBC. 2003-01-08.. *^ Heaney RP, Rafferty
a b The World's First Soft Drink. 1001 Inventions, 2006. *^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic ... Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources, History of Science and Technology in Islam ... Medicinal-grade alcohol: Dikeluarkan melalui penyulingan. Alat-alat penyulingan ini untuk kegunaan dalam kimia dan perubatan ... Juliette Rossant (2005), The World's First Soft Drink, Saudi Aramco World, September/Oktober 2005, pp. 36-9 ...
a b c Carey, Jim (March 1997). Recreational Drug Wars: Alcohol Versus Ecstasy - referenced from the book Ecstasy Reconsidered, ... On 11 November, she took an ecstasy (MDMA) tablet, and then drank approximately 7 litres (12 imp pt; 1.8 US gal) of water in a ... "Recreational Drug Wars: Alcohol Versus Ecstasy". Retrieved 27 June 2013.. ... If she had drunk the amount of water alone she would have survived."[12] ...
It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean. It is also served as ... Blocker, Jack S. Jr.; Fahey, David M.; Tyrrell, Ian R. (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An Global Encyclopedia ... Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes, drinks, and candies. The word is used for both the species of herb and ... Sitnikova, Natalia L.; Sprik, Rudolf; Wegdam, Gerard; Eiser, Erika (2005). "Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol ...
Distilled alcoholic beverage purification[edit]. See also: Lincoln County Process. Activated carbon filters (AC filters) can be ... Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH)3 ... During early implementation of the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act in the US, EPA officials developed a rule that proposed ... EPA Alumni Association: Senior EPA officials discuss early implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Video, ...
Ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink). *Ethchlorvynol. *Isobutanol. *Isopropanol. *Menthol. *Methanol. *Methylpentynol. *Pentanol ...
Resistance against alcohol: a hundred flowers bloom fully, and for who do a hundred institutions compete?]. Nation Weekend (in ... No smoking, drinking or flirting is allowed on the temple terrain, nor newspapers, animals or fortune-telling. Traditional, ... drinking water, transport and sandbags to local villagers, other affected temples and temples that also offered shelter.[101][ ... a producer of alcoholic beverages, finally had to capitulate and decided to list in Singapore instead.[66] ...
Wells, Ken, "Weekend Journal; Eating & Drinking: The Pursuit of Hoppiness; Seeking the Bitterest of Beer, We Try India Pale Ale ... Alcohol in the United States. *Homebrewing. Hidden categories: *Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL ...
Examples of GABAA PAMs include alcohol (ethanol), benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax), Z-drugs ...
"ADF - Alcohol & Drug Foundation. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. *^ "Import restrictions: Kava and Khat , Office of Drug Control". www. ... likening it to drinking strong green tea:[1] ... less than tobacco or alcohol),[3] although the WHO does not ... "Alcohol and Drug Foundation. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2010.. *^ Hassan, Nageeb; Gunaid, Abdullah; Murray-Lyon, Iain ... Randrianame, Maurice; Shahandeh, B.; Szendrei, Kalman; Tongue, Archer; International Council on Alcohol and Addictions (1983). ...
Pisshead (vulgar way to refer to someone who drinks too much alcohol) ... "Piss up" (British expression for drinking to get drunk). Urination and sexual activity. Urolagnia is an inclination to obtain ... Drinking urine is known as urophagia, though uraphagia refers to the consumption of urine regardless of whether the context is ... Often this is done after the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which causes production of additional urine as well as a ...
Tiller JW (1990). "Antidepressants, alcohol and psychomotor performance". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 360: 13-7. PMID 2248062. ... MAOIs can cause unpleasant and occasionally dangerous side effects such as a hypertensive crises after intake of food or drink ... There is a high risk of treatment failure if there is co-morbid alcohol abuse, however.[40] The Australian Medicines Handbook ... There is little increase in the effects of alcohol when combined with moclobemide[78] and, in fact, moclobemide causes a ...
... soft drinks and fruit drinks to increase profit margins.[10] Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the United States ...
A. Kumar; A.G.C. Nair; A.V.R. Reddy; A.N. Garg (2005). "Analysis of essential elements in Pragya-peya-a herbal drink and its ... Tincture, the often more concentrated plant extracts made in pure grain alcohol, glycerin, or vinegar ... Hibiscus (often blended with rose hip), a popular tea alternative in the Middle East which is drunk hot or cold. Hibiscus tea ... The word had already existed in late Middle English in the sense of "medicinal drink" and had already been borrowed from French ...
Combined laboratory systems for measuring Brix and CO2 in soft drinks and Plato, CO2, % alcohol, pH, and color in beer are ... Due to higher accuracy and the ability to couple it with other measuring techniques (%CO2 and %alcohol), most soft drink ... Alcohol has a higher refractive index (1.361) than water (1.333). As a consequence, a refractometer measurement made on a sugar ... soft drinks and in the starch and sugar manufacturing industry. Different countries use the scales in different industries: In ...
... and cancer.The CDC Alcohol Program works to strengthen the scientific foundation for preventing excessive alcohol use. ... Excessive alcohol use can lead to increased risk of health problems such as injuries, violence, liver diseases, ... What is excessive alcohol use?. Excessive alcohol use includes binge drinking, heavy drinking, any alcohol use by people under ... who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason and that if adults of legal drinking age choose to drink alcoholic beverages ...
Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines provide information to moderate alcohol consumption and reduce alcohol related ... Communicating Alcohol-Related Health Risks: Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines *Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking ... Canadas Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and ... long-term alcohol-related harm. The Guidelines recommend no more than two drinks a day, 10 per week for women, and three drinks ...
A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ... A teen will follow a surprising lead when deciding whether or not to drink alcohol: The influence of the guy friends or ...
Drinking during pregnancy is roundly frowned upon, for good reason. Its a huge risk factor for lots of post-natal problems. ... Loose Women Discuss Drinking Whilst Pregnant , Loose Women - Duration: 6:31. Loose Women Recommended for you ... Drinking during pregnancy is roundly frowned upon, for good reason. Its a huge risk factor for lots of post-natal problems. ... Is Drinking Tea Good for You? - Duration: 6:52. Healthcare Triage 247,525 views ...
This article looks at the possible health benefits of drinking. ... the health benefits of moderate drinking have been widely ... For example, I drink 10 drinks a month. But 10 drinks a month is very different for someone who has them all on one night vs. ... We usually define moderate drinking as up to one drink per day for adult women who aren't pregnant and up to two drinks ... or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. ...
All the alcohol news from 2009, including beer summits, bacon-infused vodka, Tigers mistresses, Hennessy and other ... November 29: Alcohol, Now in Pill Form A professor in Russia created an alcohol pill, which the Times of India argues will ... Winter 2009: Alcohol Mixes with Music Jamie Foxxs late 2008 single, Blame It became his first No. 1 single. Meanwhile, Pink ... The Year in Drinking: A Timeline. From beer summits to bacon-infused vodka, from blaming it on Tigers mistresses to blaming it ...
... scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in ... the students were also told they could drink as much beer and wine or soft drinks as they liked.. The most alcohol anyone drank ... scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in ... "The results were straightforward and substantial; those who watched both the alcoholic film and commercials drank, on average ...
Drinking alcohol wards off asthma. Booze. Is there anything it cant do?. By Lewis Page 26 Sep 2011 at 10:46 ... Scientists have discovered that drinking booze prevents one from developing asthma.. The new research is to be announced today ... Booze has also lately been shown to reduce heart disease and senile dementia, not to mention acting as a useful remedy against ... on this vital and beneficent substance and finally introduce a lower safe limit on the amount of alcohol people should drink as ...
Teens who had already tried drinking were more likely to increase their alcohol consumption by a greater amount the more they ... The study found no evidence that television ads for alcohol products encouraged teens to start drinking, but that doesnt mean ... have an especially powerful impact in spurring teens to start drinking or increase the amount they drink, a new study suggests. ... Advertising that links alcohol with everyday life -- such as supermarket store displays -- appears to have more influence on ...
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. For more on underage drinking, check out the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ... Those students who owned alcohol merchandise were significantly more likely to start drinking alcohol than those who did not. ... Public possession of alcohol by minors was similarly made illegal.. However, the law did not actually outlaw underage drinking ... The researchers further found that 15 percent of the students said they now drank alcohol to some degree. ...
Source for information on Alcohol: History of Drinking: Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco: Learning About Addictive Behavior ... A complex array of customs, attitudes, beliefs, and values surround the use-or avoidance-of alcohol. ... alcohol has played a role in religion, economics, sex, politics, and many other aspects of societies around the world. Its role ... Alcohol: History of DrinkingOver the course of human history, ... "Alcohol: History of Drinking ." Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco: ...
Home › Q & A › Questions › Drinking alcohol on Zoloft?. Drinking alcohol on Zoloft?. Asked. 24 Dec 2017 by shaunnamarie. Active ... I never go crazy when drinking (usually only 2 vodka lemonades when i do go out). So i was wondering if i could drink on zoloft ... For the Zoloft to work most effectively you should not drink alcohol with it. ... You should avoid or limit the use of alcohol while being treated with sertraline. Alcohol can increase the nervous system side ...
Victoria Moore: avoid manipulated low-alcohol wines and go for good half bottles instead Premium ...
... the researchers tracked the alcohol intake of 664 people, assessed their cognitive functioning with a handful of tests, and ... "As long as you dont get intoxicated and stop doing the things you need to do, drinking alcohol seems to be OK," she said. ... And even though moderate alcohol intake - that is, two or three drinks per day - was linked to improved memory, Zanjani is not ... Related: 7 Shocking Health Benefits of Drinking Alcohol (in Moderation). So should all of us start sipping, stat? Not ...
New research shows that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce heart disease risk by up to 25%, and this is likely due, at ... least in part, to alcohols positive effects on HDL ... one alcoholic drink per day for women and up to two drinks per ... Moderate Alcohol Drinking May Boost Heart Health Researchers Say Benefits May Be Related to Effect of Moderate Drinking on HDL ... In a review of 84 studies, people who drank one or fewer alcoholic drinks a day were 14% to 25% less likely to develop heart ...
Yet, myths remain about drinking and drinking problems. Learn the facts about alcohol use so you can make healthy decisions. ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. ... You do not need to drink every day to have a problem with alcohol. Heavy drinking is defined by how much alcohol you have in a ... You need to drink more than you did to get the same effect from alcohol. Or, the number of drinks you are used to having now ...
Putting a stop to your drinking may be done through behavior changes you make on your own. ... If you abuse alcohol, you can take control of the problem. ... means you drink four or five alcoholic drinks in a row. You may ... Limited Alcohol Consumption. Some people who drink too much, but are not dependent on alcohol, can become moderate drinkers. ... Many of them choose not to drink again or do not experience drinking problems. But about 17 million people have an alcohol use ...
For some, alcohol is constipating. For others, alcohol can have the opposite effect. Learn more about how alcohol is ... Drink water. Aim for drinking a glass of water each time you drink an alcoholic beverage. You can also drink an electrolyte- ... Can drinking alcohol make you poop?. In a word - yes. Drinking alcohol can irritate the intestinal lining, leading to pooping, ... Alcohol affects the digestive tract in many ways, depending upon what types of alcohol, and how much of it, youre drinking. ...
Should You Drink Alcohol to Induce Labor?. You might think that reaching for a few glasses of wine during those halcyon days of ... Turns out that drinking alcohol in the later stages of pregnancy has the opposite effect most women intend for it to have. It ... But long ago, intravenous (IV) alcohol was used to treat and stop preterm labor. The effect of alcohol on the uterus really ... It was during those times that I may suggest having a beer to see if the alcohol would calm or relax the uterus," says Ross. So ...
... high-strength alcohol, ministers are hopeful Scotlands drinking habits have changed. ... Image caption Danny is an alcoholic and has to beg for money for drink Danny, 45, is an alcoholic who says he "drinks as much ... "And Im not a bad person, Im an alcoholic. Ive got serious problems, issues inside and I consume the drink to help with the ... It is a year since the introduction of a minimum price for drinks depending on how many alcohol units they contained. ...
... Foodborne botulism is a rare, potentially fatal paralytic ... Botulism from drinking pruno. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15:69-71. * CDC. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce- ... The other five inmates who drank pruno were evaluated on October 4 by a physician at hospital A and were determined to not have ... Pruno batch A was made with oranges, grapefruit, canned fruit, water, powdered drink mix (a source of sugar), and a baked ...
... but the overall amount being drunk has fallen slightly. ... Alcohol related deaths in the UK rose to 9,031 in 2008, up from ... Government efforts to combat alcohol misuse should be focused on the minority of people who drink excessively, not the vast ... Despite increased investment in public health campaigns to address problem drinking and the harmful effects of alcohol, deaths ... Professional adults drink 13.8 units a week, but someone doing a manual job is likely to drink around 10.6 units. ...
Swedish researchers found that mice who drank water that was 10 percent alcohol were less likely to develop rheumatoid ... if you drink wine) and your sex life (if someone else drinks a lot of it). Now comes news that it could help prevent arthritis ... Mice Drink Booze, Avoid Arthritis. Alcohol can help your heart (if you drink wine) and your sex life (if someone else drinks a ... Swedish researchers found that mice who drank water that was 10 percent alcohol were less likely to develop rheumatoid ...
