Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.

Alcohol-histamine interactions. (1/186)

Alcohol and histamine metabolic pathways in the body have the common enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can effectively compete with the metabolites of histamine, methylimidazole acetaldehyde, and imidazole acetaldehyde. At the periphery, alcohol and acetaldehyde liberate histamine from its store in mast cells and depress histamine elimination by inhibiting diamine oxidase, resulting in elevated histamine levels in tissues. Histamine mediates alcohol-induced gastric and intestinal damage and bronchial asthma as well as flushing in Orientals. On the other hand, alcohol provokes food-induced histaminosis and histamine intolerance, which is an epidemiological problem. There are many controversial reports concerning the effect of H2 receptor antagonists on ethanol metabolism and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach. In addition, alcohol affects histamine levels in the brain by modulating histamine synthesis, release, and turnover. Histamine receptor antagonists can affect ethanol metabolism and change the sensitivity of animals to the hypnotic effects of alcohol. In contrast to other neurotransmitters, the involvement of the brain histamine system in the mechanisms of the central actions of alcohol and in the pathogenesis of alcoholism is poorly studied and understood.  (+info)

Effects of naltrexone and fluoxetine on alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by priming injections of alcohol and exposure to stress. (2/186)

We have recently shown that priming injections of alcohol and footshock stress reinstate alcohol seeking in drug-free rats. Here we tested whether naltrexone and fluoxetine, two drugs used in the treatment of alcohol dependence, would affect reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by these events. We also determined the effects of these drugs on alcohol self-administration during the maintenance phase. Rats were trained to press a lever for a 12% w/v alcohol solution. After stable drug-taking behavior was obtained, lever pressing for alcohol was extinguished. Reinstatement of drug seeking was then determined after priming injections of alcohol (0.24-0.96 g/kg) or exposure to intermittent footshock (5 and 15 min). Rats were pretreated with naltrexone (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg) during maintenance or during tests for reinstatement. Both naltrexone and fluoxetine decreased lever presses for alcohol during the maintenance phase. Naltrexone blocked alcohol-induced, but not stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, fluoxetine blocked stress-induced reinstatement, while its effect on alcohol-induced reinstatement was less consistent. The implications of these data to the understanding of relapse to alcohol are discussed.  (+info)

Effects of Hypericum perforatum extraction on alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. (3/186)

The present study investigated the effect of acute intragastric (i.g.) administration of dry Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), containing 0.3% hypericin, on ethanol intake in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The i.g. administration of HPE, 125 or 250 mg/kg, induced a 30-40% reduction in ethanol intake in rats offered 10% (v/v) ethanol for 2 h/day. The effect of these doses was selective, since they modified neither food intake nor food-associated drinking; neither did the same doses modify the rat's gross behaviour in the open-field test. A dose of 500 mg/kg frequently induced immobility and a general suppression of ingestive behaviour. In rats offered 10% ethanol for 12 h/day, ethanol intake following treatment with 250 mg/kg HPE was significantly lower than that of controls for up to 10 h. The effect on ethanol intake was not related to the antidepressant-like effect of HPE revealed in the forced swimming test. In this regard, the effect on ethanol intake was observed after a single administration of 125 mg/kg, whereas the antidepressant effect was observed only after repeated treatment with doses higher than 125 mg/kg HPE. The i.g. administration of HPE, 250 mg/kg, did not affect blood-alcohol levels following i.g. treatment with 0.7 g/kg ethanol, the amount usually ingested in a single drinking episode; thus, the effect is not related to changes in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. The present study shows that HPE markedly reduces ethanol intake in msP rats, without significantly modifying food intake.  (+info)

Attenuation of alcohol intake by extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) in two different strains of alcohol-preferring rats. (4/186)

Extract of the common plant Hypericum perforatum L. (St John's Wort, SJW) has been used successfully for the treatment of mild to moderate depression since ancient times and has recently been studied clinically. Depression and alcoholism have some neurochemical similarities, such as low brain serotonin activities. Thus, we hypothesized that SJW extract, which contains 0.22% hypericin and 4.05% hyperforin, also may be effective in suppressing alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, the effects of SJW extract on voluntary alcohol intake were studied in two different genetic animal models of human alcoholism: fawn-hooded (FH) and high-alcohol drinking (HAD) rats. FH and HAD rats received a single oral administration (5 ml/kg) of either vehicle or one of the five doses (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) of SJW extract. The oral administration of SJW extract significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced alcohol intake in both FH and HAD rats. In a third study, FH rats did not develop tolerance to the suppressant effects of SJW on alcohol intake and preference following oral administration of (400 mg/kg) of the extract for 15 consecutive days. These promising findings suggest that SJW extract should be evaluated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of alcoholism.  (+info)

United Kingdom Multicentre Acamprosate Study (UKMAS): a 6-month prospective study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse after withdrawal from alcohol. (5/186)

A 6-month randomized controlled study of acamprosate versus placebo in preventing relapse following withdrawal from alcohol was undertaken in 20 centres throughout the UK. Patients diagnosed as alcohol-dependent and detoxified within the preceding 5 weeks were randomly assigned to treatment with either acamprosate (A) 666 mg three times/day or identical placebo (P). A total of 664 patients were screened; 581 were entered into the treatment phase. One-third were episodic drinkers, 84% were male, 44% were unmarried and 48% were unemployed. Medication was first taken on average 24 days after the start of detoxification; 32% of patients had already relapsed by this time. The 6-month study period was completed by 35% of patients; adverse events led to withdrawal of a further 14% (A) and 9% (P) respectively. Compliance was poor in that, by the end of the second week, only 57% of patients were judged to be taking at least 90% of their tablets. The mean total of abstinent days achieved was 77 (A) and 81 (P). Complete abstinence for 6 months was achieved by 12% (A) and 11% (P); drinking remained within controlled limits in a further 3% (A) and 6% (P). An effect of acamprosate on consumption was not seen when subgroups, including those defined by the Lesch typology, were analysed separately. However, the mean percentage reduction in craving for alcohol measured on a visual analogue scale was greater in the acamprosate, than placebo, patients at week 2 and week 4 (P<0.001) and the mean decrease in the Hamilton Anxiety score at the 4th week was greater in the acamprosate than placebo patients (P = 0.017). In comparison with other published trials of acamprosate, patients started study medication after a longer time following detoxification, had more often recommenced drinking before medication was started and had a higher drop-out rate, and this might have contributed to the lack of a treatment effect in this study.  (+info)

Acamprosate and relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a placebo-controlled study. (6/186)

The objective of this study was to compare acamprosate with placebo in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients during a 6-month post-detoxification treatment and a 3-month medication-free follow-up. Patients (n = 330) were detoxified and randomized to treatment with acamprosate (1998 mg/day) or placebo within an out-patient programme including medical counselling, psychotherapy and self-help groups. The main outcome criterion was drinking behaviour as assessed by: abstinence/relapse ratio, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and the period of continued abstinence. Anxiety, depression and craving were also monitored. Intention to treat (ITT) statistical principles were followed. Twenty-five per cent of patients dropped out over the first 6 months. At the end of the treatment period, the abstinence rate was 57.9% for acamprosate and 45.2% for placebo (P = 0.03). The CAD was 110+/-77 days for acamprosate and 89+/-77 days for placebo (P = 0.016). Patients on acamprosate had a higher continuous abstinence rate and experienced less severe relapses. No differential effect was noted for anxiety, depression or craving. Treatment remained positive, but not significant, 3 months after termination of study medication. No significant difference in adverse events was noted between treatment groups. Acamprosate treatment over 180 days was consistently more effective than placebo to maintain abstinence and to diminish relapse severity.  (+info)

