A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
In the medical field, manikins are realistic, full-size models of human bodies used for teaching and practicing medical skills, such as CPR, intubation, or surgical procedures, as they provide a realistic and safe training environment without the use of actual patients.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Fluorinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and fluorine atoms, where hydrogen atoms may also be present, known for their high stability, chemical resistance, and various industrial applications, including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and electrical insulation materials.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
whoa, I'm just an AI and I don't have the ability to provide on-the-fly medical definitions. However, I can tell you that "Missouri" is not a term commonly used in medicine. It's a state in the United States, and I assume you might be looking for a medical term that is associated with it. If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (1/1501)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (2/1501)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

As-required versus regular nebulized salbutamol for the treatment of acute severe asthma. (3/1501)

Current British guidelines for the administration of beta2-agonists in acute severe asthma recommend regular nebulized therapy in hospitalized patients, followed by as-required (p.r.n.) use via hand-held devices after discharge. Since beta2-agonists do not possess anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and are thus unlikely to influence the rate of recovery from an asthma exacerbation, it was hypothesized that patients given the short-acting beta2-agonist salbutamol on an as-required basis after admission to hospital would recover as quickly as those on regular treatment, but with potential reductions in the total dose delivered. Forty-six patients with acute severe asthma were randomly assigned to either regular prescriptions of nebulized salbutamol or to usage on a p.r.n. basis, from 24 h after hospital admission. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to recovery, and frequency of salbutamol nebulization from 24 h after admission to discharge. Secondary outcome measures were treatment side-effects (tremor, palpitations), and patient satisfaction. Length of hospital stay was reduced in those patients allocated to p.r.n. salbutamol (geometric mean (GM) 3.7 days) versus regular salbutamol (GM 4.7 days). Time taken for peak expiratory flow to reach 75% of recent best was the same in both groups. There was a highly significant reduction in the number of times nebulized therapy was delivered to the p.r.n. group (GM 7.0, range 1-30) compared with the regular treatment group (GM 14.0, range 4-57; p=0.003; 95% confidence interval for ratio of GMs 1.29-3.09). In addition, patients reported less tremor (p=0.062) and fewer palpitations (p=0.049) in the p.r.n. group. Of the patients in the p.r.n. group who had received regular nebulized therapy on previous admissions (n=12), all preferred the p.r.n. regimen. Prescribing beta2-agonists on a p.r.n. basis from 24 h after hospital admission is associated with reduced amount of drug delivered, incidence of side-effects, and possibly length of hospital stay. This has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources.  (+info)

The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to it systemic effects. (4/1501)

Salmeterol is approximately eight times as potent as salbutamol for systemic effects. This may be because the drug is eight times more potent on receptors or there may be differences in systemic bioavailability. The systemic effects of salbutamol are limited by its fairly high first-pass metabolism, but the oral bioavailability of salmeterol is unknown. The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to its systemic effects were analysed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were given inhaled salmeterol 400 microg, inhaled salmeterol 400 microg plus oral activated charcoal or inhaled placebo plus oral activated charcoal on three separate days. Cardiac frequency (fC), Q-T interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for 4 h following the inhaled drug. Salmeterol with and without oral charcoal produced significant changes for all measures compared to placebo. The magnitude of effect following salmeterol alone was significantly greater than that following salmeterol plus charcoal for fC and glucose (mean (95% confidence interval) differences 8 (2-13) beats x min(-1), 0.59 (0.04, 1.13) mmol x L(-1), respectively) and nonsignificantly greater for QTc interval and potassium concentration. The differences between salmeterol given with and without charcoal suggest that 28-36% of the systemic response to salmeterol administered from a metered-dose inhaler are due to drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, most of the systemic effects are due to the inhaled fraction of the drug.  (+info)