Researchers suggest that low levels of alcohol can help to improve the function of the glymphatic system, which is the brains ... in New York found that drinking the equivalent to around 2.5 alcoholic drinks per day could reduce brain inflammation. ... Drinking alcohol can clear brain waste, study finds. Written by Honor Whiteman on February 5, 2018. - Fact checked by Jasmin ... Moderate alcohol consumption linked to brain decline. A study of 550 people over 30 years finds that even moderate alcohol ...
Level of excess drinking of alcohol is underes... Level of excess drinking of alcohol is underestimated. 27 February 2013 ...
Seeing movies that feature characters drinking alcohol can predispose young adolescents to experiment with alcohol at an early ... Each year that kids delay experimenting with alcohol can help them avoid some of the serious consequences that drinking at a ... He notes that the vast majority of movie scenarios depict alcohol in a positive light, often showing people drinking at parties ... including drinking and driving and alcohol dependence, says the lead author of the study James Sargent, professor of ...
The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between ... The group showed that mice carrying this mutation were willing to work to obtain the alcohol-containing drink by pushing a ... UK researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and when faulty can cause excessive drinking. They ... However, mice with a genetic mutation to the gene Gabrb1 overwhelmingly preferred drinking alcohol over water, choosing to ...
While consuming alcohol can make you feel warmer, your body temperature doesnt actually change. Blood is redirected to your ... Does Drinking Alcohol Warm Your Body?. By Kate Goldbaum - Staff Writer 18 July 2016. ... The culprit behind that warm, fuzzy feeling you get after a few drinks? Blood. Many side effects from alcohol consumption can ... "Alcohol breaks down [cellular] membranes; as you fluidize these membranes, you get the feeling of being drunk." ...
Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ... RESPONSIBLE DRINKING. If you drink alcohol, it is best to do so ... provided you do not have a drinking problem, are of legal age to drink alcohol, and are not pregnant:. *Never drink alcohol and ... The amount of alcohol in your blood is called your blood alcohol level. If you drink alcohol faster than the liver can break it ... TEEN DRINKING. Alcohol use is not only an adult problem. Most American high school seniors have had an alcoholic drink within ...
... alcohol - Answer: Hi, while you will have some residual metabolites, I would not ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Drinking alcohol 137 hours.... Drinking alcohol 137 hours after diazepam?. Asked. 5 Dec 2016 by ... I take citalopram 10 mg and lithium... and I hav been drinking alcohol recently?. Posted 22 Mar 2013 • 2 answers ... I will start drinking around 5pm on Wednesday and, if my calculations are correct, thats 137 hours after I took my 10mg of ...
  • What is binge drinking? (
  • Binge drinking is defined as a pattern of alcohol consumption that brings the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level to 0.08% or more. (
  • Binge drinking typically results in acute intoxication. (
  • Binge drinking, for example, means you drink four or five alcoholic drinks in a row. (
  • Heavy drinking and binge drinking can cause heart disease or stroke. (
  • Heavy or binge drinking, or alcohol withdrawal can lead to a form of epilepsy called status epilepticus, or an acute, prolonged epileptic seizure, which is a life-threatening condition. (
  • Even binge drinking on one day can affect your body's ability to fight off infection for up to 24 hours. (
  • Binge drinking on college campuses is real, and depressing, and gross, and out of control. (
  • Alcohol is also the most commonly used addictive substance in the U.S. It's estimated that 1 in 12 Americans suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence while several million engage in risky binge drinking patterns. (
  • A drink-by-drink guide to the effects of binge drinking on your mind and body. (
  • She was found dead in a fraternity house on Labor Day weekend 2004 after a night of binge drinking. (
  • A federal government study found that 48 percent of college-age kids engaged in binge drinking. (
  • Teens are also more likely to binge drink than adults, and the CDC lists a higher risk for suicide and homicide among the consequences of underage drinking. (
  • Binge drinking is bigger problem than previously thought. (
  • Available at . (
  • Alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and early coronary calcification: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. (
  • Binge drinking - defined as downing at least four drinks for women or five drinks for men within a few hours - is especially dangerous. (
  • One 2014 study found that adults in their 50s and 60s who reported binge drinking once a week were twice as likely to die over the following 20 years as were adults of the same age who drank less. (
  • On the other hand, 26.9 percent of adults reported binge drinking - 4 or 5 drinks within two hours - and 7 percent reported "heavy" use, defined as binge drinking five or more days in the past month. (
  • Nearly 8% of teens who drink say they drink at least five or more alcoholic drinks in a row (binge drink). (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Scientists have unpicked the brain processes involved in teenage alcohol abuse and say their findings help explain why some young people have more of a tendency to binge drink. (
  • The authors showed that genetic variants associated with higher educational attainment were not associated with the total amount of alcohol people drank in a week, but with a reduced frequency of binge drinking (consuming six or more units of alcohol per session), frequency of memory loss due to drinking, total drinks consumed per drinking day and weekly intake of distilled spirits, beer and cider. (
  • And according to the CDC, one in 10 pregnant women in the U.S. says she drank during pregnancy , with a third of those women reporting binge drinking. (
  • HOW Many Pregnant Women Are Binge-Drinking Alcohol? (
  • The CDC released findings that show one in 10 pregnant women admit to drinking alcohol, and a third of those cop to dangerous binge drinking behavior. (
  • But this part is scary: A third of those who admitted to drinking at all also admitted to binge drinking-that's more than four drinks in a sitting. (
  • However, the liver can only metabolize a small amount of alcohol at a time, leaving the excess alcohol to circulate throughout the body. (
  • No. One 12-ounce beer has about the same amount of alcohol as one 5-ounce glass of wine or 1.5-ounce shot of liquor. (
  • It is the amount of alcohol consumed that affects a person most, not the type of alcoholic drink. (
  • Surely, at last, the UK government will reverse its foolish ongoing medical crusade against booze, ease the crippling taxes it levies on this vital and beneficent substance and finally introduce a lower safe limit on the amount of alcohol people should drink as opposed to its hotly disputed upper boundary? (
  • It's helped people limit the amount of alcohol they consume because they're on a budget. (
  • The amount of alcohol in your blood is called your blood alcohol level. (
  • To obtain a clearer picture of the relationship, the team pooled the results of 15 studies, involving several thousand psoriasis patients and healthy individuals, looking at both the amount of alcohol drunk and the ethnic origin of the participants. (
  • However, the researchers say that the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the risk of psoriasis is not proven and will have to be confirmed in other studies. (
  • Women don't really accept that the amount of alcohol they're drinking is excessive," the spokeswoman said. (
  • The average amount of alcohol used has decreased, the percentage of people reporting moderate use has steadily increased, and the percentage reporting heavy drinking has decreased. (
  • When the breastfeeding mother drinks occasionally or limits her consumption to one drink or less per day, the amount of alcohol her baby receives has not been proven to be harmful. (
  • The absolute amount of alcohol transferred into milk is generally low. (
  • Limit the amount of alcohol you keep at home. (
  • If you choose to drink, keep the amount of alcohol you drink within the recommended limits. (
  • Keep in mind that a safe amount of alcohol for one person may be too much for another. (
  • Experts don't know if any amount of alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy, so pregnant women are advised not to drink at all. (
  • Research also shows that any amount of alcohol can increase your risk of other health problems, such as some cancers. (
  • When measuring alcohol intake, Gibson gave the mothers a score based on two things: the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern in which it was consumed. (
  • The amount of alcohol (the nonbreastfeeding mother) drank was not related to the child's scores on the cognitive test in any way," said Gibson. (
  • REUTERS - Watching films and ads in which alcohol features prominently drives people to immediately reach for the bottle themselves, Dutch researchers said on Wednesday. (
  • The findings highlight a potential need to explicitly warn people -- and parents -- if movies contain alcohol use because such portrayals have a direct effect on drinking, researchers at Radboud University Nijmegen said. (
  • The most alcohol anyone drank was four bottles and the least amount was none, the researchers said, adding it was not possible to tell whether watching alcohol on screen has any effect on long-term behaviour. (
  • The researchers further found that 15 percent of the students said they now drank alcohol to some degree. (
  • The researchers noted that ownership of alcohol promotional items was associated with being at the older range of the student group, having peers who drank, having tried smoking, "sensation-seeking," and doing less well in school. (
  • In the study, published in the American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias , the researchers tracked the alcohol intake of 664 people, assessed their cognitive functioning with a handful of tests, and performed scans of their brains. (
  • In a second report, researchers reviewed 63 studies that looked at biomarkers of heart disease and how they correlated with alcohol consumption, including cholesterol and inflammatory markers. (
  • Researchers also know that metabolizing alcohol in the GI tract can lead to inflammation , which causes a variety of symptoms. (
  • Researchers are still working out potential connections between alcohol and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis . (
  • Swedish researchers found that mice who drank water that was 10 percent alcohol were less likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • researchers have found that a 'low' intake of alcohol may help to cleanse the brain. (
  • The researchers came to their findings by assessing the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on the glymphatic system of mice. (
  • The researchers found that when the rodents were exposed to high doses of alcohol over a long period, they demonstrated an increase in inflammatory markers. (
  • Seeing movies that feature characters drinking alcohol can predispose young adolescents to experiment with alcohol at an early age, concludes a study led by Dartmouth Medical School (DMS) researchers. (
  • The researchers surveyed more than 5,000 students ages 10 to 14 years old in Vermont and New Hampshire schools, to assess the amount of movies they watch and whether they had tried drinking before. (
  • The researchers then followed up with the 'never drinkers' two years after the initial assessment and found that kids who had higher exposure to movie alcohol use at the initial assessment were more likely to start drinking during the follow-up period. (
  • Researchers calculated that the typical child who took part in the survey was exposed to about eight hours of alcohol use through movies. (
  • UK researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and when faulty can cause excessive drinking. (
  • This led the researchers to identify the gene Gabrb1 which changes alcohol preference so strongly that mice carrying either of two single base-pair point mutations in this gene preferred drinking alcohol (10% ethanol v/v - about the strength of wine), over water. (
  • Sure, there are more parties and cocktail-related events on weekends and there's more free time to drink alcohol-but the association still held true, even after researchers controlled for those factors. (
  • The researchers aren't yet entirely sure why gym days may mean more booze, but they have a few ideas. (
  • A study released last week by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago finds that a little bit of alcohol (just enough to register 0.075 on a breathalyzer) can help your mind explore unorthodox solutions. (
  • Researchers have long suspected a connection between alcohol advertisements and underage drinking, but positive correlations to date may have been due to other factors like peer and family influences that affect both drinking and ad exposure. (
  • Researchers with the RAND Corporation have now made a much stronger connection, taking a new look at alcohol ads and youth drinking with studies designed to avoid the pitfalls of earlier ones. (
  • because the brain receives blood from this system, researchers have hypothesized that small amounts of alcohol may also attenuate age-related declines in brain volume. (
  • Although everyone in the study drank until they were equally drunk (the researchers doled out drinks adjusted for gender and weight and measured intoxication by breath alcohol content), the female participants woke up more often during the night, stayed awake longer and slept for less time overall than the men. (
  • The researchers found that rats exposed during gestation found the smell of alcohol on another rat's breath during adolescence more attractive than animals with no prior foetal exposure. (
  • A 2007 paper published by the study's researchers found that seniors who drank two or more alcoholic drinks a day (it didn't matter what kind) had a 15-percent reduced risk of death compared to nondrinkers. (
  • TORONTO -- Workers are less likely to drink heavily, frequently, or at work if the companies discourage drinking, researchers found. (
  • On the other hand, younger workers and those who smoked were more likely to drink, the researchers reported. (
  • Measures of worksite management tolerance were based on responses by managers to questions about how tolerant the worksite was about drinking in an earlier survey of the same sites, the researchers said. (
  • Notably, the researchers said, while the observed association was stronger for drinking at work, workgroup norms were also strongly associated with decreased odds for drinking behavior outside the work environment, suggesting the potential long reach of worksite-based public health campaigns, the researchers said. (
  • Publishing their findings in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, the researchers revealed that men who drank over 22 units a week had around a 20 per cent higher rate of admissions to acute care hospitals than those who did not drink. (
  • NHS Scotland researchers believe that Scotland's alcohol-related death toll is higher than previously thought, with experts claiming that one in 20 deaths in 2003 may have been due to alcohol. (
  • The researchers warned that adults who exceed the one-drink-a-day limit can expect to die at a younger age than those who do not, the Associated Press reported. (
  • The researchers analyzed 83 studies that were conducted in 19 countries and included nearly 600,000 people who drank alcohol. (
  • Researchers analyzed data from nine previously published studies with a total of more than 430,000 participants and found that drinking two additional cups of coffee a day was linked to a 44% lower risk of developing liver cirrhosis. (
  • Researchers from the Australian National University found 75 volunteers from ages 18 to 30 who were willing to drink 60 ml of vodka with Red Bull or 60 ml of vodka with soda (we're guessing finding these volunteers wasn't too hard). (
  • In the words of the researchers, those participants whose cocktails contained Red Bull reported higher levels of "liking the cocktail and wanting to drink more" than did those who were drinking just soda, vodka, and "fruit drink. (
  • Still, researchers theorise that certain additives in energy drinks change the way the body metabolises alcohol. (
  • The Growing Up in Australia researchers were interested in how much moms were drinking and also were interested in how children were developing over time," said Gibson, "but they weren't exactly asking the same question as me. (
