Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.
Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.

Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter networks in individuals with current and remitted alcohol use disorders and comorbid conditions. (1/15)

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Prospective correlates of drinking cessation: variation across the life-course. (2/15)

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A randomized study of cellphone technology to reinforce alcohol abstinence in the natural environment. (3/15)

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Effect of alcohol consumption on liver stiffness measured by transient elastography. (4/15)

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Randomized clinical trial examining the incremental efficacy of a 90-minute motivational alcohol intervention as an adjunct to standard batterer intervention for men. (5/15)

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Effectiveness of alcohol treatment interventions integrated into routine tuberculosis care in Tomsk, Russia. (6/15)

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Effects of naltrexone on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J mice. (7/15)

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Individualized hepatocellular carcinoma risk: the challenges for designing successful chemoprevention strategies. (8/15)

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In the context of medicine and health, "temperance" refers to moderation or self-restraint in the consumption of potentially harmful substances, particularly alcohol. It promotes a balanced lifestyle that avoids excessive habits, such as overeating, substance abuse, or any other activities that could negatively impact one's health.

However, it is important to note that "temperance" itself is not a medical term per se but has been used in various historical and social contexts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

Alcohol abstinence is the deliberate choice to refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages. This can be a personal choice, or it may be recommended by a healthcare professional for individuals who have alcohol use disorder, are pregnant, have certain medical conditions, or are taking medications that interact negatively with alcohol. Abstinence is often an important part of treatment and recovery for people struggling with alcohol addiction.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Alcohol deterrents, also known as alcohol deterrent devices or ignition interlock devices, are breathalyzer devices that are installed in vehicles to prevent a driver from starting the vehicle if their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is above a certain limit. These devices are often used as a condition of license reinstatement for individuals who have been convicted of drunk driving or other alcohol-related offenses.

The driver must blow into the device, and if their BAC is above the programmed limit, the vehicle will not start. Some devices also require periodic rolling retests while the vehicle is in motion to ensure that the driver remains sober throughout the trip. The use of alcohol deterrents has been shown to reduce recidivism rates among drunk drivers and improve overall road safety.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a international fellowship of individuals who have had a drinking problem and wish to do something about it. AA is nonprofessional, self-supporting, multiracial, apolitical, and available almost everywhere. There are no age or education requirements, and membership is open to anyone who wants to do something about their drinking problem.

AA's primary purpose is to help alcoholics stop drinking, though the organization also aims to inspire personal growth and improve the quality of life for its members. AA's program of recovery is based on the Twelve Steps, a set of principles that, when practiced as a way of life, can expel the obsession to drink and enable the sufferer to become happily and usefully whole.

The organization holds regular meetings where members share their experiences, strength, and hope to help one another recover from alcoholism. AA also offers sponsorship, where more experienced members work with newer members to guide them through the Twelve Step program.

It's important to note that while AA has helped many people achieve and maintain sobriety, it is not the only path to recovery from alcoholism. Other evidence-based treatments, such as medication-assisted treatment and behavioral therapy, are also effective for some individuals.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Medical definitions typically come from authoritative sources such as medical textbooks or professional organizations. Here is a definition from the World Health Organization (WHO):

"Sexual abstinence is the act of refraining from sexual activity, which may be chosen for a variety of reasons, including personal, health, religious, or other reasons."

It's important to note that sexual abstinence can have different meanings for different people. For some, it may mean avoiding all forms of sexual contact, while for others, it may refer only to vaginal or anal intercourse. It's a personal decision and can be interpreted differently based on cultural, religious, and individual beliefs.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that occurs in newborns who were exposed to opioids or other addictive substances while in the mother's womb. It happens when a pregnant woman uses drugs such as heroin, oxycodone, methadone, or buprenorphine. After birth, when the baby is no longer receiving the drug through the placenta, withdrawal symptoms can occur.

NAS symptoms may include:

* Tremors, seizures, or muscle stiffness
* Excessive crying or high-pitched crying
* Sleep disturbances, poor feeding, and poor growth
* Fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and sneezing
* Rapid breathing or breath-holding
* Increased sweating, yawning, or stuffiness

The severity of NAS can vary depending on the type and amount of drug used during pregnancy, the timing and length of exposure, and the newborn's individual characteristics. Treatment typically involves a slow and careful weaning from the drug using medication such as morphine or methadone, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and promote healthy development.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Bupropion is an antidepressant medication used primarily to treat depression, but it also has uses in helping people quit smoking and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It works by affecting the chemicals in the brain called dopamine and norepinephrine, which regulate mood and behavior.

Bupropion is available under various brand names, including Wellbutrin, Aplenzin, and Forfivo. It comes in several forms, such as immediate-release tablets, sustained-release tablets, and extended-release tablets, which are taken orally. The dosage and form of bupropion prescribed will depend on the individual's medical condition and response to treatment.

As with any medication, bupropion can have side effects, including dry mouth, headache, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness. In some cases, it may cause more severe side effects, such as seizures, high blood pressure, or allergic reactions. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking bupropion and report any bothersome or concerning symptoms promptly.

It is important to note that bupropion can interact with other medications, including certain antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-seizure drugs. Therefore, it is crucial to inform the prescribing physician of all current medications before starting bupropion therapy.

Tobacco use cessation products are a type of pharmacological or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) designed to help individuals stop using tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. These products include:

1. Nicotine gum: A chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body through the lining of the mouth.
2. Nicotine lozenges: Similar to nicotine gum, but in the form of a small tablet that dissolves slowly in the mouth.
3. Nicotine patch: A transdermal patch that delivers a steady dose of nicotine through the skin.
4. Nicotine inhaler: A device that looks like a cigarette and delivers nicotine vapor to be inhaled.
5. Nicotine nasal spray: A spray that delivers nicotine through the nostrils.
6. Non-nicotine prescription medications: Such as bupropion (Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix), which help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

These products are intended to help manage nicotine dependence and make it easier for individuals to quit tobacco use by alleviating the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal. It is important to note that these products should be used as part of a comprehensive cessation plan, which may also include counseling and behavioral support.

Nicotine is defined as a highly addictive psychoactive alkaloid and stimulant found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco leaves. It is the primary component responsible for the addiction to cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Nicotine can also be produced synthetically.

When nicotine enters the body, it activates the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, leading to feelings of pleasure, stimulation, and relaxation. However, with regular use, tolerance develops, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effects, which can contribute to the development of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine has both short-term and long-term health effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and concentration, and arousal. Long-term use can lead to addiction, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive problems. It is important to note that nicotine itself is not the primary cause of many tobacco-related diseases, but rather the result of other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a term used to describe a range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities, and can vary in severity and combination from one individual to another.

The four diagnostic categories within FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a specific pattern of facial features, growth deficiencies, and central nervous system dysfunction.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This category includes individuals who have some, but not all, of the features of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND): This category includes individuals who have functional or cognitive impairments due to prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the criteria for FAS or pFAS.
4. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This category includes individuals who have physical birth defects due to prenatal alcohol exposure.

It is important to note that FASD is a completely preventable condition, and there is no known safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are a class of drugs that slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to decreased arousal and decreased level of consciousness. They work by increasing the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, relaxation, reduced anxiety, and in some cases, respiratory depression.

Examples of CNS depressants include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and certain types of pain medications such as opioids. These drugs are often used medically to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and chronic pain, but they can also be misused or abused for their sedative effects.

It is important to use CNS depressants only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects, including addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose of CNS depressants can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Chewing gum is not a medical term, but rather a common consumer product. It is a type of soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. The basic ingredients of chewing gum include a gum base, sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners. The gum base gives it its chewy texture, while sweeteners provide the taste. Flavorings are added to give the gum its particular taste, such as mint, fruit, or bubblegum. Softeners are added to keep the gum from hardening over time.

While chewing gum is not a medical treatment or therapy, it does have some potential health benefits and drawbacks. Chewing sugar-free gum, for example, has been shown to increase saliva production, which can help neutralize acid in the mouth and reduce the risk of tooth decay. However, excessive gum chewing can lead to jaw pain or headaches in some individuals. It is also important to choose sugar-free gum, as sugary gum can contribute to tooth decay.

