A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.

Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. (1/131)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentrations of aggrecan fragments in synovial fluid from patients with knee joint injury, osteoarthritis (OA), or acute pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; pseudogout), and to test their relative reactivity with the 846 epitope, a putative marker of cartilage aggrecan synthesis. METHODS: Samples of knee joint fluid from 385 patients and 9 healthy-knee volunteers were obtained in a cross-sectional study. Study groups were acute PPA/ pseudogout (n = 60), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture (n = 159), meniscus lesion (n = 129), and primary knee OA (n = 37). The 846 epitope on aggrecan was assayed by competitive solution-phase radioimmunoassay. Aggrecan fragments were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody (1-F21). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), bone sialoprotein, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 were previously quantified by immunoassays. RESULTS: Reactivity of the 846 epitope was increased in all study groups compared with the reference group, and was highest in patients with primary OA. The median levels (in microg fetal aggrecan equivalents/ml) of the epitope were 0.28 (range 0.24-0.47) in the reference group, 0.48 (range 0.26-1.32) in PPA/pseudogout, 0.61 (range 0.12-2.87) in ACL rupture, 0.53 (range 0.22-3.02) in meniscus lesion, and 0.68 (range 0.31-4.31) in primary OA. The 846 epitope reactivity per microg aggrecan fragments in the joint fluid was higher in late-stage OA than in early-stage OA. Epitope 846 reactivity correlated positively with several markers of matrix turnover, particularly with COMP (r(s) = 0.421) and CPII (r(s) = 0.307). CONCLUSION: The observed differences in 846 epitope reactivity in synovial fluid, and its concentration in relation to aggrecan and other markers of matrix turnover, were consistent with marked ongoing changes in aggrecan turnover after joint injury and in the development of OA. OA is thus a disease characterized by dynamic changes in tissue macromolecule turnover, which is reflected by measurable changes in aggrecan epitopes in the synovial fluid.  (+info)

Differences in the acid-labile component of Candida albicans mannan from hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cells. (2/131)

Cell surface hydrophobicity of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans has been linked to the level of cell wall protein glycosylation. Previous work demonstrated that outer chain mannosylation, rather than overall glycosylation, correlated with cell surface hydrophobicity. These studies further suggested that the phosphodiester-linked, acid-labile beta-1,2-mannan was the correlating element. The present work tests this hypothesis and extends the previous results. The composition of bulk mannan from hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cells, and the acid-labile mannan from both cell types are compared. Compositional analysis shows that the protein, hexose, and phosphorus content of bulk mannan is similar between the two phenotypes. Electrophoretic separation of acid-released and fluorophore-labeled mannan shows that the acid-labile oligomannosides from hydrophobic cells are longer and potentially in greater abundance than those from hydrophilic cells. These results suggest that regulation of a single step in cell wall protein outer chain mannosylation affects the cell surface ultrastructure and phenotype of C.albicans.  (+info)

Induction of dog sperm capacitation by glycosaminoglycans and glycosaminoglycan amounts of oviductal and uterine fluids in bitches. (3/131)

Ejaculated sperm collected from 12 beagle dogs were incubated in canine capacitation medium (CCM), supplemented with 5 microg/ml chondroitin sulfate A (CS), 5 microg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA), or 5 microg/ml heparin (HP) for 7 hr at 38 degrees C in a 5% CO2 in air atmosphere to investigate the effects of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on dog sperm capacitation. The percentages of motile sperm, hyperactivated sperm (%HY), and acrosome-reacted sperm (%AR) in all media were examined after 4 hr and 7 hr of incubation. The oviducts and uteri of 9 anestrous and 18 estrous beagle bitches were removed under halothane inhalation anesthesia to measure the total GAG amounts in oviductal and uterine fluids. The lumens of the ampulla of the oviducts, isthmus of the oviducts, and the uterine horns were each flushed with 1 ml HEPES-EDTA fluid. Total GAG amounts in the flush fluids obtained were measured with a spectrophotometer. Sperm motility (51-59%), %HY (79-86%), and %AR (31-36%) in CCM supplemented with CS, HA, or HP were significantly higher after 7 hr of incubation than when incubated in CCM without GAGs (P<0.01 or 0.05). The mean total GAG amounts in the fluids from the ampulla and isthmus of the oviducts and the uterine horns in the estrous bitches were higher than in the anestrous bitches. These results indicate that GAGs in the oviductal and uterine fluids in estrous bitches are associated with in vivo sperm capacitation.  (+info)

Mapping metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer. (4/131)

Localization of metastases within the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of breast cancer has not been studied. Forty SLNs from 36 patients with operable primary breast cancers were identified by means of lymphatic mapping with patent blue dye. The junction between the patent blue-stained lymphatic vessel draining the tumor and the SLN was labeled with alcian blue. Metastases within the serially sectioned SLNs were assigned to the alcian blue-labeled side, to the opposite side of the virtually halved nodes, or both. Eight SLNs were negative for metastasis. Eleven SLNs had metastases only in the blue half. Only 4 cases had larger metastases in the nonblue half. Metastases are more likely to be located in the vicinity of the inflow junction of the identifiable lymphatic draining the tumor and the SLN. This should be considered when SLNs are examined, especially when they are halved for different studies.  (+info)