beta2-adrenoceptor agonists reduce the decline of rat diaphragm twitch force during severe hypoxia. (5/1501)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol and the long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol on hypoxia-induced rat diaphragm force reduction. In vitro diaphragm twitch force (Pt) and maximal tetanic force (Po) of isolated diaphragm muscle strips were measured for 90 min during hyperoxia (tissue bath PO2 83.8 +/- 0.9 kPa and PCO2 3.9 +/- 0.1 kPa) or severe hypoxia (PO2 7.1 +/- 0.3 kPa and PCO2 3.9 +/- 0.1 kPa) in the presence and absence of 1 microM salbutamol or 1 microM salmeterol. During hyperoxia, salbutamol and salmeterol did not significantly alter the time-related decreases in Pt and Po (to approximately 50% of initial values). Salbutamol had no effects on Po or the Pt-to-Po ratio. Salmeterol treatment significantly reduced Po and increased the Pt-to-Po ratio during hyperoxia (P < 0.05 compared with control value). Hypoxia resulted in a severe decrease in Pt (to approximately 30% of initial value) and Po after 90 min. Both salbutamol and salmeterol significantly reduced the decline in Pt during hypoxia (P < 0.05). The reduction in Po was not prevented. Salbutamol increased Pt rapidly but transiently. Salmeterol had a delayed onset of effect and a longer duration of action. Addition of 1 microM propranolol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) did not alter Pt, Po, or the Pt-to-Po ratio during hypoxia but completely blocked the inotropic effects of salbutamol and salmeterol, indicating that these effects are dependent on beta2-adrenoceptor agonist-related processes.  (+info)

Incorporating quality of life data into managed care formulary decisions: a case study with salmeterol. (6/1501)

Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees of managed care organizations have traditionally developed formularies by limiting the numbers and kinds of pharmaceuticals they purchase, with the goal of cutting costs. These attempts to manage pharmaceutical costs do not take into account the interrelationship of the costs of various components of care; thus, drug costs may decrease, but expenditures for utilization of other resources may increase. Cost-minimization and basic cost-effectiveness studies, on which many prior- authorization and formulary programs are based, only evaluate only the cost of the drug and its effectiveness. However, with the heightened competition in the healthcare market, emphasis is increasingly being laid on patient satisfaction and outcomes. Cost-utility analysis is a potentially superior pharmacoeconomic tool because it evaluate the effect of drug therapy on quality of life; however, data from such analyses are seldom readily available to the committees that evaluate a drug's potential effects on the entire healthcare system. The purpose of this review is to stress the importance of approaching formulary management from a wider perspective and to emphasize that the results of cost-utility studies should be proactively evaluated and incorporated into decisions regarding formularies. This is especially important for symptom-intensive diseases, such as asthma, in which the quality of life can be notably impaired. Cost-utility analyses should be conducted for all newer therapies, such as salmeterol, which are highly effective and which have a positive impact on quality of life, to determine the overall effect on the managed care plan's budget.  (+info)

Evaluation of the effect on heart rate variability of a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist using non-linear scatterplot and sequence methods. (7/1501)

AIMS: To examine the impact on heart rate variability (HRV), of agonism or antagonism at the cardiac beta2-adrenoceptor in healthy volunteers, using standard time-domain summary statistics and non-linear methods (scatterplot and quadrant analysis). METHODS: Under double-blind and randomised conditions (Latin square design), 17 normal volunteers received placebo, salbutamol (beta2-adrenoceptor partial agonist), ICI 118,551 (specific beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or salbutamol plus ICI 118,551. Single oral doses of medication (at weekly intervals) were administered at 22.30 h, with HRV assessed from the sleeping heart rates. RESULTS: Salbutamol reduced the long-term (SDNN: 135 ms [120, 156], SDANN: 107 ms [89, 124]) time-domain indicators of HRV compared with placebo (SDNN: 39 [24, 55], SDANN 42 [29, 56], [mean difference [95% confidence intervals of difference]]). Alone, ICI 118,551 did not effect HRV, but in combination blocked the actions of salbutamol. Scatterplot length (944 ms [869, 1019]) and area (222*10(3) ms2 [191, 253]) were reduced by salbutamol compared with placebo; (length difference (164 [98, 230]) and area difference 59 [36, 83]). Scatterplot width (dispersion) was lower at both low (width RR-1 25% salbutamol 277 ms [261, 293]: salbutamol minus placebo 14 ms [0, 28]) and high (width 75% salbutamol 417 [391, 443]: salbutamol minus placebo 41 [20, 62]) heart rates. ICI 118,551 alone did not alter scatterplot parameters but in combination blocked the effect of salbutamol. Cardiac acceleration episodes (i.e. consecutive deltaRR and deltaRRn+1 shorten) were increased following salbutamol 7288 [6089, 8486] compared with placebo -1890 [-2600, -1179]; the beat-to beat difference (deltaRRn+1) was reduced after salbutamol compared with the other treatments. ICI 118,551 did not effect acceleration episodes but reduced the effect of salbutamol when used in combination. CONCLUSIONS: Agonism at the cardiac beta2-adrenoceptor in healthy volunteers with salbutamol altered autonomic balance towards sympathetic dominance; this re-balancing was blocked by ICI 118,551 given in combination with salbutamol. However antagonism at the beta2-adrenoceptor with ICI 118,551 alone did not significantly alter the HRV. The beta2-adrenoceptor modulates HRV in healthy volunteers; the implications of agonism and antagonism at the beta2-adrenoceptor in cardiovascular disease states warrants further investigation.  (+info)