Nicotinic agonists are substances that bind to and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels found in the nervous system of many organisms, including humans. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the exogenous compound nicotine.

When a nicotinic agonist binds to the receptor, it triggers a conformational change that leads to the opening of an ion channel, allowing the influx of cations such as calcium, sodium, and potassium. This ion flux can depolarize the postsynaptic membrane and generate or modulate electrical signals in excitable tissues, such as neurons and muscles.

Nicotinic agonists have various therapeutic and recreational uses, but they can also produce harmful effects, depending on the dose, duration of exposure, and individual sensitivity. Some examples of nicotinic agonists include:

1. Nicotine: A highly addictive alkaloid found in tobacco plants, which is the prototypical nicotinic agonist. It is used in smoking cessation therapies, such as nicotine gum and patches, but it can also lead to dependence and various health issues when consumed through smoking or vaping.
2. Varenicline: A medication approved for smoking cessation that acts as a partial agonist of nAChRs. It reduces the rewarding effects of nicotine and alleviates withdrawal symptoms, helping smokers quit.
3. Rivastigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. It increases the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, enhancing its activity at nicotinic receptors and improving cognitive function.
4. Succinylcholine: A neuromuscular blocking agent used during surgical procedures to induce paralysis and facilitate intubation. It acts as a depolarizing nicotinic agonist, causing transient muscle fasciculations followed by prolonged relaxation.
5. Curare and related compounds: Plant-derived alkaloids that act as competitive antagonists of nicotinic receptors. They are used in anesthesia to induce paralysis and facilitate mechanical ventilation during surgery.

In summary, nicotinic agonists are substances that bind to and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to various physiological responses. These compounds have diverse applications in medicine, from smoking cessation therapies to treatments for neurodegenerative disorders and anesthesia. However, they can also pose risks when misused or abused, as seen with nicotine addiction and the potential side effects of certain medications.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol consumption that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL or above. For the typical adult, this corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks (male), or 4 or more drinks (female), in about 2 hours.

It is a serious and dangerous form of alcohol consumption as it can lead to various negative health consequences such as injuries, violence, liver disease, heart disease, and sexually transmitted diseases, among others. Binge drinking is also associated with an increased risk of alcohol dependence.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol consumption despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. It is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a problematic pattern of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Alcohol is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain, use, or recover from the effects of alcohol.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use alcohol, is present.
5. Recurrent alcohol use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Alcohol use continues despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of alcohol use.
8. Recurrent alcohol use is in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by alcohol.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol (refer to DSM-5 for further details).
b) Alcohol (or a closely related substance, such as a benzodiazepine) is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The severity of alcohol use disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met:

* Mild: 2-3 criteria met
* Moderate: 4-5 criteria met
* Severe: 6 or more criteria met

It's important to note that alcohol use disorder is a complex condition with various factors contributing to its development and course. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it's crucial to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or a mental health specialist for an accurate assessment and appropriate treatment.

Fatty alcohols, also known as long-chain alcohols or long-chain fatty alcohols, are a type of fatty compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a long alkyl chain. They are typically derived from natural sources such as plant and animal fats and oils, and can also be synthetically produced.

Fatty alcohols can vary in chain length, typically containing between 8 and 30 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants, and personal care products. In the medical field, fatty alcohols may be used as ingredients in certain medications or topical treatments.

A token economy is a type of behavioral intervention that uses contingency management principles to modify and improve specific behaviors. It is commonly used in clinical settings to help individuals with various disorders, such as developmental disabilities, mental illnesses, or substance use disorders.

In a token economy system, desired behaviors are reinforced by the immediate delivery of a tangible symbol or token, which can later be exchanged for rewards or privileges. The tokens serve as a form of secondary reinforcement, and the rewards or privileges that can be earned with them function as primary reinforcers.

The specific behaviors targeted for modification and the criteria for earning tokens are clearly defined and communicated to the individual. Tokens may be earned for a variety of behaviors, such as completing tasks, following rules, demonstrating appropriate social interactions, or engaging in self-care activities. The use of a token economy system can help individuals develop new skills, increase motivation, and reduce challenging behaviors.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Alcohol" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of adhesives, paints, and medical devices. Polyvinyl Alcohol is a type of synthetic polymer made from the polymerization of vinyl acetate monomer, followed by alcoholysis to replace the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups.

In a medical context, Polyvinyl Alcohol might be used in certain medical devices or applications, such as contact lenses, eye drops, and drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility and resistance to protein absorption. However, it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Drug-seeking behavior is a term used in the medical field to describe a pattern of actions taken by a person who is trying to obtain drugs, typically prescription medications, for non-medical reasons or in a manner that is considered inappropriate or abusive. This can include behaviors such as:

* Exaggerating symptoms or faking illness to obtain drugs
* Visiting multiple doctors or pharmacies to obtain multiple prescriptions (a practice known as "doctor shopping")
* Using false names or identities to obtain drugs
* Stealing, forging, or altering prescriptions
* Offering to sell or trade prescription medications

Drug-seeking behavior can be a sign of a substance use disorder, such as addiction, and may require medical intervention and treatment. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs of drug-seeking behavior and to take appropriate measures to ensure that patients are receiving the care and treatment they need while also protecting the integrity of the healthcare system.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Amphetamine-related disorders are a category of mental disorders related to the use of amphetamines or similar stimulant drugs. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), there are several specific amphetamine-related disorders:

1. Amphetamine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of amphetamine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms include increased tolerance, withdrawal, unsuccessful attempts to cut down or quit using, and continued use despite negative consequences.
2. Amphetamine Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses amphetamines and experiences symptoms such as agitation, aggression, hallucinations, delusions, tachycardia, hypertension, and elevated body temperature.
3. Amphetamine Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that occur after cessation or reduction in amphetamine use, including dysphoric mood, fatigue, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, vivid dreams, and slowing of psychomotor activity.
4. Other Specified Amphetamine-Related Disorder: This category is used when an individual experiences significant problems related to amphetamine use that do not meet the full criteria for any of the other disorders in this category.
5. Unspecified Amphetamine-Related Disorder: This category is used when an individual experiences significant problems related to amphetamine use, but the specific diagnosis cannot be determined due to insufficient information or because the clinician chooses not to specify the reason.

It's important to note that amphetamines are a class of drugs that include prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin, as well as illicit substances like methamphetamine. Amphetamine-related disorders can have serious consequences for an individual's physical and mental health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), alcohol-induced disorders of the nervous system are a category of conditions characterized by symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal. These disorders include:

1. Alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorder: This condition is characterized by significant impairment in cognitive functioning, including difficulties with attention, memory, and executive functions, which are caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
2. Alcohol-induced mood disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of a mood disorder, such as depression or mania, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
3. Alcohol-induced anxiety disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of an anxiety disorder, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
4. Alcohol-induced sleep disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty sleeping or maintaining sleep that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
5. Alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction: This condition is characterized by the presence of sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or decreased libido, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
6. Alcohol-induced movement disorder: This condition is characterized by the presence of abnormal movements, such as tremors or ataxia, that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.

It's important to note that in order for a diagnosis of an alcohol-induced disorder to be made, the symptoms must be severe enough to cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be better explained by another medical condition or mental disorder.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium, also known as delirium tremens (DTs), is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in people who are dependent on alcohol and suddenly stop or significantly reduce their consumption. It is a form of alcohol withdrawal syndrome that is characterized by the sudden onset of severe confusion, agitation, hallucinations, tremors, and autonomic hyperactivity.

The diagnostic criteria for alcohol withdrawal delirium, as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Disturbance in consciousness (i.e., reduced clarity of awareness of the environment) with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention.
2. A change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, or language disturbance) or the development of a perceptual disturbance that is not better explained by another medical condition or substance use disorder.
3. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to a few days) and tends to fluctuate throughout the day.
4. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the symptoms are caused by alcohol withdrawal.
5. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another medical condition, medication use, or substance intoxication or withdrawal.