The pathogenesis of duodenal gastric metaplasia: the role of local goblet cell transformation. (5/131)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric metaplasia is frequently seen in biopsies of the duodenal cap, particularly when inflamed or ulcerated. In its initial manifestation small patches of gastric foveolar cells appear near the tip of a villus. These cells contain periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive neutral mucins in contrast with the alcian blue (AB) positive acidic mucins within duodenal goblet cells. Previous investigations have suggested that these PAS positive cells originate either in Brunner's gland ducts or at the base of duodenal crypts and migrate in distinct streams to the upper villus. To investigate the origin of gastric metaplasia in superficial patches, we used the PAS/AB stain to distinguish between neutral and acidic mucins and in addition specific antibodies to immunolocalise foveolar cell mucin MUC5AC, the foveolar cell secretory product, gastric trefoil factor (TFF1), the mature goblet cell mucin MUC2, and MUC2 core antigen. RESULTS: Cells in focal patches of gastric metaplasia contained secretory granules of both gastric and goblet cell phenotypes. MUC5AC and TFF1 were present as expected in gastric foveolar cells but in addition, MUC2 core antigen, normally present only in the Golgi of intestinal goblet cells, was expressed in secretory granules. Goblet cells in the vicinity of metaplastic patches also expressed both gastric and intestinal antigens. MUC5AC/MUC2 containing goblet cells were most common near the villus tip but were also seen at the base of crypts. Where crypts and Brunner's gland ducts merged they were always seen on the crypt side of the junction. Goblet cells were the only cells to express gastric antigens in these areas. In advanced metaplastic lesions, dual phenotype goblet cells were less evident and fewer cells expressed intestinal mucin antigens. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that goblet cells that express both intestinal and gastric antigens may represent local precursors of gastric metaplasia undergoing a transition to foveolar-like cells of mixed phenotype at the site of early metaplastic patches. As metaplasia becomes more widespread, a more pure gastric phenotype emerges. This progression is likely to be controlled by local inflammatory signals.  (+info)

Development of conjunctival goblet cells and their neuroreceptor subtype expression. (6/131)

PURPOSE: To investigate expression of muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors on developing conjunctival goblet cells. METHODS: Eyes were removed from rats 9 to 60 days old, fixed, and used for microscopy. For glycoconjugate expression, sections were stained with Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiffs reagent (AB/PAS) and with the lectins Ulex europeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA). Goblet cell bodies were identified using anti-cytokeratin 7 (CK7). Nerve fibers were localized using anti-protein gene product 9.5. Location of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors was investigated using anti-muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors. RESULTS: At days 9 and 13, single apical cells in conjunctival epithelium stained with AB/PAS, UEA-I, and CK7. At days 17 and 60, increasing numbers of goblet cells were identified by AB/PAS, UEA-I, HPA, and CK7. Nerve fibers were localized around stratified squamous cells and at the epithelial base at days 9 and 13, and around goblet cells and at the epithelial base at days 17 and 60. At days 9 and 13, M2- and M3-muscarinic and beta2-adrenergic receptors were found in stratified squamous cells, but M1-muscarinic and beta1-adrenergic receptors were not detected. At days 17 and 60, M2- and M3-muscarinic receptors were found in goblet cells, whereas M1-muscarinic receptors were in stratified squamous cells. Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors were found on both cell types. Beta3-adrenergic receptors were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunctiva, nerves, M2- and M3-muscarinic, and beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors are present on developing goblet cells and could regulate secretion as eyelids open.  (+info)

Dynamic regulation of mucus gel thickness in rat duodenum. (7/131)

We examined the dynamic regulation of mucus gel thickness (MGT) in vivo in rat duodenum in response to luminal acid, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition, and exogenous PGE(2). An in vivo microscopic technique was used to measure MGT with fluorescent microspheres in urethan-anesthetized rats. Duodenal mucosa was topically superfused with pH 7.0 or pH 2.2 solutions with or without PGE(2) and indomethacin treatments. Glycoprotein concentration of duodenal loop perfusates was measured with periodic acid/Schiff (PAS) or Alcian blue (AB) staining. MGT and perfusate glycoprotein concentration were stable during a 35-min perfusion with pH 7.0 solution. Acid exposure increased MGT and PAS- and AB-positive perfusate glycoprotein concentrations. Indomethacin pretreatment increased both PAS- and AB-positive perfusate glycoprotein at baseline; subsequent acid superfusion decreased perfusate glycoproteins and gel thickness. PGE(2) (1 mg/kg iv) simultaneously increased MGT and PAS-positive perfusate glycoprotein concentrations followed by a transient increase in AB-positive glycoprotein concentration, suggesting contributions from goblet cells and Brunner's glands. Parallel changes in MGT and perfusate glycoprotein concentration in response to luminal acid and PGE(2) suggest that rapid MGT variations reflect alterations in the balance between mucus secretion and exudation, which in turn are regulated by a COX-related pathway. Luminal acid and PGE(2) augment mucus secretion from goblet cells and Brunner's glands.  (+info)