Blockage of drug resistance in vitro by disulfiram, a drug used to treat alcoholism. (7/186)

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumps a wide range of cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Inhibiting maturation of P-gp would be a novel method for circumventing P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance, which complicates cancer chemotherapy and treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We examined the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse(TM)) on the maturation and activity of P-gp. METHODS: Embryonic kidney cells were transfected with a complementary DNA for the P-pg gene, and the effects of disulfiram on the sensitivity of the transfected cells to cytotoxic agents were determined. Enzyme assays were used to determine the effects of disulfiram on the verapamil-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of P-gp. Disulfiram modifies cysteine residues, and mutant forms of P-gp that lack individual cysteines were used to determine whether particular cysteine residues mediate disulfiram's effects on P-gp activity. Maturation of recombinant P-gp was followed on immunoblots. RESULTS: Disulfiram increased the sensitivity of P-gp-transfected cells to vinblastine and colchicine and inhibited P-gp's verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity. Half-maximal inhibition of ATPase activity occurred at 13.5 microM disulfiram. Disulfiram (at 100 microM) inhibited a P-gp mutant by 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 37%-48%) when cysteine was present at position 431 only and by 72% (95% CI = 66%-77%) when cysteine was present at position 1074 only. Treatment of P-gp-transfected cells with 50 nM disulfiram blocked maturation of recombinant P-gp. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram can potentially reduce P-gp-mediated drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp activity (possibly via cysteine modification) and/or by blocking its maturation. These results suggest that disulfiram has the potential to increase the efficacy of drug therapies for cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  (+info)

Identifying and treating patients with alcohol-related problems. (8/186)

Problem drinking is a serious health issue, but often patients whose alcohol consumption places them at risk are not diagnosed by physicians. Case finding is an essential component of "best practice." In many cases if given the appropriate advice, counselling and behavioural interventions, problem drinkers can be helped to reduce their use of alcohol and improve functioning in other areas of their lives. Some patients may benefit from more comprehensive therapy including the prescription of disulfiram, calcium carbimide or naltrexone. For those with serious problems with alcohol, referral to specialized addiction treatment programs and other community resource centres may also be appropriate.  (+info)

Alcohol deterrents, also known as alcohol deterrent devices or ignition interlock devices, are breathalyzer devices that are installed in vehicles to prevent a driver from starting the vehicle if their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is above a certain limit. These devices are often used as a condition of license reinstatement for individuals who have been convicted of drunk driving or other alcohol-related offenses.

The driver must blow into the device, and if their BAC is above the programmed limit, the vehicle will not start. Some devices also require periodic rolling retests while the vehicle is in motion to ensure that the driver remains sober throughout the trip. The use of alcohol deterrents has been shown to reduce recidivism rates among drunk drivers and improve overall road safety.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Insect repellents are substances that are applied to the skin, clothing, or other surfaces to deter insects from landing or crawling on that surface. They work by masking the scents that attract insects or by repelling them with unpleasant odors. Insect repellents can be chemical-based, such as those containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), picaridin, or IR3535, or they can be natural, such as those containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or citronella. These substances work by interfering with the insect's ability to detect human scent, making it less likely that they will come into contact with the person using the repellent. Insect repellents are an important tool in preventing insect-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, West Nile virus, and Zika virus.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Oviposition is a medical/biological term that refers to the process of laying or depositing eggs by female organisms, including birds, reptiles, insects, and fish. In humans and other mammals, the term is not applicable since they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs.

"Sensilla" is a term used in anatomy and physiology, particularly in insects and other arthropods. It refers to the sensory structures or receptors found on the external surface of these organisms, which are responsible for detecting various environmental stimuli such as touch, taste, smell, temperature, and humidity.

These sensilla are often small, hair-like or peg-like projections that contain one or more sensory cells or neurons. They can be found on different parts of the insect body, including the antennae, legs, mouthparts, and cerci. The structure and function of sensilla vary depending on their location and the type of stimuli they detect.

Overall, sensilla play a crucial role in helping insects and other arthropods navigate and interact with their environment, allowing them to respond to various stimuli and make appropriate behavioral decisions.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

Euphorbia is a genus of plants that belongs to the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). It contains around 2,000 species of shrubs, trees, and herbs that are found worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Many euphorbias are known for their milky sap, which can be toxic or irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Some species of euphorbia are cultivated as ornamental plants due to their attractive flowers and foliage, while others have medicinal or industrial uses. However, it's important to note that some euphorbias can be invasive and harmful to local ecosystems, so care should be taken when handling or growing them.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Brachyura is a term used in the classification of crustaceans, specifically referring to a group of decapods known as "true crabs." This infraorder includes a wide variety of crab species that are characterized by having a short and broad abdomen, which is typically tucked under the thorax and protected by the shell.

The term Brachyura comes from the Greek words "brachys," meaning short, and "oura," meaning tail. This refers to the reduced abdomen that distinguishes this group of crabs from other decapods such as shrimps, lobsters, and crayfish.

Brachyura species are found in a wide range of habitats, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. They can be found all over the world, with some species adapted to live in extreme conditions such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents or intertidal zones. Some well-known examples of Brachyura include the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and the coconut crab (Birgus latro).

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a term used to describe a range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities, and can vary in severity and combination from one individual to another.

The four diagnostic categories within FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a specific pattern of facial features, growth deficiencies, and central nervous system dysfunction.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This category includes individuals who have some, but not all, of the features of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND): This category includes individuals who have functional or cognitive impairments due to prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the criteria for FAS or pFAS.
4. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This category includes individuals who have physical birth defects due to prenatal alcohol exposure.

It is important to note that FASD is a completely preventable condition, and there is no known safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are a class of drugs that slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to decreased arousal and decreased level of consciousness. They work by increasing the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, relaxation, reduced anxiety, and in some cases, respiratory depression.

Examples of CNS depressants include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and certain types of pain medications such as opioids. These drugs are often used medically to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and chronic pain, but they can also be misused or abused for their sedative effects.

It is important to use CNS depressants only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects, including addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose of CNS depressants can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death.

Fatty alcohols, also known as long-chain alcohols or long-chain fatty alcohols, are a type of fatty compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a long alkyl chain. They are typically derived from natural sources such as plant and animal fats and oils, and can also be synthetically produced.

Fatty alcohols can vary in chain length, typically containing between 8 and 30 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants, and personal care products. In the medical field, fatty alcohols may be used as ingredients in certain medications or topical treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Alcohol" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of adhesives, paints, and medical devices. Polyvinyl Alcohol is a type of synthetic polymer made from the polymerization of vinyl acetate monomer, followed by alcoholysis to replace the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups.

In a medical context, Polyvinyl Alcohol might be used in certain medical devices or applications, such as contact lenses, eye drops, and drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility and resistance to protein absorption. However, it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

In the context of medicine and health, "temperance" refers to moderation or self-restraint in the consumption of potentially harmful substances, particularly alcohol. It promotes a balanced lifestyle that avoids excessive habits, such as overeating, substance abuse, or any other activities that could negatively impact one's health.