Determination of salbutamol and detection of other beta-agonists in human postmortem whole blood and urine by GC-MS-SIM. (8/1501)

This paper details a sensitive and quantitative method for the determination of salbutamol and the detection of terbutaline, clenbuterol, fenoterol, and isoprenaline in postmortem human whole blood and urine. It describes solid-phase extraction using a XtrackT XRDAH515 column, formation of trimethylsilyl derivatives, and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selective ion monitoring.  (+info)

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Nebulizer: A nebulizer is a medical device that delivers medication in the form of a mist to the respiratory system. It is often used for people who have difficulty inhaling medication through traditional inhalers, such as young children or individuals with severe respiratory conditions. The medication is placed in the nebulizer cup and then converted into a fine mist by the machine. This allows the user to breathe in the medication directly through a mouthpiece or mask.

Vaporizer: A vaporizer, on the other hand, is a device that heats up a liquid, often water or essential oils, to produce steam or vapor. While some people use vaporizers for therapeutic purposes, such as to help relieve congestion or cough, it is important to note that vaporizers are not considered medical devices and their effectiveness for these purposes is not well-established.

It's worth noting that nebulizers and vaporizers are different from each other in terms of their purpose and usage. Nebulizers are used specifically for delivering medication, while vaporizers are used to produce steam or vapor, often for non-medical purposes.

Ipratropium is an anticholinergic bronchodilator medication that is often used to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body that causes muscles around the airways to tighten and narrow. By preventing this effect, ipratropium helps to relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Ipratropium is available in several forms, including an aerosol spray, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is typically used in combination with other respiratory medications, such as beta-agonists or corticosteroids, to provide more effective relief of symptoms. Common side effects of ipratropium include dry mouth, throat irritation, and headache.

Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and airway diameter.

When beta-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), relaxation of smooth muscle, and increased heart rate and force of contraction. These effects make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and premature labor.

Examples of adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists include albuterol, terbutaline, salmeterol, and formoterol. These medications can be administered by inhalation, oral administration, or injection, depending on the specific drug and the condition being treated.

It's important to note that while adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects such as tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and headaches. In addition, long-term use of some beta-2 agonists has been associated with increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and even death in some cases. Therefore, it's important to use these medications only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

An inhalation spacer is a medical device used in conjunction with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to improve the delivery and effectiveness of respiratory medications. It creates a space or chamber between the MDI and the patient's airways, allowing the medication to be more evenly distributed in a fine mist. This helps reduce the amount of medication that may otherwise be deposited in the back of the throat or lost in the air, ensuring that more of it reaches the intended target in the lungs. Inhalation spacers are particularly useful for children and older adults who may have difficulty coordinating their breathing with the activation of the MDI.

Racepinephrine is not typically referred to as a "race" in the medical context, but rather as a form of epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). Racepinephrine is the optical isomer of epinephrine, meaning that it is a molecule with the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.

Racepinephrine is a naturally occurring catecholamine, a type of neurotransmitter and hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands and is involved in the "fight or flight" response. It is also used as a medication, typically in the form of the racemic mixture of epinephrine, which contains equal amounts of both isomers (R- and S-epinephrine).

Racepinephrine has similar effects to epinephrine, including increasing heart rate and blood pressure, improving respiratory function, and enhancing mental alertness. It is used in the treatment of anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and other emergency situations where rapid restoration of cardiovascular function is necessary.

It's important to note that while racepinephrine and epinephrine have similar effects, they are not identical and may have different therapeutic uses and potential side effects.

A Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) is a medical device used to administer a specific amount or "metered dose" of medication, usually in the form of an aerosol, directly into the lungs of a patient. The MDI consists of a pressurized canister that contains the medication mixed with a propellant, a metering valve that releases a precise quantity of the medication, and a mouthpiece or mask for the patient to inhale the medication.