Genetic control of yeast mannan structure: mapping genes mnn2 and mnn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/131)

Two mutations concerned with mannan biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been mapping. The mnn2 mutation, which affects the addition to the polysaccharide backbone of the first side-chain D-mannose unit in alpha1-leads to2 linkage, was located on chromosome II linked to the centromere and the gall locus. The mn4 locus, which regulates the synthesis of mannosylphosphate groups on the mannan side chains, was placed on chromosome XI near trp3 and ural and a locus previously reported to regulate the ability of a S. diastaticus strain to bind alcian blue (Friis and Ottolenghi, 1970). The mnn4 mutant also fails to bind alcain blue, but the gene responsible for alcian blud binding in this strain segregates independently from the dye-binding locus of S. diastaticus, and therefore must be a different gene. A diploid heterozygous for mnn4 fails to bind dye, indicating dominance of this mutant genotype. The alcian blue dye binding locus dbll, reported to Friis and Ottolenghi (1970), is also dominant. Thus, there are at least two independent genes that control the formation of the mannosylphosphate units in the mannan side chains, and both have the property of dominance in the mutant form.  (+info)

Alcian Blue is a type of dye that is commonly used in histology, which is the study of the microscopic structure of tissues. It is particularly useful for staining acidic mucopolysaccharides and proteoglycans, which are important components of the extracellular matrix in many tissues.

Alcian Blue binds to these negatively charged molecules through ionic interactions, forming a complex that can be visualized under a microscope. The dye is often used in combination with other stains to provide contrast and highlight specific structures within tissues.

The intensity of the Alcian Blue stain can also provide information about the degree of sulfation or carboxylation of the mucopolysaccharides, which can be useful in diagnosing certain diseases or abnormalities. For example, changes in the staining pattern of proteoglycans have been associated with various types of arthritis and other joint disorders.

Overall, Alcian Blue is an important tool in the field of histology and has contributed significantly to our understanding of tissue structure and function.

The Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction is a histological staining method used to detect the presence of certain carbohydrates, such as glycogen and glycoproteins, in tissues or cells. This technique involves treating the tissue with periodic acid, which oxidizes the vicinal hydroxyl groups in the carbohydrates, creating aldehydes. The aldehydes then react with Schiff's reagent, forming a magenta-colored complex that is visible under a microscope.

The PAS reaction is commonly used to identify and analyze various tissue components, such as basement membranes, fungal cell walls, and mucins in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It can also be used to diagnose certain medical conditions, like kidney diseases, where abnormal accumulations of carbohydrates occur in the renal tubules or glomeruli.

In summary, the Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction is a staining method that detects specific carbohydrates in tissues or cells, which can aid in diagnostic and research applications.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues in the body. GAGs are negatively charged due to the presence of sulfate and carboxyl groups, which allows them to attract positively charged ions and water molecules, contributing to their ability to retain moisture and maintain tissue hydration and elasticity.

GAGs can be categorized into four main groups: heparin/heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. These different types of GAGs have varying structures and functions in the body, including roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and protection against enzymatic degradation.

Heparin is a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate that is found in mast cells and has anticoagulant properties. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are commonly found in cartilage and contribute to its resiliency and ability to withstand compressive forces. Keratan sulfate is found in corneas, cartilage, and bone, where it plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of these tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a large, nonsulfated GAG that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in synovial fluid, where it provides lubrication and shock absorption for joints.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Tolonium Chloride, also known as Toluidine Blue O, is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye that is used in medical and research settings. It is often used as a diagnostic agent in procedures such as the Toluidine Blue Test for identifying cancerous or precancerous cells in the cervix, oral mucosa, and other tissues. The dye selectively binds to acidic components in the extracellular matrix of neoplastic cells, making them more visible under a microscope. It is also used in research to study cell membrane permeability and lysosomal function. Please note that the use of Tolonium Chloride should be under medical supervision and professional guidance.

Sialomucins are a type of glycoprotein mucins that contain high amounts of sialic acid, which is a family of negatively charged sugars found on the surface of many cell types. These mucins are produced by the major salivary glands and are a major component of saliva. They play an important role in lubricating and protecting the oral cavity, as well as contributing to the mouth's ability to resist infection and damage.

Sialomucins have also been shown to have various biological functions, such as regulating cell adhesion, modulating immune responses, and serving as receptors for certain viruses and bacteria. Abnormalities in sialomucin expression or structure have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Mucins are high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major components of mucus. They are produced and secreted by specialized epithelial cells in various organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the eyes and ears.

