Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Alcaligenes faecalis: The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.Pseudomonas alcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Achromobacter: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Azurin: A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Achromobacter denitrificans: The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.ChlorobenzenesDioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Alcaligenaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rods or cocci. Well known genera include ACHROMOBACTER; ALCALIGENES; and BORDETELLA.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Rhinitis, Atrophic: A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).Bordetella parapertussis: A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cytochromes c': A widely occurring subclass of c type cytochromes which function as electron carriers in the electron transport chain in photosynthetic and denitrifying BACTERIA.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).

Analysis of the nitrous oxide reduction genes, nosZDFYL, of Achromobacter cycloclastes. (1/705)

The structural gene, nosZ, for the monomeric N2O reductase has been cloned and sequenced from the denitrifying bacterium Achromobacter cycloclastes. The nosZ gene encodes a protein of 642 amino acid residues and the deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to the previously derived sequences for the dimeric N2O reductases. The relevant DNA region of about 3.6 kbp was also sequenced and found to consist of four genes, nosDFYL based on the similarity with the N2O reduction genes of Pseudomonas stutzeri. The gene product of A. cycloclastes nosF (299 amino acid residues) has a consensus ATP-binding sequence, and the nos Y gene encodes a hydrophobic protein (273 residues) with five transmembrane segments, suggesting the similarity with an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter which has two distinct domains of a highly hydrophobic region and ATP-binding sites. The nosL gene encodes a protein of 193 amino acid residues and the derived sequence showed a consensus sequence of lipoprotein modification/processing site. The expression of nosZ gene in Escherichia coli cells and the comparison of the translated sequences of the nosDFYL genes with those of bacterial transport genes for inorganic ions are discussed.  (+info)

Nitrate removal in closed-system aquaculture by columnar denitrification. (2/705)

The columnar denitrification method of nitrate-nitrogen removal from high-density, closed system, salmonid aquaculture was investigated and found to be feasible. However, adequate chemical monitoring was found to be necessary for the optimization and quality control of this method. When methanol-carbon was not balanced with inlet nitrate-nitrogen, the column effluent became unsatisfactory for closed-system fish culture due to the presence of excess amounts of nitrite, ammonia, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon. Sulfide production was also influenced by column maturity and residence time. Methane-carbon was found to be unsatisfactory as an exogenous carbon source. Endogenous carbon could not support high removal efficiencies. Freshwater columns adpated readily to an artificial seawater with a salinity of 18% without observable inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacterial flora was mainly rod forms with the Peritricha (protozoa) dominating as the primary consumers. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from freshwater columns were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. A pilot plant column was found to behave in a manner similar to the laboratory columns except that nitrite production was never observed.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization and solution structure of nitrous oxide reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (NCIMB 11015). (3/705)

Nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) is the terminal enzyme involved in denitrification by microbes. No three-dimensional structural information has been published for this enzyme. We have isolated and characterised N2OR from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (AxN2OR) as a homodimer of M(r) 134,000 containing seven to eight copper atoms per dimer. Comparison of sequence and compositional data with other N2ORs suggests that AxN2OR is typical and can be expected to have similar domain folding and subunit structure to other members of this family of enzymes. We present synchrotron X-ray-scattering data, analysed using a model-independent method for shape restoration, which gave a approximately 20 A resolution structure of the enzyme in solution, providing a glimpse of the structure of any N2OR and shedding light on the molecular architecture of the molecule. The specific activity of AxN2OR was approximately 6 mumol of N2O reduced.min-1. (mg of protein)-1; N2OR activity showed both base and temperature activation. The visible spectrum exhibited an absorption maximum at 550 nm with a shoulder at 635 nm. On oxidation with K3Fe(CN)6, the absorption maximum shifted to 540 nm and a new shoulder at 480 nm appeared. Reduction under anaerobic conditions resulted in the formation of an inactive blue form of the enzyme with a broad absorption maximum at 650 nm. As isolated, the enzyme shows an almost featureless EPR spectrum, which changes on oxidation to give an almost completely resolved seven-line hyperfine signal in the gII region, g = 2.18, with AII = 40 G, consistent with the enzyme being partially reduced as isolated. Both the optical and EPR spectra of the oxidized enzyme are characteristic of the presence of a CuA centre.  (+info)

PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. (4/705)