However, it is important to note that "temperance" itself is not a medical term per se but has been used in various historical and social contexts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium, also known as delirium tremens (DTs), is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in people who are dependent on alcohol and suddenly stop or significantly reduce their consumption. It is a form of alcohol withdrawal syndrome that is characterized by the sudden onset of severe confusion, agitation, hallucinations, tremors, and autonomic hyperactivity.

The diagnostic criteria for alcohol withdrawal delirium, as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Disturbance in consciousness (i.e., reduced clarity of awareness of the environment) with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention.
2. A change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, or language disturbance) or the development of a perceptual disturbance that is not better explained by another medical condition or substance use disorder.
3. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to a few days) and tends to fluctuate throughout the day.
4. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the symptoms are caused by alcohol withdrawal.
5. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another medical condition, medication use, or substance intoxication or withdrawal.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment in a hospital setting. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to manage symptoms, such as benzodiazepines to reduce agitation and prevent seizures, and antipsychotic medications to treat hallucinations and delusions. Supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, may also be necessary to prevent dehydration and other complications.

Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol consumption that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL or above. For the typical adult, this corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks (male), or 4 or more drinks (female), in about 2 hours.

It is a serious and dangerous form of alcohol consumption as it can lead to various negative health consequences such as injuries, violence, liver disease, heart disease, and sexually transmitted diseases, among others. Binge drinking is also associated with an increased risk of alcohol dependence.