Mucins have a characteristic structure consisting of a protein backbone with numerous attached oligosaccharide side chains, which give them their gel-forming properties and provide a protective barrier against pathogens, environmental insults, and digestive enzymes. They also play important roles in lubrication, hydration, and cell signaling.

Mucins can be classified into two main groups based on their structure and function: secreted mucins and membrane-bound mucins. Secreted mucins are released from cells and form a physical barrier on the surface of mucosal tissues, while membrane-bound mucins are integrated into the cell membrane and participate in cell adhesion and signaling processes.

Abnormalities in mucin production or function have been implicated in various diseases, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

Chondrogenesis is the process of cartilage formation during embryonic development and in the healing of certain types of injuries. It involves the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

During chondrogenesis, the mesenchymal stem cells condense and form a template for the future cartilaginous tissue. These cells then differentiate into chondrocytes, which begin to produce and deposit collagen type II, proteoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components that give cartilage its unique biochemical and mechanical properties.

Chondrogenesis is a critical process for the development of various structures in the body, including the skeletal system, where it plays a role in the formation of articular cartilage, growth plates, and other types of cartilage. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate chondrogenesis is important for developing therapies to treat cartilage injuries and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyronine" is not a medical term. It is a type of basic dye that is often used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) and cytology (the study of individual cells). Pyronin Y, a specific type of pyronine dye, is sometimes used to stain acidic components within cells, such as DNA and RNA. However, it is not a term that is typically used in clinical medicine to describe diseases or conditions.

Uronic acids are a type of organic compound that are carboxylic acids derived from sugars (carbohydrates). They are formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol group (-CH2OH) on a pentose sugar, resulting in a carboxyl group (-COOH) at that position.

The most common uronic acid is glucuronic acid, which is derived from glucose. Other examples include galacturonic acid (derived from galactose), iduronic acid (derived from glucose or galactose), and mannuronic acid (derived from mannose).

Uronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, such as the formation of complex carbohydrates like glycosaminoglycans, which are major components of connective tissues. They also serve as important intermediates in the metabolism of sugars and other carbohydrates.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

Goblet cells are specialized epithelial cells that are located in various mucosal surfaces, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are named for their goblet-like shape, which is characterized by a narrow base and a wide, rounded top that contains secretory granules. These cells play an essential role in producing and secreting mucins, which are high molecular weight glycoproteins that form the gel-like component of mucus.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier for the underlying epithelial cells by trapping foreign particles, microorganisms, and toxins, preventing them from coming into contact with the epithelium. Goblet cells also help maintain the hydration of the mucosal surface, which is important for normal ciliary function in the respiratory tract and for the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.

In summary, goblet cells are secretory cells that produce and release mucins to form the mucus layer, providing a protective barrier and maintaining the homeostasis of mucosal surfaces.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Chondroitin sulfates are a type of complex carbohydrate molecules known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are a major component of cartilage, the tissue that cushions and protects the ends of bones in joints. Chondroitin sulfates are composed of repeating disaccharide units made up of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, which can be sulfated at various positions.

Chondroitin sulfates play a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of cartilage by attracting water and maintaining the resiliency and elasticity of the tissue. They also interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix, such as collagen and proteoglycans, to form a complex network that provides structural support and regulates cell behavior.

Chondroitin sulfates have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage. Supplementation with chondroitin sulfate has been shown to reduce pain and improve joint function in some studies, although the evidence is not consistent across all trials. The mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of enzymes that break down cartilage, as well as stimulation of cartilage repair and synthesis.

Exocrine glands are a type of gland in the human body that produce and release substances through ducts onto an external or internal surface. These glands are responsible for secreting various substances such as enzymes, hormones, and lubricants that help in digestion, protection, and other bodily functions.

Exocrine glands can be further classified into three types based on their mode of secretion:

1. Merocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by exocytosis, where the secretory product is enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents outside the cell. Examples include sweat glands and mucous glands.
2. Apocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by pinching off a portion of the cytoplasm along with the secretory product. An example is the apocrine sweat gland found in the armpits and genital area.
3. Holocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by disintegrating and releasing the entire cell, including its organelles and secretory products. An example is the sebaceous gland found in the skin, which releases an oily substance called sebum.

Glycoconjugates are a type of complex molecule that form when a carbohydrate (sugar) becomes chemically linked to a protein or lipid (fat) molecule. This linkage, known as a glycosidic bond, results in the formation of a new molecule that combines the properties and functions of both the carbohydrate and the protein or lipid component.

Glycoconjugates can be classified into several categories based on the type of linkage and the nature of the components involved. For example, glycoproteins are glycoconjugates that consist of a protein backbone with one or more carbohydrate chains attached to it. Similarly, glycolipids are molecules that contain a lipid anchor linked to one or more carbohydrate residues.

Glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and communication. They are also involved in the immune response, inflammation, and the development of certain diseases such as cancer and infectious disorders. As a result, understanding the structure and function of glycoconjugates is an active area of research in biochemistry, cell biology, and medical science.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Histological techniques are a set of laboratory methods and procedures used to study the microscopic structure of tissues, also known as histology. These techniques include:

1. Tissue fixation: The process of preserving tissue specimens to maintain their structural integrity and prevent decomposition. This is typically done using formaldehyde or other chemical fixatives.
2. Tissue processing: The preparation of fixed tissues for embedding by removing water, fat, and other substances that can interfere with sectioning and staining. This is usually accomplished through a series of dehydration, clearing, and infiltration steps.
3. Embedding: The placement of processed tissue specimens into a solid support medium, such as paraffin or plastic, to facilitate sectioning.
4. Sectioning: The cutting of thin slices (usually 4-6 microns thick) from embedded tissue blocks using a microtome.
5. Staining: The application of dyes or stains to tissue sections to highlight specific structures or components. This can be done through a variety of methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and special stains for specific cell types or molecules.
6. Mounting: The placement of stained tissue sections onto glass slides and covering them with a mounting medium to protect the tissue from damage and improve microscopic visualization.
7. Microscopy: The examination of stained tissue sections using a light or electron microscope to observe and analyze their structure and composition.

These techniques are essential for the diagnosis and study of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infections. They allow pathologists and researchers to visualize and understand the cellular and molecular changes that occur in tissues during disease processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" appears to be a made-up term or a typographical error. The correct term related to hyaluronic acid metabolism is "hyaluronidase," which is an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, a component of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. If you meant to ask about this enzyme or its functions, I'd be happy to provide more information on that. However, if "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" is intended to represent another medical term, could you please clarify so I can provide an accurate and helpful response?

Aggrecan is a large, complex proteoglycan molecule found in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and other connective tissues. It is a key component of the structural framework of these tissues, helping to provide resiliency, cushioning, and protection to the cells within. Aggrecan contains numerous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are negatively charged molecules that attract water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.

The medical definition of 'Aggrecans' can be described as:

1. A large proteoglycan molecule found in articular cartilage and other connective tissues.
2. Composed of a core protein with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, primarily chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate.
3. Plays a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage by attracting water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.
4. Aggrecan degradation or loss is associated with various joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, due to reduced structural integrity and shock-absorbing capabilities of articular cartilage.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Trypan Blue is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a medical stain that is used in various medical and laboratory procedures. Here's the medical definition of Trypan Blue:

Trypan Blue is a sterile, non-toxic dye that is commonly used in medical and research settings for staining and visualizing cells and tissues. It has an affinity for staining dead or damaged cells, making it useful for counting viable cells in a sample, as well as identifying and removing damaged cells during certain surgical procedures.

In ophthalmology, Trypan Blue is used as a surgical aid during cataract surgery to stain the lens capsule, providing better visibility and improving the outcome of the procedure. It may also be used in other types of surgeries to help identify and remove damaged or necrotic tissue.

In research settings, Trypan Blue is often used to distinguish live cells from dead cells in cell culture experiments, as well as for staining various tissues and structures during histological examination.

