A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Chlorobenzenes are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring substituted with one or more chlorine atoms, used as solvents, refrigerants, and intermediates in the production of other chemicals, but with limited use due to environmental and health concerns.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rods or cocci. Well known genera include ACHROMOBACTER; ALCALIGENES; and BORDETELLA.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
'Shoes' are not a medical term, but an item of footwear designed to provide protection, support, and comfort to the feet during various activities, although ill-fitting or inappropriate shoes can contribute to various foot conditions such as blisters, corns, calluses, and orthopedic issues.
Activity engaged in for pleasure.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.

Analysis of the nitrous oxide reduction genes, nosZDFYL, of Achromobacter cycloclastes. (1/705)

The structural gene, nosZ, for the monomeric N2O reductase has been cloned and sequenced from the denitrifying bacterium Achromobacter cycloclastes. The nosZ gene encodes a protein of 642 amino acid residues and the deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to the previously derived sequences for the dimeric N2O reductases. The relevant DNA region of about 3.6 kbp was also sequenced and found to consist of four genes, nosDFYL based on the similarity with the N2O reduction genes of Pseudomonas stutzeri. The gene product of A. cycloclastes nosF (299 amino acid residues) has a consensus ATP-binding sequence, and the nos Y gene encodes a hydrophobic protein (273 residues) with five transmembrane segments, suggesting the similarity with an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter which has two distinct domains of a highly hydrophobic region and ATP-binding sites. The nosL gene encodes a protein of 193 amino acid residues and the derived sequence showed a consensus sequence of lipoprotein modification/processing site. The expression of nosZ gene in Escherichia coli cells and the comparison of the translated sequences of the nosDFYL genes with those of bacterial transport genes for inorganic ions are discussed.  (+info)

Nitrate removal in closed-system aquaculture by columnar denitrification. (2/705)

The columnar denitrification method of nitrate-nitrogen removal from high-density, closed system, salmonid aquaculture was investigated and found to be feasible. However, adequate chemical monitoring was found to be necessary for the optimization and quality control of this method. When methanol-carbon was not balanced with inlet nitrate-nitrogen, the column effluent became unsatisfactory for closed-system fish culture due to the presence of excess amounts of nitrite, ammonia, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon. Sulfide production was also influenced by column maturity and residence time. Methane-carbon was found to be unsatisfactory as an exogenous carbon source. Endogenous carbon could not support high removal efficiencies. Freshwater columns adpated readily to an artificial seawater with a salinity of 18% without observable inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacterial flora was mainly rod forms with the Peritricha (protozoa) dominating as the primary consumers. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from freshwater columns were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. A pilot plant column was found to behave in a manner similar to the laboratory columns except that nitrite production was never observed.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization and solution structure of nitrous oxide reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (NCIMB 11015). (3/705)

Nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) is the terminal enzyme involved in denitrification by microbes. No three-dimensional structural information has been published for this enzyme. We have isolated and characterised N2OR from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (AxN2OR) as a homodimer of M(r) 134,000 containing seven to eight copper atoms per dimer. Comparison of sequence and compositional data with other N2ORs suggests that AxN2OR is typical and can be expected to have similar domain folding and subunit structure to other members of this family of enzymes. We present synchrotron X-ray-scattering data, analysed using a model-independent method for shape restoration, which gave a approximately 20 A resolution structure of the enzyme in solution, providing a glimpse of the structure of any N2OR and shedding light on the molecular architecture of the molecule. The specific activity of AxN2OR was approximately 6 mumol of N2O reduced.min-1. (mg of protein)-1; N2OR activity showed both base and temperature activation. The visible spectrum exhibited an absorption maximum at 550 nm with a shoulder at 635 nm. On oxidation with K3Fe(CN)6, the absorption maximum shifted to 540 nm and a new shoulder at 480 nm appeared. Reduction under anaerobic conditions resulted in the formation of an inactive blue form of the enzyme with a broad absorption maximum at 650 nm. As isolated, the enzyme shows an almost featureless EPR spectrum, which changes on oxidation to give an almost completely resolved seven-line hyperfine signal in the gII region, g = 2.18, with AII = 40 G, consistent with the enzyme being partially reduced as isolated. Both the optical and EPR spectra of the oxidized enzyme are characteristic of the presence of a CuA centre.  (+info)

PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. (4/705)