MDIs are commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. They are also used to deliver other medications such as corticosteroids, anticholinergics, and beta-agonists. Proper use of an MDI requires coordination between the pressing of the canister and inhalation of the medication, which may be challenging for some patients. Therefore, it is essential to receive proper training on how to use an MDI effectively.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Bronchial spasm refers to a sudden constriction or tightening of the muscles in the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that lead to the lungs. This constriction can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Bronchial spasm is often associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. In these conditions, the airways are sensitive to various triggers such as allergens, irritants, or infections, which can cause the muscles in the airways to contract and narrow. This can make it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Bronchial spasm can be treated with medications that help to relax the muscles in the airways and open up the airways, such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Ozone depletion is defined as the reduction in the total amount of ozone (O3) in the Earth's stratosphere, which ranges from about 12 to 15 kilometers above the planetary surface. This phenomenon is primarily caused by the breakdown of ozone molecules due to the presence of chlorine and bromine-containing chemicals, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. These substances were once widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and aerosol spray cans, but have been phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer.

The depletion of the ozone layer is most pronounced over the polar regions, particularly the Antarctic, where it gives rise to the formation of the "ozone hole." This thinning of the ozone layer allows more ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface, leading to increased risks of skin cancer, cataracts, and damage to crops and marine ecosystems.

It is important to note that ozone depletion is a global environmental issue, requiring international cooperation and regulations, such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, to address it effectively.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic, volatile organic compounds that consist of carbon atoms, chlorine atoms, and fluorine atoms. They were widely used in various applications such as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and fire extinguishing agents due to their non-toxicity, non-flammability, and chemical stability.

However, CFCs have been found to contribute significantly to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer when released into the atmosphere. This is because they are stable enough to reach the upper atmosphere, where they react with ultraviolet radiation to release chlorine atoms that can destroy ozone molecules. As a result, the production and use of CFCs have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty aimed at protecting the ozone layer.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Aerosol propellants are substances used to expel aerosolized particles from a container. They are typically gases that are stored under pressure in a container and, when the container is opened or activated, the gas expands and forces the contents out through a small opening. The most commonly used aerosol propellants are hydrocarbons such as butane and propane, although fluorinated hydrocarbons such as difluoroethane and tetrafluoroethane are also used. Aerosol propellants can be found in various products including medical inhalers, cosmetics, and food products. It is important to handle aerosol propellants with care, as they can be flammable or harmful if inhaled or ingested.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

The Respiratory Therapy Department in a hospital is a specialized area that provides diagnostic and therapeutic services to patients with respiratory disorders or conditions that affect their breathing. The department is typically staffed by licensed respiratory therapists who work under the direction of pulmonologists or other medical professionals.

Respiratory therapists use various techniques and equipment to assess, treat, and manage patients' respiratory needs. This may include administering oxygen therapy, aerosol treatments, chest physiotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and other life support measures. They also provide education and counseling to patients and their families on topics such as breathing exercises, medication management, and lifestyle modifications to improve respiratory health.

The Respiratory Therapy Department may be responsible for providing services in various hospital settings, including intensive care units, emergency departments, operating rooms, and pulmonary function labs. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, and respiratory technologists, to provide comprehensive care to patients with respiratory conditions.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection in infants and young children, typically caused by a viral infection. It is characterized by inflammation and congestion of the bronchioles (the smallest airways in the lungs), which can lead to difficulty breathing and wheezing.

The most common virus that causes bronchiolitis is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but other viruses such as rhinovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza can also cause the condition. Symptoms of bronchiolitis may include cough, wheezing, rapid breathing, difficulty feeding, and fatigue.

In severe cases, bronchiolitis can lead to respiratory distress and require hospitalization. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen therapy, and in some cases, medications to help open the airways may be used. Prevention measures include good hand hygiene and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Forced expiratory flow rates (FEFR) are measures of how quickly and efficiently air can be exhaled from the lungs during a forced breath maneuver. These measurements are often used in pulmonary function testing to help diagnose and monitor obstructive lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

FEFR is typically measured during a forced expiratory maneuver, where the person takes a deep breath in and then exhales as forcefully and quickly as possible into a mouthpiece connected to a spirometer. The spirometer measures the volume and flow rate of the exhaled air over time.

There are several different FEFR measurements that can be reported, including:

* Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF) 25-75%: This is the average flow rate during the middle half of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR): This is the maximum flow rate achieved during the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1): This is the volume of air exhaled in the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.

Abnormal FEFR values can indicate obstruction in the small airways of the lungs, which can make it difficult to breathe out fully and quickly. The specific pattern of abnormalities in FEFR measurements can help doctors differentiate between different types of obstructive lung diseases.

Anti-asthmatic agents are a class of medications used to prevent or alleviate the symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. These medications work by reducing inflammation, relaxing muscles in the airways, and preventing allergic reactions that can trigger an asthma attack.