"Alcian Blue - Alcian Blue - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-08-09. "Safranin Sound". ... Alcian Blue was an American shoegaze and new wave-influenced band operating out of the Washington, D.C. suburb of Takoma Park ... Slow Colorless Stare CD (2001, Safranin Sound) Alcian Blue CD (2006, Elephant Stone) Angelica Take Me Down EP (2003, Safranin ...
... of which the Alcian blue 8G (also called Ingrain blue 1, and C.I. 74240, formerly called Alcian blue 8GX from the name of a ... Solid Alcian blue is a combustible powder and should never be handled close to heat or a naked flame. Heating Alcian blue ... "Alcian Blue". The I.C.I. Journal: 59-60. March 1948. GB 586340 GB 587636 Steedman H. F. (1950). "Alcian blue 8GS: a new stain ... In addition to its use as a dye or stain Alcian blue also finds other material science uses. Alcian blue has been used as an ...
Alcian blue stain. The fibrosis is either evenly distributed between myocytes or follows anatomic structures such as blood ...
Alcian blue stain. Subepicardial fibrosis (epicardium at top) Myocardial infarction management Myocardial infarction ...
Alcian blue stain. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, image highlights the epithelial nucleuses, rest of the ...
Alcian blue stain. Replacement fibrosis in myocardial infarction, being boundless and dense. Arterial stiffness Arthrofibrosis ...
"Alcian Blue - Alcian Blue , Songs, Reviews, Credits , AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2018-03-14. Monger, James. "Animal ... Ward, Brian (1998). Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race. University of California Press. ...
... shades of blue Alcian blue stain Leung, Jennifer K.; Gibbon, Kevin J.; Vartanian, Robert K. (1996-06-01). "Rapid Staining ... Alcian yellow is used in histology in conjunction with toluidine blue to help visualize H. pylori. The resulting structures are ... Alcian yellow is an azo dye with the formula (CH3[(CH3N)2CS]2C6H2SNCC6H4)2N2. Its structure consists of a largely conjugated ... stained as follows: - Mucin: yellow - H. pylori: blue - Other cellular components/background: ...
Sheath, Robert G.; Cole, Kathleen M. (1990). "Differential alcian blue staining in freshwater Rhodophyta". British Phycological ...
Histopathological staining shows characteristic alcian blue-positive deposits. Various imaging modalities, including confocal ...
The myxoid background stroma stain positive for Alcian blue stain. Many mast cells can be seen dispersed in the stroma. ...
Early lesions, rich in acid mucopolysaccharides, stain positively with alcian blue. When medullary thyroid cancer is present, ... Luxol fast blue staining identifies myelin sheathing of some fibers, and lesional cells react immunohistochemically for S-100 ...
Alcian blue will give a blue staining to the stromal matrix material. Mucicarmine will also highlight the stromal matrix (pink ...
Contributors to the band also include Matt Welch of the band Alcian Blue. Tyler now also plays in the band Alias Linn. Wood and ... The first lineup (2000-2002) featured Bryan Smith on bass, and Sam Chintha of the band Alcian Blue drumming. Adam Robinson (who ...
Mucin is observable after the application of "alcian blue dye" on the tissue specimen. The histological observation of goblet ...
This activity observed by staining basophils with alcian blue was confirmed by flow cytometry. Inhibition by histamine was ...
... alcian blue, Verhoeff hematoxylin and crocein scarlet combined with acidic fuchsine and saffron. At pH 2.5, alcian blue is ... Movat's stain showing thickening of the spongiosa layer (blue) in myxomatous degeneration of the aortic valve. Movat's stain ...
Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS or AB-PAS) uses alcian blue before the PAS step. PAS staining is mainly used for ... dyes Methyl blue Methyl violet Methylene blue New methylene blue Potassium ferricyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Prussian blue ... Carboxyfluorescein DyLight Fluor, a product line of fluorescent dyes Egyptian blue Eosin Erythrosine Fluorescein Fluorescein ...
The dyes alizarin red and alcian blue are most commonly used in the staining of bone and cartilage accordingly. When cleared, ... usually alizarin red and alcian blue. Diaphonization was first developed by Schultze in 1897, and later was modified by ...
The histochemical stain Alcian blue pH 2.5 is also frequently used to distinguish true intestinal-type mucins from their ...
The use of Alcian blue to stain these otherwise transparent molecules has been beneficial in more efficiently analyzing them ...
... classic nuclear features of PTC and abundant mucoid stroma positively stained with Alcian blue (g) Spindle cell variant of ... the follicles were distended and full of Alcian blue-positive mucinous material (e). Mucinous variant of papillary thyroid ... epithelial cells showing epidermoid cells and glandular spaces containing mucinous material positively stained with Alcian blue ...
"Alcian Blue - Artist Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 9 January 2015. Monger, James Christopher. "The Amazing ... Action Steve Adey Adorable The Afghan Whigs The Ailerons Air Miami The Airborne Toxic Event Airhead Alabama Shakes Alcian Blue ... Jezabels Jet Jets to Brazil Jimmy Eat World JJ72 Jjamz Joan of Arc Johnny Foreigner Johnossi Daniel Johnston Jon Spencer Blues ... Party Young the Giant Young Knives Young Rival The Young Veins Youngblood Hawke Youth Group Yuck Yukon Blonde Yves Klein Blue ...
... "alcian blue" raises the question: what is alcian bluie? Biotechnic & Histochemistry 97: 11-20. Conn HJ (1980-1981) The history ... "alcian blue", none of which are the textile dye that had that name in the 1950s and 1960s (Ali et al 2022). Biological Stains, ... Ali S, Dapson RW, Horobin RW, Kiernan JA, Kazlauciunas A (2022) At least four distinct blue cationic phthalocyanine dyes sold ...