Alcohol withdrawal delirium is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment in a hospital setting. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to manage symptoms, such as benzodiazepines to reduce agitation and prevent seizures, and antipsychotic medications to treat hallucinations and delusions. Supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, may also be necessary to prevent dehydration and other complications.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Naltrexone is a medication that is primarily used to manage alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It works by blocking the effects of opioids and alcohol on the brain, reducing the euphoric feelings and cravings associated with their use. Naltrexone comes in the form of a tablet that is taken orally, and it has no potential for abuse or dependence.

Medically, naltrexone is classified as an opioid antagonist, which means that it binds to opioid receptors in the brain without activating them, thereby blocking the effects of opioids such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone. It also reduces the rewarding effects of alcohol by blocking the release of endorphins, which are natural chemicals in the brain that produce feelings of pleasure.

Naltrexone is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment program for addiction, along with counseling, behavioral therapy, and support groups. It can help individuals maintain abstinence from opioids or alcohol by reducing cravings and preventing relapse. Naltrexone is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it may cause side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, and fatigue in some people.

It's important to note that naltrexone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and it is not recommended for individuals who are currently taking opioids or who have recently stopped using them, as it can cause withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, naltrexone may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting naltrexone therapy.

Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. In the context of pharmaceuticals, benzazepines refer to a group of drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Some examples of benzazepine-derived drugs include clozapine, olanzapine, and loxoprofen. These drugs have complex mechanisms of action, often involving multiple receptor systems in the brain.

Tobacco use cessation is the process of discontinuing the use of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes. This is often a critical component of treatment for tobacco-related diseases and conditions, as well as a key strategy for preventing tobacco-related illnesses and premature death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a combination of behavioral support and medication as the most effective approach to tobacco use cessation. Behavioral support may include counseling, group therapy, and self-help materials, while medication can include nicotine replacement therapies (such as gum, lozenges, patches, inhalers, or nasal sprays), as well as prescription medications such as bupropion and varenicline.

Tobacco use cessation is a challenging process that often requires multiple attempts before successful long-term abstinence is achieved. However, with the right support and resources, many tobacco users are able to quit successfully and improve their health outcomes.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Self-help groups (SHGs) are peer-led support groups that provide a structured, safe, and confidential environment for individuals who share similar experiences or conditions to come together and offer each other emotional, social, and practical support. SHGs can be focused on various health issues such as mental illness, addiction, chronic diseases, or any personal challenges. The members of these groups share their experiences, provide mutual aid, education, and empowerment to cope with their situations effectively. They follow a common self-help philosophy that emphasizes the importance of personal responsibility, self-advocacy, and mutual respect in the recovery process. SHGs can complement professional medical or therapeutic treatments but are not intended to replace them.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a term that encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The three main stages of ALD are:

1. Fatty Liver: This is the earliest stage of ALD, characterized by the accumulation of fat droplets within liver cells (hepatocytes). It's often reversible with abstinence from alcohol.

2. Alcoholic Hepatitis: This is a more severe form of ALD, characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver cells. It can range from mild to severe, and severe cases can lead to liver failure. Symptoms may include jaundice, abdominal pain, and fever.

3. Cirrhosis: This is the most advanced stage of ALD, characterized by widespread scarring (fibrosis) and nodular transformation of the liver. It's irreversible and can lead to complications such as liver failure, portal hypertension, and increased risk of liver cancer.

The development and progression of ALD are influenced by various factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, genetic predisposition, nutritional status, and co-existing viral hepatitis or other liver diseases. Abstaining from alcohol is the most effective way to prevent and manage ALD.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Opiate Substitution Treatment (OST) is a medical, evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence that involves the use of prescribed, long-acting opioids to replace illicit substances such as heroin. The aim of OST is to alleviate the severe withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opioid dependence, while also preventing the harmful consequences related to illegal drug use, such as infectious diseases and criminal activity. By providing a stable and controlled dose of a substitute medication, OST can help individuals regain control over their lives, improve physical and mental health, and facilitate reintegration into society. Commonly used medications for OST include methadone, buprenorphine, and slow-release morphine.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Morphine dependence is a medical condition characterized by a physical and psychological dependency on morphine, a potent opioid analgesic. This dependence develops as a result of repeated use or abuse of morphine, leading to changes in the brain's reward and pleasure pathways. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) outlines the following criteria for diagnosing opioid dependence, which includes morphine:

A. A problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Opioids are often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the opioid, use the opioid, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use opioids.
5. Recurrent opioid use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued opioid use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of opioids.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of opioid use.
8. Recurrent opioid use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued opioid use despite knowing that a physical or psychological problem is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by opioids.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of opioids to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of an opioid.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic opioid withdrawal syndrome.
b. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Additionally, it's important to note that if someone has been using opioids for an extended period and suddenly stops taking them, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. These can include:

- Anxiety
- Muscle aches
- Insomnia
- Runny nose
- Sweating
- Diarrhea
- Nausea or vomiting
- Abdominal cramping
- Dilated pupils

If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it's essential to seek professional help. There are many resources available, including inpatient and outpatient treatment programs, support groups, and medications that can help manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Cannabis is a plant genus that includes three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. It contains psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids, the most notable of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces the "high" associated with marijuana use.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes, while Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content and is mainly used for industrial purposes, such as hemp fiber production.

Medicinally, cannabis is used to treat various conditions, including pain, nausea, and loss of appetite associated with cancer and HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among others. However, its use remains controversial due to its psychoactive effects and potential for abuse. Its legal status varies widely around the world, ranging from outright prohibition to decriminalization or full legalization for medical and/or recreational purposes.

'Marijuana smoking' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it generally refers to the act of inhaling smoke from burning marijuana leaves or flowers, which are often dried and rolled into a cigarette (known as a "joint"), pipe, or bong. The active ingredients in marijuana, primarily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are absorbed through the lungs and enter the bloodstream, leading to various psychological and physiological effects.

It's worth noting that marijuana smoking is associated with several potential health risks, including respiratory problems such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as potential cognitive impairments and an increased risk of mental health disorders such as psychosis and schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals.