Using consensus regions in gene sequences encoding the two forms of nitrite reductase (Nir), a key enzyme in the denitrification pathway, we designed two sets of PCR primers to amplify cd1- and Cu-nir. The primers were evaluated by screening defined denitrifying strains, denitrifying isolates from wastewater treatment plants, and extracts from activated sludge. Sequence relationships of nir genes were also established. The cd1 primers were designed to amplify a 778 to 799-bp region of cd1-nir in the six published sequences. Likewise, the Cu primers amplified a 473-bp region in seven of the eight published Cu-nir sequences. Together, the two sets of PCR primers amplified nir genes in nine species within four genera, as well as in four of the seven sludge isolates. The primers did not amplify genes of nondenitrifying strains. The Cu primers amplified the expected fragment in all 13 sludge samples, but cd1-nir fragments were only obtained in five samples. PCR products of the expected sizes were verified as nir genes after hybridization to DNA probes, except in one case. The sequenced nir fragments were related to other nir sequences, demonstrating that the primers amplified the correct gene. The selected primer sites for Cu-nir were conserved, while broad-range primers targeting conserved regions of cd1-nir seem to be difficult to find. We also report on the existence of Cu-nir in Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222.  (+info)

The blue copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans: cloning of the nirA gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. (5/705)

The nirA gene encoding the blue dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans has been cloned and sequenced. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the characterization of a gene encoding a blue copper-containing nitrite reductase. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a high degree of similarity to other copper-containing nitrite reductases from various bacterial sources. The full-length protein included a 24-amino-acid leader peptide. The nirA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was shown to be exported to the periplasm. Purification was achieved in a single step, and analysis of the recombinant Nir enzyme revealed that cleavage of the signal peptide occurred at a position identical to that for the native enzyme isolated from A. xylosoxidans. The recombinant Nir isolated directly was blue and trimeric and, on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and metal analysis, possessed only type 1 copper centers. This type 2-depleted enzyme preparation also had a low nitrite reductase enzyme activity. Incubation of the periplasmic fraction with copper sulfate prior to purification resulted in the isolation of an enzyme with a full complement of type 1 and type 2 copper centers and a high specific activity. The kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme were indistinguishable from those of the native nitrite reductase isolated from A. xylosoxidans. This rapid isolation procedure will greatly facilitate genetic and biochemical characterization of both wild-type and mutant derivatives of this protein.  (+info)

Transcriptional organization of the czc heavy-metal homeostasis determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus. (6/705)

The Czc system of Alcaligenes eutrophus mediates resistance to cobalt, zinc, and cadmium through ion efflux catalyzed by the CzcCB2A cation-proton antiporter. DNA sequencing of the region upstream of the czcNICBADRS determinant located on megaplasmid pMOL30 revealed the 5' end of czcN and a gene for a MgtC-like protein which is transcribed in the orientation opposite that of czc. Additional open reading frames upstream of czc had no homologs in the current databases. Using oligonucleotide-probed Northern blotting experiments, a 500-nucleotide czcN message and a 400-nucleotide czcI message were found, and the presence of 6, 200-nucleotide czcCBA message (D. Van der Lelie et al., Mol. Microbiol. 23:493-503, 1997) was confirmed. Induction of czcN, czcI, czcCBA, and czcDRS followed a similar pattern: transcription was induced best by 300 microM zinc, less by 300 microM cobalt, and only slightly by 300 microM cadmium. Reverse transcription-PCR gave evidence for additional continuous transcription from czcN to czcC and from czcD to czcS, but not between czcA and czcD nor between czcS and a 131-amino-acid open reading frame following czcS. The CzcR putative response regulator was purified and shown to bind in the 5' region of czcN. A reporter strain carrying a czcNIC-lacZ-czcBADRS determinant on plasmid pMOL30 was constructed, as were DeltaczcR and DeltaczcS mutants of this strain and of AE128(pMOL30) wild type. Experiments on (i) growth of these strains in liquid culture containing 5 mM Zn2+, (ii) induction of the beta-galactosidase in the reporter strains by zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, and (iii) cDNA analysis of czcCBA mRNA synthesis under inducing and noninducing conditions showed that the CzcRS two-component regulatory system is involved in Czc regulation.  (+info)

Re-evaluation of the primary structure of Ralstonia eutropha phasin and implications for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granule binding. (7/705)

Sequence analysis of several cDNAs encoding the phasin protein of Ralstonia eutropha indicated that the carboxyl terminus of the resulting derived protein sequence is different from that reported previously. This was confirmed by: (1) sequencing of the genomic DNA; (2) SDS-PAGE and peptide analysis of wild-type and recombinant phasin; and (3) mass spectrometry of wild-type phasin protein. The results have implications for the model proposed for the binding of this protein to polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules in the bacterium.  (+info)

Phospholipid bound to the flavohemoprotein from Alcaligenes eutrophus. (8/705)