Sapienza, Frank L. (1 June 2006). "Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)". Drug and Alcohol ... "New Abuse Deterrent Formulation Technology for Immediate-Release Opioids" (PDF). Grünenthal Group. Grünenthal Group Worldwide. ... A number of abuse-deterrent formulations are available, such as in combination with naloxone or naltrexone. Oxycodone is used ... Dart RC, Iwanicki JL, Dasgupta N, Cicero TJ, Schnoll SH (2017). "Do abuse deterrent opioid formulations work?". Journal of ...
Marijuana is relatively safe compared to alcohol and tobacco, the two most popular legal drugs. Measure will save hundreds of ... Arguments In Opposition Laws are deterrents. Legalization will encourage use and abuse. Marijuana is poorly researched and ...
The ingredients added to a hangover drink suppresses alcohol absorption. It also promotes alcohol metabolism, reducing alcohol ... Asian pear juice is an effective hangover deterrent; other research suggests red ginseng and lemon-lime soda can help ... They are typically consumed before drinking alcohol and are popular due to the prevalence of social drinking in Korea. Alcohol ... Despite efforts to decrease alcohol intake, an increasing trend has been observed worldwide for alcohol consumption. In Korea, ...
It is also used as an alcohol-deterrent drug. The molecule features a nitrile group attached to an amino group. Derivatives of ... It is used as an alcohol-deterrent drug in Canada, Europe, and Japan. Cyanamide has a modest toxicity in humans. Workplace ...
... a putative metabolic oxidation product of the alcohol-deterrent agent cyanamide". Biochemical Pharmacology. 52 (1): 141-147. ...
Capital punishment is of doubtful value as a deterrent. The capital punishment as a deterrent argument assumes a criminal will ... Most murders, however, are crimes of passion or are committed under the influence of drugs or alcohol. This does not excuse the ... perpetrator of responsibility for the crime, but it does show that in most cases capital punishment as a deterrent won't work. ...
Thus denatured alcohol is not subject to the taxes usually levied on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages. Aniline ... A poisonous substance may be added as an even more powerful deterrent. For example, methanol is blended with ethanol to produce ... The addition of methanol, which is poisonous, renders denatured alcohol unfit for consumption, as ingesting denatured alcohol ...
... disulfiram-alcohol reaction). As such, disulfiram is sometimes used as a deterrent for alcoholics wishing to stay sober. ... "Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers". International Journal ... acetaldehyde and acetate in blood and urine during alcohol oxidation in man". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 24 (2): 101-8. doi: ... At room temperature, acetaldehyde (CH3CH=O) is more stable than vinyl alcohol (CH2=CHOH) by 42.7 kJ/mol: Overall the keto-enol ...
January 2006). "Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: impact of alcohol deterrents ... Booze: A Distilled History. Between The Lines. 2003. ISBN 9781896357836. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Its effects are similar to the medication disulfiram (Antabuse) in that it interferes with the normal metabolism of alcohol by ... The result is that when alcohol is consumed by users of calcium carbimide, they experience severe reactions which include ...
"Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: impact of alcohol deterrents on outcome". ... which can be used in the treatment of addiction to cocaine and similar dopaminergic drugs as a deterrent drug. The excess ...
They are thought to be responsible for the hot taste in many species and may have deterrent, antifeeding functions in nature. ... and the sugar alcohol volemitol. Among toxic substances, Lactarius turpis contains the mutagenic alkaloid necatorin, and the ...
DUI and alcohol-related crashes produce an estimated US$45 billion in damages every year. With alcohol, a drunk driver's level ... In most countries, driver's licence suspensions, fines and prison sentences for DUI offenders are used as a deterrent. Anyone ... Vermont Alcohol Research Center (Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, 1993) DUI: Refusal to Take a Field Test, or Blood, Breath ... necessary to sustain an alcohol-impaired driving (DWI or DUI) conviction based on a chemical blood alcohol test. Impaired ...
This scent increases on wilting and then persists on drying, and the dried plant is used in potpourri and as a moth deterrent. ... Also very popular are sweet woodruff flavoured jellies, with and without alcohol. In Germany, it was and to some extent still ... Products targeted towards adults, such as alcoholic drinks, are still permitted to include coumarin, in limited quantities. " ...
July 2021). "Treating alcohol dependence with an abuse and misuse deterrent formulation of sodium oxybate: Results of a ... Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group) (February 2010). "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and ... a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence". Clinical Drug ... in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages". Forensic Science International. 151 (2-3): 289-92. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.02. ...
Tazir and deterrent crimes are often comparable to a misdemeanor, though not in cases where the crime is deemed to be equal to ... Consumption of alcohol (one glass) is punished by 80 lashes, but repeated offences may lead to death penalty, although rarely ... A "deterrent crime" is a crime with a fixed sentence. Tazir punishments should generally be less severe. There are no strict ... There are four classes of crimes in Iranian law: qesas crimes, hadd crimes, tazir crimes, and deterrent crimes. In Iran, laws ...
It's a deterrent". In 2013, Davis was treated for Xanax addiction although he smoked marijuana until 2015. In 2018, Davis ... Davis had a history of excessive methamphetamine abuse and alcohol consumption during the recording sessions of Korn and Life ... Subsequently, he recorded Follow the Leader under the influence of methamphetamine, cocaine, and a heavy reliance on alcohol ( ... but has replaced drugs and alcohol with medication such as Prozac, Halcion, Benadryl, ZzzQuil, NyQuil, and Melatonin. On August ...
Examples of Chinas excise taxes would be: Alcohol Tax: The taxes for alcohol vary depending on the type of alcohol and its ... As a deterrent, excise is typically directed towards three broad categories of harm: health risks from abusing toxic substances ... alcoholic contents < 6%: €0.51 /l alcoholic contents >= 6%: €1.36 /l alcopops: €0.0555 /l pure alcohol In India, almost all ... Thus, in 1972, excise duties on mineral fuels and oils, alcohol and alcohol derivatives, fermented beverages and manufactured ...
The members only club was introduced as a deterrent to them, being only temporary residents in the area they were therefore ... to when the cadets training at RAF Cranwell during the Second World War used to come into the village to try and buy alcohol. ...
... when four precincts in Louisville's west end voted to end liquor sales as a deterrent to crime in the area. A more recent ... The alcohol laws of Kentucky, which govern the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages in that state, lead to a patchwork ... Dry - All sales of alcoholic beverages are prohibited. Wet - Sales of alcoholic beverages for on-site or off-site consumption ... Golf Course - A county in which at least some otherwise dry territory has approved the sale of alcohol by the drink at a ...
The PLCB Bureau of Alcohol Education provides educational material to youth, legal consumers and beverage alcohol servers. This ... This policy and effective implementation are considered to be an excellent deterrent to underage drinking in Pennsylvania.[by ... Alcohol monopolies, State alcohol agencies of the United States, State agencies of Pennsylvania, Government agencies ... A referendum can be broad - for example, allowing all forms of alcohol sales in a municipality - or it can be very narrow, for ...
... as a deterrent and "destroy a whole house, with everyone in it," in order to get rid of one wanted person, that "the Arabs are ... just alcohol and sex", and that "the Arabs are stupid and have contributed nothing to humanity." Bukay wrote a lengthy article ...
... alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 - analgesics MeSH D27.505.954.427.040.100 - analgesics, non-narcotic MeSH D27.505. ...
Common strict liability offenses today include the selling of alcohol to underage persons and statutory rape. These laws are ... and wishes to maximise the deterrent value of the offense. The imposition of strict liability may operate very unfairly in ...
Qatar Arab Deterrent Force, serving in Lebanon Ár nDraíocht Féin, a Neopagan druid organization Australian Defence Force Army ... a US digital forensics company Alcohol and Drug Foundation, Australia Alliance Defending Freedom, a US conservative Christian ...
Rather than as an actual aversion therapy, the nastiness of the disulfiram-alcohol reaction is deployed as a drinking deterrent ... Various forms of aversion therapy have been used in the treatment of addiction to alcohol and other drugs since 1932 (discussed ... Pliny the Elder attempted to heal alcoholism in the first century Rome by putting putrid spiders in alcohol abusers' drinking ... When a person drinks even a small amount of alcohol, disulfiram causes sensitivity involving highly unpleasant reactions, which ...
Many informal intoxication tests exist, which, in general, are unreliable and not recommended as deterrents to excessive ... Alcohol intoxication can lead to alcohol-related crime with perpetrators more likely to be intoxicated than victims. Alcohol ... Klein, Dr Jerry (24 September 2019). "How Harmful Is Alcohol To Dogs? What To Do if Your Dog Drinks Alcohol". akc.org. "Alcohol ... Beer portal Drink portal Medicine portal A Night of Serious Drinking Alcohol and sex Alcohol enema Alcohol flush reaction ...