There are several types of anti-asthmatic agents, including:

1. Bronchodilators: These medications relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. They can be short-acting or long-acting, depending on how long they work.
2. Inhaled corticosteroids: These medications reduce inflammation in the airways and help prevent asthma symptoms from occurring.
3. Leukotriene modifiers: These medications block the action of leukotrienes, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
4. Combination therapies: Some anti-asthmatic agents combine different types of medications, such as a bronchodilator and an inhaled corticosteroid, into one inhaler.
5. Biologics: These are newer types of anti-asthmatic agents that target specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response in asthma. They are usually given by injection.

It's important to note that different people with asthma may require different medications or combinations of medications to manage their symptoms effectively. Therefore, it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for each individual.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the lungs, heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and skeletal muscle.

When β2-ARs are activated by catecholamines, they trigger a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle, increased heart rate and contractility, bronchodilation, and inhibition of insulin secretion. These effects are mediated through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways involving G proteins and second messengers such as cyclic AMP (cAMP).

β2-ARs have been a major focus of drug development for various medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. Agonists of β2-ARs, such as albuterol and salmeterol, are commonly used to treat asthma and COPD by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and reducing airway obstruction. Antagonists of β2-ARs, such as propranolol, are used to treat hypertension, angina, and heart failure by blocking the effects of catecholamines on the heart and blood vessels.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Beclomethasone is a corticosteroid medication that is used to treat inflammation and allergies in the body. It works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to prevent the release of substances that cause inflammation. Beclomethasone is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, and cream or ointment.

In its inhaled form, beclomethasone is used to treat asthma and other lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It helps to prevent symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath by reducing inflammation in the airways.

As a nasal spray, beclomethasone is used to treat allergies and inflammation in the nose, such as hay fever or rhinitis. It can help to relieve symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, and itching.

Beclomethasone cream or ointment is used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis. It works by reducing inflammation in the skin and relieving symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and irritation.

It's important to note that beclomethasone can have side effects, especially if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), coughing, hoarseness, sore throat, and easy bruising or thinning of the skin. It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using beclomethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes (CMS) are a heterogeneous group of inherited neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. They are caused by genetic defects that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles.

Unlike acquired myasthenia gravis, CMS are present at birth or develop in early childhood. The muscle weakness can vary from mild to severe and can affect any part of the body, including the eyes, face, neck, limbs, and respiratory muscles. The severity and distribution of symptoms can differ widely among individuals with CMS, depending on the specific genetic defect involved.

CMS are caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the formation, maintenance, or function of the neuromuscular junction. These proteins include receptors for neurotransmitters, enzymes involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, and structural components of the synaptic cleft.

The diagnosis of CMS is based on clinical features, electrophysiological studies, and genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific type of CMS and may include medications that improve neuromuscular transmission, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, or therapies that modulate the immune system, such as plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulin. In some cases, supportive care, such as respiratory assistance or physical therapy, may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Respiratory therapy is a healthcare profession that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of respiratory disorders and diseases. Respiratory therapists (RTs) work under the direction of physicians to provide care for patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, sleep apnea, and neuromuscular diseases that affect breathing.

RTs use a variety of techniques and treatments to help patients breathe more easily, including oxygen therapy, aerosol medication delivery, chest physiotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and patient education. They also perform diagnostic tests such as pulmonary function studies to assess lung function and help diagnose respiratory conditions.

RTs work in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and home health agencies. They may provide care for patients of all ages, from premature infants to the elderly. The overall goal of respiratory therapy is to help patients achieve and maintain optimal lung function and quality of life.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

A manikin is commonly referred to as a full-size model of the human body used for training in various medical and healthcare fields. Medical manikins are often made from materials that simulate human skin and tissues, allowing for realistic practice in procedures such as physical examinations, resuscitation, and surgical techniques.

These manikins can be highly advanced, with built-in mechanisms to simulate physiological responses, such as breathing, heartbeats, and pupil dilation. They may also have interchangeable parts, allowing for the simulation of various medical conditions and scenarios. Medical manikins are essential tools in healthcare education, enabling learners to develop their skills and confidence in a controlled, safe environment before working with real patients.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Budesonide is a corticosteroid medication that is used to reduce inflammation in the body. It works by mimicking the effects of hormones produced naturally by the adrenal glands, which help regulate the immune system and suppress inflammatory responses. Budesonide is available as an inhaler, nasal spray, or oral tablet, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rhinitis, and Crohn's disease.