  • To assess the possible effects of educational attainment on alcohol use behaviours and alcohol dependence, a team of researchers at the National Institutes of Health, USA used two -sample Mendelian randomisation statistical methods. (
  • but in fraternal twins exposed in utero to the same level of alcohol, one could suffer only mild impacts while the other could have full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome, the researchers said. (
  • Researchers said one in every 14 children the University of Washington diagnoses with fetal alcohol syndrome "had a reported exposure of one drink per day. (
  • Researchers said the biggest health implication the new study revealed is that a baby's DNA helps determine if he or she will end up with lasting impacts from a mother's drinking - though researchers don't yet know why. (
  • To carry out the study, researchers sorted through records on 3,000 people who had been exposed to alcohol in utero over the past quarter century, winnowing that number down to 84 pairs of identical and fraternal twins, and full and half siblings - all of whom had the same levels of fetal alcohol exposure, and all of whom "were raised together and diagnosed at the same age," researchers said. (
  • Researchers discovered that the less related the pair was, the more likely they were to have different impacts from alcohol exposure - with 78 percent of half-siblings experiencing diverging alcohol exposure outcomes, 59 percent of full siblings and 44 percent of fraternal twins, according to researchers. (
  • RAND researchers explored how many alcohol ads kids see, how those ads affect their attitudes, and how long they affect youths. (
  • Not surprisingly, I was far from alone in letting alcohol pass my lips during pregnancy: It turns out that one in 10 pregnant women around the country admit to drinking alcohol at least from time to time, according to a report released today by federal researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Of course, there are many caveats - and these studies don't indicate that teetotalers should take up drinking or that infrequent drinkers should start drinking more. (
  • We also have some very strong studies showing that heart disease risk, while lower amongst moderate drinkers, can be substantially higher among people who drink to excess even occasionally. (
  • The results make sobering reading for the sober, as it was found that those who drank "rarely or never" had a much worsened chance of getting the potentially deadly lung complaint: some 1.4 times the average among moderate drinkers. (
  • Being a heavy boozer was a much healthier option, as those who quaffed down plenteous grog had only a 20 per cent greater chance of getting asthma in comparison to "moderate drinkers" who downed one to six units of alcohol weekly (up to three pints, say, or a bottle of vino). (
  • In the study, MRI's revealed that the moderate drinkers had greater hippocampal volume than abstainers - further evidence that alcohol does, in fact, shield this part of the brain. (
  • Some people who drink too much, but are not dependent on alcohol, can become moderate drinkers. (
  • Kidding aside, drinking alcohol at any level is serious business, and religious drinkers need to be careful right along with atheists and agnostics who regularly imbibe. (
  • Initial drinkers: grade 7 students who said they had already tried alcohol (61 percent). (
  • Most participants reported low alcohol consumption, and men were more likely than women to be moderate or heavy drinkers," the authors write. (
  • Other studies have suggested psychomotor delay in infants of moderate drinkers (2+ drinks daily). (
  • Experts have said the caffeine used in the beverages can mask the effects of alcohol, leaving drinkers unaware of how intoxicated they are. (
  • Problem drinkers may be able to stop drinking without much support but alcoholics are addicted to alcohol and require help to stop drinking. (
  • 19% (1,015) were classified as heavy drinkers outside of work, 8% (423) as frequent drinkers, and 11% (577) as drinking at work. (
  • Men were considered heavy drinkers if they drank five or more drinks in one day in the past month. (
  • Self-selection of drinkers to favorable workplaces might also produce clusters of workers with similar beliefs, which might be interpreted as drinking social norms. (
  • Excessive drinking is concentrated among a relatively small number of drinkers, since only 56 percent of the population reported having a drink in the past month in 2015, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (
  • Men who drink 22 or more units of alcohol a week are 20 per cent more likely to be admitted to hospital than non-drinkers, scientists have found. (
  • If people have a genetic variation of the RASGRF-2 gene, alcohol gives them a stronger sense of reward, making them more likely to be heavy drinkers," said Gunter Schumann, who led the study at King's College London's Institute of Psychiatry. (
  • It could be that this marketing strategy leads drinkers to believe that energy drinks could cancel out some of the effects of alcohol. (
  • The drinkers didn't know who received what, and 200 ml of a fruit-flavoured liquid was added to each cocktail to mask either the presence or absence of the energy drink. (
  • Definitely skip dessert if you plan to drink a lot of alcoholic drinks. (
  • If all Canadians who consume alcohol were to follow the proposed guidelines, there would be approximately 4,600 less alcohol-related deaths per year​ ( Alcohol and Health in Canada: A Summary of Evidence and Guidelines for Low-Risk Drinking . (
  • However, the law did not actually outlaw underage drinking -- allowing those under 21 to legally consume alcohol in private settings or for either religious or medicinal purposes. (
  • If you invariably find a way to consume alcohol, you are probably an alcoholic. (
  • If your buddies discuss going to a party, getaway, or an overnight stay, and the primary thought that comes to your thoughts is the accessibility of alcohol or an excellent opportunity to consume alcohol, it is also a warning sign that you are becoming addicted to it. (
  • According to the Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility , 8.7 million American kids ages 12-20 consume alcohol. (
  • While women are often warned not to consume alcohol during pregnancy due to evidence that it could cause damage to an unborn child, the risks of consuming alcohol while breastfeeding are not as well defined. (
  • They also discovered that when the mice did consume alcohol, the absence of RASGRF-2 reduced the activity of dopamine-releasing neurons in a region of the brain called the ventral tegmental area (VTA) - preventing the brain from releasing dopamine and limiting any sense of reward. (
  • more intelligent children, both in the United Kingdom and the United States, grow up to consume alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than less intelligent children. (
  • Very bright' British children grow up to consume alcohol nearly one full standard deviation more frequently than their 'very dull' classmates. (
  • This Stop Drinking program was designed to assist the listener in reducing or eliminating the desire to consume alcohol. (
  • According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon , 1 adults of legal drinking age can choose not to drink, or to drink in moderation by limiting intake to 2 drinks or less in a day for men and 1 drink or less in a day for women, when alcohol is consumed. (
  • The new research is to be announced today at the European Respiratory Society's Annual Congress in Amsterdam, and reports on a study which examined almost 20,000 people - all twins, to assist with eliminating extraneous factors such as genetics, upbringing etc - over eight years and compared alcohol intake against the rates of asthma among the participants. (
  • And even though moderate alcohol intake - that is, two or three drinks per day - was linked to improved memory, Zanjani is not ready to recommend exceeding the standard one-drink-a-day advice. (
  • In the study, midlife alcohol intake didn't affect memory or brain volume later on in life. (
  • While many previous studies have suggested there may be heart benefits from drinking a moderate amount of red wine, the new study shows the findings hold with a moderate intake of any type of alcohol. (
  • It should come as no surprise that excess alcohol intake can harm health. (
  • A study reported by Medical News Today last year, for example, suggested that moderate drinking could reduce the risk of diabetes , while other research linked moderate alcohol intake with better cognitive functioning . (
  • It is of course very unlikely that this single mechanism will explain all the reasons for excessive alcohol intake, but this study does offer fresh insight into a problem that is a significant burden to both individuals and society. (
  • Alcohol intake may increase the risk of developing gout, particularly in men, and beer seems to cause the condition more than other types of alcohol. (
  • Practical tips on how you can reduce your alcohol intake and the associated health benefits. (
  • Reasonable alcohol intake should not be discouraged at all. (
  • Compensatory increases in intake were then observed during the 8 - 16 hours after exposure when mothers refrained from drinking. (
  • Regulation of milk intake after exposure to alcohol in mothers' milk. (
  • I think it's very likely that individuals who have very excessive alcohol intake at younger ages don't even make it to their 90s. (
  • Additionally, drinking alcohol has been associated with an increased risk of contracting seven types of cancers , according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, with greater alcohol intake generally being associated with greater cancer risk. (
  • Limiting your intake of alcohol to 4 or fewer drinks per week is good for your overall health and will probably lower your breast cancer risk. (
  • People with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who took the drug significantly cut their alcohol intake, a small trial has found. (
  • Consumers in Australia typically report consuming A+EDs in excess of recommended intake guidelines, however it is important to note that this excess alcohol consumption also occurs when people are drinking alcohol without energy drinks. (
  • It is particularly noteworthy that people who reported using alcohol and energy drinks for 'hedonistic motives' - that is, for the taste or the 'buzz' - are at higher risk of reporting one, greater alcohol and ED intake, two, alcohol dependence, and three, being in an accident, being injured, or experiencing aggression whilst intoxicated," added Peacock. (
  • Consequently, we need to develop education campaigns targeted at those consumers who are driven in their beverage choice by these motives to make sure they are accurately informed about the potential effects of mixing the two beverages together, and are aware of the current Australian recommended intake guidelines for alcohol and energy drinks. (
  • The EFSA said that the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of "2.4 mg/kg bw would be reached for a 60 kg [approximately 132-pound] adult by the daily consumption of 240 ml of soft drink which is less than a normal sized can or bottle. (
  • The EFSA stated that an "estimate has been made of the potential intake of propan-2-ol from all sources for UK adult consumers, including the assumption that it is used in soft drinks at 600 mg/l. (
  • Exposure estimates based only on the consumption of regular carbonated drinks in teenagers from 5 EU cities, assuming a concentration of 600 mg/l, lead to potential intake of 1.4 mg/kg bw/day at the mean and up to 10 mg/kg bw/day at the 97.5th percentile. (
  • The association with drinking fewer spirits was more pronounced in women than it was in men, while decreased average weekly beer plus cider intake was more pronounced in men than women. (
  • AUDs involve conditions like alcohol addiction, as well as harmful drinking patterns that do not involve alcohol dependence. (
  • These patterns don't necessarily indicate a dependence on alcohol. (
  • Each year that kids delay experimenting with alcohol can help them avoid some of the serious consequences that drinking at a young age can contribute to, including drinking and driving and alcohol dependence,' says the lead author of the study James Sargent , professor of pediatrics at DMS. (
  • It is also a symptom of alcohol dependence if you while away more time at the pub to drink than you did before. (
  • Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). (
  • HIP: Screening for At-Risk Drinking and Alcohol Dependence from ACOG on Vimeo . (
  • A medicine for the flaky skin condition psoriasis could be used to treat alcohol dependence. (
  • Higher educational attainment - spending more years in education - may impact people's drinking behaviour and reduce their risk of alcohol dependence, according to a study published in Molecular Psychiatry . (
  • Dr Falk Lohoff, the corresponding author said: "Using data from a total of approximately 780,000 study participants, we found that genetic variants associated with an additional 3.61 years of schooling were associated with an approximately 50% reduced risk of alcohol dependence. (
  • Dr Lohoff said: "It is important to understand that while these genetic variants allow us to investigate the possible effect of educational attainment on alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence, this doesn't mean that educational attainment can't be modified. (
  • The possible effect of educational attainment on drinking that we show in this study, suggests that increasing educational attainment may be a useful target for prevention programs against problematic alcohol use, alcohol dependence, and their consequences. (
  • Here, Annie Grace clearly presents the psychological and neurological components of alcohol use based on the latest science and reveals the cultural, social, and industry factors that support alcohol dependence in all of us. (
  • HealthDay News -- Adolescents who collect and brandish promotional hats, shirts, bags and other merchandise displaying popular alcohol logos are far more likely to start drinking while still underage, according to a new study. (
  • David Jernigan, research director at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., echoes the sentiment that the alcohol industry must take responsibility for its influence on underage drinking. (
  • Some of the kids we surveyed said having other fun things to do was a good way to prevent underage drinking. (
  • However, if children do drink alcohol underage, it shouldn't be until they are at least 15. (
  • Everyone knows the legal drinking age is 21, but Georgia is one of 45 states that has an exception to allow for underage consumption in some circumstances. (
  • Any smell of alcohol on an underage driver behind the wheel, you go to jail," said William C. Head, an Atlanta attorney who has represented more than 4,500 defendants in criminal cases involving alcohol, including DUIs. (
  • Research has shown that underage drinking can have a long-term impact on the brain , which hasn't fully developed until a person is well into their 20s or even 30s. (
  • The controversy exploded in October, when nine underage students at Central Washington University were hospitalized after drinking Four Loko, both on its own and mixed with other drinks, police reported. (
  • Each year, almost 2,000 people under the age of 21 die in car crashes in which underage drinking is involved. (
  • Since effective treatment of teen depression can be a deterrent to alcohol use, parents who seek help for their depressed teen in a timely manner can also help prevent their adolescent from engaging in underage drinking. (
  • We know that alcohol advertising spurs underage drinking, with all its attendant risks. (
  • Drinking by underage youths in the United States is widespread and poses a serious public health problem. (
  • Underage drinking substantially raises the risks of death from motor-vehicle crashes, from other accidents, and from homicide and suicide, which are the four leading causes of mortality for Americans under the age of 21. (
  • Alcohol advertising contributes to underage drinking. (
  • Despite the established connection between alcohol ads and underage drinking, there are significant gaps in scientific understanding about this connection. (
  • Drinking during pregnancy is roundly frowned upon, for good reason. (
  • Turns out that drinking alcohol in the later stages of pregnancy has the opposite effect most women intend for it to have. (
  • The infrequent times that I would suggest having pregnant women drink wine or beer is during the premature weeks of pregnancy where uterine contractions are noticeable or worsening. (
  • Drinking during pregnancy can harm the developing baby. (
  • Drinking at an early age is also associated with risky behaviour, such as violence, having more sexual partners, pregnancy, using drugs, employment problems and drink driving. (