... the number of alcohol and drug-related accidents and fatalities and fostering a stronger and more visible deterrent to alcohol ...
It reports a lack of clinical evidence that "abuse-deterrent" opioids (e.g., OxyContin), as labeled by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Nielsen, Suzanne; Tse, Wai Chung; Larance, Briony (5 September 2022). Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (ed.). "Opioid agonist ... Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (2 March 2021). "Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Analgesics". FDA. Nicholls L, Bragaw L, ... These studies test broadly for a number of phenotypes, including opioid dependence, cocaine dependence, alcohol dependence, ...
Due primarily to an ongoing lack of research supporting any of these efforts being an effective deterrent to crime, Congress ... Congress allocated millions to school districts to help them establish programs to prevent the use of alcohol and other drugs, ... prevent the illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs; (3) involve parents and communities; and, (4) are coordinated with ... Alcohol-free zone http://www.ca3.uscourts.gov/criminaljury/Feb2012/Final%20Chap%206%20Controlled%20Substances.pdf[permanent ...
... as a physical deterrent for drivers with alcoholic use disorder, or as a pseudo-civil punishment. Ignition interlock ... Alcohol-related injuries were estimated at 275,000 in 2003. According to NTSB, 100,000 people have died in alcohol-impaired ... The NHTSA specifically notes that alcohol-related does not necessarily mean a driver or non-occupant was tested for alcohol and ... The NHTSA defines nonfatal collisions as alcohol-related if the crash report indicates evidence of alcohol present, even if no ...
"Alcohol Deterrents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Alcohol Deterrents" was a major or minor topic of these ... causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the ... "Alcohol Deterrents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Alcohol Deterrents" by people in Profiles. ...
WHO pushes for higher taxes on alcohol, sugary drinks .cls-3{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. ... Las Vegas police say man wore gas mask, sprayed bear deterrents inside businesses during robberies by: Stephanie Overton ... LAS VEGAS (KLAS) - Las Vegas police have arrested a man accused of spraying bear deterrents in five different valley businesses ... When police arrived, they found a canister of Frontiersman Bear Deterrent. The man took an estimated $60, the report stated. ...
This reaction, which is proportional to the dosage of both disulfiram and alcohol, will persist as long as alcohol is being ... Disulfiram blocks the oxidation of alcohol at the acetaldehyde stage during alcohol metabolism following disulfiram intake, the ... Disulfiram produces a sensitivity to alcohol which results in a highly unpleasant reaction when the patient under treatment ... Disulfiram does not appear to influence the rate of alcohol elimination from the body. Prolonged administration of disulfiram ...
Sapienza, Frank L. (1 June 2006). "Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)". Drug and Alcohol ... "New Abuse Deterrent Formulation Technology for Immediate-Release Opioids" (PDF). Grünenthal Group. Grünenthal Group Worldwide. ... A number of abuse-deterrent formulations are available, such as in combination with naloxone or naltrexone. Oxycodone is used ... Dart RC, Iwanicki JL, Dasgupta N, Cicero TJ, Schnoll SH (2017). "Do abuse deterrent opioid formulations work?". Journal of ...
Repurposing the alcohol-deterrent drug Disulfiram for the radiotherapy of glioblastoma using an in vitro model of fractionated ... Stroh, Sebastien Nicolas (2020): Repurposing the alcohol-deterrent drug Disulfiram for the radiotherapy of glioblastoma using ... The alcohol-deterring drug Disulfiram was repurposed in cancer therapy for its antiinvasive properties on GB cells through NF- ...
It was more the virtually constant alcohol-infused violence going on outside my flat from midnight until 2.30am. I must have ... deterrent. Theres just the unlikely chance that you might be spotted by a hidden policeman. ... Sadly I suspect that leaving Leamington wont bring an end to living with widespread alcohol-fuelled violence. Living in what ... "crime statistics reveal that the past twelve months have witnessed a large increase in alcohol and/or drug related violence. ...
... it is best to first talk to your doctor about your current alcohol use. Your doctor can complete ... ... when was alcohol first discovered, ... pregnancy before discovering they are pregnant. 8 When a woman wants to get pregnant, ... Lock Em Up: Is Jail Really the Best Deterrent to Drunk Driving?. When I was sentenced to four years in prison for drunk ... When Was Alcohol First Discovered. Related searches: is alcohol bad for you, why is alcohol bad ...
Alcohol Monitoring. Benefits & Success. Based on the evidence collected, continuous alcohol monitoring is a viable deterrent ... Alcohol monitoring is also used in pretrial cases involving alcohol in domestic violence cases, as well as habitual traffic ... If alcohol is detected, the system automatically begins sampling every 20 minutes until alcohol is no longer present. The ... Continuous alcohol monitoring is an effective technology for offenders with alcohol-related crimes. It is used on post- ...
Coca-Cola India has made its first move into the alcohol segment, starting with Lemon-Dou, its global alcoholic ready-to-drink ... Covid has actually been a bit of a deterrent for creating new markets or dislodging entrenched players. Hopefully, with the ... Covid has been a bit of a deterrent for creating new markets: Kiran Mazumdar Shaw. ... Covid has been a bit of a deterrent for creating new markets: Kiran Mazumdar Shaw. ...
13. All kinds of powder are rumored to be fantastic ant deterrents. I have tried cinnamon and baking soda, but found that the ... Disrupt these trails by wiping the area with vinegar; citrus oil, juice, or peel; rubbing alcohol; or boiling water. However, ...
The Granite School District will soon be adopting drug and alcohol testing for high school athletes, but why not test the ... If athletes will remain drug and alcohol free, we stand a much better chance of making that an important thing for other ... they are hopeful the new program can be a deterrent to substance abuse. ... Tonya Papanikolas reporting The Granite School District will soon be adopting drug and alcohol testing for high school athletes ...
Webster LR, Smith MD, Unal C, Finn A. Low-dose naloxone provides an abuse-deterrent effect to buprenorphine. J Pain Res. 2015. ... Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009. 35(2):68-72. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003 Oct 24. 72(1):75-83. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
These problems also served as deterrents to new business investment and development. ... In California, the Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) has the exclusive authority to issue and revoke alcohol ... Employees and managers of all off-sale alcohol retailers have completed the required responsible alcohol sales and service ... No alcohol displayed within five feet of the door. The ordinance not only helps keep liquor sales in check, but also sets a ...
Michael T. Murray, ND, suggests it as a smoking deterrent.. Each capsule contain 375 mg of lobelia and the essence contains 44- ... 47 percent alcohol, glycerin and apple cider vinegar.. Lobelia/St. Johns Wort Combination (100 capsules) $23.70. Lobelia/St. ... Lobeline was at one time approved for use by the FDA as a smoking deterrent to ease the difficulty of nicotine withdrawal. ...
Alcohol is a hideous sleep pattern deterrent. So is eating in the middle of the day and not eating again. And look at people on ...
Advances in surveillance technology are another deterrent of would-be-robbers. Most of the heists that happen now are crimes of ... desperation, Clark said, carried out by individuals to fund drug and alcohol addictions, as well as people in financially dire ...
Additional deterrents to discourage young people from starting to smoke welcomed. Read More Policy News , 10th Oct 2023 ... "This study shows alcohol is a global health problem and suggest there is no safe level of alcohol consumption. At a minimum we ... Alcohol kills 2.8 million people every year Alcohol is associated with 2.8 million deaths every year worldwide and ranked as ... "This study shows alcohol is a global health problem and suggest there is no safe level of alcohol consumption," ...
Treat it like alcohol and card people. Dont try to use price for that function. Doesnt work now so why would it work later? ... Since teens are using marijuana now, black market pricing doesnt seem to have served as much of a deterrent so far. ... In each one, the market has a minimum age for legal use, likely the same as the current age limits for alcohol and tobacco. In ... Prices would be determined by supply and demand, with taxation set at modest levels similar to current taxes on alcohol, ...
63 %0f criminals children go to jail so no deterrent there then. A huge proportion of those in jail have drug or alcohol ... That first strong deterrent is the main benefit. Once people are habitually into the system the deterrent of a second/third … ... Jail is not a deterrent for young people, as the jails are full! the government spent five times more on sending teenagers to ... It also adds further to that deterrent effect. Very many individuals are often committing hundreds of offence each year ( ...
... and exam confounded by alcohol and or drug use as barriers to initial evaluation. Also, lack of educational feedback from ... hospital staff and physicians and continuing medical education on stroke were reported as major deterrents to enhancing their ... and exam confounded by alcohol and or drug use as barriers to initial evaluation. Also, lack of educational feedback from ... and exam confounded by alcohol and or drug use as barriers to initial evaluation. Also, lack of educational feedback from ...
