Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Mice, Inbred C57BLMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCarcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred BALB CMelanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).PhosphoproteinsFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
... and characterization of activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a CD6 ligand". J. Exp. Med. 181 (6): 2213-20. doi: ... domains and a binding site for an activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. The gene product is important for continuation of ... "The membrane-proximal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of CD6 contains the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ... a T cell signal-transducing molecule". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (11): 7137-43. PMID 2016320. Tsuge I, Utsumi KR, Ueda R, Takamoto S, ...
A wild-type activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is also required to activate MMP-2. Mutations in the MMP2 gene ... Massagué J (July 2008). "TGFbeta in Cancer". Cell. 134 (2): 215-30. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.001. PMC 3512574 . PMID 18662538 ... "Human endometrial epithelial cells modulate the activation of gelatinase a by stromal cells". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 53 (2): ... allowing them to bind with cell receptors and influence cell signaling. Furthermore, many MMPs also activate other proMMPs ...
... one of these adhesion proteins involved is ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule, also called CD166), and is under ... Apart from that, activated T-Cells can cross a healthy BBB when they express adhesion proteins. (Adhesion molecules could also ... April 2000). "Adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis: relation to subtypes of disease and methylprednisolone therapy". Arch. ... Release of chemokines allow for the activation of adhesion molecules on the lymphocytes and monocytes, resulting in an ...
... a new cell adhesion molecule in metastasizing human melanoma cell lines, is identical to ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell ... a new cell adhesion molecule in metastasizing human melanoma cell lines, is identical to ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell ... 2001). "Molecular basis for the homophilic activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)-ALCAM interaction". J. Biol. Chem ... 2003). "Human blastocysts and endometrial epithelial cells express activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166)". J ...
Brümmendorf T, Rathjen FG (1995). "Cell adhesion molecules 1: immunoglobulin superfamily". Protein Profile. 2 (9): 963-1108. ... Human genes encoding proteins containing the immunoglobulin domain include: A1BG ACAM ADAMTSL1 ADAMTSL3 AGER ALCAM AMIGO1 ... Williams AF, Barclay AN (1988). "The immunoglobulin superfamily-domains for cell surface recognition". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 6: ...
regulation of cell adhesion. • cell adhesion. • extracellular matrix organization. • regulation of cell migration. • regulation ... The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been ... They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, ... "Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells". Blood. 101 (3): 877-85. ...
This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface cellular adhesion molecules (CAM) known as integrins. Integrins ... Cell adhesion[edit]. Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Cell adhesion can occur in two ways; by focal ... Plopper G (2007). The extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, in Cells (eds Lewin B, Cassimeris L, Lingappa V, Plopper G). ... Cell adhesion proteins[edit]. Fibronectin[edit]. Fibronectins are glycoproteins that connect cells with collagen fibers in the ...
The unlinked tropoelastin molecules are not normally available in the cell, since they become crosslinked into elastin fibres ... "Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and integrin alphaVbeta3". The Journal of Biological ... the tropoelastin molecules are cross-linked via their lysine residues with desmosine and isodesmosine cross-linking molecules. ... cell proliferation. • extracellular matrix disassembly. • extracellular matrix organization. • blood circulation. • respiratory ...
... s interact with desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying ... the former providing the cytokeratin chain a strong insoluble character and facilitating the interaction with other molecules. ... Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.. *^ Franke WW, Schmid E, Osborn M, Weber K (June 1979). " ... "Intermediate-sized filaments of human endothelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 81 (3): 570-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.81.3.570 ...
ALCAM) (AA 550-583) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ABIN888844 from antibodies-online ... anti-Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) (AA 550-583) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) from antibodies-online. ... anti-Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) (AA 550-583) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ... Itemanti-Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) (AA 550-583) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ...
... in ALCAM-positive and ALCAM-negative cases, respectively). Median preoperative s-ALCAM concentration in sera from tumor ... To date there are no data on the role of ALCAM in cervical cancer available. In this study, ALCAM expression was analysed by ... The normal ectocervical or endocervical epithelium showed no ALCAM reactivity. In untreated patients, ALCAM overexpression in ... ALCAM) is associated with cancer progression in various cancer types. In some cancers ALCAM has a prognostic value or is ...
Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1 (MBS046317) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway Diagram. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway antibodies. Cell Adhesion Molecules ( ... Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), ELISA Kit. Also Known As Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ... NCBI Summary for ALCAM This gene encodes activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), also known as CD166 (cluster of ...
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract] ... Our purpose was assess the impact of Activated Leucocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells ( ... endothelial cell line and a ALCAM-knockdown (HECVALCAM/KD) cell line. We then assessed the impact of ALCAM on cellular ...
ALCAM (untagged)-Human activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... Alcam). $720. Next day. MG209127. Alcam (GFP-tagged) - Mouse activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam). $790. Next day ... Alcam (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam), (10 ug). $720. 4 weeks. ... ALCAM (untagged)-Human activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), NM_001627.2, 10ug. $700. In Stock. ...
Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule), Authors: Esra Yavuz, Merve Oyken, Ayse Elif Erson Bensan. Published in: Atlas ... AHDC1--ALCAM ALCAM--ADCK2 ALCAM--ALCAM ALCAM--APPL1 ALCAM--BTAF1 ALCAM--C3ORF26 ALCAM--CBLB ALCAM--DHRS7 ALCAM--EIF2A ALCAM-- ... ALCAM--SH3KBP1 ALCAM--TBC1D12 ALCAM--YIF1B BBX--ALCAM CBLB--ALCAM CRYBG3--ALCAM DCBLD2--ALCAM FCGRT--ALCAM FRMD4B--ALCAM NSUN3 ... of plasma membrane focal adhesion cell adhesion heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules ...
OMIM: ACTIVATED LEUKOCYTE CELL ADHESION MOLECULE; ALCAM*Gene Ontology: Alcam *Mouse Phenome DB: Alcam *UCSC: Chr.16:52,248,996- ... Alcam. activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. Synonyms: BEN, CD166, DM-GRASP, MuSC, SC1. Gene nomenclature, locus ... Researchers interested in Alcam are also interested* in Pecam1 Robo1 Shh Ace Isl1 Irx2 Cacna2d1 Acta2 Tubb3 Slit2 ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ...
Human Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) CLIA Kit-AAI37097.1 (MBS2025416) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway Diagram. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway antibodies. Cell Adhesion Molecules ( ... Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), CLIA Kit. Also Known As Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) ... NCBI Summary for ALCAM This gene encodes activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), also known as CD166 (cluster of ...
Recombinant Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), Cat#RPU40071. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... Recombinant Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), Cat#RPU40071. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 ... CD & Adhesion molecule; Tumor immunity;. Restriction. For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures, drug use, or ... Title: Microbiota Sensing by Mincle-Syk Axis in Dendritic Cells Regulates Interleukin-17 and -22 Production and Promotes ...
MEMD, a new cell adhesion molecule in metastasizing human melanoma cell lines, is identical to ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell ...
Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA Kit » Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA ... Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA Kit. Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA ... Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA Kit. Rat ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA ...
ALCAM/CD166) regulates T cell responses in a murine model of food allergy, doi: 10.1111/cei.13104, category: Article ... Activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) regulates T cell responses in a murine model of food allergy ... ALCAM ; CD166 ; activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule ; food allergy. Abstract. Food allergy is a major public health ... Studies have shown that long-term interactions between activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) on the surface ...
In this study, we investigated the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the ... Here, we show that the viral transactivator Tax increases activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) expression. ... We demonstrated that ALCAM is overexpressed on the surface of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes, both in chronically infected cell ... ALCAM blockade or downregulation of ALCAM levels significantly reduced the migration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes across a ...
Impaired expression of ALCAM/CD166 is associated with the induction of two types of programmed cell death, apoptosis and ... The above results indicate that ALCAM-ALCAM interactions are crucial to the survival and primary site maintenance of breast ... Background: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a 105-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein linked with cell ... in breast cancer cells. This adhesion molecule can therefore be regarded as a potential novel breast cancer indicator and ...