  • A study published in the journal Behavioural and Brain Functions found that rats whose mothers were given alcohol during pregnancy were more attracted to the smell of alcohol during puberty. (
  • 1) Do you think smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy should be illegal? (
  • 3) Do you think it's alright for women to drink alcohol during pregnancy? (
  • 5) Are you aware of the risks of drinking alcohol during pregnancy? (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued numerous statements about the dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, as it can lead to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) in newborns. (
  • Despite this, many women drink during pregnancy, a choice that scientists have known for years could hurt these mothers' children. (
  • Today, there is a new reason why an expectant mother should put down that glass of wine - drinking alcohol during pregnancy will not only affect her unborn child, but may also impact brain development and lead to adverse outcomes in her future grand- and even great-grandchildren. (
  • And while alcohol is certainly part of our culture and the media often portrays poorly done studies saying there is some safe minimal dose of alcohol, when you really critically look at the literature it's my position and the CDC's and ACOG's that no dose of alcohol is safe in pregnancy. (
  • So I advise against patients drinking any alcohol once they identify the pregnancy or if they're potentially able to become pregnant. (
  • I've been pretty open on this blog about what I really ate and drank during my twin pregnancy . (
  • Advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are affording unprecedented insights into the effects of alcohol on the central nervous systems of children whose mothers drank alcohol during their pregnancy. (
  • Around one in a hundred babies in Europe is born with disabilities caused by mothers consuming alcohol during pregnancy, Addiction Switzerland has warned. (
  • It is not clear how much alcohol causes harm, but Addiction Switzerland recommends giving up drinking completely during pregnancy. (
  • This has an influence on how much alcohol is consumed during pregnancy," said the statement. (
  • The LRDG Communications Toolki​t aims at increasing awareness and starting public discussions about drinking in moderation. (
  • The communications toolkit provides the resources necessary to share the important messages about drinking in moderation through numerous platforms. (
  • The operative word here is drinking in moderation. (
  • Implications of these findings may be that, if moderation of alcohol consumption in certain groups is strived for, it may be sensible to cut down on the portrayal of alcohol in programmes aimed at these groups and the commercials shown in between," Rutger Engels and colleagues wrote. (
  • Good news for cocktail lovers: Despite alcohol's reputation as a brain-cell assassin, new research suggests that drinking daily in moderation after age 60 may actually help preserve your memory. (
  • The findings from two studies, which appear in the journal BMJ, dovetail with the newly released 2010 dietary guidelines that state if alcohol is drunk, it should be drunk in moderation: one alcoholic drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. (
  • If you choose to drink, stop at moderation. (
  • Obesity is a complex condition and there are many contributors including lack of exercise and portion control , but alcohol's role in that is very small, and probably doesn't exist when alcohol is consumed in moderation," he says. (
  • While we should be concerned by the rise in alcohol related-deaths, it's important to remember that overall alcohol consumption has been falling now for several years, suggesting Government efforts to combat alcohol misuse should be focused on the minority of people who drink excessively, not the vast majority who enjoy a drink in moderation. (
  • If you drink alcohol, it is best to do so in moderation. (
  • Moderation means the drinking is not getting you intoxicated (or drunk) and you are drinking no more than 1 drink per day if you are a woman and no more than 2 if you are a man. (
  • So drink with caution, drink slowly, and drink in moderation. (
  • Drinking alcohol in moderation may help to reduce stress but its effects on clinical depression are unknown. (
  • Dr Carole Hart, research fellow in public health and health policy at the University of Glasgow, commented: 'This research illustrates the long-term impact that alcohol can have on health and health services and reinforces the case for moderation when it comes to alcohol consumption. (
  • But it's unlikely that drinking alcohol in moderation will cause problems if you're taking most common antibiotics . (
  • Anderson P. WHO Reports 3 Million Alcohol-Related Deaths in 2016. (
  • According to a 2016 meta-analysis of 87 studies linking alcohol consumption and longevity, casual drinking may be an indicator of other lifestyle factors related to good health rather than a cause. (
  • In 2016, 58% of teen drivers killed in motor-vehicle crashes after drinking and driving were not wearing a seat belt. (
  • Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines help Canadians moderate their alcohol consumption and reduce their immediate and long-term alcohol-related harm. (
  • A team of independent Canadian and international experts developed Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines on behalf of the ​ National Alcohol Strategy Advisory Committee (NASAC). (
  • In addition to the LRDG Communications Toolkit, see our featured publications sidebar for materials you can use to support awareness campaigns in your community for Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines. (
  • Please read Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines from the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse for more information. (
  • The tax break, for 2018 and 2019, would save alcohol producers $4.2 billion, according to the Joint Committee on Taxation. (
  • In August 2019, a study by University College London found that sports drinks were causing high amount of tooth decay in professional athletes because of high sugar content. (
  • Professor Hugh Perry, Chair of the MRC's Neurosciences and Mental Health Board, said: "Alcohol addiction places a huge burden on the individual, their family and wider society. (
  • Treatment for alcohol addiction involves multiple approaches. (
  • People ingest drinks for any number of reasons, and if they do not step back at the correct time, it can result in alcohol addiction. (
  • Fierce urge for alcohol in the morning also gives an idea about the degree of addiction. (
  • You are heading in the direction of alcohol addiction if people think negative about you due to the fact that of your drinking practices. (
  • A few typical symptoms of alcohol addiction are low appetite, short-term loss of memory or inability to remember things, unconsciousness, insomnia, loss of control over body, and weight-loss. (
  • When we think about alcohol or alcohol addiction, the primary point that comes to our thoughts is that it is damaging and needs to be avoided. (
  • If people think bad about you just because of your alcohol consumption practices, you are moving in the direction of alcohol addiction. (
  • If you rely on alcohol to mask your anxiety problems, you may find you become reliant on it to relax, which may lead to alcohol addiction. (
  • Alcohol makes us vacillate between disgust and addiction. (
  • Up to 19% of women in Switzerland aged 15-45 drink too much alcohol at least once a month, the non-government Addiction Switzerland said in a statement. (
  • Although it couldn't give exact figures for how many babies are affected by their mother's alcohol consumption in Switzerland - reliable figures don't exist - Addiction Switzerland said that in Europe between five and 20 newborns out of 10,000 are estimated to suffer from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), the most severe form of FASD. (
  • There has been some more work in slightly younger populations from Europe, and those studies have fairly consistently suggested that older adults who were drinking moderately may have a lower risk of dementia. (
  • Some older adults may start to drink more because they are bored or feel lonely or depressed. (
  • 200 million U.S. adults- have tried alcohol at some point in their lives. (
  • Professional adults drink 13.8 units a week, but someone doing a manual job is likely to drink around 10.6 units. (
  • Kids can't avoid them, even though alcohol ads are supposedly aimed at adults. (
  • What percentage of US adults drink alcohol? (
  • Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. (
  • For most adults, moderate drinking doesn't cause any serious health problems. (
  • In contrast to adults, teens tend to abuse alcohol with other substances, usually marijuana . (
  • A new study says adults should limit their alcohol consumption to one drink a day, which is lower than drinking guidelines in the U.S. and many other countries. (
  • A popular practice among adolescents and young adults is mixing alcohol with energy drinks (A+ED), and a new Australian study looks at motivations for this dangerous behavior. (
  • Recent survey research by our group indicates that just under half of young adults surveyed reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks in the previous six months," added co-author Amy Peacock, a researcher in the school of medicine/psychology at the University of Tasmania. (
  • Some research suggests that having 1 drink a day may help lower the risk of heart disease and diabetes in middle-aged adults. (
  • According to one study , one-fourth to one-half of emerging adults consumed alcohol before their most recent sexual occasion. (
  • Beginning in 1999, Sargent and his colleagues examined the drinking behavior of this age group by focusing on more than 2,400 middle school students in Vermont and New Hampshire. (
  • You might be able to put a stop to your drinking by changing your behavior on your own. (
  • 55-year-olds drinking with grad students ( or, worse, their undergrads ) and thus, unsurprisingly, engaging in unethical or illegal behavior . (
  • The functioning of your prefrontal cortex, a brain region associated with reasoning and judgment, also slows when you drink alcohol, leading to more impulsive behavior and (combined) sometimes-poor judgment. (
  • As you drink more, your behavior and judgment will become increasingly uninhibited, and your cerebellum, which plays a role in muscle activity, will also be impacted. (
  • Heavy drinking is associated with violence and other antisocial behavior. (
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behavior at age 6 to 7 years: I. dose-response effect. (
  • Learning how to stop drinking alcohol is not about one lesson or idea, learning how to quit drinking requires a change in attitude, thought and behavior. (
  • The multi-level analyses in this study suggest that alcohol consumption while pregnant leads to a cascade of nervous system changes that ultimately impact behavior, via mechanisms that can produce transgenerational effects. (
  • Explain to patients who ask that the attitude toward drinking at a person's workplace can affect his or her drinking behavior on and off the job. (
  • Their findings came from a detailed analysis of workplace attitudes and drinking behavior, with complete data nested in 137 supervisory workgroups. (
  • If we identify pregnant women who are engaging in at-risk behavior, first of all I reassure them that often they didn't know they were pregnant or weren't aware of the risks, that hopefully there's been no harm done to their child but I do also tell them that it's not too late to help their baby by quitting drinking. (
  • Unfortunately about 50% of pregnancies in this country are unplanned so a lot of patients who are engaging in at-risk drinking may have a child affected simply because they weren't counseled regarding their at-risk drinking behavior and the availability of effective contraception. (
  • To confirm the findings, the team analyzed drinking behavior from the same group of boys two years later when many of them had already begun drinking frequently. (
  • Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes. (
  • Increased risk of certain cancers , stroke, and liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis), particularly when excessive amounts of alcohol are consumed over extended periods of time. (
  • There is a strong scientific evidence that drinking alcohol increases the risk for cancer , including cancers of the mouth and throat, liver, breast (in women) and colon and rectum, and for some types of cancer, the risk increases even at low levels of alcohol consumption (less than 1 drink in a day). (
  • Heavy drinking can put you at risk for health problems such as heart disease, stroke, liver disease, sleep problems, and some types of cancer. (
  • Drinking while taking pain relievers may increase your risk of liver problems, stomach bleeding, or other problems. (
  • Your liver can only metabolize and process so much alcohol in an hour's time. (
  • Because the liver metabolizes both alcohol and many medications (including laxatives), drinking alcohol and taking medications could impact how effective medicines may be. (
  • Everything you consume gets filtered through your liver, where enzymes break down what you ate or drank. (
  • Alcohol that doesn't get broken down in your liver then enters your bloodstream and travels throughout your body. (
  • As time passes and your blood recirculates through your liver, alcohol continues to get broken down until it is cleared from your system and you sober up. (
  • Alcohol stays in your bloodstream until it is broken down by the liver. (
  • If you drink alcohol faster than the liver can break it down, this level rises. (
  • The only way to even PARTIALLY protect your stomach, liver, and brain from alcohol consumption is to consume lots of saturated fat and protein before imbibing. (
  • Don't indulge too often, as drinking is hard on your liver and kidneys, no matter what you do. (
  • Many people know that heavy drinking can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and is a leading cause of automobile accidents. (
  • Excessive alcohol use can affect the hematologic system, which is made up of the blood, spleen, bone marrow, and the liver. (
  • Alcohol causes inflammation of the liver, and chronic drinking can cause scarring of liver tissue that leads to cirrhosis, a potentially fatal condition where the liver is so scarred it can no longer function. (
  • After years of drinking too much, Andy Ball was diagnosed with the liver disease cirrhosis. (
  • Consultant hepatologist Mark Wright describes liver disease and explains how not drinking alcohol can help. (
  • However, in March eight organisations pulled out of the Coalition's Public Health Responsibility Deal - including Alcohol Concern, the Institute of Alcohol Studies and the British Liver Trust. (
  • Experts writing in The Lancet journal in February said up to 210,000 people in England and Wales will be killed prematurely by alcohol in the next 20 years, with a third of those preventable deaths due to liver disease alone. (
  • Most isopropyl alcohol is oxidized in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone, which is probably further metabolized to acetate, formate, and finally carbon dioxide. (
  • Reuters Health) - Drinking more coffee might help reduce the kind of liver damage that's associated with overindulging in food and alcohol, a review of existing studies suggests. (
  • It can be caused by hepatitis infections, excessive alcohol consumption, immune disorders, and fatty liver disease, which is tied to obesity and diabetes. (
  • You have health problems made worse by drinking, such as liver problems, heart failure, uncontrolled high blood pressure, or certain blood disorders. (
  • A student at Onondaga Community College, in Syracuse, New York, was also found dead earlier this year as a result of hypothermia and alcohol intoxication, according to . (
  • The report, "Uncorking The Muse: Alcohol Intoxication Facilitates Creative Problem Solving" was published in the journal Consciousness and Cognition. (
  • If you drink on an empty stomach, you will reach intoxication much faster and the effects will be more intense. (
  • Heavy drinking causes intoxication. (
  • Intoxication is associated with suicide attempts using more lethal methods, and positive blood alcohol levels are often found in people who complete suicide. (
  • What are the symptoms and signs of alcohol intoxication? (
  • Hedonism' is a commonly used term in the alcohol field which, in this case, refers to people who are trying to increase pleasure and enjoyment, as opposed to other motivations for drinking such as taste, energy, sociability, or to increase or decrease intoxication," added Droste. (
  • This finding is interesting because it could mean that consumers are incorrect if they are assuming that drinking caffeine might reduce their intoxication. (