The structurally characterized flavohemoprotein from Alcaligenes eutrophus (FHP) contains a phospholipid-binding site with 1-16 : 0-2-cyclo-17 : 0-diacyl-glycerophospho-ethanolamine and 1-16 : 0-2-cyclo-17 : 0-diacyl-glycerophospho-glycerol as the major occupying compounds. The structure of the phospholipid is characterized by its compact form, due to the -sc/beta/-sc conformation of the glycerol and the nonlinear arrangement of the sn-1- and sn-2-fatty acid chains. The phospholipid-binding site is located adjacent to the heme molecule at the bottom of a large cavity. The fatty acid chains form a large number of van der Waal's contacts with nonpolar side chains, whereas the glycerophosphate moiety, which points towards the entrance of the channel, is linked to the protein matrix by polar interactions. The thermodynamically stable globin module of FHP, obtained after cleaving off the oxidoreductase module, also contains the phospholipid and can therefore be considered as a phospholipid-binding protein. Single amino acid exchanges designed to decrease the lipid-binding site revealed both the possibility of blocking incorporation of the phospholipid and its capability to evade steric barriers. Conformational changes in the phospholipid can also be induced by binding heme-ligating compounds. Phospholipid binding is not a general feature of flavohemoproteins, because the Escherichia coli and the yeast protein exhibit less and no lipid affinity, respectively.  (+info)

'Alcaligenes' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the respiratory and intestinal tracts of animals. These bacteria are capable of using a variety of organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Some species of Alcaligenes have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, they are not considered major human pathogens.

The name 'Alcaligenes' comes from the Latin word "alcali," meaning "alkali," and the Greek word "genos," meaning "kind" or "race." This is because many species of Alcaligenes can grow in alkaline environments with a pH above 7.

It's worth noting that while Alcaligenes species are not typically harmful to healthy individuals, they may be resistant to certain antibiotics and can cause serious infections in people with compromised immune systems. Therefore, it is important for healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of Alcaligenes infection in patients who are at risk and to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy based on laboratory testing.

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions.

The bacteria are generally not harmful to healthy individuals, but they have been associated with various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treating infections caused by this bacteria challenging. It is important to identify the specific species of bacteria causing an infection so that appropriate antibiotic therapy can be administered.

"Pseudomonas alcaligenes" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed in nature, commonly found in soil, water, and various clinical environments. It is a non-fermentative, aerobic organism that can utilize a wide range of organic compounds as its energy source.

The bacterium is motile and possesses a single polar flagellum for locomotion. It is known to be resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants, making it a potential cause of nosocomial infections in hospital settings. However, "P. alcaligenes" is not typically considered a significant human pathogen and is rarely associated with serious diseases.

It's worth noting that there has been some controversy over the taxonomy of this bacterium, and some researchers have suggested that it may actually represent multiple distinct species. Therefore, the exact medical definition of "P. alcaligenes" may vary depending on the source and year of publication.

Chlorobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring substituted with one or more chlorine atoms and a carboxylate group. They are derivatives of benzoic acid, where one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring have been replaced by chlorine atoms.

Chlorobenzoates can be found in various industrial applications, such as solvents, plasticizers, and pesticides. Some chlorobenzoates also have medical uses, for example, as antimicrobial agents or as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

However, some chlorobenzoates can be toxic and harmful to the environment, so their use is regulated in many countries. It's important to handle and dispose of these substances properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant growth regulator. It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and mild characteristic odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone, and has a melting point of 130-140°C.

2,4-D is a widely used herbicide that is primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of settings, including agriculture, lawns, and golf courses. It works by mimicking the natural plant hormone auxin, which causes uncontrolled growth in susceptible plants leading to their death.

In medicine, 2,4-D has been used experimentally as a cytotoxic agent for the treatment of cancer, but its use is not widespread due to its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. It is important to handle this chemical with care, as it can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Achromobacter is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical settings. The cells of Achromobacter are typically rod-shaped and motile, with polar flagella. Some species of Achromobacter have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. It is important to note that Achromobacter is generally resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment of infections caused by these bacteria challenging.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Azurin is a small protein with a blue copper center, which is involved in electron transfer reactions. It is produced by the bacterium *Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, and has been studied for its potential role in wound healing and as an anticancer agent. The name "azurin" comes from the fact that this protein has a bright blue color due to its copper ion content.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

*Achromobacter denitrificans* is a gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. It is known for its ability to denitrify, which means it can convert nitrates to nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. This bacterium is generally considered to be non-pathogenic, but there have been rare cases of infections associated with *Achromobacter denitrificans* in immunocompromised individuals.