ALCAM. Human Description:. activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:400]. Mouse Orthologue:. Alcam. ... neurolin-like cell adhesion molecule [Source:RefSeq peptide;Acc:NP_997799]. Human Orthologue:. ... activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1313266]. ...
Click here for Leukocyte adhesion molecule deficiency pictures! You can also find pictures of Itchy red bump disease, Lentigo ... hsa:214 ALCAM; activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule hsa:914 CD2; CD2 molecule hsa:933 CD22;... Figure 2. Sequence ... Leukocyte Adhesion Process... From Horwitz Adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte emigration from vessels during inflammation ...
The first is activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), which is a TE-expressed protein in human placentae whose ... in human placentas and its effects on cell invasion and adhesion in human trophoblastic cells. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52(8 ... Cell. 1996;85(7):1009-23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Dennery PA. Effects of oxidative stress on embryonic development. Birth ... Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(9):1659-72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
In general, recombinant proteins can also be used as an immunogen, as a protein standard, or in cell biology research ... ALCAM), recombinant mouse protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), recombinant mouse protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. In general, ... This recombinant protein was expressed from a DNA sequence encoding the extracellular domain (Met 1-Lys 527) of mouse ALCAM ...
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule impacts on clinical wound healing and inhibits HaCaT migration. International Wound ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule impacts on clinical wound healing and inhibits HaCaT migration. International Wound ...
A role for activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in the growth and matrix adhesion of prostate cancer cells [ ... A role for activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in the growth and matrix adhesion of prostate cancer cells [ ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from ALCAM activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule available at GenScript, ... Homo sapiens activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), transcript variant 2, mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized ... Homo sapiens activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), transcript variant 1, mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized ... Homo sapiens activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), transcript variant 3, mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized ...
activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule Synonyms A306_10393 , activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule , Anapl_15249 , ... Putative activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule , RLOC_00005745 , SB-10 antigen , SC1 , SC1 glycoprotein , TREES_T100011727 ...
ALCAM) in supernatant, plasma and serum. Sensitivity: 15 pg/mL ... ALCAM/CD166 Human ELISA Kit from Invitrogen (96 tests). ... CD166 is an activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) which is a member of a subfamily of immunoglobulin receptors ... The Human ALCAM/CD166 (Hu ALCAM) ELISA quantitates Hu ALCAM in human serum, plasma, or cell culture medium. The assay will ... CD166 binds to T-cell differentiation antigene CD6, and is implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration. CD166 is ...
Alcam, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. Sequence ID:. NM_009655. Entrez Gene ID:. 11658. ... BP] cell adhesion *[BP] motor neuron axon guidance *[CC] axon *[CC] external side of plasma membrane *[CC] integral to membrane ... b-cell, bone marrow, brain, cerebellum, cerebrum, colon, ear, embryonic tissue, endocrine, eye, fetus, gastrointestinal tract, ... stem cell, testis, thymus, uncharacterized tissue. *SAGE Expression Matrix *SAGE Digital Northern *Monochromatic SAGE/cDNA ...
ALCAM. * Involved in neuronal extension, embryonic hemopoiesis, embryonic angiogenesis. * Cell adhesion molecule. * Associated ... Cell adhesion molecule. * A ligand of p-selectin on tumor cells that is associated with in vitro invasiveness. * Strong ... The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse. Cell stem cell. 2011;8 ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating epithelium-specific intercellular adhesion ...