  • Drinking less is better for health than drinking more. (
  • What health problems are associated with excessive alcohol use? (
  • They are informed by the technical report, Alcohol and Health in Canada: A Summary of Evidence and Guidelines for Low Risk Drinking . (
  • Also, ​view the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral online resource to guide health ​​professionals in detecting and addressing harmful alcohol consumption among patients. (
  • Studies show, for example, that health benefits only come with moderate drinking and are greatest for older men. (
  • What are some of the other health benefits associated with moderate drinking? (
  • A wide variety of health effects have been attributed to moderate drinking. (
  • We constantly recommend that people not consume more than one drink a day," she told Yahoo Health. (
  • The jury is in regarding the health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, says Eric Rimm, ScD, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston. (
  • Public health messages need to stress moderate -- not heavy -- drinking. (
  • But if alcohol is in any way causing trouble with your family, social life, job, or your own physical or mental health, it's time to take control. (
  • The Department of Health in England is launching a new television advert today to warn of the hidden damage from alcohol. (
  • A recent report by the Commons health select committee called for a minimum price per unit of alcohol. (
  • Despite increased investment in public health campaigns to address problem drinking and the harmful effects of alcohol, deaths from alcohol abuse have more than doubled in the last 16 years and are still rising. (
  • In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) report that alcohol is a contributor to 'more than 200 health conditions' and causes around 3.3 million deaths across the globe each year. (
  • The data on the effects of alcohol on the glymphatic system,' explains Dr. Nedergaard, 'seemingly matches the J-shaped model relating to the dose effects of alcohol on general health and mortality, whereby low doses of alcohol are beneficial, while excessive consumption is detrimental to overall health. (
  • in this study we have shown for the first time that low doses of alcohol are potentially beneficial to brain health, namely it improves the brain's ability to remove waste. (
  • Specifically, low doses of alcohol appear to improve overall brain health. (
  • Alcohol is metabolized by four primary enzymes: aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 and catalase, according to a 2006 report by Samir Zakhari, the former director of the Division of Metabolism and Health Effects at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (
  • If you are taking medicines, including over-the-counter drugs, check with your health care provider before drinking alcohol. (
  • Drinking alcohol is bad for your brain and your health, but kids who drink can decide to be successful at stopping. (
  • Alcohol and/or drug abuse are sometimes present simultaneously with other mental health issues such as depression , and therefore it is important to see a mental health provider for a comprehensive assessment if you or someone you know believes you may have a problem with alcohol. (
  • Your body weight, ratio of muscle and fat, health status and even your genetic makeup will affect how much alcohol enters your bloodstream. (
  • Find out about the serious health problems that could arise if a woman regularly drinks more than two to three units of alcohol a day. (
  • Find out about the health problems that could arise if men regularly drink more than four units of alcohol a day. (
  • Each year, college drinking contributes to an estimated 1,400 student deaths, 500,000 injuries, and 70,000 cases of sexual assault or date rape, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, a part of the federal National Institutes of Health. (
  • That's part of the message of the Scottish government's Drop a Glass Size Campaign , which specifically "encourages women to think about the health effects of regularly drinking above the recommended alcohol guidelines. (
  • Alcohol use during the teenage years is related to a wide range of health and social problems. (
  • Drinking alcohol can damage a child's health, even if they're 15 or older. (
  • Beginning to drink before age 14 is associated with increased health risks, including alcohol-related injuries, involvement in violence, and suicidal thoughts and attempts. (
  • If you are aware of the adverse effects of alcohol on your family, health and wellness, and work or personal life, and still cannot quit consuming it, you are getting highly addicted to it. (
  • Chick J. Can light or moderate drinking benefit mental health? (
  • In the first study, adolescent health experts Phyllis Ellickson and Rebecca Collins tracked exposure to beer ads and subsequent drinking among more than 3,000 students as they moved from middle school to high school. (
  • The public health effect of this study gives a clear message about the possible dangers of drinking alcohol," the authors write. (
  • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration encourages parents to talk to their children about alcohol when the kids are as young as 9. (
  • The benefits to heart health of moderate drinking are already well known. (
  • Poznyak V, Rekve D. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. (
  • You can improve your health by drinking less or not drinking at all. (
  • Under the Affordable Care Act , the health care reform law passed in 2010, health care plans must cover screening and counseling for alcohol misuse. (
  • Washington (CNN) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration told the manufacturers of seven caffeinated alcoholic beverages Wednesday that their drinks are a 'public health concern' and can't stay on the market in their current form. (
  • To the contrary, there is evidence that the combinations of caffeine and alcohol in these products pose a public health concern. (
  • They wrote to Andrew Lansley, the Health Secretary, saying the deal on alcohol - which includes voluntary agreements with industry - would not help reduce illness or deaths. (
  • It includes health academics, representatives of the drinks trade and organisations with an interest in the harm caused to society and individuals by alcohol. (
  • Recent headlines touted a link between daily alcohol consumption and a nearly 20-percent decrease in mortality risk - but those findings may be clouding the true relationship between alcohol and good health. (
  • While a study of senior citizens did find a correlation between drinking two alcoholic beverages a day and increased longevity, the underlying reasons for this association aren't clear - and are likely not sufficient reason to celebrate booze as a health tonic, other research suggests. (
  • The initial participants answered questions about their health, hobbies and drinking habits involving alcohol, among other things. (
  • Kawas' disclaimer echoes mounting research that suggests that the more alcohol a person drinks, the more likely that person is to experience adverse health effects. (
  • Older individuals who abstain from drinking might do so because of existing health issues, the study said, or because they had problems with excessive drinking in the past. (
  • In other words, if a person is still drinking at age 90, their health is likely good enough for them to do so. (
  • Because it's so hard to tease out cause and effect in studies like these, it's too soon to say whether moderate drinking is indeed a health benefit, a risk or neither. (
  • The percentage of the various drinking behaviors decreased as social norms discouraging drinking increased, said Benjamin C. Amick, Ph.D., of the Institute for Work and Health here and the University of Texas, Houston. (
  • But public health experts cited potential harm from greater alcohol use and cast doubt on the economic effects. (
  • The CDC estimates that in 2010, excessive drinking resulted in economic losses of $249 billion from lost workplace productivity and health care expenses. (
  • Men who drank 22 or more units per week had more admissions for respiratory illness, stroke and mental health problems. (
  • With the economic crisis, many European countries have introduced punitive taxes and minimum pricing policies to curb excessive alcohol consumption and their related costs: ill-health, road accidents, and sometimes death. (
  • At the European level, the European Commission's informal alcohol strategy, launched in 2006, aims to reduce the health and social harm caused by excessive alcohol consumption, especially among young people. (
  • In fact, the harm caused by inappropriate alcohol consumption is higher in Scandinavia than in the Mediterranean, although southern Europeans consume more alcohol on average, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) than their Scandinavian counterparts. (
  • Worldwide, some 2.5 million people die each year from the harmful use of alcohol, accounting for about 3.8 percent of all deaths, according to the World Health Organisation. (
  • To reduce the health risks associated with drinking alcohol, men and women are advised not to regularly drink more than 14 units a week. (
  • Drinking at a younger age can affect a young person's general health, physical growth, emotional development, ability to make good decisions, and schoolwork. (
  • You have a mental health problem and are using alcohol to try to make yourself feel better. (
  • What are the health benefits of drinking alcohol? (
  • But these possible health benefits decline with each additional drink that you have. (
  • If you don't drink now, don't start drinking to lower your risk of these health problems. (
  • In the long term this pattern of alcohol use may affect your mental health. (
  • Over-time this may negatively affect your mental health, resulting in heightened levels of anxiety and depression after drinking. (
  • You may have a vague idea that mixing booze with caffeine isn't exactly the best choice for your health (something about combining an upper and a downer? (
  • Even moderate alcohol use can result in a dry mouth after drinking, causing oral issues and other health problems - possibly setting off a chain reaction in your system. (
  • Alcohol kills one person every 10 seconds worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. (
  • Energy drinks have been associated with many health risks, such as an increased rate of injury when usage is combined with alcohol, and excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions. (
  • Energy drinks are marketed to provide the benefits among health effects of caffeine along with benefits from the other ingredients they contain. (
  • Health experts agree that energy drinks which contain caffeine do improve alertness. (
  • The combination of the two in college students is correlated to students experiencing alcohol-related consequences, and several health risks. (
  • The dietary supplements in energy drinks may be purported to provide produce benefits, such as for vitamin B12, but no claims of using supplements to enhance health in otherwise normal people have been verified scientifically. (
  • That shows that a lot of kids are pretty smart about the dangers of alcohol. (
  • Talk to your child about the dangers of alcohol before they start drinking. (
  • Available at . (
  • If 15 to 17 year olds drink alcohol, they should never exceed the recommended adult weekly limit (14 units of alcohol). (
  • A small glass of wine equals 1.5 units of alcohol. (
  • Even just eight units of alcohol increased the risk of hospitalisation. (
  • Those people in the Mediterranean who have a glass of wine at lunch and dinner, and spread that out through the week, they might drink more units of alcohol than someone who goes out on a Friday night in very cold Finland and has fifteen units of beer," Skehan said. (
  • Alcohol (chemical name ethyl alcohol or ethanol) is a liquid made from sugars by the action of yeast. (
  • Within the context of 'at risk' adolescents, prior exposure to ethanol may, among other things, worsen the consequences of alcohol-related social interaction by increasing teenagers' propensity to engage in such settings,' he added. (
  • Traditionally, prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) from maternal consumption of alcohol, was thought to solely impact directly exposed offspring, the embryo or fetus in the womb. (
  • HealthDay News -- Magazine and supermarket ads featuring alcohol, as well as beer concession stands at sports and music events, have an especially powerful impact in spurring teens to start drinking or increase the amount they drink, a new study suggests. (
  • But this study suggests that the key may simply be to avoid abusing alcohol - at least when it comes to preserving your memory. (
  • A second report from the ONS published today suggests that most drinking takes place at home, rather than in pubs or bars. (
  • In fact, some will even buy the booze, on the theory that a little tippling makes for a happier employee-and maybe, too, as a new study suggests, a more creative one. (
  • Research suggests that children are less likely to drink alcohol when their parents show that they don't agree with it. (
  • This study suggests that, unlike the associations with cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption does not have any protective effect on brain volume. (
  • There is no reliable evidence that other ingredients in energy drinks provide further benefits, even though the drinks are frequently advertised in a way that suggests they have unique benefits. (
  • You should still be careful with stuff like energy drinks and caffeinated sodas since they tend to combine sugar and caffeine in unnatural amounts. (
  • Kallman described Moonshot as a craft beer that has about 4 percent alcohol by weight, about two-thirds the caffeine of a cup of coffee and is sold in only three cities -- 'and yet it's being singled out with Four Loko and Joose. (
  • Critics say drinks like Four Loko mix caffeine equal to the amount in three cups of coffee with the alcoholic equivalent of three cans of beer and are designed to appeal to younger consumers accustomed to consuming high-caffeine energy drinks. (
  • Phusion has compared Four Loko to popular drinks like rum and cola or Irish coffee that also mix caffeine and alcohol. (
  • Some of these drinks feature caffeine which may prove to be harmful in high quantities. (
  • An energy drink is a type of drink containing stimulant compounds, usually caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy). (
  • Other soft drinks such as cola may contain caffeine, but are not considered energy drinks either. (
  • Some alcoholic drinks, such as Buckfast Tonic Wine, contain caffeine and other stimulants. (
  • Energy drinks have the effects of caffeine and sugar, but there is little or no evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect. (
  • Most effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine. (
  • Populations at risk for complications from energy drink consumption include youth, caffeine-naïve or caffeine-sensitive, pregnant, competitive athletes and people with underlying cardiovascular disease. (
  • medical citation needed] Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but most (although not all) place the caffeine content of their drinks on the label anyway, and some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice. (
  • Getting drunk" or intoxicated is the result of consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. (
  • Coma and death can occur if alcohol is consumed rapidly and in large amounts. (
  • They drank wine in sacred family rituals, but the Hebrews placed an overall emphasis on temperance, or drinking in only moderate amounts and at certain times. (
  • Our studies suggest that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol may have some benefits in terms of reducing the risk for cardiac disease and death related to cardiac disease," says Susan E. Brien, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Calgary, Canada. (
  • In fact, if you need to drink increasing amounts of alcohol to feel an effect, it could be a sign you have a problem with alcohol . (
  • Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. (
  • Even if they don't get drunk after consuming large amounts, the calories are all empty with no nutritional value, so a beer belly is the result - at best - of continued overdrinking. (
  • If consumed in large amounts alcohol can cause drowsiness, deep sleep, weakness, and abnormal weight gain in the infant, and the possibility of decreased milk-ejection reflex in the mother. (
  • Significant amounts of alcohol are secreted into breastmilk although it is not considered harmful to the infant if the amount and duration are limited. (
  • Adult metabolism of alcohol is approximately 1 ounce in 3 hours, so mothers who ingest alcohol in moderate amounts can generally return to breastfeeding as soon as they feel neurologically normal. (