When budesonide is inhaled or taken orally, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels throughout the body, where it can reduce inflammation in various tissues and organs. In the lungs, for example, budesonide can help prevent asthma attacks by reducing inflammation in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Like other corticosteroid medications, budesonide can have side effects, particularly if used at high doses or for long periods of time. These may include thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth), hoarseness, sore throat, cough, headache, and easy bruising or skin thinning. Long-term use of corticosteroids can also lead to more serious side effects, such as adrenal suppression, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking budesonide or any other medication, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Fluorinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain fluorine and carbon atoms. These compounds can be classified into two main groups: fluorocarbons (which consist only of fluorine and carbon) and fluorinated aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons (which contain hydrogen in addition to fluorine and carbon).

Fluorocarbons are further divided into three categories: fully fluorinated compounds (perfluorocarbons, PFCs), partially fluorinated compounds (hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These compounds have been widely used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, fire extinguishing agents, and cleaning solvents due to their chemical stability, low toxicity, and non-flammability.

Fluorinated aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen atoms. Examples include fluorinated alcohols, ethers, amines, and halogenated compounds. These compounds have a wide range of applications in industry, medicine, and research due to their unique chemical properties.

It is important to note that some fluorinated hydrocarbons can contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming, making it essential to regulate their use and production.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Missouri" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state located in the central United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Androstadienes are a class of steroid hormones that are derived from androstenedione, which is a weak male sex hormone. Androstadienes include various compounds such as androstadiene-3,17-dione and androstanedione, which are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Androstadienes are present in both males and females but are found in higher concentrations in men. They can be detected in various bodily fluids, including blood, urine, sweat, and semen. In addition to their role in steroid hormone synthesis, androstadienes have been studied for their potential use as biomarkers of physiological processes and disease states.

It's worth noting that androstadienes are sometimes referred to as "androstenes" in the literature, although this term can also refer to other related compounds.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in volume or blood flow within an organ or body part, typically in the lungs or extremities. There are several types of plethysmography, including:

1. **Whole Body Plethysmography (WBP):** This type of plethysmography is used to assess lung function and volumes by measuring changes in pressure within a sealed chamber that contains the patient's entire body except for their head. The patient breathes normally while wearing a nose clip, allowing technicians to analyze respiratory patterns, airflow, and lung volume changes.
2. **Segmental or Local Plethysmography:** This technique measures volume or blood flow changes in specific body parts, such as the limbs or digits. It can help diagnose and monitor conditions affecting peripheral circulation, like deep vein thrombosis, arterial occlusive disease, or Raynaud's phenomenon.
3. **Impedance Plethysmography (IPG):** This non-invasive method uses electrical impedance to estimate changes in blood volume within an organ or body part. By applying a small electrical current and measuring the opposition to flow (impedance), technicians can determine variations in blood volume, which can help diagnose conditions like deep vein thrombosis or heart failure.
4. **Optical Plethysmography:** This technique uses light to measure changes in blood volume, typically in the skin or mucous membranes. By shining a light on the area and analyzing the reflected or transmitted light, technicians can detect variations in blood volume related to cardiac output, respiration, or other physiological factors.

Overall, plethysmography is an essential tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions affecting circulation, respiratory function, and organ volumes.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Inhalational anesthesia is a type of general anesthesia that is induced by the inhalation of gases or vapors. It is administered through a breathing system, which delivers the anesthetic agents to the patient via a face mask, laryngeal mask airway, or endotracheal tube.

The most commonly used inhalational anesthetics include nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. These agents work by depressing the central nervous system, causing a reversible loss of consciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation.

The depth of anesthesia can be easily adjusted during the procedure by changing the concentration of the anesthetic agent. Once the procedure is complete, the anesthetic agents are eliminated from the body through exhalation, allowing for a rapid recovery.

Inhalational anesthesia is commonly used in a wide range of surgical procedures due to its ease of administration, quick onset and offset of action, and ability to rapidly adjust the depth of anesthesia. However, it requires careful monitoring and management by trained anesthesia providers to ensure patient safety and optimize outcomes.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

I apologize, but "estrenes" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology in English. It may be a term used in another language or context. If you could provide more context or clarify what you are looking for, I would be happy to help further.