Other dyes used in connection with Van Gieson staining include: Alcian blue Amido black 10B Verhoeff's stain Jocelyn H. Bruce- ...
Alcian blue-PAS stain Mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary and bronchial glands are characterized by a recurrent t(11;19)( ...
Adorable Air Formation Airiel Alcest Alcian Blue Alison's Halo Alvvays Amesoeurs Apollo Heights Asobi Seksu Astreal Astrobrite ...
... alcian blue MeSH D03.438.473.133 - captan MeSH D03.438.473.155 - carbolines MeSH D03.438.473.193 - chlorisondamine MeSH D03.438 ... methylene blue MeSH D03.494.741.533 - moricizine MeSH D03.494.741.550 - nonachlazine MeSH D03.494.741.575 - perazine MeSH ...
When vessels are stained with cationic dyes such as Alcian blue stain, transmission electron microscopy shows a small, ...
Alcian Blue, and Diazine Black) Without these additives, copper will preferentially deposit on the surface near the top of the ...
"Alcian Blue - Alcian Blue - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-08-09. "Safranin Sound". ... Alcian Blue was an American shoegaze and new wave-influenced band operating out of the Washington, D.C. suburb of Takoma Park ... Slow Colorless Stare CD (2001, Safranin Sound) Alcian Blue CD (2006, Elephant Stone) Angelica Take Me Down EP (2003, Safranin ...
"Alcian blue - 500ml","public_title":"500ml","options":["500ml"],"price":25400,"weight":650,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_ ...
Our Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Staining Kit is a reliable and efficient solution for staining acidic mucins and other acidic ... With the convenience of a ready-to-use kit, our Alcian Blue staining solution is formulated at a pH of 2.5 to ensure optimal ... Whether you are studying gastric or respiratory tissues, our Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Staining Kit is a valuable tool for ...
KH07010 , Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) - Alcian Blue Stain Kit. Home » Shop online » KH07010 , Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) - ... PAS-Alcian Blue technique is used to differentiate between acidic mucins as sialomucins, sulfomucin and neutral epithelial ... Mixtures of acidic and neutral mucins give blue/ purple colour.. Acidic mucins can be coloured in blue, neutral in magenta and ... Reagents: Schiff reagent, Periodic acid 0,5%, Harris hematoxylin, and Alcian blue ...
Place plastic/carbon-coated grids (plastic side down) on a drop of 1% Alcian Blue for 5 minutes, then rinse with 3 drops of dH2 ... 1% Alcian Blue (Sigma Aldrich). *2% EM grade paraformaldehyde (Electron Microscopy Sciences) buffered with phosphate buffered ...
Alcian Blue solution. View Price and Availability. Sigma-Aldrich. A3882. Alizarin-3-methyliminodiacetic acid ...
Alcian blue stain for mucin (X100). Courtesy of David F. Butler, MD. ...
Alcian blue, a stain for chondroitin sulphate found in cartilage, 44 ...
24 Alcian Blue Staining of the Fetal Cartilaginous Skeleton. 25 Alcian Blue/Alizarin Red Staining of Cartilage and Bone. 26 ... Chicago Sky Blue 6B, Also Called Pontamine Sky Blue. Hyaluronidase. Mannitol (0.3 M). Methylene Blue Solution. Pancreatin/ ...
D) Amyloid appears sea-green when stained with sulfated Alcian blue.. Which of the following statements is correct about the ... extracellular material with positive Congo red and sulfated Alcian blue stains (Figure 5). Subsequent genetic assessment was ...
The chondrogenic differentiation of LDH-treated MSCs was validated using Alcian blue staining, qPCR, and immunofluorescence ... Further, collagen destruction was significantly reduced in articular cartilage, as shown by safranin-O and toluidine blue ...
Alcian blue stain for mucin (X100). Courtesy of David F. Butler, MD. ...
56, 53, 57, 58] Mucin is frequently detectable on mucicarmine, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) or Alcian blue (resistant to ... A small round blue cell tumor is consistent with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor involving the chest wall of a 28-year-old ... A small round blue cell tumor is consistent with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor involving the chest wall of a 28-year-old ... Islands of small blue cells are separated by bands of fibrous tissue. View Media Gallery ...
The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and alcian blue at pH 2.5. Urease test for H. pylori detection in two ...
The alcian blue-stained GAGs were quantified as per Wood et al. [48] with modification. Briefly, the alcian blue-stained GAGs ... a The cell pellet in each tube was cryosectioned and stained with Alcian blue. b The Alcian blue stained GAGs were quantified ... Cells were fixed and stained with Alcian blue. f The Alcian blue-stained GAGs were extracted, and their optic density was read ... Cells were fixed and stained with Alcian blue. a Represented images of chondrogenic differentiated cells. b The Alcian blue- ...
Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Stain Kit. Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Stain Kit. ... Vector® Blue Substrate Kit, Alkaline Phosphatase (AP). Vector® ... Blue Substrate Kit, Alkaline Phosphatase (AP). SK-5400. BCIP/NBT Substrate Kit, Alkaline Phosphatase (AP), (5-bromo-4-chloro-3- ...
Using Alcian blue-staining, we found that the thickness of the colonic mucus was decreased in the FD group compared with the ... H Alcian blue-stained colonic sections were showing the mucus layer (arrows). Opposing black arrows with shafts delineate the ... A The quantification of the colonic mucus layer was statistically analyzed (2 sections per animal, n = 5). B Alcian blue- ... The colon samples were embedded in paraffin, cut into thin sections (5 μm), and performed by Alcian blue staining as previously ...
... low voltage electrophoresis in two dimensions on cellulose acetate sheets followed by a staining process with Alcian Blue. ...