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Hanson, David J. (25 November 2015). "Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America". Alcohol Problems & Solutions. Blair, Henry ... Catholicism portal Pioneer Total Abstinence Association Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain List of Temperance ... The Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America was a Roman Catholic temperance organization active in the 19th and 20th ... We also recognize as worthy of great praise the Catholic Total Abstinence Union and the confraternity of 'The Sacred Thirst,' ...
IOGT abstinence pledge card encouraging teetotalism with respect to alcohol and other drugs (2017) Abstinence pledge card ... ISBN 978-1-77203-234-5. Hanson, David J. (15 June 2016). "Catholic Total Abstinence League of the Cross". Alcohol Problems and ... Abstinence pledges are commitments made by people, often though not always teenagers and young adults, to practice abstinence, ... Pioneer Total Abstinence Association abstinence pledge and prayer (recited twice daily by members): For your greater glory and ...
Reinstatement after abstinence. AUDIT has replaced older screening tools such as CAGE but there are many shorter alcohol ... "Alcohol use disorder". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 4 October 2020. "What is Alcohol Addiction: What Causes Alcohol Addiction?". ... which combined alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse into this diagnosis. According to the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol ... 1O58-106 Alcohol Recovery Program Arnold Little, MD Alcohol Dependence - extensive article SADD - Short Alcohol Dependence Data ...
Richardson was an ardent and determined champion of total abstinence, for he held that alcohol was so powerful a drug that it ... 1876). On Alcohol. (1876). Diseases of Modern Life. (1876). Hygeia, a City of Health. (1877). The Future of Sanitary Science. ( ... In the same year he gave the Cantor lectures at the Society of Arts, taking "alcohol" as the subject. In 1854, Richardson was ... 1878). Total Abstinence. (1882). Dialogues on Drink. (1882). Diseases of Modern Life. (1884). On the Healthy Manufacture of ...
While the PTAA does not advocate prohibition, it does require of its members complete abstinence from alcoholic drink. It also ... Younger Catholics who choose not to drink alcohol are unlikely to belong to the PTAA. The PTAA does not strive to simply stop ... The Pioneer Total Abstinence Association of the Sacred Heart (PTAA) is an international organisation for Catholic teetotalers ... Butler, Shane (2002). Alcohol, Drugs and Health Promotion in Modern Ireland. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. p. 19 ...
Gilbert, Kathy L. (21 February 2012). "Could you go alcohol-free for Lent?". United Methodist News Service. Retrieved 17 March ... "Drink less this Lent". Pioneer Total Abstinence Association. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2019. ... and make a Lenten sacrifice such as giving up alcohol and practicing teetotalism. Certain Christian denominations emphasize ...
He would take names at his meetings of people who pledged alcoholic temperance and noted those who pledged total abstinence ... Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of total personal abstinence from the consumption of alcohol, specifically in ... Hanson, David J. (14 August 2019). "Anti-Alcohol Industry 101: Overview of the Neo-Temperance Movement". Alcohol Problems and ... teach abstinence from alcohol. Members of denominations in the conservative holiness movement, such as the Allegheny Wesleyan ...
Christianity portal Black Fast Christian Vegetarian Association Pioneer Total Abstinence Association Fasting and abstinence in ... Could you go alcohol-free for Lent? - The United Methodist Church Veg for Lent - Christian Vegetarian Association Some ... Days of Fasting or Abstinence All the Fridays in the Year, except Christmas-Day Olivia, John (18 February 2019). "Please Don't ... Gilbert, Kathy L. (21 February 2012). "Could you go alcohol-free for Lent?". United Methodist News Service. Retrieved 17 March ...
... abstinence is the best choice. Akin, Daniel L. (2006-06-30). "FIRST-PERSON: The case for alcohol abstinence". Baptist Press. ... However, the alcoholic content of ancient alcoholic beverages was significantly lower than that of modern alcoholic beverages. ... E]ven if the wine Jesus drank had a lower alcohol context than today's wine, the issue is still moderation not abstinence. The ... "Position paper: Abstinence from Alcohol" (PDF). Assemblies of God. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-15. Retrieved ...
The cause of the disease remains unknown, but its incidence strongly correlates with alcohol use disorder; abstinence from ... alcohol prevents disease progression. Defects in the adrenergic-stimulated lipolysis and accumulation of embryological brown ...
E. R. Cotton, Our Coffee-Room (London: James Nisbet & Co., c. 1876/1884). Cotton advocated total abstinence from alcohol. In ... where food and non-alcoholic drinks were served. (Florence Nightingale distributed copies of Cotton's book Our Coffee-Room and ...
... abstinence from alcohol, coffee, and tea; and avoidance of rock music in church worship services. In one newsletter he ... A Theological Study of the Meaning of the Second Advent for Today Wine in the Bible: A Biblical Study on the Use of Alcoholic Beverages ... certain dress standards and alcohol. Bacchiocchi was born in Rome, Italy on 20 January 1938. He later earned a Bachelor of Arts ...
"Alcohol Abstinence in Drinkers with Atrial Fibrillation". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (1): 20-28. doi:10.1056/ ... Regular alcohol consumption also increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in several ways. The long-term use of alcohol alters ... Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption also appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation, ... Alcohol consumption does this by repeatedly stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing inflammation in the atria, ...
Witkiewitz, Katie (October 17, 2012). ""Success" Following Alcohol Treatment: Moving Beyond Abstinence". Alcoholism: Clinical ... "Clinical Validation of Reduced Alcohol Consumption After Treatment for Alcohol Dependence Using the World Health Organization ... Patterns of Drinking During Alcohol Treatment and Associations With Post-Treatment Outcomes Across Three Alcohol Clinical ... Traditionally, sustained abstinence has been considered the sole marker of a successful substance use disorder intervention. ...
Gurney also advocated total abstinence from alcohol. He wrote a tract on the subject called Water Is Best. While Gurney was ...
Total abstinence from alcohol (teetotalism) was their goal. The group taught sobriety and preceded Alcoholics Anonymous by ... Eds.), Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, vol. 2, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio 2003. Blumberg, Leonard U. The significance of ... Public temperance meetings were frequent and the main thread was prohibition of alcohol and pledges of sobriety to be made by ... The Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1980, 41(L). Koch, Donald A. A Dictionary of Literary Biographers; Antebellum Writers in New ...
... without specifying abstinence from alcohol, as most of her followers were temperance followers, and abstinence would have been ... One of the most prominent items in the Word of Wisdom is the complete abstinence from alcohol. When the Word of Wisdom was ... Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775.: 4 : 36-37 As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush envisioned ... According to Paul H. Peterson and Ronald W. Walker, Smith did not enforce abstinence from alcohol because he believed that it ...
... and other drug use which in most cases abates with prolonged abstinence. Any continued use of drugs or alcohol may increase ... "Symptomatology in alcoholics at various stages of abstinence". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 9 (6): 505-12. doi:10.1111/j.1530- ... placebo-controlled pilot study of carbamazepine for the treatment of alcohol dependence". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 21 (1): 86-92. ... "Impaired sleep during the post-alcohol withdrawal period in alcoholic patients". Addict Biol. 6 (2): 163-169. doi:10.1080/ ...
As the Methodist Church has traditionally promoted abstinence and usually forbids consumption of alcohol on church premises, ... Eunice K. Y. Or (23 May 2005). "Methodist HQ Alcohol License Application Sparks Abstinence Debate". Christianity Today. ... In 2005 Central Hall controversially applied for a licence to sell alcohol in its café and conference venues. ...
... with the risk level of drinking a large amount of alcohol greater than the risk level of abstinence. Other studies have found a ... Low consumption of alcohol had some beneficial effects, so a net 59,180 deaths were attributed to alcohol. Alcohol has been ... Large amounts of alcohol over the long term can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy presents in a manner ... Alcohol related brain damage is not only due to the direct toxic effects of alcohol; alcohol withdrawal, nutritional deficiency ...
Ethiopian devotees may also abstain from sexual activity and the consumption of alcohol. As the fasting regimen prohibits the ... Fasting and abstinence (Ge'ez: ጾም ṣōm; Amharic: tsom) have historically constituted a major element of the practice of the ... Fasting and abstinence of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Ethiopian cuisine "Religious Holiday and Calendar". The ...
Following prolonged abstinence, abusers of alcohol (Pfefferbaum et al., 2014) or opiates (Wang et al., 2011) have white matter ... Alcoholic women are much more likely to be married to partners that drink excessively than are alcoholic men. As a result of ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2005), "Module 10F: Immigrants, Refugees, and Alcohol" (PDF), NIAAA: Social ... Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 1 in 4 suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse. ...
Sharpe PC (November 2001). "Biochemical detection and monitoring of alcohol abuse and abstinence". Annals of Clinical ...
Following prolonged abstinence, abusers of alcohol (Pfefferbaum et al., 2014) or opiates (Wang et al., 2011) have white matter ... Subbaraman MS (8 January 2014). "Can cannabis be considered a substitute medication for alcohol?". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 49 ( ... Subbaraman MS (2014). "Can cannabis be considered a substitute medication for alcohol?". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 49 (3): 292-98 ... alcohol, and tobacco; most of those who used it in place of alcohol or tobacco either reduced or stopped their intake of the ...