The medical definition of *Achromobacter denitrificans* would refer to its identification and classification as a bacterium, along with its potential role in certain types of infections. However, it is important to note that this organism is not typically associated with specific diseases or medical conditions, and its presence in clinical samples may simply reflect environmental contamination or colonization rather than active infection.

Nitrite reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is an important part of the nitrogen cycle, particularly in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) processes. Nitrite reductases can be classified into two main types based on their metal co-factors: copper-containing nitrite reductases (CuNiRs) and cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases. CuNiRs are typically found in bacteria and fungi, while cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases are primarily found in bacteria. These enzymes play a crucial role in the global nitrogen cycle and have potential implications for environmental and medical research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sulfanilic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. Sulfanilic acid is a chemical compound with the formula H2SO3NCH2COOH. It is used in various industrial applications such as dye and drug synthesis, but it is not a term that would be commonly used in medical contexts.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or conditions, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more information so I can give you a relevant and accurate response.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Acetoin is a chemical compound that is produced as a metabolic byproduct in certain types of bacteria, including some species of streptococcus and lactobacillus. It is a colorless liquid with a sweet, buttery odor and is used as a flavoring agent in the food industry. In addition to its use as a flavoring, acetoin has been studied for its potential antibacterial properties and its possible role in the development of biofilms. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential uses and implications of this compound.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Hydroxybutyrates are compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group. More specifically, in the context of clinical medicine and biochemistry, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is often referred to as a "ketone body."

Ketone bodies are produced by the liver during periods of low carbohydrate availability, such as during fasting, starvation, or a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. BHB is one of three major ketone bodies, along with acetoacetate and acetone. These molecules serve as alternative energy sources for the brain and other tissues when glucose levels are low.

In some pathological states, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, the body produces excessive amounts of ketone bodies, leading to a life-threatening metabolic acidosis. Elevated levels of BHB can also be found in other conditions like alcoholism, severe illnesses, and high-fat diets.

It is important to note that while BHB is a hydroxybutyrate, not all hydroxybutyrates are ketone bodies. The term "hydroxybutyrates" can refer to any compound containing both a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group.

Chlorobenzenes are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a cyclic structure with six carbon atoms in a hexagonal arrangement) substituted with one or more chlorine atoms. They have the general formula C6H5Clx, where x represents the number of chlorine atoms attached to the benzene ring.

Chlorobenzenes are widely used as industrial solvents, fumigants, and intermediates in the production of other chemicals. Some common examples of chlorobenzenes include monochlorobenzene (C6H5Cl), dichlorobenzenes (C6H4Cl2), trichlorobenzenes (C6H3Cl3), and tetrachlorobenzenes (C6H2Cl4).

Exposure to chlorobenzenes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. They are known to be toxic and can cause a range of health effects, including irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, headaches, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, neurological effects, and an increased risk of cancer.

It is important to handle chlorobenzenes with care and follow appropriate safety precautions to minimize exposure. If you suspect that you have been exposed to chlorobenzenes, seek medical attention immediately.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Adipates are a group of chemical compounds that are esters of adipic acid. Adipic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the formula (CH₂)₄(COOH)₂. Adipates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, such as pipes, cables, and flooring. They can also be found in cosmetics, personal care products, and some food additives.

Adipates are generally considered to be safe for use in consumer products, but like all chemicals, they should be used with caution and in accordance with recommended guidelines. Some adipates have been shown to have potential health effects, such as endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, at high levels of exposure. Therefore, it is important to follow proper handling and disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

"Cupriavidus necator" (formerly known as "Ralstonia eutropha") is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a versatile organism capable of using various organic compounds as carbon and energy sources for growth. One notable characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it an important player in the global nitrogen cycle. Additionally, "Cupriavidus necator" has gained attention in recent years due to its potential use in bioremediation, as well as its ability to produce hydrogen and other valuable chemicals through metabolic engineering.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Alcaligenaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Members of this family are typically oxidase-positive and catalase-positive, and they can use a variety of organic compounds as carbon sources. Some species of Alcaligenaceae have been associated with human disease, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. However, these infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Alcaligenaceae species are not considered to be significant pathogens.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gentisates" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or physiological sciences. It is possible that you may have misspelled or misremembered the term. If you meant "Gentiates," then it refers to a class of enzymes (also known as beta-galactosidases) that can break down certain complex carbohydrates, such as the disaccharide melibiose into galactose and glucose. However, I would recommend double-checking the spelling or context to ensure you have the correct term, as my response is based on the assumption that "Gentiates" was the intended word.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Chromates are the salts or esters of chromic acid (H2CrO4) that contain the chromate ion (CrO4 2-). They are characterized by their yellow or orange color. Chromates are widely used in industry, for example as corrosion inhibitors, pigments, and wood preservatives. However, they are also toxic and carcinogenic, and exposure to chromates can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and damage to the eyes and mucous membranes. Therefore, their use is regulated in many countries, and appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling them.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection that mainly affects infants and children. It is caused by two types of bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus). The infection typically occurs in areas of the body with broken or damaged skin, such as cuts, scrapes, insect bites, or rashes.