Neutral mucin can be seen as red stained material by periodic acid schiff-Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains.[2328] NHIK-1083, an ... Yang YJ, Trapkin LK, Demoski RK, Bellerdine J, Powers CN, . The small blue cell dilemma associated with tamoxifen therapy. Arch ... The differential diagnoses include follicular cervicitis, HSIL of small cell type, benign small blue cell dilemma associated ...
The secretion of the cells was detected applying PAS and alcian blue at different pH. In the octopuses maintained without food ... The secretion of the cells was detected applying PAS and alcian blue at different pH. In the octopuses maintained without food ...
... blue - Chembox new ImageFile = AlcianBlue.png ImageSize = 250px IUPACName = OtherNames = Alcian blue 8GX, Ingrain blue 1 ... alcian blue 8GX - ˈalsh(ē)ən noun Usage: usually capitalized A&B Etymology: Alcian of unknown origin : an ingrain dye see dye ... Alcian Blue - was a shoegaze and new wave influenced band operating out of the Washington DC suburb of Takoma Park from 1998 to ... alcian blue - a cartilage mucopolysaccharide stain used in fish osteology along with alizarin (q.v.) for calcium phosphate in ...
Pathological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and alcian blue periodic acid Schiff staining (AB- ...
A) Representative images of Alcian blue staining after two weeks induction of chondrogenesis in the trunk and foot fibroblasts ... Figure 4. Chondrogenesis tended to be reduced in the foot fibroblasts. (A) Representative images of Alcian blue staining after ...
D) Alcian blue staining shows a chondrocyte group (white arrow) after chondrogenic differentiation. Scale bars: 100 mum (A-D ... F Chondrogenesis differentiation stained with Alcian blue stain and its control. G , H Immuno-expression of CD105 in groups IV ... All histograms show specific mAbs in red and control isotype-specific IgGs in blue. Immunofluorescence staining of BAL-derived ...
Alcian Blue 1% In 95% Reagent Alcohol. Item number: s2376. View Details ...
... characterized by alcian blue and toluidine blue staining, and demonstrated versatility in assessing the anti-inflammatory ... characterized by alcian blue and toluidine blue staining, and demonstrated versatility in assessing the anti-inflammatory ...
The cells that differentiated into chondrocytes and their controls were stained with Alcian Blue for staining of proteoglycan ... Cultures were stained with Sudan II, von Kossa and Alcian blue, respectively. Representative images obtained from mesenchymal ...
  • Results: The established protocol successfully generated a large quantity of viable chondrocytes, characterized by alcian blue and toluidine blue staining, and demonstrated versatility in assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of various bioactive compounds. (lu.se)
  • alcian blue - Water soluble copper phthalocyanin stain used to demonstrate acid mucopolysaccharides. (en-academic.com)
  • Amyloid deposits stain pink with hematoxylin and eosin, contain carbohydrate constituents that stain with periodic acid-Schiff dye or with Alcian blue, but most characteristically have apple-green birefringence under polarized light microscopy after Congo red staining. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The amount of Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff-stained mucosubstances was determined by morphometry. (cdc.gov)
  • After staining, acidic mucins will be coloured blue, neutral in magenta and nuclei in deep blue. (bioquochem.com)
  • PAS-Alcian Blue technique is used to differentiate between acidic mucins as sialomucins, sulfomucin and neutral epithelial mucin. (bioquochem.com)
  • Our Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Staining Kit is a reliable and efficient solution for staining acidic mucins and other acidic polysaccharides in tissue sections. (ihisto.io)
  • Whether you are studying gastric or respiratory tissues, our Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) Staining Kit is a valuable tool for identifying and visualizing acidic substances in a variety of tissue samples. (ihisto.io)
  • Mixtures of acidic and neutral mucins give blue/ purple colour. (bioquochem.com)
  • With the convenience of a ready-to-use kit, our Alcian Blue staining solution is formulated at a pH of 2.5 to ensure optimal performance and specificity. (ihisto.io)
  • Alcian Blue was an American shoegaze and new wave-influenced band operating out of the Washington, D.C. suburb of Takoma Park from 1998 to 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of the cells was detected applying PAS and alcian blue at different pH. (siu.edu.ar)
  • Intestine, cut at 4 microns, stained with Mucin Alcian Blue pH2.5 using the PELCO HistoWave® (20x). (laboratoryresource.com.au)
  • The vacuolated cells contain PAS- and/or Alcian blue-positive material (mucin). (nih.gov)
  • Mucin in the outer root sheath of the hair follicle (Alcian Blue, ×100). (anaisdedermatologia.org.br)
  • 28. Evaluation of Better Staining Method among Hematoxylin and Eosin, Giemsa and Periodic Acid Schiff-Alcian Blue for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Biopsies. (nih.gov)
  • This Alcian blue solution (pH 2.5) stains both sulfated and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides and sulfated and carboxylated sialomucins (glycoproteins). (teomics.com)
  • Cartilage has reduced staining with cationic dyes, such as toluidine blue or Alcian blue, probably because of a deficiency in sulfated proteoglycans. (medscape.com)
  • Stat3 mutant zebrafish showed no obvious defects at early developmental stage but displayed severe lateral and vertical curvature of the spine (scoliosis), spine fracture and the incomplete bone joints with narrower junction between vertebrae at early juvenile stage, as indicated by Alizarin red and Alcian blue staining, radiography and micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) analysis. (zfin.org)
  • differentiation of LB cells was assessed by Alcian blue staining of extracellular proteoglycans. (nih.gov)