"Albuterol Sulfate". Rx List: The Internet Drug Index. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. ... "Albuterol". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Salbutamol at The Periodic Table of Videos Portal: ... Papich MG (2007). "Albuterol Sulfate". Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs (2nd ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Saunders/Elsevier. pp. ... "Albuterol". Drugs.com. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. ...
Ameredes, Bill T.; Calhoun, William J. (November 2006). "(R)-Albuterol for Asthma: Pro [a.k.a. (S)-Albuterol for Asthma: Con ...
Examples include albuterol and levalbuterol. Commonly they are used with a portable inhaler which allow the patient to ...
Hendeles L, Colice GL, Meyer RJ (March 2007). "Withdrawal of albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbon propellants". N. ...
Orciprenaline in turn was replaced by salbutamol (albuterol). Some practitioners still believe that these later aerosolized ...
Oral albuterol, a β2 agonist, on the basis of its anabolic properties. Although it improved muscle mass and certain measures of ... 23 October 2001). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albuterol in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy". Neurology ... "Pilot trial of albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. FSH-DY Group". Neurology. 50 (5): 1402-6. doi:10.1212/wnl. ... "Strength training and albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy". Neurology. 63 (4): 702-8. doi:10.1212/01.wnl. ...
β2 selective: salbutamol/albuterol, terbutaline, salmeterol, formoterol, pirbuterol, clenbuterol. These are agents that ...
"Ipratropium Bromide 0.5 mg/Albuterol Sulfate 3.0 mg" (PDF). FDA. 2004. Retrieved 4 January 2021. "Atrovent Nasal Spray". Drugs. ... albuterol - USAN) under the trade names Combivent (a non-aerosol metered-dose inhaler or MDI) and Duoneb (nebulizer) for the ... albuterol) as a rescue medication. "Ipratropium Bromide". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ...
Albuterol, normal saline, and steroids are also commonly given. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) - a device inserted into the ...
A 2013 systematic review of the drug's use as a treatment for acute asthma found that it "was not superior to albuterol ... Schreck DM, Babin S (November 2005). "Comparison of racemic albuterol and levalbuterol in the treatment of acute asthma in the ... Hendeles L, Hartzema A (September 2003). "Levalbuterol is not more cost-effective than albuterol for COPD". Chest. 124 (3): ... "Levalbuterol versus albuterol for acute asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. ...
In the mid-1960s, albuterol or salbutamol was discovered, followed by tributalin and fenoterol a few years later. Albuterol and ... Barberich, T.J. "Method for treating asthma using optically pure (R)-albuterol". Google Patents. Retrieved 27 October 2014. ...
Bronchospasm is commonly treated by oxygen therapy and bronchodilators such as albuterol. Diseases of the bronchioles include ...
Several short-acting β2 agonists are available, including salbutamol (albuterol) and terbutaline. They provide some relief of ...
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Boccuzzi, S. J; Wogen, J; Roehm, J. B (2000). "Use of hydrofluoroalkane propellant delivery system for inhaled albuterol in ...
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Lee DL, Hsu CW, Lee H, Chang HW, Huang YC (September 2005). "Beneficial effects of albuterol therapy driven by heliox versus by ...
"Heliox data sheet" (PDF). Lee DL, Hsu CW, Lee H, Chang HW, Huang YC (September 2005). "Beneficial effects of albuterol therapy ...
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agonist inhalers used to treat asthma or COPD (albuterol and salmeterol) Epinephrine Linezolid Metformin, used to treat ... ... as rash, hives, and itching Bronchodilators such as albuterol to reduce asthma-like symptoms (moderate wheezing or ... ... Quick-relief beta-agonists inhalers include: Albuterol (ProAir HFA; Proventil HFA; Ventolin HFA) Levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA) ... valproate (Depakene) Asthma medicines such as theophylline and albuterol Immune suppressing medicines such as cyclosporine and ...
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The results of this investigation should prove useful in initial clinical trials of albuterol MDI i … ... the dose of albuterol by MDI with an AeroVent spacer should be doubled for children intubated with 6.0-mm ETT, and four puffs ... Design: An albuterol MDI canister was connected to an AeroVent spacer or Airlife MDI adapter and ETT 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0 mm at ... Albuterol delivery by metered-dose inhaler with a pediatric mechanical ventilatory circuit model Pharmacotherapy. 1994 Mar-Apr; ...
Albuterol Tablets, USP, contain albuterol sulfate equivalent to 2 mg or 4 mg of albuterol. The tablets containing albuterol ... The following dosages of albuterol tablets are expressed in terms of albuterol base. Usual Dosage. Adults and Children Over 12 ... The tablets containing albuterol sulfate equivalent to 4 mg of albuterol are white, scored, round tablets debossed with M572 on ... Albuterol tablets are indicated for the relief of bronchospasm in adults and children 6 years of age and older with reversible ...
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Copyright ©2023 The Curbsiders, All Rights Reserved.. The Curbsiders are board-certified Internists. The opinions expressed on this show are those of The Curbsiders and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of their places of employment. The opinions expressed on this podcast are meant for entertainment and education and should not be used to diagnose or treat any medical condition nor should they be used as a substitute for medical advice from a qualified, board-certified practicing clinician. The Curbsiders have no relevant financial disclosures.. ...