There are two forms of impetigo: non-bullous and bullous. Non-bullous impetigo, also known as crusted impetigo, begins as small blisters or pimples that quickly rupture, leaving a yellowish-crusted, honey-colored scab. These lesions can be itchy and painful, and they often occur around the nose, mouth, and hands. Non-bullous impetigo is more commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

Bullous impetigo, on the other hand, is characterized by larger fluid-filled blisters that are usually painless and do not itch. These blisters can appear anywhere on the body but are most common in warm, moist areas such as the armpits, groin, or diaper region. Bullous impetigo is primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Impetigo is typically treated with topical antibiotics, such as mupirocin (Bactroban) or retapamulin (Altabax), applied directly to the affected area. In more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is essential to cover the lesions and maintain good hygiene practices to prevent the spread of impetigo to others.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "shoes" are not a medical term. Shoes are items of footwear intended to protect and comfort the feet. They typically have a durable sole that provides protection from sharp objects, hot surfaces, and the effects of moisture. The upper part of a shoe can be made from various materials such as leather, plastic, or textiles, and is designed to provide coverage and support for the foot.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "recreation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Recreation generally refers to activities done for enjoyment, relaxation, or leisure. It could include various hobbies, sports, games, and other forms of entertainment. While certain recreational activities can have health benefits, such as improving physical fitness or reducing stress, "recreation" itself is not a medical concept.

Cellulitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection and inflammation of the deeper layers of the skin (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) and surrounding soft tissues. It's typically caused by bacteria, most commonly group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The affected area often becomes red, swollen, warm, and painful, and may be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. Cellulitis can spread rapidly and potentially become life-threatening if left untreated, so it's important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you have this condition. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, rest, elevation of the affected limb (if applicable), and pain management.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Species of Alcaligenes are rods, coccal rods, or cocci, sized at about 0.5-1.0 x 0.5-2.6 μm. The slender rods are slightly ... Alcaligenes is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the order of Burkholderiales. The type species A. ... Species of Alcaligenes typically occur in soil and water or decaying materials and dairy products. A. faecalis is commonly ... The name Alcaligenes has its origin in Arabic and Greek and means "alkali-producing".[clarification needed] Several species ...
Type strain of Alcaligenes aquatilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (All articles with dead external ... "Straininfo of Alcaligenes aquatilis". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-07-18. International Journal of ... Alcaligenes aaquatilis is a Gram-negative, catalase- and cytochrome oxidase-positive, motile bacterium with peritrichous ... "Genomic and Physiological Traits of the Marine Bacterium Alcaligenes aquatilis QD168 Isolated From Quintero Bay, Central Chile ...
... is a bacterium which can produce ropiness in milk and which can grow in sun tea. [1] "Alcaligenes ...
... is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium used for bioremediation purposes of oil pollution, pesticide ... Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. alcaligenes has been placed in the P. aeruginosa group. O'Mahony, MM; Dobson, AD; Barnes, JD; ... Type strain of Pseudomonas alcaligenes at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... Valenstein, P; Bardy, GH; Cox, CC; Zwadyk, P (1983). "Pseudomonas alcaligenes endocarditis". American Journal of Clinical ...
... is a bacterium; its type strain is CIP 60.75 (= Hugh 366-5 = IAM 12591 = LMG 1873). It is rod-shaped, ... Kiredjian, M.; Holmes, B.; Kersters, K.; Guilvout, I.; De Ley, J. (1986). "Alcaligenes piechaudii, a New Species from Human ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Genus Alcaligenes. LPSN, bacterio.net v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Peel MM, Hibberd AJ, King BM, Williamson HG (August 1988). "Alcaligenes piechaudii from chronic ear discharge". Journal of ...
... is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the environment. It was originally ... Type strain of Alcaligenes faecalis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... In 2001, previously unidentified isolates of Alcaligenes were classified as a new subspecies of A. faecalis: A. faecalis ... Mitchell, R. G.; Clarke, S. K. R. (1965). "An Alcaligenes Species with Distinctive Properties Isolated from Human Sources". ...
"Alcaligenes faecalis". Straininfo.net. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. "Genus Alcaligenes". LPSN. List of ... A. denitrificans was first described as Alcaligenes denitrificans to the genus Alcaligenes. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis ... "SPECIES Alcaligenes faecalis". UniProt. Achromobacter denitrificans renal abscess Alessio Sgrelli, Antonella Mencacci, Maurizio ... Yabuuchi et al propose that Alcaligenes denitrificans should be classified as a subspecies of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (A. x ...
Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter lwoffi, Flavobacterium sp., Micrococcus roseus and Corynebacterium sp, isolated from the ...
Bacteria which give negative results for the indole test include: Actinobacillus spp., Aeromonas salmonicida, Alcaligenes sp., ...
stewartii) succinoglycan (Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes, Sinorhizobium meliloti) xanthan (Xanthomonas campestris) welan ( ... Alcaligenes spp.) The application of nanoparticles (NPs) are one of novel promising techniques to target biofilms due to their ... Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes) cyclosophorans (Agrobacterium spp., Rhizobium spp. and Xanthomonas spp.) dextran ( ... Alcaligenes viscosus, Zymomonas mobilis, Bacillus subtilis) pullulan (Aureobasidium pullulans) scleroglucan (Sclerotium rolfsii ...
... pp.294-300 Received as revised 22 February The Lysis of Gram-negative Alcaligenes eutrophus and Alcaligenes latus by Palmitoyl ... "Straininfo of Alcaligenes latus". Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017. UniProt Lee, SY; ... Alcaligenes latus has been reclassified as Azohydromonas lata. "IPSN LPSN". Retrieved 14 October 2017. " ... "Reclassification of Alcaligenes latus strains IAM 12599T and IAM 12664 and Pseudomonas saccharophila as Azohydromonas lata gen ...
Krebs, H. A.; Whittam, R.; Hems, R. (May 1957). "Potassium uptake of Alcaligenes faecalis". Biochemical Journal. 66 (1): 55-60 ...
... blue copper protein from Alcaligenes faecalis; cupredoxin (CPC) from Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) peelings; cusacyanin (basic ...
Schneider, K.; Cammack, R.; Schlegel, G. & Hall, D. (1979). "The iron-sulphur centres of soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes ... H. eutrophus was then renamed Alcaligenes eutropha because it was a micro-organism with degenerated peritrichous flagellation. ... 1995). "Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia gen. nov.: proposal of Ralstonia pickettii ( ... Schneider, K.; Schlegel, H. (1976). "Purification and properties of soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H 16". ...
Deveryshetty J, Phale PS (October 2010). "Biodegradation of phenanthrene by Alcaligenes sp. strain PPH: partial purification ...
for Alcaligenes paradoxus (Davis 1969). 1991. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 41: 445-450 PDF Online[ ...
... were originally classified in the genera Alcaligenes along with V. paradoxus (Alcaligenes eutrophus and Alicaligenes paradoxus ... nov., for Alcaligenes paradoxus (Davis 1969)". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 41 (3): 445-450. doi:10.1099/ ...