Using consensus regions in gene sequences encoding the two forms of nitrite reductase (Nir), a key enzyme in the denitrification pathway, we designed two sets of PCR primers to amplify cd1- and Cu-nir. The primers were evaluated by screening defined denitrifying strains, denitrifying isolates from wastewater treatment plants, and extracts from activated sludge. Sequence relationships of nir genes were also established. The cd1 primers were designed to amplify a 778 to 799-bp region of cd1-nir in the six published sequences. Likewise, the Cu primers amplified a 473-bp region in seven of the eight published Cu-nir sequences. Together, the two sets of PCR primers amplified nir genes in nine species within four genera, as well as in four of the seven sludge isolates. The primers did not amplify genes of nondenitrifying strains. The Cu primers amplified the expected fragment in all 13 sludge samples, but cd1-nir fragments were only obtained in five samples. PCR products of the expected sizes were verified as nir genes after hybridization to DNA probes, except in one case. The sequenced nir fragments were related to other nir sequences, demonstrating that the primers amplified the correct gene. The selected primer sites for Cu-nir were conserved, while broad-range primers targeting conserved regions of cd1-nir seem to be difficult to find. We also report on the existence of Cu-nir in Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222.  (+info)

The blue copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans: cloning of the nirA gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. (5/705)

The nirA gene encoding the blue dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans has been cloned and sequenced. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the characterization of a gene encoding a blue copper-containing nitrite reductase. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a high degree of similarity to other copper-containing nitrite reductases from various bacterial sources. The full-length protein included a 24-amino-acid leader peptide. The nirA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was shown to be exported to the periplasm. Purification was achieved in a single step, and analysis of the recombinant Nir enzyme revealed that cleavage of the signal peptide occurred at a position identical to that for the native enzyme isolated from A. xylosoxidans. The recombinant Nir isolated directly was blue and trimeric and, on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and metal analysis, possessed only type 1 copper centers. This type 2-depleted enzyme preparation also had a low nitrite reductase enzyme activity. Incubation of the periplasmic fraction with copper sulfate prior to purification resulted in the isolation of an enzyme with a full complement of type 1 and type 2 copper centers and a high specific activity. The kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme were indistinguishable from those of the native nitrite reductase isolated from A. xylosoxidans. This rapid isolation procedure will greatly facilitate genetic and biochemical characterization of both wild-type and mutant derivatives of this protein.  (+info)

Transcriptional organization of the czc heavy-metal homeostasis determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus. (6/705)

The Czc system of Alcaligenes eutrophus mediates resistance to cobalt, zinc, and cadmium through ion efflux catalyzed by the CzcCB2A cation-proton antiporter. DNA sequencing of the region upstream of the czcNICBADRS determinant located on megaplasmid pMOL30 revealed the 5' end of czcN and a gene for a MgtC-like protein which is transcribed in the orientation opposite that of czc. Additional open reading frames upstream of czc had no homologs in the current databases. Using oligonucleotide-probed Northern blotting experiments, a 500-nucleotide czcN message and a 400-nucleotide czcI message were found, and the presence of 6, 200-nucleotide czcCBA message (D. Van der Lelie et al., Mol. Microbiol. 23:493-503, 1997) was confirmed. Induction of czcN, czcI, czcCBA, and czcDRS followed a similar pattern: transcription was induced best by 300 microM zinc, less by 300 microM cobalt, and only slightly by 300 microM cadmium. Reverse transcription-PCR gave evidence for additional continuous transcription from czcN to czcC and from czcD to czcS, but not between czcA and czcD nor between czcS and a 131-amino-acid open reading frame following czcS. The CzcR putative response regulator was purified and shown to bind in the 5' region of czcN. A reporter strain carrying a czcNIC-lacZ-czcBADRS determinant on plasmid pMOL30 was constructed, as were DeltaczcR and DeltaczcS mutants of this strain and of AE128(pMOL30) wild type. Experiments on (i) growth of these strains in liquid culture containing 5 mM Zn2+, (ii) induction of the beta-galactosidase in the reporter strains by zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, and (iii) cDNA analysis of czcCBA mRNA synthesis under inducing and noninducing conditions showed that the CzcRS two-component regulatory system is involved in Czc regulation.  (+info)

Re-evaluation of the primary structure of Ralstonia eutropha phasin and implications for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granule binding. (7/705)

Sequence analysis of several cDNAs encoding the phasin protein of Ralstonia eutropha indicated that the carboxyl terminus of the resulting derived protein sequence is different from that reported previously. This was confirmed by: (1) sequencing of the genomic DNA; (2) SDS-PAGE and peptide analysis of wild-type and recombinant phasin; and (3) mass spectrometry of wild-type phasin protein. The results have implications for the model proposed for the binding of this protein to polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules in the bacterium.  (+info)