As such, sustained abstinence is a prerequisite for sobriety. Early in abstinence, residual effects of alcohol consumption can ... "TWELVE STEPS and TWELVE TRADITIONS" Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Alcohol Support Groups - Alcohol Recovery ... Sobriety is the condition of not having any measurable levels or effects from alcohol or drugs. Sobriety is also considered to ... Colloquially, it may refer to a specific substance that is the concern of a particular recovery support program (e.g. alcohol, ...
Macpherson Grant relied heavily on alcohol during the late 1860s. She went through periods of abstinence only to relapse. ... With Temple now gone, Macpherson Grant was depressed, heavily dependent upon alcohol and, according to Rachel Lang, going ... Alcohol-related deaths in Scotland, 19th-century British philanthropists, 19th-century women philanthropists). ...
Abstinence from drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and drug use. Importance of bhakti (devotion) to God. Developing " ... alcohol). Some of his exhortations are to put a ceiling on desires. By this, he seems to mean that followers should not waste ...
He is a teetotaler, practicing abstinence from consuming alcohol. His family lives in the Chugur District tending a farm with ...
ARD is treated with abstinence from further alcohol consumption. Multiple withdrawals and binge drinking may significantly ... People with an alcohol use disorder are more likely to become depressed than people without alcohol use disorder, and it may be ... Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is a form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, ... Alcohol-related dementia is a broad term currently preferred among medical professionals. If a person has alcohol-related ' ...
Following prolonged abstinence, abusers of alcohol (Pfefferbaum et al., 2014) or opiates (Wang et al., 2011) have white matter ... Alcohol use disorders are associated with a decrease in white matter volume. Amyloid plaques in white matter may be associated ... It is therefore possible that, at least to some degree, abstinence can reverse effects of substance abuse on white matter. The ... There is also evidence that substance abuse may damage white matter microstucture, though prolonged abstinence may in certain ...
Screening pregnant women for alcohol use and referring them to treatment if needed can help women avoid drinking alcohol during ... It can also cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which can lead to lifelong physical and mental health problems. But many ... Alcohol use during pregnancy is linked to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and sudden infant death syndrome. ... Increase abstinence from cigarette smoking among pregnant women - MICH‑10. *Increase abstinence from illicit drugs among ...
Mobile Contingency Management for Concurrent Abstinence from Alcohol and Smoking Research Grant ...
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and ... Home , Recovery of neuropsychological function following abstinence from alcohol in adults diagnosed with an alcohol use ... Recovery of neuropsychological function following abstinence from alcohol in adults diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder: ... B Substances , Alcohol. F Concepts in psychology , Cognition / Memory. G Health and disease , State of health , Mental health. ...
Learn how to break the cycle of sugar cravings after quitting alcohol. Discover effective strategies to manage cravings and ... The Impact of Alcohol on Blood Sugar Levels. The impact of alcohol on blood sugar levels is a crucial consideration when ... Tags: a sugar craving monster after quitting alcoholalcoholbreaking the cyclecravingsdiscussgiving upmanagequittingstopSugar ... Conquering the Vicious Cycle: Taming Sugar Cravings Post-Alcohol Abstinence. 1 BLOG ...
The Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement, is an innovative sentencing tool that allows courts to impose a compulsory ... The Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement (AAMR), is an innovative sentencing tool that allows courts across London, ... Product: SCRAM Continuous Alcohol Monitoring. The negative impact that alcohol has on the UK landscape has been highly ... 2021 Alcohol Monitoring Systems, Inc. , Contact Us , Purchase Order Terms and Conditions , Privacy Policy , Manage Cookies , ...
... generically termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), is a complex disorder. It is defined as a constellation of behavioral ... Variations in opioid receptor genes in neonatal abstinence syndrome. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Oct 1. 155:253-9. [QxMD MEDLINE ... National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc (NASADAD). Neonatal abstinence syndrome. June 2015. ... encoded search term (Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome) and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome incidence rates increased significantly in 25 of 27 states. ... Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome incidence rates increased significantly in 25 of 27 states. ... Using population data to examine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Drug Alcohol Rev 2007;26:487-92 ... Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) incidence rates* - 25 states, 2012-2013†. Source: State Inpatient Databases, Healthcare Cost ...
The Lincoln-Lee Legion was a program to get children to sign pledges to maintain life-long abstinence from alcohol. The Anti- ... The Lincoln-Lee Legion: Youths Pledged Alcohol Abstinence. Anti-Saloon League founder Howard Hyde Russell founded the Lincoln- ... It was to promote the signing of total alcohol abstinence pledges by children. ... The Alcohol Problems and Solutions website makes no recommendations about any subject. For more fine print, read the disclaimer ...
Treatment for ARBD typically means abstinence from alcohol, followed by rehabilitation. Usually, at least three months without ... Bev John has received funding from European Social Funds/Welsh Government, Alcohol Concern (now Alcohol Change), Research ... Gareth Roderique-Davies has received funding from European Social Funds/Welsh Government, Alcohol Concern (now Alcohol Change ... Abstinence and recovery. These symptoms often overlap with some of the signs of dementia, with research suggesting that up to ...
... a charity that offers drug and alcohol abstinence programs in public and private schools, and Scott Hamiltons Executive Next ...
... ... to investigate the initial psychometric properties of the Inventory of Anticipatory Coping Skills for Abstinence from Alcohol ... The total sample included 457 individuals in treatment for problems related to alcohol or crack use. An Exploratory Factor ... ", "expression of positive feelings towards abstinence" and "emotional self-control in adverse situations". After analyzing ...
Hanson, David J. (25 November 2015). "Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America". Alcohol Problems & Solutions. Blair, Henry ... Catholicism portal Pioneer Total Abstinence Association Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain List of Temperance ... The Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America was a Roman Catholic temperance organization active in the 19th and 20th ... We also recognize as worthy of great praise the Catholic Total Abstinence Union and the confraternity of The Sacred Thirst, ...
The Alcohol Change Report. Its easy to think that alcohol harm is inevitable. It isnt. This report looks at alcohol in the UK ... Find the latest alcohol research and news, tips to help you cut down, stories from people who have experienced alcohol harm and ... Alcohol Change UK is the operating name of Alcohol Research UK, registered charity no. 1140287, a limited company registered in ... Read the latest press releases and commentary on all things alcohol from Alcohol Change UK. ...
There are many ways to monitor alcohol abstinence. One of the most popular methods is the Ethyl Glucuronide test. This test is ... How do we prove abstinence from alcohol?. Abstinence from alcohol can be proven through various methods, including self- ... Breath Alcohol Test. A breath alcohol test can detect the presence of alcohol in a persons breath. This test is often used ... Blood Alcohol Test. A blood alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in a persons bloodstream. This test is often used in ...
750ml bottle , Non alcoholic. Serving suggestion: 50ml Abstinence Cape Fynbos, premium tonic water, lemon peel and fresh ... Inspired by the biodiversity of the Cape Floral Kingdom, Abstinence is a range of sophisticated, layered, complex non-alcoholic ... A non-alcoholic spirit? Yes. The first big myth is that distillation produces alcohol. It does not: Fermentation produces ... Inspired by the astounding biodiversity of the Cape Floral Kingdom, the Abstinence Cape Fynbos is the most "gin-like" of our ...
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from ... Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from ... Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates born to opioid maintained women. Drug Alcohol Depend (2007) 87(2-3):131- ... Role of noradrenergic hyperactivity in neonatal opiate abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend (1996) 41(1):47-54. doi:10.1016/0376- ...
ALCOHOL REPORTS An international website dedicated to providing current information on news, reports, publications,and peer- ... FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS. - Peggy Seo Oba. EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS. - Paul M Roman. ... Acceptance of Non-Abstinence Goals by Addiction Professionals in the United States. ... findings is that individuals with alcohol and drug problems who avoid treatment because they are ambivalent about abstinence ...
... wellness have since 2017 grown more quickly with beverage alcohol (up 48%) than in the food and beverage category overall (up ... abstinence from alcohol; diet. Diets that include beverage alcohol focus on carbohydrates. The report claims "Some of BevAls ... To support its claim that consumers generally prefer moderation to abstinence, SS says, "Conversations about non‑alcoholic are ... Still, non‑alcoholic has its fans: 15% of consumers repeatedly talk online about non‑alcoholic topics, a doubling percentage ...
Damaged Gait and Balance Can Recover With Long-Term Abstinence from Alcohol , Addiction Treatment Strategies. ... long-term abstinence has found that alcoholics gait and balance can continue to recover with long-term abstinence from alcohol ... The two alcoholic groups did not differ in terms of lifetime drinking, family drinking density, or years of education. Study ... Chronic alcohol abuse consistently damages the cerebellum, a complex structure located at the back of the brain below the ...
You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause withdrawal symptoms. ... You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause withdrawal symptoms. ... Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. ... Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. ...
Abstinence To hold back or restrain. For example, to refrain from the use of drugs or alcohol, or from having sexual… ...