In any event compensation awards are sometimes so low that their deterrent effect must be minimal. ... Alcohol plays an important part in our society. The majority of people drink sensibly the majority of the time. Alcohol is a ... Alcohol Industry Submissions. The nature and quality of alcohol industry arguments is revealed in their responses to the ... This is a key issue for alcohol policy and one which tends to divide the scientific community on the one side from the alcohol ...
The unpleasant symptoms are a deterrent to continuing to drink alcohol. Antabuse requires a prescription from a doctor. ... Naltrexone treats opioid and alcohol addiction. It blocks dopamine receptors, so alcohol and opioids dont trigger a high. ... Should You Travel for Drug and Alcohol Rehab in Huntington Beach?. Huntington Beach, CA, has many options for rehab. If you are ... When you take it, you dont feel high like you would if you take opioids or consume alcohol. This can reduce the desire to use ...
In July, police, Lyft and the Washington Regional Alcohol Program launched the SoberRide® Vehicle as a high-visibility ... deterrent to drunk driving.[/caption]. The high-visibility national enforcement campaign, Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over, runs ...
It is a deterrent. If you steal, you know you will face having your hands and feet cut off. Why should I not invite the British ... He wants alcohol banned, amputations for thieves, and adulterers to be stoned to death.. People are living in anarchy, he ... If there is no fear, people just act on their whims, drinking alcohol and taking drugs and having sex.. Choudary, for his part ... who now zealously promote Islam and want to see people publicly lashed for consuming alcohol.. Four of these converts agreed to ...
Browse our directory of local alcohol and drug rehab centers in Goshen, IN, and get the help you need today. ... Alcohol Abuse Deterrent Program 2725 Maumee Avenue Inpatient. N/A. Fort Wayne. ... Goshen, IN Drug & Alcohol Treatment Centers. Treatment Center Directory.com is the premier destination for locating alcohol ... Alcohol and Addictions Resource Center 818 East Jefferson Boulevard N/A. N/A. South Bend. ...
Survey on the deterrent effects of drug law enforcement being run by UNSW ... Drinking alcohol during pregnancy. WGAR News: NT plans to punish heavy drinkers during pregnancy: ABC The World Today. ... ABC Lateline: N.T. alcohol experts oppose criminalisation of pregnant drinkers. * Christina Franks, Mumsnet Talk: Guest post: ...
Buy Antabuse online in the UK to help individuals stop drinking by causing unpleasant side effects when alcohol is consumed. ... Antabuse works by causing unpleasant reactions when alcohol is consumed, which acts as a deterrent and helps individuals ... The medication helped her stay committed to her sobriety by acting as a deterrent to alcohol consumption. ... When alcohol is consumed while taking Antabuse, it interferes with the bodys ability to break down alcohol, resulting in a ...
Drug Alcohol Depend, 221, 108633. * Guo J, Lo-Ciganic W-H, Yang Q, Huang J, Weiss J, Cochran G, Malone D, Kuza CC, Gordon AJ, ... Gadd S, Cox N, Samuelson J, Kenney A, Turner K, Cochran G (2021). Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations and the Opioid Crisis: A ... Drug Alcohol Depend, 205, 107570. * Lobo C, Cochran G, Chang J, Gellad W, Gordon AJ, Jalal H, Ciganic J, Kelley D, Donohue JM ( ... Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 46(6), 699-707. * Hruschak V, Yuan Y, Ringwald W, Beaugard C, Repine M, Pacella-LaBarbara M, Rosen D, ...
Most have tested the deterrent effects of punishment and social control on alcohol or marijuana use, drunk ... Sources of alcohol for underage drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 57:325-333. ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence 31(3):199-203.. Resnick M, Blum R, Hedin D. 1980. The appropriateness of health services for ... The deterrent effect of criminal sanctions on drug dealing is bound up with the more general issues, addressed earlier in this ...
  • A number of abuse-deterrent formulations are available, such as in combination with naloxone or naltrexone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our presentations at PAINWeek will highlight the breadth of data on our product candidate ARYMO ER which uses Egalet's Guardian ™ Technology to achieve both abuse-deterrent and extended-release properties," said Jeffrey Dayno , MD, Egalet's chief medical officer. (prnewswire.com)
  • In addition, we also will present results from Category 1 abuse-deterrent experiments with OXAYDO, which assessed the challenges of syringeability and potential for abuse deterrence via the intravenous route of administration. (prnewswire.com)
  • Pharmacodynamic Effects from a Category 3 Oral Human Abuse Potential Study of an Abuse-Deterrent, Extended-Release Morphine Product Candidate in Nondependent, Recreational Opioid Users. (prnewswire.com)
  • Dissolution Studies in the Presence of Alcohol with an Abuse-Deterrent, Extended-Release Morphine Product Candidate. (prnewswire.com)
  • Bioequivalence and Food Effect of a Novel, Abuse-Deterrent (AD), Extended-Release (ER) Morphine Product Candidate Compared with a Currently Available non-AD, ER Morphine Product. (prnewswire.com)
  • Injection Resistance of an Immediate-Release Oral Oxycodone Hydrochloride Product with Abuse-Deterrent Properties. (prnewswire.com)
  • Correlating Viscosity and In Vitro Dissolution to In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Proprietary Injection-Molded Tablet Formulations With Abuse-Deterrent Characteristics. (prnewswire.com)
  • The National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) convened for its 148th meeting at 9:49 a.m. on Tuesday, May 15, 2017, at NIAAA headquarters in Rockville, Maryland. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, MAT for alcohol abuse disorder can offer the treatment-seeking individual access to 12-step programs or other forms of social support from peers in recovery facilities if needed. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • The committees also voted 19 to 4 that the Company has not demonstrated that Rexista™ has properties that can be expected to deter abuse by the intravenous route of administration and 23 to 0 that there are not sufficient data for Rexista™ to support inclusion of language regarding abuse-deterrent properties in the product label for the intravenous route of administration. (globenewswire.com)
  • Accordingly, the Company intends to conduct Category 3 abuse potential studies to provide the data the Company believes necessary to support abuse-deterrent properties of Rexista TM for the oral and intranasal routes, which are required for abuse-deterrent labeling claims for such routes. (globenewswire.com)
  • There can be no assurance that we will not be required to conduct further studies for Rexista TM , that the FDA will approve any of the Company's requested abuse-deterrent label claims or that the FDA will ultimately approve the NDA for the sale of Rexista TM in the U.S. market, or that it will ever be successfully commercialized. (globenewswire.com)
  • Our Rexista TM (abuse deterrent oxycodone hydrochloride extended release tablets) NDA product candidate is intended as an abuse and alcohol-deterrent controlled-release oral formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride for the relief of pain. (globenewswire.com)
  • If approved, Rexista TM may be the only abuse-deterrent oxycodone product with properties that may provide early warning of drug abuse if the product is manipulated or abused. (globenewswire.com)
  • The formulation contains a blue dye that is emitted once the tablet is tampered with or crushed, and may act as a deterrent to a user who attempts to abuse it orally or via the intra-nasal route. (globenewswire.com)
  • Impact of abuse-deterrent OxyContin on prescription opioid utilization. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A massive study published in 2006 followed more than 1,300 study participants at 11 academic locations over a three-year period to determine what combination of treatment, medication, and counseling was the most effective for treating alcohol abuse disorders. (siamhealth.net)
  • These results demonstrate that either naltrexone or specialized alcohol counseling-with structured medical management-is an effective option for treating alcohol dependence,' said Mark L. Willenbring, MD, director, division of treatment and recovery research, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (siamhealth.net)
  • I saw the Love and peace in recovery compared to the sordid and seedy world of alcohol and drug abuse. (soberrecovery.com)
  • Upon the basis of evidence indicating that alcohol and drug abuse by railroad employees had caused or contributed to a number of significant train accidents, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) promulgated regulations under petitioner Secretary of Transportation's statutory authority to adopt safety standards for the industry. (findlaw.com)
  • The National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics (NCDAS) has published current Alcohol Use Statistics [2023]. (sanfordbehavioralhealth.com)
  • INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Workout is likewise an incredible deterrent for substance abuse. (hugh-laurie.us)
  • Of course, if somebody you understand is struggling with drug or alcohol abuse, getting in touch with a drug and alcohol inpatient rehabilitation centers is your best option. (hugh-laurie.us)
  • When his mates recommended an alcohol and inpatient drug rehab program to assist with his obvious alcoholic abuse, Charlie laughed it off, insisting there was no need for anything so major. (hugh-laurie.us)
  • The Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) study produced some surprising results when it revealed that one of the newer medications used for the treatment of alcoholism failed to improve treatment outcomes on its own. (siamhealth.net)