  • The concentration gradients of the kit standards or positive controls render a theoretical kit detection range in biological research samples containing ALCAM. (mybiosource.com)
  • Small volumes of ALCAM elisa kit vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • The following ALCAM gene cDNA ORF clone sequences were retrieved from the NCBI Reference Sequence Database (RefSeq). (genscript.com)
  • Molecular cloning of a full-length cDNA from a MSC expression library demonstrates nucleotide sequence identity with ALCAM. (ovid.com)
  • Yeast surface display is also used for the construction and display of antigen cDNA libraries constructed from target cell lines, and for display of recombinant antigens to be targeted by antibodies. (ucsf.edu)
  • The cDNA libraries are used for identification of antigens bound by antibodies that have been selected on tumor cell lines. (ucsf.edu)
  • Local order of ALCAM is shown together with leading and subsequent genes on chromosome 3. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We observed that the numbers of lineage-specific genes varies by 2 orders of magnitude, ranging from 5 for cytotoxic T cells to 878 for granulocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of gene expression in hematopoietic cells to date and has identified genes that play key roles in lineage commitment and cell function. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 131 genes differentially expressed following the BRD-K10882151_BO2 (inhibits RAD51)_EFO27_6.0_h_40.0_um small molecule perturbation from the LINCS L1000 CMAP Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Small Molecules dataset. (mssm.edu)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between level of miR-192 and degree of E. coli resistance using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), in vitro bacterial adhesion assays, and target genes research. (bioscirep.org)
  • We found that miR-192 knockout led to enhance the adhesion ability of the E. coli strains F18ab, F18ac and K88ac, meanwhile increase the expression of target genes ( DLG5 and ALCAM ) by qPCR and Western blotting analysis. (bioscirep.org)
  • The results suggested that miR-192 and its key target genes ( DLG5 and ALCAM ) could have a key role in E. coli infection. (bioscirep.org)
  • 362 genes differentially expressed following the BRD-K04546108_JAK3 Inhibitor VI_HA1E_24.0_h_10.0_um small molecule perturbation from the LINCS L1000 CMAP Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Small Molecules dataset. (mssm.edu)
  • Hox5 genes establish phrenic MN organization and dendritic topography through the regulation of phrenic-specific cell adhesion programs. (elifesciences.org)
  • The primary aims of the group are to elucidate the evolution and progression of cancer stem cells in primary and metastatic disease, and in so doing identify and validate novel cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Colorectal cancer, Cancer stem cells, Biomarkers. (jcancer.org)
  • Abstract Objective: Mast cell infiltration into airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is an important feature of asthma. (jove.com)
  • ALCAM is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, possessing five extracellular Ig domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • 2018. HPV-induced field cancerisation: Transformation of adult tissue stem cell into cancer stem cell . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • ALCAM gene silencing in MCF-7 cells decreased the concentration of BCL-2 and increased levels of apoptosis (89-kDa PARP, active caspase7) and autophagy (MAP1LC3, Beclin1) markers. (nih.gov)
  • Osorio LM, De Santiago A, Aguilar-Santelises M, Mellstedt H, Jondal M: CD6 ligation modulates the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and protects chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from apoptosis induced by anti-IgM. (exbio.cz)
  • Research project exploring potential mechanisms responsible for the metastatic dissemination and predisposition of prostate cancer cells to the bone environment. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 2019. Incorporating MicroRNA into molecular phenotypes of circulating tumor cells enhances the prognostic accuracy for patients with metastatic breast cancer . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our work demonstrates for the first time the in vivo contribution of ALCAM to angiogenesis and reveals a novel role of stromally expressed ALCAM in supporting tumor growth and metastatic spread. (uzh.ch)
  • Clinico-pathological correlation of serial measurement of circulating tumor cells in 24 metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy reveals interpatient heterogeneity correlated with CEA levels but independent of KRAS and BRAF mutation. (muhealth.org)
  • Non-equivalence of Wnt and R-spondin ligands during Lgr5 + intestinal stem-cell self-renewal. (ohsu.edu)
  • In terms of wound healing knockout of ALCAM in chronic wounds may provide a mechanism of increasing cellular migration and thus promoting wound healing. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The process in which cellular structures, including whole cells or cell parts, are generated and organized. (princeton.edu)
  • Finally, the levels of ALCAM in HECV cells did not affect the rate of cell growth, in vitro. (cf.ac.uk)
  • One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of hippocampal neuron ischemia in vitro, we found that the overexpression of miR-134 mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector infection significantly promoted neuron death induced by OGD/reoxygenation, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 provided protective effects against OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. (jove.com)
  • Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells that can be expanded many fold in vitro and have the therapeutic potential to restore the bone marrow microenvironment and support hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • They were first described by Friedenstein 1 as fibroblast-like, adherent cells that can be expanded in vitro after selection through plastic adherence. (haematologica.org)