Association of an Alcohol Abstinence Program With Mortality in Individuals Arrested for Driving While Alcohol Impaired 2023. ... A New Approach to Reducing Heavy Drinking and Alcohol-Involved Crime? Insights from RAND Research on 24/7 Sobriety Programs ... Monitoring with Swift, Certain, and Moderate Sanctions to Reduce Alcohol-Related Crime: The South Dakota 24/7 Sobriety Program ...
Unfortunately, there is still a social stigma on the abstinence of alcohol consumption, which can lead to sober shaming. In ... The consumption of alcohol is an important part of social life in the Netherlands. Excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to ... Break the taboos on alcohol abstinence: is it time for the #StopSoberShaming initiative in the Netherlands?] / Haal ... Break the taboos on alcohol abstinence: is it time for the #StopSoberShaming initiative i ...
It requires tithing 10 percent of gross income; abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, coffee, and tea; and [chastity] before and [ ...
Scientists have compared the brains of people with alcohol use disorder with those of people without the disorder. They also ... Instead, the harmful effects of alcohol may continue during abstinence. The findings have important implications for the ... Alcohol use disorder is a major risk factor for dementia. In a large-scale study, links between alcohol use disorder and ... Alcohol promotes disease by altering oral bacteria. Drinking alcohol disrupts the fine balance of our oral bacteria, a new ...
... there was little evidence to suggest six months of abstinence before the transplant decreased the chance of relapse. ... Alcohol overtakes hepatitis C as the top reason for liver transplants. One reason for the shift is that hep C has become easier ... Alcohol use disorder has often been thought of as a "self-inflicted" disease that results from bad habits or moral failing, ... There was also concern that the public would stop donating organs if they thought livers would be going to people with alcohol ...
Alcohol news and analysis helping those in the UK field to stay up to date. ... Recent Findings alcohol bulletins: does raising taxes save lives?; Should dependent drinkers always try for abstinence?; ... Alcohol-related brain damage overlooked says Alcohol Concern report. A new report from Alcohol Concern Wales says alcohol- ... Alcohol Policy UK. *. Aims to help the alcohol field stay up to date with news & developments more here. Its editor is Dr James ...
Alcohol and Alcoholism All Journal News Drugs and Drug Abuse Marijuana KEYWORDS. neonatal abstinence syndrome Benzodiazepines ... The new findings shed light on which factors complicate and intensify signs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which can ... For example, many people report use of opioids as well as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and other prescribed or non-prescribed ...
Avoiding booze to start the year may bring some real benefits, but sobriety trends are no solution to the deadliest effects of ... as abrupt abstinence from alcohol has the potential to be very uncomfortable at best, or life threatening at worst." - Ian ... Alcohol is a dangerous substance. But for most of our history, alcohol had built-in safety features. … Only relatively recently ... have said they plan to give up alcohol in Dry January, according to the charity that coined the phrase 10 years ago, Alcohol ...
Role of Alcohol and Drugs in Premarital Sex, Pregnancy, and STIs. by APFLI , Jul 23, 2007 , Reasons for Abstinence ... Study Finds 49% of US College Students Are Abusing Drugs or Alcohol. by APFLI , Mar 30, 2007 , Abstinence - Archive ... Women who have abortions are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol compared with those who carry a pregnancy to term, a new ... Aborting Women More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol (12/07). by APFLI , Jan 3, 2008 , Studies - General Research ...
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a group of problems that occur in a newborn who was exposed to addictive illegal or prescription drugs while in the mother's womb. (medscape.com)
  • Neonatal withdrawal syndrome, generically termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), is a complex disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome in newborns caused primarily by in utero exposure to opioids. (cdc.gov)
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that occurs primarily among opioid-exposed infants shortly after birth, often manifested by central nervous system irritability, autonomic overreactivity, and gastrointestinal tract dysfunction ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The new findings shed light on which factors complicate and intensify signs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which can occur when babies are chronically exposed to opioids before birth.People with substance use disorders often report taking a combination of substances. (newswise.com)
  • Includes a diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome or drug withdrawal syndrome in infant of dependent pregnant person (ICD-10 code P96.1) during the birth hospitalization. (cdc.gov)
  • When assessing potential neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the most reliable method of determining the extent of drug use in pregnancy is maternal history as part of routine antenatal assessment, with a structured interview providing a greater yield than an informal interview. (medscape.com)
  • Infants are suspected of having neonatal abstinence syndrome if they exhibit any of the signs listed below. (medscape.com)
  • The consumption of alcohol is an important part of social life in the Netherlands . (bvsalud.org)
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to harmful health effects and significant costs for society. (bvsalud.org)
  • The consumption of alcohol has decreased the last couple of years in the Netherlands due to governmental policies and more awareness on the harmful effects of alcohol. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effective policy interventions to control consumption of alcohol, another substance that, if consumed in excess, can lead to serious health consequences, focus on limiting access to alcoholic beverages by restricting where, when, and by whom they can be purchased and consumed. (cdc.gov)
  • Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol. (bvsalud.org)
  • Men are more likely to have ARBD, although studies suggest that women might be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol as females develop the condition at a significantly younger age than men. (yahoo.com)
  • Instead, the harmful effects of alcohol may continue during abstinence. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But others argue that there's little reason to believe Dry January will reduce the worst effects of alcohol, and may even make things worse. (yahoo.com)
  • Abstinence from tobacco. (alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org)
  • An Alcohol Policy in Practice CPD course run by UKCTAS, the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies will take place in Edinburgh from 22nd to 25th September 2014. (alcoholpolicy.net)
  • All questions were explored, but particular attention was paid to respondents' understandings of various substances (prescription pain relievers, non-prescription drugs, alcohol, and tobacco products) and treatment and counseling programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Although policy lessons from tobacco-use control may also be informative, the parallels between moderate alcohol and food consumption make alcohol a more relevant comparator. (cdc.gov)
  • It can also cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which can lead to lifelong physical and mental health problems. (health.gov)
  • Withdrawal that presents within the first 24 hours of life is reported among infants with the dysmorphic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Moderate to heavy alcohol use by women during pregnancy has been associated with many severe adverse effects in their children, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) -- with facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and central nervous system deficits -- and other neurodevelopmental effects (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Recovery of neuropsychological function following abstinence from alcohol in adults diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder: protocol for a systematic review of longitudinal studies. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Powell, Anna and Sumnall, Harry and Smith, Jessica and Kuiper, Rebecca and Montgomery, Catharine (2022) Recovery of neuropsychological function following abstinence from alcohol in adults diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder: protocol for a systematic review of longitudinal studies. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Because such attitudes may have changed over time, this study was designed to assess the current acceptance of nonabstinence goals by addiction professionals as a function of type of substance (alcohol vs. drug), severity of the disorder (DSM-IV abuse vs. DSM-IV dependence), and finality of the outcome goal (intermediate vs. final). (blogspot.com)
  • Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Health care providers have developed a list of symptoms that a person has to have in the past year to be diagnosed with alcohol use disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It does not diagnose alcohol use disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scientists from the Institute of Neuroscience CSIC-UMH in Alicante, Spain collaborated with others from the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim in Germany to examine the structural brain changes in people with alcohol use disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • De Santis and colleagues used neuroimaging techniques to examine 90 people with alcohol use disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As a control group, the researchers recruited 36 men who were 41 years old on average and did not have alcohol use disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He said it shows a poor understanding of alcohol abuse as a "very complex behavioral disorder. (go.com)
  • Alcohol Use Disorder and Rehabilitation Alcohol use disorder involves a pattern of alcohol use that typically includes craving and manifestations of tolerance and/or withdrawal along with adverse psychosocial consequences. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This report analyzes and compares data from the 1995 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and previously reported 1991 BRFSS data for women aged 18-44 years (3), and presents the prevalence of alcohol consumption among pregnant women and overall and state-specific prevalence rates among women of childbearing age. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings indicate a substantial increase in alcohol use among pregnant women from 1991 to 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • The small numbers of pregnant women sampled in each state preclude accurate state-specific prevalence rates for alcohol consumption among pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Withdrawal from high levels of maternal alcohol can occur within a day or 2 of birth. (medscape.com)