  • The study did find that when combined with a structured outpatient medical management intervention consisting of nine brief sessions conducted by a healthcare professional that the alcohol-deterrent medications Revia and Vivitrol ( naltrexone ) and up to 20 sessions of alcohol counseling were equally effective treatments for alcoholism. (siamhealth.net)
  • Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism. (nih.gov)
  • Research on alcohol metabolism among Asians and its implications for understanding causes of alcoholism. (cdc.gov)
  • The University and DPS maintain that strict enforcement of alcohol laws is necessary for the safety of students because it acts as a deterrent. (michigandaily.com)
  • She said underage drinking has to be attacked in much the same way as drunk driving, with deterrents, enforcement, education both to children and parents, and broad community support. (capemaycountyherald.com)
  • Measurement and analysis of enforcement and compliance, then, may be critical to research on the effects and effectiveness of alcohol-related public policies (see, e.g. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, laws such as those that limit blood alcohol levels for motor vehicle operators may require relatively high levels of enforcement to achieve compliance at desirable levels. (nih.gov)
  • Because of their potential importance to alcohol policy research, this section of the APIS Web site addresses issues pertaining to measurement of alcohol policy enforcement and compliance. (nih.gov)
  • The impact of enforcement on compliance with alcohol policies is a function of both actual and perceived levels of enforcement (i.e., levels of policing, adjudication, and sanctioning). (nih.gov)
  • The deterrent effect of High Visibility Enforcement using both DUI checkpoints and DUI Saturation Patrols has proven to lower the number of persons killed and injured in alcohol or drug impaired crashes. (lapdonline.org)
  • Accept that the mourning/grieving of alcohol is a natural thing for an alcoholic getting sober. (soberrecovery.com)
  • Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. (nih.gov)
  • Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a chronic medical condition characterized by an impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, cravings and physical dependence. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • These drugs all target different brain pathways that are involved in alcohol consumption, thus reducing its rewarding effect and decreasing physical cravings for it. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • 3)Designate a driver if celebrations will include alcohol consumption. (thegramblinite.com)
  • Not surprisingly, 60% of adults in the U.S. say that their alcohol consumption increased during the pandemic. (sanfordbehavioralhealth.com)
  • Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. (lookformedical.com)
  • Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol. (lookformedical.com)
  • For example, although evidence suggests that peer influence is pivotal in the initiation of negative behaviors in youths and adolescents, parental disapproval has been shown to have a major suppressive effect for alcohol and drug use. (nih.gov)
  • Other recent evidence also suggests that a positive family environment, including positive parent-child relationships, consistent supervision, and communication of prosocial and healthy values and expectations, act as major deterrents for youths and adolescents to engage in negative and unhealthy behaviors and are associated with better school performance and psychosocial development. (nih.gov)
  • Stevens said alcohol kills more youths than all illicit drugs combined. (capemaycountyherald.com)
  • Disulfiram produces a sensitivity to alcohol which results in a highly unpleasant reaction when the patient under treatment ingests even small amounts of alcohol. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Disulfiram blocks the oxidation of alcohol at the acetaldehyde stage during alcohol metabolism following disulfiram intake, the concentration of acetaldehyde occurring in the blood may be 5 to 10 times higher than that found during metabolism of the same amount of alcohol alone. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood produces a complex of highly unpleasant symptoms referred to hereinafter as the disulfiram-alcohol reaction. (pharmacycode.com)
  • This reaction, which is proportional to the dosage of both disulfiram and alcohol, will persist as long as alcohol is being metabolized. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Disulfiram does not appear to influence the rate of alcohol elimination from the body. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Disulfiram is a dithiocarbamate drug used for alcohol aversion therapy that produces a distal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy in certain individuals. (nih.gov)
  • MAT for alcohol typically consists of medications such as disulfiram (Antabuse), naltrexone (Vivitrol), acamprosate (Campral), and/or oral naltrexone/buprenorphine (Suboxone). (solutions-recovery.com)
  • The most common medications used in MAT for alcohol use disorder are Naltrexone, Disulfiram, Acamprosate, and Vivitrol. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • alcohol, or alcohol-containing preparations, e.g. cough syrups, tonics and the like, should not be given disulfiram. (minclinic.ru)
  • Accel Tet blocks the oxidation of alcohol at the acetaldehyde stage during alcohol metabolism following disulfiram intake causing an accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood producing highly unpleasant symptoms. (minclinic.ru)
  • In addition, disulfiram competitively binds and inhibits the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, which may indicate some value in the treatment of the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, however this activity has not been extensively studied. (minclinic.ru)
  • The change in this year's policy is intended as a stricter deterrent to underage drinking on campus. (dailycollegian.com)
  • The argument, of course, is that parental notification is a practical deterrent to underage drinking. (dailycollegian.com)
  • The Department of Public Safety's propensity for handing out citations for minor in possession of alcohol to underage drinkers is notorious on campus. (michigandaily.com)
  • The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents). (lookformedical.com)
  • Medication-assisted treatment ( MAT ) for alcohol is an evidence-based approach to helping treatment-seeking individuals recover from this disorder. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • The goal of MAT for alcohol use disorder is to reduce the physical cravings associated with alcohol, as well as any anxiety or depression that may worsen the addiction. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. (lookformedical.com)
  • Gender: Due to differences in metabolism and body composition, women often experience a higher BAC than men after consuming equivalent amounts of alcohol. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. (minclinic.ru)
  • A significant number of these accidents are directly attributed to impaired driving, primarily due to the influence of alcohol. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • The school has a policy covering testing for those suspected of being under the influence of alcohol or drugs, he said. (capemaycountyherald.com)
  • The Beverly Hills cops found drug and that she was owning under the influence of alcohol. (hugh-laurie.us)
  • We have found no solid evidence to support the existence of a deterrent effect, despite the fact that it appears to underpin the Government's policy on classification. (blogspot.com)
  • But, even though DUI checkpoints don't work , police state they had a deterrent effect preventing people from driving in the first place. (expertlawfirm.com)
  • It referred to the deterrent effect and stated that the notice minimizes intrusiveness to a person's rights. (expertlawfirm.com)
  • The primary signs of AUD are cravings for alcohol, drinking in large amounts or over a long period of time, developing tolerance so the struggling individual needs more and more alcohol to feel its effects, having withdrawal symptoms if they try to quit drinking, and spending a lot of time thinking about drinking or trying to get it. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • Everyone should be mindful that if you're taking medication - whether prescription or over-the-counter - drinking even small amounts of alcohol can greatly intensify the impairment affects. (lapdonline.org)
  • Other signs include neglecting personal obligations such as work or school, engaging in risky behaviors when using alcohol, being unable to stop using it despite the harm it causes, and physical health problems due to excessive drinking. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • The therapist works with the patient on developing healthier thought patterns, behaviors, and lifestyle habits that can help support recovery from alcohol addiction. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration, commonly referred to as BAC, is a measure that reveals the amount of alcohol present in a person's bloodstream. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • Weight: Generally, individuals who weigh more tend to have a lower BAC after consuming the same amount of alcohol as someone who weighs less. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • But all of these talents would make me sound like a bit of a lush with a wild lifestyle when I am, at the moment, a homebody with a low alcohol tolerance and small child whose early rising is a serious deterrent to late nights of any kind much less singing, dancing, acrobatics or vodka drinking in any language at all. (thedebutanteball.com)
  • Althouse: "Zack suffered from fetal alcohol syndrome, the result of his mother drinking heavily throughout her pregnancy. (blogspot.com)