Phospholipid bound to the flavohemoprotein from Alcaligenes eutrophus. (8/705)

The structurally characterized flavohemoprotein from Alcaligenes eutrophus (FHP) contains a phospholipid-binding site with 1-16 : 0-2-cyclo-17 : 0-diacyl-glycerophospho-ethanolamine and 1-16 : 0-2-cyclo-17 : 0-diacyl-glycerophospho-glycerol as the major occupying compounds. The structure of the phospholipid is characterized by its compact form, due to the -sc/beta/-sc conformation of the glycerol and the nonlinear arrangement of the sn-1- and sn-2-fatty acid chains. The phospholipid-binding site is located adjacent to the heme molecule at the bottom of a large cavity. The fatty acid chains form a large number of van der Waal's contacts with nonpolar side chains, whereas the glycerophosphate moiety, which points towards the entrance of the channel, is linked to the protein matrix by polar interactions. The thermodynamically stable globin module of FHP, obtained after cleaving off the oxidoreductase module, also contains the phospholipid and can therefore be considered as a phospholipid-binding protein. Single amino acid exchanges designed to decrease the lipid-binding site revealed both the possibility of blocking incorporation of the phospholipid and its capability to evade steric barriers. Conformational changes in the phospholipid can also be induced by binding heme-ligating compounds. Phospholipid binding is not a general feature of flavohemoproteins, because the Escherichia coli and the yeast protein exhibit less and no lipid affinity, respectively.  (+info)

  • We conclude that, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes species (most often A. xylosoxidans) colonize the respiratory tract of intubated children and of patients with CF. Colonization of patients with CF was associated with an exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms. (
  • Siderophore production in response to iron limitation was observed in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, and the corresponding siderophore was named alcaligin E. Alcaligin E was characterized as a phenolate-type siderophore containing neither catecholate nor hydroxamate groups, Alcaligin E promoted the growth of siderophore-deficient A. eutrophus mutants under iron-restricted conditions and promoted Fe-59 uptake by iron-limited cells. (
  • Fate of Enterobacter cloacae JP120 and Alcaligenes eutrophus AEO106(pRO101) in soil during water stress: effects on culturability and viability. (
  • A sandy loam soil near field capacity moisture content (psi = -0.050 MPa) or air dried (psi = -300 MPa) was inoculated with about 3 x 10(7) CFU of Enterobacter cloacae JP120 and Alcaligenes eutrophus AEO106(pRO101) per g and incubated in 40-g portions at 17 degrees C in closed or open Erlenmeyer flasks. (
  • Epidemiological investigation of infections due to Alcaligenes species in children and patients with cystic fibrosis: use of repetitive-element-seq. (
  • In 2002, we investigated a cluster of patients with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bloodstream infections by conducting a matched case-control study and a prospective study. (
  • Alcaligenes latus was used to produce a new poly-sacchardide bioabsorbent that can absorb water at more than 1,000 times its own weight, approximately 5 times greater than that of currently used commercially available synthetic high polymer absorbents. (
  • This study presents 100% degradation of H-acid under optimized conditions using Alcaligenes latus, isolated from textile industrial effluent. (
  • Reclassification of Alcaligenes latus IAM 12599T, IAM 12664, and Pseudomonas saccharophila as Azohydromonas lata gen. nov. comb. (
  • Most (89%) strains of microbial agents in these tests were correctly identified by the referring laboratories as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. (
  • To characterize the genes of P. alcaligenes S2 involved in solubilization of lecithin, the EcoR I fragments of the chromosomes from the four mutant strains carrying a single transposon were cloned, and the DNA sequences flanking the Tn5 were determined. (
  • We have cloned and sequenced a DNA fragment that encodes the arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) gene from Alcaligenes bronchisepticus KU 1201. (
  • Miyamoto, K & Ohta, H 1992, ' Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel arylmalonate decarboxylase gene from Alcaligenes bronchisepticus KU 1201 ', Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 234-238. (
  • Both ORF1 and ORF2 displayed homology to the IstA-like and IstB-like transposases encoded by the IS21 family of insertion sequences, which include two IS elements previously isolated from P. alcaligenes P25X, IS1474, and IS1475 (Yeo, C. C., and Poh, C. L. (1997). (
  • Anti-mycobacterial metabolites of Alcaligenes faecalis BW1 extract are compatible with rifampicin and could be administered orally as antitubercular agents after their purification, identification in further work . (
  • Alcaligenes bronchisepticus" (Ferry 1912) Bergey et al. (
  • Taber's Medical Dictionary, Taber's Online, (