  • However, the detection window can vary depending on factors such as the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption and individual differences in metabolism. (psychologily.com)
  • A total of 33,585 women aged 18-44 years were interviewed about their amount and frequency of alcohol consumption during the month preceding the survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Having an alcohol-attributable principal admitting diagnosis was significantly associated with fewer HDDs in patients who were nondependent [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.32] or who had low alcohol problem perception (aIRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.99) at hospital admission. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol is a dangerous substance. (yahoo.com)
  • In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance - like food - of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcohol is a controlled substance that is not essential for survival. (cdc.gov)
  • The consumption of both food and alcohol is related to the social context in which the substance is consumed. (cdc.gov)
  • An international website dedicated to providing current information on news, reports, publications,and peer-reviewed research articles concerning alcoholism and alcohol-related problems throughout the world. (blogspot.com)
  • To support the free and open dissemination of research findings and information on alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. (blogspot.com)
  • Chronic alcoholism is often associated with a disturbed gait and balance, likely caused by alcohol damage to neural systems. (addictionts.com)
  • A standard alcoholic drink contains 14 g of alcohol (eg, 12-ounce bottle of 5% beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits) (see National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): Drinking Patterns and Their Definitions ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • But whatever the reason, while most drinkers are aware of the effect that alcohol can have on their livers or waistlines, many do not realise how excessive (and continuous) drinking can cause long-term damage to the brain. (yahoo.com)
  • However, for those who consume excessive amounts of alcohol over extended periods, this repeated brain damage can have a long-lasting effect on neuronal and mental health . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Excessive alcohol consumption results in progressive bone loss and increased risk for osteoporosis development and, consequently, increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures 13,14 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Infants born at less than 35 weeks' gestation whose mothers received methadone maintenance had significantly lower total and CNS abstinence scores than did term infants of mothers receiving similar methadone dosages. (medscape.com)
  • A notable escalation in women's use of alcohol was documented prior to the pandemic, showing an 85 percent rise in alcohol-related deaths among women during the years 1999-2017. (lifehack.org)
  • Over one half of respondents rated nonabstinence as somewhat or completely acceptable as both an intermediate and final outcome goal for clients with alcohol abuse, but considerably smaller proportions rated nonabstinence an acceptable intermediate or final outcome goal for clients with alcohol dependence. (blogspot.com)
  • Long-term alcohol dependence also results in impaired dopamine transmission in the striatum, an important area for motor control. (addictionts.com)
  • The findings have important implications for the process of recovery from alcohol dependence. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doing this allowed them "to monitor the transition from normal to alcohol dependence in the brain, a process that is not possible to see in humans," explains De Santis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We tested associations between poor physical health and drinking after hospitalization and whether associations varied by alcohol dependence status and readiness to change. (cdc.gov)
  • Interactions between each independent variable and alcohol dependence and readiness to change were tested. (cdc.gov)
  • No significant association between alcohol-attributable principal admitting diagnosis and number of HDDs was identified for participants with alcohol dependence or high problem perception. (cdc.gov)
  • Foremost is determining that a patient is unlikely to drink again after receiving a new liver - that he or she is "committed to lifelong abstinence," said Lee. (go.com)
  • It was to promote the signing of total alcohol abstinence pledges by children. (alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org)
  • Despite concerted efforts by health care professionals to promote prenatal care, the mother may not have received such care and the delivery hospitalization may be the only opportunity to elicit information on the nature and extent of the infant's in utero exposure to drugs and alcohol. (medscape.com)
  • The Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement (AAMR), is an innovative sentencing tool that allows courts across London, Humberside, Lincolnshire and North Yorkshire to impose a compulsory period of sobriety upon individuals convicted of an offence where alcohol consumption was an element of the offence, or associated offence. (scramsystems.com)
  • One of the biggest questions for the future of drinking in the U.S. is whether Gen Z will continue to avoid alcohol in the long term or if their higher rates of sobriety are the result of temporary cultural forces that may evaporate as they age. (yahoo.com)
  • Normalizing sobriety in an alcohol-dependent society is difficult, especially when individuals are up against a trillion-dollar industry pumping out advertisements and making it seem like the only way to experience life is with a drink in your hand. (yahoo.com)
  • OBJECTIVE(S): To assess neuropsychological function recovery following abstinence in individuals with a clinical AUD diagnosis. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Eligible studies are those with a longitudinal design that assessed neuropsychological recovery following abstinence from alcohol in adults with a clinical diagnosis of AUD. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • The Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America was a Roman Catholic temperance organization active in the 19th and 20th centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • 177 such societies from 10 states and the District of Columbia, representing a total of 26,481 members, created the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America. (wikipedia.org)
  • In total, over 500,000 Roman Catholics made the temperance of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Reverend Thomas J. Conaty, then the president of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America, advocated for teetotalism in the May 1887 edition of Catholic World: The saloon has fastened itself upon society as an ulcer living upon the life-blood of the people. (wikipedia.org)
  • A celebration of moral force : the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America Centennial Fountain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening pregnant women for alcohol use and referring them to treatment if needed can help women avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy. (health.gov)
  • 1) pregnancy intention, 2) multivitamin use, 3) physical abuse, 4) cigarette smoking during pregnancy, 5) cigarette smoking cessation, 6) drinking alcohol during pregnancy, 7) breastfeeding initiation, and 8) infant sleep position. (cdc.gov)
  • One implication of the findings is that individuals with alcohol and drug problems who avoid treatment because they are ambivalent about abstinence should know that-depending on the severity of their condition, the finality of their nonabstinence goal, and their drug of choice-their interest in moderating their consumption will be acceptable to many clinicians, especially those working in outpatient and independent practice settings. (blogspot.com)
  • The findings of the new study challenge preexisting beliefs that brain damage stops immediately with the cessation of alcohol consumption. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Unfortunately, there is still a social stigma on the abstinence of alcohol consumption , which can lead to sober shaming. (bvsalud.org)
  • When detecting alcohol consumption in a urine sample, the Ethyl Glucuronide test is one of the most reliable options. (psychologily.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the initial psychometric properties of the Inventory of Anticipatory Coping Skills for Abstinence from Alcohol and Other Drugs ( Inventário de Habilidades de Enfrentamento Antecipatório para a Abstinência de Álcool e Outras Drogas - IDHEA-AD). (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective: FCTC compliant legislation enacted and enforced, and strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol supported. (who.int)
  • Objective: Unhealthy alcohol use is common in medical inpatients, and hospitalization has been hypothesized to serve as a "teachable moment" that could motivate patients to decrease drinking, but studies of hospital-based brief interventions have often not found decreases. (cdc.gov)
  • Diets that include beverage alcohol focus on carbohydrates. (forbes.com)
  • Although alcohol may provide a short-term release from the stresses of life - particularly during a pandemic - many drinkers may be developing an unhealthy habit with alcohol that is damaging their brains. (yahoo.com)
  • Evaluating associations between physical health and subsequent drinking among medical inpatients with unhealthy alcohol use could inform refinement of hospital-based brief interventions by identifying an important foundation on which to build them. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Participants were medical inpatients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use and consented to participate in a randomized trial of brief intervention (n = 341). (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Among medical inpatients with nondependent unhealthy alcohol use and those who do not view their drinking as problematic, alcohol-attributable illness may catalyze decreased drinking. (cdc.gov)
  • One drink is defined as 12 ounces or 360 milliliters (mL) of beer (5% alcohol content), 5 ounces or 150 mL of wine (12% alcohol content), or a 1.5-ounce or 45-mL shot of liquor (80 proof, or 40% alcohol content). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The estimated state-specific prevalence of alcohol consumption among women aged 18-44 years varied substantially by state for both any drinking (from 26.1% in Utah to 68.2% in Wisconsin) and for frequent drinking (from 4.0% in Tennessee to 19.4% in Wisconsin) ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • So even if you do not totally give up alcohol, you may be able to drink less . (medlineplus.gov)