  • She said the Breathalyzer test would act as a deterrent to teen drinking. (capemaycountyherald.com)
  • Why Aren't Hangovers a Deterrent to Drinking? (sanfordbehavioralhealth.com)
  • That's a deterrent," said Baskerville.A day before she drank herself to death, Tamara and other eighth-graders at Western View watched a video about the dangers of drinking. (cannabisnews.com)
  • FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING . (lookformedical.com)
  • Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING . (lookformedical.com)
  • It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. (lookformedical.com)
  • Frailty in the Older Adult: A Surgical Deterrent? (medscape.com)
  • Amy also currently coordinates the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study. (edu.au)
  • In previous years, students would receive housing probation for one year and the $100 BASICS I class, with parental notification coming only after the second alcohol violation. (dailycollegian.com)
  • In this case, parental notification is a lost cause as a deterrent to begin with. (dailycollegian.com)
  • The Hound Cannabis Breathalyzer is the first and only breath test that's now commercial that can help an employer have a deterrent for cannabis use," Lynn said. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Parents are called when a student flunks a Breathalyzer test and the student is taken to the hospital for a blood alcohol test. (capemaycountyherald.com)
  • Because of the FDA regulations, distilleries using undenatured alcohol do not qualify for a tax break that is tucked into the historic $2 trillion pandemic response bill the president signed in late March. (eenews.net)
  • Denatured alcohol is created when a bitter, toxic chemical is added to the mixture to make it undrinkable. (eenews.net)
  • WHO recommends not denaturing alcohol because there is no evidence of its deterrent potential, no published information on the compatibility of the denaturants, and those additives may make the products toxic and the bitter taste may be transferred to whatever a user touches, such as their food,' the spokesperson said. (eenews.net)
  • This spray is being considered as the strongest bitter anti-chew deterrent in the market. (intaninvest.net)
  • Bitter Cherry Chew Deterrent for Dogs is made with a clear, non-staining formula which smells pleasant but tastes bitter to discourage chewing. (intaninvest.net)
  • GRANNICKS BITTER APPLE has launched a simple and easy dog taste deterrent. (intaninvest.net)
  • But distilleries are regulated by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), which issued guidance for the distilleries to follow hand sanitizer standards from the WHO, said a spokesperson for the Distilled Spirits Council. (eenews.net)
  • Providing the whole story behind tobacco and alcohol news. (blogspot.com)
  • Alcohol and tobacco are so ubiquitous the way they're depicted in films. (cannabisnews.com)
  • It is a plea that the prosecution can offer for DUI charges as a deterrent to the defense taking the case to trial. (thelawman.net)
  • They help gather vital evidence for investigation and prosecution and act as a visual deterrent to potential offenders. (wcctv.co.uk)
  • The rate at which alcohol impacts your BAC doesn't solely depend on the number of drinks consumed. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • As I have indicated on previous occasions, the primary objective of this legislation is to save lives, lives that continue to be tragically cut short by irresponsible and reckless decisions to drive after consuming alcohol or drugs. (openparliament.ca)
  • Put simply, a dry reckless is reckless driving without alcohol involved. (thelawman.net)
  • Prosecutors prefer this to a dry reckless because although it is not an actual offense, the notion that drugs or alcohol was involved remains. (thelawman.net)
  • Tamara Wardles, 14, a student at Western View Middle School, died of acute alcohol poisoning Feb. 10.Investigators said two adults gave Tamara and other teens alcohol at a party in a southeast Corvallis apartment the night of her death.On Friday, a Benton County grand jury indicted two women and a teen-ager on felony charges in connection with Tamara's death. (cannabisnews.com)
  • forced him to perform sex acts, kicked him with spurs, beat him, ran him over with a car, forced him to drink alcohol, injected him with drugs, attempted to drown him and created devices to electrically shock him if he wet the bed. (blogspot.com)
  • Marijuana can also be impairing, especially in combination with alcohol or other drugs, and can result in a DUI. (lapdonline.org)
  • A study of active drivers showed more tested positive for drugs that may impair driving (14 percent) than did for alcohol (7.3 percent). (lapdonline.org)
  • Of the drugs, marijuana was most prevalent, at 7.4 percent, slightly more than alcohol. (lapdonline.org)
  • Everything you need to test for drugs and alcohol in the workplace. (breathalyzer.co.uk)
  • Children should no longer be orphaned by a driver's careless decision to drive after consuming alcohol or drugs. (openparliament.ca)
  • Trevor isn't different from many kids his age who've experimented with drugs and alcohol. (cannabisnews.com)
  • Alcohol and drugs are not difficult for kids to get their hands on. (cannabisnews.com)
  • When an individual is walking, running, swimming or otherwise, they are rarely using and/or abusing drugs or alcohol. (hugh-laurie.us)
  • The alcohol policy research literature has long recognized that enactment of alcohol laws or regulations is just one aspect of the policy process. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The Fourth Amendment is applicable to the drug and alcohol testing mandated or authorized by the FRA regulations. (findlaw.com)
  • 2. The drug and alcohol tests mandated or authorized by the FRA regulations are reasonable under the Fourth Amendment even though there is no requirement of a warrant or a reasonable suspicion that any particular employee may be impaired, since, on the present record, the compelling governmental interests served by the regulations outweigh employees' privacy concerns. (findlaw.com)
  • Dr. Earth Final Stop Pet Spray is biodegradable and contains no synthetic ingredients, pyrethrin, alcohol or DEET. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Spray only between shoulders as cats are self-groomers and ingesting any type of insect deterrent is not advisable. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Mix one cup of rubbing alcohol with one tablespoon of eucalyptus oil and put the mixture in a spray bottle. (gardenguides.com)
  • This dog deterrent spray comes in two styles and sizes - the bigger size is made with a belt clip, while the smaller size has a keychain ring. (intaninvest.net)
  • The market is full of different kinds of dog anti chew spray, so it can be difficult to know which deterrent spray will work best for you. (intaninvest.net)
  • No Chew Spray Deterrent for … This Pet corrector helps to stop from Barking, Stealing, Chasing, Jumping and moving avoidance from place to place. (intaninvest.net)
  • 2 SABRE Dog Spray - Protector Dog Deterrent. (intaninvest.net)
  • After letting your dog taste the deterrent, spray or rub it on all objects you don't want him to chew or lick. (intaninvest.net)
  • PROS: Most users were pleased with this spray as a chew deterrent for their pets. (intaninvest.net)
  • This formula won't just work as a chew deterrent for your dog but also for any cats and rabbits in the house, and is especially effective on wires and electrical items that your pets may enjoy chewing. (intaninvest.net)
  • Understanding one's Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) is paramount not just for legal reasons but to genuinely avoid a car accident. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • Additionally, individuals with AUD often struggle with financial instability due to the money spent on purchasing alcohol and the potential loss of earnings due to an inability to maintain employment. (solutions-recovery.com)
  • Typically, an alcohol policy seeks to change the behavior of targeted individuals, groups, or organizations. (nih.gov)
  • The number of loud party complaints received by the city and criminal citations issued for noise and alcohol-related violations are trending steadily upward, indicating that existing laws have not been effective deterrents. (eugene-or.gov)
  • Use eucalyptus oil as an effective ant deterrent to keep ants from coming into your house. (gardenguides.com)
  • Food intake: Consuming alcohol on an empty stomach often results in a faster and higher BAC peak. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • Using multivariable logistic regression and data from an online survey of 1854 UK-based bereaved adults, we tested the association between bereavement by suicide and other unnatural causes and post-bereavement reduction/cessation in (i) alcohol and (ii) drug use. (nih.gov)
  • And while various factors influence how quickly and intensely alcohol affects a person, there's no escaping the fact that as BAC rises, so does impairment. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • Compliance may also be affected by extra-legal constructs, including informal social controls related to community norms or the activities of concerned citizen groups or community alcohol prevention coalitions. (nih.gov)
  • Retail alcohol sales occur in plain view in public places and violations are easy to detect. (nih.gov)
  • For instance, a BAC of 0.08% means there are 0.08 grams of alcohol for every 100 grams of blood in the body. (colemanlawgroup.com)
  • In this case, detecting a violation requires monitoring of traffic, stops of suspected violators, and the collection of biological samples to measure blood alcohol concentration. (nih.gov)
  • This Court has long recognized that a compelled intrusion into the body for blood to be tested for alcohol content and the ensuing chemical analysis constitute searches. (findlaw.com)