  • Different types of beer, wine, and liquor have different amounts of alcohol. (
  • Harm to a developing fetus if a woman drinks while pregnant, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders . (
  • Alcohol can harm the developing baby (fetus). (
  • Electrolytes are also a scientific term for "salts" and water is a better carrier for salts than any other liquid, so the effectiveness of what sports drinks advertise is unnecessary for normal bodily functions and may cause harm due to the high sugar content. (
  • But kids can say no to peer pressure when they know their own minds and know that alcohol can be dangerous or harmful to them. (
  • Regularly drinking just above recommended levels can be harmful. (
  • We're making alcohol use more acceptable when it's more harmful. (
  • Everyone, whether the NHS and public services or alcohol retailers, producers and pubs, has a role to play in reducing the harmful use of alcohol. (
  • But as we all know too much drinking of alcohol has a harmful effects to us. (
  • Alcohol gets into your bloodstream quickly. (
  • Certain types of alcoholic drinks get into your bloodstream faster. (
  • Downing a few quick shots may cause a delayed effect, as does cold alcohol, which is absorbed more slowly in the bloodstream. (
  • As alcohol leaves your bloodstream, it leaves your breastmilk. (
  • And that late-night slice of pizza or order of cheese fries you had in an effort to soak up the booze and prevent a hangover (which, sad to say, doesn't work anyway-the alcohol has long since gone into your bloodstream) can trigger acid reflux when you lie down, keeping you from falling asleep. (
  • 12 ounces of beer (5% alcohol content). (
  • Is beer or wine safer to drink than liquor? (
  • What doctors usually consider a drink is basically a medium glass of wine, a 1.5 oz shot of spirits, or a can or bottle of beer. (
  • An experiment with students showed that volunteers exposed to a film and commercials where alcohol featured predominately drank an average one-and-a-half bottles of beer more during the hour they were watching. (
  • During the one-hour film in the laboratory fitted with leather couches and comfortable chairs, the students were also told they could drink as much beer and wine or soft drinks as they liked. (
  • The study of 3,111 South Dakota teens concluded that those who frequently saw prominent beer advertising displays in grocery and convenience stores were more likely to start drinking alcohol than teens who saw fewer of those kinds of advertising displays. (
  • Teens who had already tried drinking were more likely to increase their alcohol consumption by a greater amount the more they saw alcohol ads in magazines and the more they observed beer concessions stands at sporting and music events, the study said. (
  • In the United States many people who regularly drink beer in large quantities do not think of themselves as using alcohol. (
  • Anyways, anytime I take an SSRI, I can get a hangover from one beer let alone getting drunk. (
  • A drink is defined as 1.5 ounces of spirits, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer. (
  • A drink is defined as 12 fluid ounces (355 mL) of beer, 5 fluid ounces (148 mL) of wine, or 1½ fluid ounces (45 mL) of liquor. (
  • Fermented drinks and non-distilled alcoholic beverages (think beer, lager, cider, and wine) increase acid secretion in the stomach by stimulating gastrin secretion. (
  • It was during those times that I may suggest having a beer to see if the alcohol would calm or relax the uterus," says Ross. (
  • Many side effects from alcohol consumption can be tied to its properties as a vasodilator (blood vessel widener), including the so-called "beer blanket" phenomenon. (
  • Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. (
  • Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers have more. (
  • A drink is defined as 12 ounces (350 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (150 milliliters) of wine, or 1.5 ounces (45 milliliters) of liquor. (
  • Turns out, not only did the majority of participants work out more Thursdays through Sundays-they also drank more alcohol (especially beer) on those days. (
  • The grownups in your life have probably told you that you aren't allowed to have alcoholic drinks, such as beer or wine. (
  • If you have seen beer commercials on TV, the people drinking it seem like they're having a good time. (
  • Drinking a lot of beer is like consuming lots of bread or other carbs. (
  • If you drink too often or too much, have a beer at every game or a glass of wine with every meal, chances are higher you're contributing to the next generation of alcoholics. (
  • A page devoted to "drinking like a man" warns that men who have more than five drinks a day are twice as likely to die of a stroke, and that having a beer belly can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea and cancer. (
  • On a daily basis, it's more than two to three drinks (about a 175 ml glass of 13% wine) for women and three to four drinks (equivalent to a pint and a half of 4% beer) for men. (
  • 1 unit of alcohol is about half a pint of normal-strength beer or a single measure (25ml) of spirits. (
  • However, if you're 16 or 17 and accompanied by an adult, you can drink (but not buy) beer, wine or cider with a meal. (
  • The products may be drunk in their original form (for example, beer and wines), or after strengthening (for example, sherry, port and spirits). (
  • The studies reported here focused on beer advertisements because beer ads are more pervasive than those for other kinds of alcohol and the ads are more likely to appear where young people might see them. (
  • Deaths linked to alcohol are significantly more common than drug overdose deaths, but lawmakers may promote more drinking through a two-year tax break for producers of beer, wine and spirits as part of the Senate's tax code overhaul. (
  • On the mornings after I drank too many glasses of wine or bottles of beer, I'd wake up feeling regretful. (
  • No. Drinking during the week just because won't happen anymore, but if I'm celebrating a loved one or at the lake, then I may crack open a nice cold beer. (
  • All alcohol, including beer, wine, whiskey and other alcoholic beverages, can thin the blood and strip the mucosa from the lining of the esophagus. (
  • If you are put on a yeast-free diet, you should only drink domestic beer. (
  • In the 19th and early 20th centuries, athletes occasionally drank beer of low alcohol content replenishing water, minerals and energy in the body. (
  • This is in spite of the fact that the legal drinking age is 21 years old in the United States. (
  • Firstly, it increases the chance they will take up drinking at an early age. (
  • It increases your risk for alcohol problems. (
  • Drinking at that level increases your risk for alcohol problems. (
  • According to an article in The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol and Abuse and Alcoholism , a small study found daily consumption of red wine resulted in increases in compounds that could cause a IBD flare-up. (
  • As the electrical signal from these receptors increases, so does the desire to drink to such an extent that mice will actually work to get the alcohol, for much longer than we would have expected. (
  • Noting that the way in which alcohol increases the risk of psoriasis is currently unclear, the team says: "Overall, there exists strong evidence of positive association between alcohol consumption and psoriatic risk. (
  • The risk increases the longer you have been drinking. (
  • At lower doses your body can still function under the influence of alcohol, but as the dose increases, so too do its effects. (
  • Even in smaller quantities, alcohol can affect driving skills and the ability to do other tasks (for example, at work) and this increases the risk of accidents. (
  • Drinking alcohol increases estrogen levels. (
  • It's possible that the extra estrogen from drinking combined with the estrogen in HRT caused the dramatic increases in risk in this study. (
  • Children in the alcohol group exhibited statistically significant increases in diffusion on DWI compared with the other children. (
  • When the effects of alcohol wear off, you have symptoms of withdrawal. (
  • If you have withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, you may feel more sensitive to pain. (
  • You might not be dependent on alcohol to the point where you experience withdrawal symptoms if you go a day without drinking. (
  • A stay at an in-patient drug-and-alcohol rehabilitation center may be in order, particularly if you suffer from serious withdrawal symptoms. (
  • This can lead to symptoms like bloating and constipation, according to an article in the journal Alcohol Research . (
  • However, other studies haven't identified a link between alcohol and IBD symptoms. (
  • He reported that his symptoms began within 12 hours of drinking pruno. (
  • Of the 13 inmates who reported drinking pruno, eight met the case definition by having signs or symptoms compatible with botulism. (
  • You can have symptoms of being drunk at blood alcohol levels below the legal definition of being drunk. (
  • Also, people who drink alcohol frequently may not have symptoms until a higher blood alcohol level is reached. (
  • Heavy drinking can affects areas of the brain and can lead to memory loss and some symptoms of dementia. (
  • In addition, heavy drinking may result in nutritional deficiencies which can also result in dementia symptoms. (
  • If you already have gout, drinking alcohol may worsen your symptoms. (
  • Depending on your weight, height, metabolism and other biological factors, you may need to drink more or less water in order to fend off the symptoms of dehydration. (
  • Alcohol withdrawal can include symptoms like headache, shaking, anxiety and other problematic symptoms. (
  • While withdrawal starts within hours of when an alcoholic stops drinking, the withdrawal symptoms themselves may be at their worst in a day or two and then start to improve in five days. (
  • The symptoms of alcoholism include tolerance to alcohol, withdrawal episodes, craving alcohol, using more alcohol or for longer periods than intended, and problems managing life issues due to alcohol. (
  • Medical professionals diagnose alcoholism by evaluating whether the individual shows a number of symptoms of problem drinking on a regular basis. (
  • You can begin to experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms similar to feelings people who are dependent on alcohol may have. (
  • But if anxiety is already an issue for you, experiencing withdrawal from alcohol can make your symptoms feel worse. (
  • What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal? (
  • Strong prohibitions and punitive measures for pregnant women who drink mostly just have the effect of driving women away from prenatal care. (
  • The dietary guidelines recommend that anyone younger than the legal drinking age and pregnant women should refrain from drinking alcohol. (
  • Has new alcohol law changed drinking habits? (
  • Media caption Have drinking habits changed? (
  • Ministers are hopeful that new statistics will show Scotland's drinking habits have changed after a new law pushed up the price of cheap, high-strength alcohol. (
  • Anecdotally I'm hearing from a number of people who have changed their drinking habits and there's some anecdotal evidence to suggest that when the evidence comes out in June, it will be positive. (
  • He supports minimum unit pricing but it has had little effect on his drinking habits. (
  • Somewhere early in this process, you will be asked questions about your drinking habits. (
  • Men and women can use the app by uploading or taking photos of themselves and entering data about their drinking habits. (
  • Scientists claim to have discovered a potential link between teenagers' drinking habits and their exposure to alcohol while in their mother's womb. (
  • Learn new skills to help you change your drinking habits. (
  • The study looked at the drinking habits and HRT use of more than 5,000 Danish women for 20 years. (
  • People with long-term (chronic) pain sometimes use alcohol to help manage pain. (
  • Long-term (chronic) alcohol use can increase pain. (
  • Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to irritation of the stomach lining, which is known as gastritis . (
  • Chronic alcohol consumption also causes increased peristalsis. (
  • But did you know chronic drinking could also lead to cancer and heart attack? (
  • Chronic alcohol drinking can increase your risk for developing cancer. (
  • Chronic or heavy consumers of alcohol should not breastfeed. (
  • The most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on alcohol -related deaths come from 2006 to 2010, when each year on average there were 88,000 deaths from alcohol poisoning, traffic accidents or consumption-related chronic conditions. (
  • Severe birth defects or fetal alcohol syndrome are possible. (
  • I first became interested in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which unfortunately is incredibly prevalent in today's society, because my beautiful niece and nephew were diagnosed with it and I got a personal interest after that. (
  • I really started reviewing the literature and realized that we as obstetricians need to do a better job of counseling our patients and screening for this preventable condition, namely Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Spectrum Disorders. (
  • Unfortunately, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which is largely preventable is the number one cause of mental retardation in this country and others. (
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome disorders can leave children with abnormal facial features, stunted heights, low body weight, smaller heads, bad coordination, hyperactivity, poor memory, learning disabilities and more, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Alcohol use by expectant mothers can lead to problems with the mental and physical development of their children-a condition known as fetal alcohol syndrome. (
  • Costs for care of individuals affected by fetal alcohol syndrome in the U.S. have been estimated at 4 billion dollars annually. (
  • The study group included 200 children who were exposed to alcohol during their fetal stage and 30 children whose mothers did not drink while pregnant or during lactation. (
  • It launched its information campaign on Wednesday, as September 9 is International Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Awareness Day external link . (
  • A 21-year longitudinal analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on young adult drinking. (
  • However, we now have evidence that the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure could persist transgenerationally and negatively impact the next-generations of offspring who were never exposed to alcohol," Huffman said. (
  • The person may need help, counseling, or other treatment to stop using alcohol. (
  • In a review of 84 studies, people who drank one or fewer alcoholic drinks a day were 14% to 25% less likely to develop heart disease compared to their teetotaling counterparts. (
  • People who drank less than 20 alcoholic drinks per month did not have a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. (
  • People who drank A+EDs to sober up were actually at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related injuries and harms," he said. (
  • Energy drinks are advertised as providing a boost to attention and mental and physical performance," he said. (
  • These results suggest that different motivations for consuming alcohol with energy drinks are associated with greater risk of certain alcohol-related harms," said Peacock. (
  • What is clear is that one energy drink-liquor combination is likely to lead to another, as stimulating energy drinks "cancel out" the sedating effects of alcohol, a depressant - meaning that when you're drinking both at the same time, your body won't tell you when it's time to give it up and go home. (
  • Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated drinks are usually not considered energy drinks. (
  • Advertising for energy drinks usually features increased muscle strength and endurance, but there is no scientific consensus to support these claims. (
  • The consumption of alcoholic drinks combined with energy drinks is a common occurrence on many high school and college campuses. (
  • The alcohol industry has recently been criticized for marketing cohesiveness of alcohol and energy drinks. (
  • Marketing of energy drinks has been particularly directed towards teenagers, with manufacturers sponsoring or advertising at extreme sports events and music concerts, and targeting a youthful audience through social media channels. (
  • When mixed with alcohol, either as a prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic drink, a mixed drink, or just a drink consumed alongside alcohol, energy drinks are often consumed in social settings. (