It can be found in Alcaligenes species. The enzyme 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase uses 4-chlorobenzoate and H2O to produce 4- ...
Wakayama M, Hayashi S, Yatsuda Y, Katsuno Y, Sakai K, Moriguchi M (1996). "Overproduction of D-aminoacylase from Alcaligenes ... "Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding D-aminoacylase from Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. xylosoxydans A-6 and expression ...
Nakajima M, Shirokane Y, Mizusawa K (1980). "A new amidinohydrolase, methylguanidine amidinohydrolase from Alcaligenes sp. N-42 ...
Ermler U, Siddiqui RA, Cramm R, Friedrich B (December 1995). "Crystal structure of the flavohemoglobin from Alcaligenes ... "Phospholipid bound to the flavohemoprotein from Alcaligenes eutrophus". Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (2): 396-405. doi:10.1046/j.1432- ...
Open pan-genome has been observed in environmental isolates such as Alcaligenes sp. and Serratia sp., showing a sympatric ... Basharat Z, Yasmin A, He T, Tong Y (2018). "Genome sequencing and analysis of Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus MB207". ...
Hiatt, Howard H; Horecker, B L (13 October 1955). "D-erythrose metabolism in a strain of Alcaligenes faecalis". Journal of ...
In Alcaligenes eutrophus the gene for this is hoxN. Well known nickel organometalic (or organonickel) compounds include ...
It was reported to be produced by Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes. Subsequently, the taxonomy of this non-pathogenic ... Production by a Mutant of Alcaligenes faecalis var myxogenes in Defined Medium". Agric Biol Chem. 30: 764-769. doi:10.1271/ ...
Mauger J, Nagasawa T, Yamada H (1990). "Occurrence of a novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, in Alcaligenes faecalis JM3". Arch ... Nagasawa T, Mauger J, Yamada H (1990). "A novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, of Alcaligenes faecalis JM3 Purification and ...
"Cloning and sequence analysis of czc genes in Alcaligenes sp. strain CT14". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60 (4): 699-704. doi: ...
June 1, 1994). "Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 with ... benzenesulphonic and 4-toluenesulphonic acids in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1". Microbiology. 140 (7): 1713-22. doi:10.1099/ ...
"Purification and characterization of dichloromuconate cycloisomerase from Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP 134". Biochem. J. 266 (3): ...
Straininfo of Alcaligenes aestus v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with ' ... It was previously classified in the genera Alcaligenes and later Deleya. Page Species: Halomonas aquamarina on "LPSN - List of ...
Species of Alcaligenes are rods, coccal rods, or cocci, sized at about 0.5-1.0 x 0.5-2.6 μm. The slender rods are slightly ... Alcaligenes is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the order of Burkholderiales. The type species A. ... Species of Alcaligenes typically occur in soil and water or decaying materials and dairy products. A. faecalis is commonly ... The name Alcaligenes has its origin in Arabic and Greek and means "alkali-producing".[clarification needed] Several species ...
Tan K, Conway SP, Brownlee KG, et al. Alcaligenes infection in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol2002;34:101-4. ... Liu L, Coenye T, Burns JL, et al. Ribosomal DNA-directed PCR for identification of Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans ... Saiman L, Chen Y, Tabibi S, et al. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans isolated from ...
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, A. faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas spp. Elizabethkingia anaophelis, E. meningosepticum ...
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, A. faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas spp. Elizabethkingia anaophelis, E. meningosepticum ...
Pseudomonas alcaligenes. H.Lautrop, SSI, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1971-10-01. 1318. Pseudomonas panacis. Lettuce. H.Lautrop, SSI, ... Pseudomonas alcaligenes. H.Lautrop, SSI, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1971-01-01. 1319. Pseudomonas fluorescens. H.Lautrop, SSI, ... Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis. H.Lautrop, SSI, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1971-10-01. ...
Categories: Alcaligenes Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 10 ...
The blisters were debrided; cultures grew Alcaligenes, and the patient was referred to an infectious disease specialist. He ...
Biodeterioration ; Herbicides ; 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; 2-4-5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; Alcaligenes ; Pseudomonas ... metabolizing organism Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 were shown to effectively degrade either of these compounds provided as ...
Gram-negative mixed bacterial infection with organisms, such as Moraxella, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Proteus, ...
Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, and Thiobacillus, as well as fungi including Fusarium, Aspergillus, and ...
Aspergillus fumigatus predominated among the fungi, whereas Bacillus and gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, ...
Alcaligenes RSV_genus979 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Betaproteobacteria;Burkholderiales;Alcaligenaceae;Bordetella RSV_genus980 ...
Well known genera include ACHROMOBACTER; ALCALIGENES; and BORDETELLA. * Alteromonas 0 domande A genus of gram-negative, ...
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Alcaligenes Polysaccharides. , Amodimethicone. , Panthenol. , Magnesium Aspartate. , Zinc Gluconate. , Ethylhexylglycerin. , ...
Achromobacter (Alcaligenes). 123. Eikenella corrodens. 124. Elizabethkingia and Chryseobacterium Species. 125. Pseudomonas and ...
faecalis, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, and Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus to the Species Level. 1-gen-2023 ... faecalis, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, and Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus to the Species Level.. ... nov., Alcaligenes nematophilus sp. nov., Enterobacter nematophilus sp. nov., and Kaistia nematophila sp. nov., Isolated from ... nov., Alcaligenes nematophilus sp. nov., Enterobacter nematophilus sp. nov., and Kaistia nematophila sp. nov., Isolated from ...
Acinetobacter spp, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Bacteroides spp, Citrobacter spp, Clostridium spp, Enterobacter spp, Escherichia ...