  • have said they plan to give up alcohol in Dry January, according to the charity that coined the phrase 10 years ago, Alcohol Change UK. (yahoo.com)
  • It is important to note that an Ethyl Glucuronide test cannot distinguish between alcohol consumption from drinking and exposure to alcohol from other sources, such as hand sanitizers, mouthwash, or food cooked with alcohol. (psychologily.com)
  • it occurs even with a single exposure to alcohol. (lifehack.org)
  • This follows a reported 31% increase in alcohol sales at the start of lockdown. (yahoo.com)
  • The increase in alcohol-related deaths was particularly significant among women. (yahoo.com)
  • But people do seem to get more of an understanding with their own relationship with alcohol and what they want to do with their relationship with drinking for the rest of the year. (yahoo.com)
  • Alcohol use during pregnancy is linked to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and sudden infant death syndrome. (health.gov)
  • Women who have abortions are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol compared with those who carry a pregnancy to term, a new Australian study shows. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • ARBD often starts with mild symptoms but can progress to more severe problems if alcohol is still consumed at harmful quantities (defined as 35 units - roughly four bottles of wine - per week for women, and 50 units for men). (yahoo.com)
  • Instead of passing time drinking alcohol, this could be replaced by physical activity, which is known to boost the immune system and benefit mental health . (yahoo.com)
  • Results: Among all participants, measures of physical health were not significantly associated with either abstinence or number of HDDs at 3 months. (cdc.gov)
  • ALCOHOL REPORTS: Acceptance of Non-Abstinence Goals by Addiction Professionals in the United States. (blogspot.com)
  • This was compared to a new intervention, called Moderation Oriented Cue Exposure, that involves practising consuming a moderate amount of alcohol across a range of situations, and then resisting the temptation to continue. (alcoholchange.org.uk)
  • They say most people who participate are casual to moderate drinkers who don't represent the real harm that alcohol causes. (yahoo.com)
  • This can create a strong association between alcohol and pleasurable feelings. (diabetescompass.com)
  • Alcohol and sugar can both stimulate the release of endorphins, which provide feelings of pleasure and reward. (diabetescompass.com)
  • While some studies have suggested that abstinence can lead to partial recovery of gait and balance functions, questions remain about duration of abstinence and sample size. (addictionts.com)
  • There appears to be a threshold effect above which the amount and duration of alcohol use increases the risk of the development of liver disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • EtG is a metabolite produced by the liver when it breaks down ethanol, the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. (psychologily.com)
  • Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink "specials. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment for ARBD typically means abstinence from alcohol, followed by rehabilitation. (yahoo.com)
  • The NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration levels to 0.08 g/dL, which typically occurs after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men, in about 2 hours (see NIAAA: Drinking Levels Defined ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • By 1925, over five million children had signed the total abstinence pledge cards. (alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org)
  • The total sample included 457 individuals in treatment for problems related to alcohol or crack use. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Union included women's and juvenile societies as well as the Priest's Total Abstinence League. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arrogance of the saloon and the power it wields in political affairs, all for its own interests and against those of society, have awakened a stronger interest in the cause of total abstinence organized on Catholic principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also recognize as worthy of great praise the Catholic Total Abstinence Union and the confraternity of 'The Sacred Thirst,' laboring as they are, by prayer and good works, for the promotion of temperance, and relying as they do more on the grace of God, the efficacy of prayer and the sacraments, than on the strength of the human will alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pope Leo XIII, on 27 March 1887, commended the work of the temperance movement, especially the Catholic Total Abstinence Union, "esteem[ing] worthy of all commendation the noble resolve of your pious associations, by which they pledge themselves to abstain totally from every kind of intoxicating drinks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catholicism portal Pioneer Total Abstinence Association Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain List of Temperance organizations Gasparini, Daria A. (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aiming for moderation rather than total abstinence has been shown to be an appropriate goal for some problem drinkers, especially for those who are less severely dependent. (alcoholchange.org.uk)
  • Although alcohol-related injuries and diseases are related to the total quantity of ethanol consumed in a given period, the relevance for some diet-related chronic diseases is not simply the total number of calories, but also the nutritional value provided in those calories. (cdc.gov)
  • People may turn to sugary foods and drinks as a way to cope with the emotional and psychological challenges of quitting alcohol. (diabetescompass.com)
  • In the UK, 21% of people are drinking more alcohol than they did before the pandemic, according to a recent survey . (yahoo.com)
  • People with diabetes are also at risk of a false-positive result on an EtG alcohol test. (psychologily.com)
  • Your provider may order tests to check for health problems that are common in people who use alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many people with an alcohol problem need to completely stop using alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like many people with an alcohol problem, you may not recognize that your drinking has gotten out of your control. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There was also concern that the public would stop donating organs if they thought livers would be going to people with alcohol addictions. (go.com)
  • People with ALD may have long periods of drinking and abstinence. (go.com)
  • Many argue that Dry January is a sign that more people, particularly young people, are making a wise choice to reconsider the role alcohol plays in their lives and reconsider social mores around drinking. (yahoo.com)
  • For example, many people report use of opioids as well as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and other prescribed or non-prescribed substances. (newswise.com)
  • We have several medications that can help people with AUDs to maintain abstinence or to reduce drinking. (medscape.com)
  • The Alcohol Problems and Solutions website makes no recommendations about any subject. (alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org)
  • All rights reserved for entire Alcohol Problems and Solutions website. (alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org)
  • No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For alcohol, the correlation has supported the use of population-level approaches, such as taxation and outlet density control, to tackle problems related to alcohol use. (cdc.gov)
  • The use made of health care resources was significantly reduced, Savings to the health care system were identified for both alcohol-related and non-alcohol -related health care. (alcoholchange.org.uk)
  • Chronic alcohol abuse consistently damages the cerebellum, a complex structure located at the back of the brain below the cerebrum, explained Stan Smith, a neurobehavioral scientist with Neurobehavioral Research and corresponding author for the study. (addictionts.com)
  • A briefing from Alcohol Concern Cymru examines how alcohol consumption and reports of domestic abuse increase during sporting occasions. (alcoholpolicy.net)
  • Understanding the Connection: Alcohol and Sugar Cravings: Quitting alcohol can lead to increased sugar cravings due to various factors such as behavioral effects, emotional eating, and neurochemical changes. (diabetescompass.com)
  • After consumption, alcohol is metabolized by the liver into acetaldehyde and acetic acid. (psychologily.com)
  • An estimated 17,000 Americans are on the waiting list for a liver transplant, and there's a strong chance that many of them have alcohol-associated liver disease. (go.com)
  • Another could be an increasing openness within the transplant community to a candidate's history of alcohol and addiction and when a candidate combating these issues can qualify for a liver. (go.com)
  • Oesterle, who was 24 and had battled alcohol addiction since age 16, went to the emergency room in Peoria, Ill., in 2013, already in liver failure. (go.com)
  • See also the 2019 American Association for the Study of Liver Disease's practice guidelines for Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Binge drinking may also increase alcohol-related liver disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The effectiveness of antialcohol medications used treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in outpatients varies, according to an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. (medscape.com)
  • PhD studentship at Salford University, UK, looking at the workplace as a setting for testing the effectiveness of alcohol interventions. (alcoholpolicy.net)
  • Estrogen deficiency and chronic alcohol consumption may have a synergistic and deleterious effect on bone tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aim: To investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency associated with chronic alcohol consumption on the mandibular condyle in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brief interventions that highlight alcohol-related illness might be more successful. (cdc.gov)
  • By implementing these strategies and seeking support, individuals can effectively manage sugar cravings after quitting alcohol and break the cycle of substituting one addiction for another. (diabetescompass.com)
  • Alcohol consumption affects the brain's reward system, leading to the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure. (diabetescompass.com)
  • The event explores Scottish alcohol policy, minimum unit pricing and Scottish-based ABI (alcohol brief intervention) research, and more. (alcoholpolicy.net)