  • Advertising for energy drinks usually features increased muscle strength and endurance, but there is little evidence to support this in the scientific literature. (
  • This is the first experimental study to show a direct effect of exposure to alcohol portrayals on TV on viewers' immediate drinking behaviour," Engels said in a statement. (
  • High alcohol exposure, however, was found to impair glymphatic function and increase brain inflammation. (
  • Additionally, high alcohol exposure was found to impair cognitive functioning and motor skills in the mice. (
  • James Sargent is lead author of a new study that identifies a correlation between exposure to alcohol use in movies and adolescent drinking. (
  • Thus, high exposure predicted future use of alcohol. (
  • Their key findings: For adolescents, exposure to alcohol ads is directly linked to subsequent drinking, but different kinds of ads have different influences depending on a youngster's prior alcohol use. (
  • In an interesting study of the effect of alcohol on milk ingestion by infants, the rate of milk consumption by infants during the 4 hours immediately after exposure to alcohol (0.3 g/kg) in 12 mothers was significantly less (2). (
  • We cannot clinically identify which fetus is more likely to be affected by alcohol exposure and which might be less vulnerable," Astley Hemingway said. (
  • Research to date has provided only spotty answers to several key questions: How much exposure to alcohol ads do youths get from all the media they consume? (
  • What is the immediate effect of youths' exposure to alcohol ads, and how long does the effect last? (
  • Directly following each reported exposure and at random times throughout the day, youths were asked to report their beliefs about drinking. (
  • Exposure to alcohol ads led youths to view alcohol and drinking more positively. (
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure is the major cause of impaired development or complete absence of the corpus callosum. (
  • This study was supported by the U.S. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism . (
  • According to 2003 figures issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, almost half of all adolescents have had at least one drink -- and more than one-fifth have been drunk -- by the time they enter the eighth grade. (
  • Also, some laxative medications contain alcohol, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism . (
  • This study was sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and grants from the National Cancer Institute , and the National Institute on Drug Abuse . (
  • Spady's parents have established the SAM -- Student Alcohol Management -- Foundation in her memory, to educate parents and children about the dangers of undergraduate alcoholism. (
  • When we think about alcohol or alcoholism, the first point that pops into our mind is that it is negative and should be kept away from. (
  • The first thing that comes to our thoughts is that it is negative and needs to be kept away from when we think about alcohol or alcoholism. (
  • Experts from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism say a parent's disapproval is one of the biggest reasons a child will choose not to drink. (
  • Research by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism concluded that about half of all rape cases involve alcohol consumption by the attacker, victim or both. (
  • Even for a drinker who has not progressed to alcoholism, he or she is much more likely to succeed with help to stop drinking. (
  • According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, an estimated 88,000 Americans die from alcohol-related conditions every year, making it the third-greatest preventable cause of death in the United States after tobacco, poor diet and inactivity. (
  • Alcoholism , now diagnostically known as alcohol use disorder, is a substance-use disorder in which the sufferer has problems managing how much and how frequently they drink alcohol and its negative effects on their lives as a result. (
  • Packed with surprising insight into the reasons we drink, this book will open your eyes to the startling role of alcohol in our culture and how the stigma of alcoholism and recovery keeps people from getting the help they need. (
  • In our study we tried to figure out the drinking pattern that's most closely tied to lower heart attack risk. (
  • What we found in a study of about 38,000 men was that the key factor wasn't what men were drinking, or frankly even so much how much they were drinking at a time, but how frequently they were drinking alcohol. (
  • According to a study, Dutch scientists have discovered that TV ads and movies that portray alcoholic drinks provoke an immediate desire to drink alcohol in viewers. (
  • The study included 80 male university students who were shown two different films, one of which featured alcohol far less prominently. (
  • The study found no evidence that television ads for alcohol products encouraged teens to start drinking, but that doesn't mean it has no long-term impact. (
  • In light of the apparent connection, the authors of the study recommended that the alcohol industry officially halt the practice of distributing and selling alcohol-related paraphernalia -- much as the tobacco industry did with tobacco-related items in 1998. (
  • This study shows that promotional items are related to early onset drinking, and I think the responsible thing to do would be for these industries to quit distributing them," said Dr. James D. Sargent, study co-author from Dartmouth's department of pediatrics. (
  • According to the study authors, the alcohol industry currently spends more than $1 billion a year on all aspects of marketing -- a figure that includes expenditures for such youth-oriented promotional items as baseball caps, backpacks and t-shirts. (
  • The research team established that none of the children had ever had a drink at the onset of the study. (
  • Sargent said the alcohol industry should pick up on big tobacco's cue -- noting that he expects a larger national study of teens he is currently conducting to further underline the urgency for such action. (
  • This study showed that moderate alcohol consumption boosted levels of HDL cholesterol and had beneficial effects on apolipoprotein A1, the hormone adiponectin and fibrinogen, a protein that aids in blood clotting. (
  • In a mouse study, scientists from the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) in New York found that drinking the equivalent to around 2.5 alcoholic drinks per day could reduce brain inflammation . (
  • The new study provides further evidence of the potential brain benefits of moderate drinking, after finding that a couple of drinks every day could help to clear the brain of toxins. (
  • However, the team found that mice that were given 'low' doses of alcohol - which, in this study, was the equivalent of consuming around 2.5 alcohol beverages per day - not only demonstrated a reduction in brain inflammation, but their glymphatic function was also improved, compared with a control group that was not exposed to alcohol. (
  • A study of 550 people over 30 years finds that even moderate alcohol consumption is tied to raised risk of hippocampus degeneration and mental decline. (
  • It is the first research study to measure the influence of alcohol use in movies and, using data from more than 600 films and 5,000 students, found that movies play a significant role in an adolescent's decision to drink. (
  • The regional study was published in the January issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and the authors cite previous research that identified early initiation of alcohol use (before the age of 14) as one risk factor for problems with alcohol later in life. (
  • This study is aimed at the prevention of early alcohol use and our hope is that parents of young children become more aware that drinking in films is common and that seeing these depictions can lead to early experimentation with drinking. (
  • In his current study, his research team found that 92 percent of the films in a sample of 601 contemporary movies depicted the use of alcohol. (
  • The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol. (
  • According to a study by Northwestern Medicine, many of us drink more alcohol on the days that we work out than on the days we don't. (
  • For the study, 150 people between the ages 18 and 89 used smartphones to log how much physical activity they got, along with how much alcohol they drank, every day for three weeks. (
  • Perhaps people reward themselves for working out by having more to drink or maybe being physically active leads them to encountering more social situations where alcohol is consumed,' says David E. Conroy, lead author of the study. (
  • Regularly drinking alcohol, particularly in higher quantities, appears to increase the risk for developing psoriasis, the results of a Chinese study suggest. (
  • However, a 2013 study showed that many people who drink heavily develop depression. (
  • According to one recent study, consumption of alcohol among women ages 18 to 24 increased by 33 percent in five years. (
  • Data for this study came from three different questionnaires the students filled out: a baseline drinking survey at the start of grade 7, a survey about alcohol advertising and TV viewing at the end of grade 8, and a survey about past-year drinking at the end of grade 9. (
  • Because moderate drinking may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and other diseases of ageing, the study results are "encouraging," the authors write. (
  • But a new study of healthy women over 50 found that moderate alcohol consumption -- one or two drinks a day -- also can improve their response to insulin and reduce their blood levels of triglycerides, blood fats that. (
  • After an evening of drinking, women, in particular, are likely to be tossing and turning , a 2011 study found. (
  • Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to alcohol consumption: a prospective study among male British doctors. (
  • Ruidavets JB, Ducimetiere P, Evans A, Montaye M, Haas B, Bingham A. Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME). (
  • If in 1981 you were using alcohol, compared to people your same age who weren't using alcohol, you lived longer," Dr. Claudia Kawas, a professor of neurology and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine, and one of the co-principal investigators for The 90+ Study, said at an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) conference on Saturday (Feb. 17). (
  • This analysis was part of the Worksite Alcohol Study phase II conducted in 1994. (
  • To extend the generalizations of previous social-norms research, this study was conducted in a wide range of organizations with different dominant occupations and managerial attitudes toward drinking. (
  • A large study combined the two by looking at how drinking alcohol while taking HRT affected breast cancer risk. (
  • According to this study, there appears to be an association between regularly drinking alcohol while taking HRT and increased breast cancer risk. (
  • A study published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) journal found that a gene known as RASGRF-2 plays a crucial role in controlling how alcohol stimulates the brain to release dopamine, triggering feelings of reward. (
  • For this study, scientists initially looked at mice who had been modified to have the RASGRF2 gene removed, to see how they reacted to alcohol. (
  • A 40-year-old man who drinks as much as the U.S. guidelines allow could expect to live one to two years less than one who has a maximum of seven drinks a week, according to the study in the Lancet medical journal. (
  • What this is saying is, if you're really concerned about your longevity, don't have more than a drink a day," David Jernigan, an alcohol researcher at Johns Hopkins University who was not involved in the study, told the AP . (
  • Our study is the first to show that people's motivations for mixing A+EDs can help to predict whether or not they experience negative outcomes like aggression and violence, alcohol-related injury, and can also indicate their risk for AD," said Droste. (
  • This study is unique because it is the first to link the distinctive motives for combined A+ED use with negative outcomes and increased alcohol consumption. (
  • The Week) - A sobering new study published by the Journal of Wine Economics - yes, there is a Journal of Wine Economics - finds that alcohol consumption in American states rises as the population's politics becomes more liberal. (
  • The study by Pavel Yakovlev and Walter P. Guessford of Duquesne University in Pennsylvania shows a direct correlation between political beliefs and the demand for alcohol. (
  • Mothers who drink alcohol during lactation could be affecting their breastfed baby's cognitive abilities, according to a new study published by the American Academy of Pediatrics. (
  • The study found that when infants were exposed to alcohol through their mother's breast milk, the child had a dose-dependent reduction in his or her cognitive ability by ages 6 and 7. (
  • Louisa Gibson, a co-author of the study, said that while she wasn't able to measure the cognitive reductions in a child once they reached 10 or 11 years old, that "doesn't mean that the child has grown out of it, or that the effects of the mother's alcohol consumption aren't there anymore. (
  • They tested which of the 53 variants associated with educational attainment in one study were present in the DNA of people who reported different alcohol use behaviours in the other study. (
  • The study found that, on average, the youths in the study witnessed three alcohol ads per day. (
  • Children exposed to alcohol in the womb exhibit changes in brain structure and metabolism that are visible using various imaging techniques, according to a new study. (
  • A study presented at the Obesity Society's Obesity 2012 scientific meeting found people in their teens gained 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg) over two years for every bottle of sports drink consumed per day. (
  • Alcohol affects every organ in the body. (
  • In fact, alcohol affects HDL levels just about as strongly as any other lifestyle factor. (
  • Problem drinking is not about what you drink, but how it affects your life. (
  • Alcohol affects the digestive tract in many ways, depending upon what types of alcohol, and how much of it, you're drinking. (
  • Talk to your child about how alcohol affects judgement. (
  • We found that men who were drinking at least three to four days a week or more had lower heart attack risks than people who had one drink a week. (
  • During follow-up telephone interviews conducted one to two years later, Sargent and his team found that 14 percent of the students said they now owned at least one alcohol-related promotional item. (
  • Although it is impossible to say exactly where or when Homo sapiens first sampled alcohol, chemical analysis of the residues found in pots dating from 3500 B.C.E. shows that wine was already being made from grapes in Mesopotamia (now Iraq). (
  • In his previous studies, Sargent found that images and scenarios depicted in movies are among the strongest influences on young children, rivaling several other factors such as drinking by parents and peers. (
  • Broken down by ratings, they found that alcohol was used in 52 percent of G-rated films, 89 percent for PG, 93 percent for PG-13 and 95 percent for R. (
  • Autopsy results found her blood alcohol content was 0.436 percent -- five times the legal limit. (
  • Research has found that both drinking alcohol and taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can increase breast cancer risk. (
  • The biggest difference I found after giving up all alcohol for one week is my boost in energy. (
  • Honestly, the biggest perk I've found since giving up alcohol has been my happiness. (
  • Clear communication by parents about the negative effects of alcohol, as well as about their expectations regarding drug use , has been found to decrease teenage drinking significantly. (
  • Recent studies also carried out by scientists at the IoP have found that RASGRF-2 is a risk gene for alcohol abuse, but until now the mechanism involved in the process was not clear. (
  • They found the lack of RASGRF-2 was linked to a significant reduction in alcohol-seeking activity. (
  • They found that those with the RASGRF-2 gene variation drank more often at the age of 16 than those without it. (
  • They also found that A+ED users had higher blood alcohol concentration readings than non-A+ED users. (
  • Isopropyl alcohol is commonly found in many cosmetics and food products. (
  • Gibson found that the higher the mother's drinking score, the lower the child's abstract reasoning ability, such as problem solving and thinking through a situation. (
  • Generally, sports drinks contain two-thirds the amount of sugar found in a normal soda. (
  • The sugar found in sports drinks still exceeds the recommended amount of sugar in a day for a child. (