xylosoxidans and Alcaligenes faecalis) may grow. Pigment must also be present.. *Lack of growth on cetrimide agar does not rule ...
Alcaligenes bronchisepticus Active Synonym false false Associated Value Sets Value Set Name Version(s) ...
Alcaligenes spp., Sphingomonas spp., Shewanella spp. and Ralstonia spp., among others. SUMMARY: The exploration of the ...
Alcaligenes spp., Methylobacterium spp., Sphingomonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., and Moraxella spp., favoring biofilm formation ...
Water/Aqua/Eau, Butylene Glycol, Glycerin, Niacinamide, Pentylene Glycol, Panthenol, Carbomer, Alcaligenes Polysaccharides, ...
demonstrated the use of molasses as the sole carbon source to produce PHB by Azotobacter vinelandii and Alcaligenes eutrophus, ... Schubert P, Steinbüchel A, Schlegel H. Cloning of the Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric ... Kunioka M. New bacterial copolyesters produced in Alcaligenes eutrophus from organic acids. Polym Commun. 1988;29:174-6. ... Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16: characterization of the genes encoding β-ketothiolase and ...
Subunit γ of Alcaligenes eutrophus NAD-reducing hydrogenase (gene hoxU) which also binds two 4Fe-4S cluster. ...
  • citation needed] Petruschky, J. "Bacillus faecalis alcaligenes (n. sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteus mirabilis was the second roquinolone-resistant Alcaligenes faecalis , commonly found most common bacterium (n = 7), followed by Klebsiella in birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcaligenes faecalis was isolated from water samples. (athmsi.org)
  • Antibiotic susceptibility evaluation of the Alcaligenes faecalis from the co-culture and the original Alcaligenes faecalis was carried out using the Kirby bauer disk diffusion method. (athmsi.org)
  • The antibiotic susceptibility profile of Alcaligenes faecalis before and after co-culture remained largely unchanged except in the case of chloramphenicol, were the isolate showed reduced susceptibility. (athmsi.org)
  • A Rare Case of Meningitis Caused by Alcaligenes faecalis in an Immunocompetent Patient. (athmsi.org)
  • Combined cell suspensions of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) metabolizing organism Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100, and the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-metabolizing organism Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 were shown to effectively degrade either of these compounds provided as single substrates. (epa.gov)
  • Regulation of Chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase and prephenate dehydrogenase from alcaligenes eutrophus. (medscape.com)
  • An increased recovery rate of Alcaligenes species from patients with cystic fibrosis was reported in 2001, though the most commonly identified strain A. cylosoxidans has since been transferred to Achromobacter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcaligenes/Achromobacter bacteria possess natural resistance to all cephalosporins and often to aminoglycosides and aztreonam, too. (hartmann-academie.nl)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus predominated among the fungi, whereas Bacillus and gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella species) prevailed among bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Some During studies of ear disharge caused by otitis media, patients in the geographic area also used cockroach paste, we detected the gram-negative bacillus Alcaligenes faeca- palm oil, sweet olive oil, sewing machine oil, or breast lis in addition to the commonly isolated bacterial species milk to prevent ear discharge. (cdc.gov)
  • clarification needed] Several species were previously placed in Alcaligenes, but have since been moved to more appropriate genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of Alcaligenes are rods, coccal rods, or cocci, sized at about 0.5-1.0 x 0.5-2.6 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcaligenes species are obligately aerobic, but some can undergo anaerobic respiration if nitrate is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of Alcaligenes typically occur in soil and water or decaying materials and dairy products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections from Alcaligenes species are uncommon and largely opportunistic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcaligenes is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the order of Burkholderiales. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures grew Alcaligenes , and the patient was referred to an infectious disease specialist. (medscape.com)
  • Biofilm contains rod-shaped bacteria ( Alcaligenes xylosoxidans ) in association with fibrinlike material on the catheter surface. (medscape.com)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of isolates from patients with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bloodstream infection. (medscape.com)
  • Infection by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. (medscape.com)
  • Investigation of an outbreak of wound infections due to Alcaligenes xylosoxidans transmitted by chlorhexidine in a burns unit. (medscape.com)
  • Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteremia: clinical features and microbiological characteristic of isolates. (medscape.com)
  • Lehours P, Rogues AM, Occhialini A, Boulestreau H, Gachie JP, Megraud F. Investigation of an outbreak due to Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies xylosoxidans by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. (medscape.com)
  • A pseudoepidemic of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans attributable to contaminated saline. (medscape.com)
  • Kim MJ, Bancroft E, Mascola L, Lehnkering E, Lawani L. Outbreak of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bloodstream infections in an outpatient oncology office, Los Angeles, 2002 [abstract 415]. (medscape.com)
  • Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR to examine epidemiology of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans from patients with cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Purification and Characterization of Novel N-Acyl-D-aspartate Amidohydrolase from Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Purification and Characterization of Novel N-Acyl-D-aspartate Amidohydrolase from Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • abstract = "Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • xylosoxydans A-6 (Alcaligenes A-6) produced N-acyl-D-aspartate amidohydrolase (D-AAase) in the presence of N-acetyl-D-aspartate as an inducer. (elsevierpure.com)