  • Therefore, if you drink to excess (usually more than four drinks in a two-hour time span) or drink heavily on a daily basis, alcohol can start to damage the intestinal lining. (
  • Excess alcohol use can cause or mask other emotional problems, like anxiety or depression . (
  • Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs, like marijuana, cocaine , or heroin . (
  • However, Robert Robergs, an exercise physiologist at the University of New Mexico who studied Gatorade, said that unless someone is exercising or competing in a sporting event for longer than 90 minutes, there is no reason to drink something with excess sugar and electrolytes. (
  • The Chief Medical Officer has provided guidance on the consumption of alcohol by children and young people (PDF, 1.5Mb) . (
  • A bartender arranges wine glasses at a lounge pub ahead of its reopening, after authorities allowed the sale and consumption of alcohol at the pubs and bars with social distancing during unlock 4.0, in Bengaluru. (
  • Islamic law prohibits the consumption of alcohol. (
  • In the United States alone, more than 18 million people have problems related to drinking alcohol, and about 88,000 people die each year from excessive alcohol consumption. (
  • Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 National and State Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption. (
  • Unfortunately, although coffee contains compounds that have antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory properties, drinking a few cups of coffee a day cannot undo the systematic damage that is the result of being overweight or obese, sedentary, excessive alcohol consumption or drastically mitigate an unhealthy diet," Heller said by email. (
  • Postmenopausal women who were taking HRT AND drank 1 or 2 alcoholic drinks per day had a breast cancer risk that was 3 times higher than women who didn't drink and didn't take HRT. (
  • Postmenopausal women who were taking HRT AND had more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day had a breast cancer risk that was 5 times higher than women who didn't drink and didn't take HRT. (
  • Alcohol is a depressant. (
  • Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that has the power to depress something else - your bowel function. (
  • Alcohol acts as a depressant to your central nervous system, which means when you drink it your brain cells communicate at a slower rate than normal. (
  • Alcohol-related deaths reached a 35-year high in 2014, when more than 30,700 Americans died from such causes as alcohol poisonings and cirrhosis. (
  • And, while the studies accounted for alcohol consumption, not all them accounted for other cirrhosis risk factors like obesity and diabetes, the authors note in the journal Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, online January 25. (
  • Think about the potential negative consequences that could occur if you drink. (
  • Read on to find out consequences of heavy drinking. (
  • Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results as well as to determine whether there are any functional consequences associated with increasing alcohol consumption. (
  • People are becoming more aware that marijuana is far safer than alcohol and poses very little if any serious consequences for our society and those who use it. (
  • You do not need to drink every day to have a problem with alcohol. (
  • Realising you have a problem with alcohol is the first step to getting better, but it is often the hardest one. (
  • The younger a person is when they begin drinking, the more likely they are to develop a problem with alcohol. (
  • Women metabolize alcohol differently than men, and there are hormonal differences," Rimm says. (
  • While people metabolize alcohol differently, alcohol does have the potential to cause constipation . (
  • Because your genes code for these enzymes, and everyone's genes are unique, individuals metabolize alcohol to different efficiencies. (
  • This might be because women metabolize alcohol more quickly -meaning they speed through alcohol's sedative effects and get to that second, fragmented part of the night sooner. (
  • Those students who owned alcohol merchandise were significantly more likely to start drinking alcohol than those who did not. (
  • Kids might start drinking alcohol because it makes them feel good at first or like they can escape their problems for a while. (
  • If you went to the gym or played sports before you hit the bar, drink a lot of water before you start drinking alcohol. (
  • Why Did Humans Start Drinking Alcohol? (
  • For men, heavy drinking is typically defined as consuming 15 drinks or more per week. (
  • For women, heavy drinking is typically defined as consuming 8 drinks or more per week. (
  • The Guidelines recommend no more than two drinks a day, 10 per week for women, and three drinks a day, 15 per week for men , with an extra drink allowed on special occasions. (
  • Heavy drinking is defined by how much alcohol you have in a day or in a week. (
  • Are a man and have more than 4 drinks a day or more than 14 drinks in a week. (
  • Experts recommend no more than 3 drinks in a single day or no more than a total of 7 drinks a week. (
  • Outpatient alcohol rehab programs often require at least three visits with counselors a week. (
  • First-year anatomy student Conor, 18, reckons he drinks about 20 units a week - mostly lager. (
  • And although 90% of kids said they never tried alcohol, or only tried it once, 6% of kids said they often drink more than a sip - every week or every month. (
  • This week the Chronicle of Higher Education is running a series of long-form investigations about drinking culture on American campuses . (
  • Keep a drinks diary for a week to find out. (
  • This week, the campaign rolled out its "Drinking Mirror" app, which lets users upload photos of themselves to show how their faces could age if they keep imbibing at their current rate. (
  • If 15 to 17 year olds drink alcohol, it should be rarely, and never more than once a week. (
  • They reported the number of alcoholic drinks they consumed per week, along with their age, sex, education, height, body mass index and Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (which calculates stroke risk based on age, sex, blood pressure and other factors). (
  • For example, you may decide to have no more than 3 drinks per week. (
  • Write down every time you have a drink for 1 week. (
  • Choose a day each week (for example, Tuesday) when you will not drink. (
  • No one learns how to stop drinking in a day, or a week so continuing treatment puts the focus on maintaining recovery and adds additional support should the alcoholic have to deal with a strong urge to drink. (
  • I couldn't come up with one solid reason, so I stopped drinking for more than a week to see what happened. (
  • Nearing the end of my alcohol-free week, I grabbed a slinky dress for a date night that I hadn't felt comfortable wearing, and to my surprise, I rocked it with confidence. (
  • More than seven drinks a week or more than three drinks at one time is considered by most experts as at-risk drinking. (
  • Iran reportedly executed a man this week for the crime of drinking alcohol for the sixth time, ignoring repeated warnings from authorities. (
  • Current U.S. guidelines recommend no more than seven drinks a week for women, but 14 drinks a week for men, the Associated Press reported. (
  • If you're a man, have no more than 3 standard drinks a day on most days and no more than 15 drinks a week. (
  • Drinking at the upper limits should only happen once in a while, not every day or week. (
  • And on at least a couple of days each week, don't drink any alcohol at all. (
  • If you allow your teenagers to drink, make sure that they drink no more than 1 or 2 standard drinks and no more than once or twice a week and are under your supervision. (
  • One woman could have one drink a day, leading to seven drinks per week," Gibson explained, "whereas someone else can have seven drinks a week but drink them all on a Saturday within 10 minutes. (
  • Participants were given specially programmed cell phones and asked to report every alcohol ad they encountered over the two-week period as they went about their normal activities. (
  • Participants were asked about their weekly alcohol consumption and were then tracked for around 28 years. (
  • The evidence indicates that the more alcohol a person drinks, the higher his or her risk of developing an alcohol-associated cancer. (
  • The risk varies by many factors, such as the quantity of alcohol consumed and type of cancer. (
  • Below, Mukamal discusses the risk and benefits of moderate drinking. (
  • Do we know why moderate drinking lowers heart disease risk? (
  • People also think that alcohol may lower heart attack risk by acting as a blood thinner. (
  • They don't have to be drinking excessively every single night to potentially have a greater heart attack risk. (
  • Feb. 24, 2011 -- New research shows that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce heart disease risk by up to 25%, and this is likely due, at least in part, to alcohol's positive effects on HDL "good" cholesterol levels . (
  • Women are at higher risk for breast cancer and alcohol can increase breast cancer risk. (
  • She adds that a number of studies have associated low to moderate alcohol consumption with a lower risk of dementia . (
  • If alcohol use runs in your family, you may be at increased risk of developing this disease yourself. (
  • It was also shown that people of European descent who drank alcohol had a 43% increased risk of developing psoriasis, while people of Asian descent did not seem share that risk. (
  • The more alcohol a person drinks, the greater their risk for developing high blood pressure. (
  • Now comes the surprising finding that they may reduce their risk by drinking. (
  • How can I tell if I'm at risk for a drinking problem? (
  • Kawas is not alone in her thinking - various other studies have linked moderate drinking to reduced risk of heart attack , stroke, and other conditions. (
  • Drinking alcohol while not taking HRT didn't really affect breast cancer risk. (
  • And this increase in risk is higher than it would be by drinking alcohol alone or taking HRT alone. (
  • More research needs to be done to better understand the link between drinking, taking HRT, and increased risk. (
  • There are studies showing that very brief intervention programs cut down up to 70% of at-risk drinking. (
  • If the TACE tool or other tools like the CRAFT tool or other ones out in literature are too cumbersome, there's also another way to quickly screen for at-risk drinking by asking how much alcohol a patient drinks. (
  • The teenage brain exposed to alcohol is at risk for being smaller in certain parts. (
  • Because of this risk, you should avoid alcohol while you're taking these medications. (
  • If you choose to drink alcohol, the key is to keep your drinking at the safest possible levels, called low-risk drinking. (
  • It's important to remember that drinking alcohol is not risk-free. (
  • What are low-risk drinking levels? (
  • Canada now has national low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines with suggestions for minimizing the risks associated with drinking alcohol. (
  • Learn about the low-risk drinking guidelines, quiz yourself on alcohol sense, use the blood alcohol calculator, or read articles related to substance use. (
  • Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for death and disability worldwide. (
  • If you abuse alcohol, you can take control of the problem. (
  • Individual, couples, or family therapy may also be helpful to deal with alcohol abuse, as well as other personal problems. (
  • You may need treatment for this other disorder as well as treatment for alcohol abuse. (
  • This abuse of alcohol can cause alcohol dementia, which results in poor judgment and difficulty in decision-making. (
  • Alcohol abuse and depression are often associated. (
  • The combination of alcohol being toxic to nerve cells, combined with the poor nutrition that often accompanies alcohol abuse is believed to cause this condition. (
  • Drinking problem in academia: Alcohol abuse among faculty members. (
  • Indeed, if it's mentioned at all, it's heralded as an inextricable virtue of the Life of the Mind: alcohol use-and abuse-among faculty. (
  • There are some occurrences which take place due to alcohol consumption that connect to violence, like street-fights and physical abuse in the home. (
  • Such sort of detrimental aspects are also signals that relate to alcohol abuse. (
  • These results highlight an important relationship between foetal and adolescent experiences that appears essential to the progressive development of alcohol abuse,' Professor Steven Youngentob, from the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, said. (
  • Peterson K. Biomarkers for alcohol use and abuse. (
  • A long-term follow-up of male alcohol abuse. (
  • Ault, A. Proven Screening Tool for Alcohol Abuse Underutilized. (
  • In opposition David Cameron talked tough on alcohol abuse, and the Conservatives' manifesto said the party would ban off-licences and supermarkets from selling alcohol below cost price. (
  • Heavy alcohol drinking over a long period of time may result in Korsakoff's syndrome, where people may suffer short-term memory loss. (
  • Even though the campaign states that "men drink more on average than women" and "suffer more ill effects as a result," it's targeted to women in an effort to play on their vanity, said a Scottish government spokeswoman who asked not to be named. (
  • Alcoholics and people who have other problems with alcohol use often suffer from depression. (
  • Some nine million people in Britain suffer from the harms of alcohol in some, either directly or indirectly, while the cost to the NHS stands at £2.7 billion a year. (
  • If you suffer from generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) 1 , you may wake in the middle of night (as the alcohol wears off) and lie awake worrying and feeling stressed. (
  • They have an inability to control their drinking, a high tolerance level for alcohol, and may suffer problems at work or in school as a result. (
  • Certainly the Greeks and Romans drank heavily at religious orgies honoring their gods. (
  • Bread is good to eat before drinking heavily as it absorbs the alcohol. (
  • Male teens who drink heavily tend to complete fewer years of education compared to male teens who do not. (
  • More than three times the number of eighth-grade girls who drink heavily said they have attempted suicide compared to girls in that grade who do not drink. (
  • This pattern of drinking usually corresponds to 5 or more drinks on a single occasion for men or 4 or more drinks on a single occasion for women, generally within about 2 hours. (
  • And even moderate drinking is not recommended for women who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant, or for people who are under 21. (
  • In those studies, most of which have been conducted in women interestingly, it looks like moderate drinking improves the body's sensitivity to insulin . (
  • The definition of heavy drinking, according to the CDC, is having more than two drinks daily on average for men and more than one drink daily on average for women. (
  • The reason that the moderate drinking definition is different for women and men is not just because of the size difference between the sexes, he says. (
  • Suzanne Steinbaum, MD, director of women and heart disease at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, says that "moderate alcohol consumption could be part of a heart-healthy lifestyle. (
  • What is a healthy range of drinking for men and women over age 65 years? (
  • for women it is four or more drinks in two hours. (
  • Past government campaigns in Scotland have targeted both genders, but research shows that women in particular "are often unaware or slightly confused about what sensible drinking guidelines are," she said. (
  • The number of alcohol-related deaths among women aged 30 to 44 has doubled in the last 20 years, although numbers remain relatively small (70 deaths in 2010), according to statistics from the General Register Office for Scotland. (
  • If Scotland is having issues with more and more women engaging in unhealthy drinking then I think it's a smart idea to target that population. (
  • She pointed out that men and women can use the app and that the Drink Smarter website offers information and resources for both genders. (
  • Women are very receptive when you talk about calories in a glass of wine, and people don't always make the association between alcohol and calories. (
  • For women the cut-off was four or more drinks in the same time span. (
  • Genetic variants associated with increased educational attainment were also associated with more frequent drinking in both men and women, with drinking alcohol with meals, especially in men, and with higher consumption of wine. (
  • Overall, around 60% of women do not drink while pregnant. (