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  • Albuterol metered aerosol is a type of inhaler. (medicalnewstoday.com)
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  • Combivent (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate ) is an inhaler that is a combination of an anticholinergic bronchodilator and a selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator used to treat and prevent symptoms ( wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by ongoing lung disease ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD which includes bronchitis and emphysema ). (rxlist.com)
  • To determine albuterol delivery by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in an in vitro pediatric mechanical ventilatory circuit model. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol is considered a good medication to be used for asthma when a fast-acting inhaler is needed for immediate symptoms. (mothertobaby.org)
  • Use of a fast-acting albuterol inhaler more than two days per week can be a sign that asthma symptoms may not be well controlled. (mothertobaby.org)
  • However, using an albuterol inhaler is not thought to cause high enough levels in the person's bloodstream to pass into breast milk in large amounts. (mothertobaby.org)
  • Some pulmonologists are switching long-term albuterol users to a Symbicort inhaler (formoterol plus budosenide) for long term use and saving albuterol for exacerbations. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Serevent is inhaler of type Control while Albuterol is of Rescue type. (wdevcompany.com)
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  • Albuterol works by relaxing the airway so that breathing becomes easier and is available in the form of a tablet, syrup, or inhaler . (wise-geek.com)
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  • Albuterol Sulfate - ProAir RespiClick / Quick Relief / Page 3 Drug Name: Albuterol Sulfate Brand Name: ProAir®​ RespiClick® Medicine Use: Quick-relief Type of Medicine: Short-acting beta agonists Form: Dry powder inhaler, breath actuated inhaler Prescribing. (aafa.org)
  • Levalbuterol is the R-enantiomer of albuterol and is available in nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) forms. (medscape.com)
  • His use of albuterol metered dose inhaler has gradually increased to a current level of 10-12 puffs daily. (cdc.gov)
  • It contains the active drug albuterol sulfate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol is a combination of ipratropium bromide (as the monohydrate) and albuterol sulfate. (rxlist.com)
  • Albuterol sulfate, chemically known as (1,3-benzenedimethanol, α'-[[(1,1dimethylethyl) amino] methyl]-4-hydroxy, sulfate (2:1)(salt), (±)- is a relatively selective beta 2 -adrenergic bronchodilator. (rxlist.com)
  • Albuterol sulfate is a white to off-white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether. (rxlist.com)
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  • Combivent® (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol contains a microcrystalline suspension of ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate in a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Each actuation meters 21 mcg of ipratropium bromide and 120 mcg of albuterol sulfate from the valve and delivers 18 mcg of ipratropium bromide and 103 mcg of albuterol sulfate (equivalent to 90 mcg albuterol base) from the mouthpiece. (rxlist.com)
  • Also, safety and efficacy of extra doses of ipratropium or albuterol in addition to the recommended doses of Combivent® (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol have not been studied. (rxlist.com)
  • Albuterol Tablets, USP, contain albuterol sulfate equivalent to 2 mg or 4 mg of albuterol. (druglib.com)
  • The tablets containing albuterol sulfate equivalent to 2 mg of albuterol are white, scored, round tablets debossed with M255 on the scored side. (druglib.com)
  • MAOIs ), for example, tranylcypromine, should not be combined with albuterol sulfate because of their additive effects on the vascular system (increased blood pressure, heart rate, etc. (hdkino.org)
  • Albuterol sulfate belongs to a class of medications called bronchodilators. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • ProAir RespiClick (albuterol sulfate) is a bronchodilator used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (mountainside-medical.com)
  • ProAir RespiClick (albuterol sulfate) relaxes the muscles in the airways and increases the flow of air to the lungs. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • TEL AVIV, Israel & PARSIPPANY, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc., a U.S. affiliate of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE and TASE: TEVA), today announced that the first findings from the CONNECT clinical program on ProAir ® Digihaler ® (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder with an integrated electronic module (eModule) will be presented at the European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress 2022, held September 4-6 in Barcelona, Spain. (tevausa.com)
  • The action of albuterol sulfate syrup may last up to 6 hours or longer. (uprx.com)
  • Albuterol Sulfate Syrup should not be taken more frequently than recommended. (uprx.com)
  • Do not increase the dose or frequency of albuterol sulfate syrup without consulting your physician. (uprx.com)
  • If you find that treatment with albuterol sulfate syrup becomes less effective for symptomatic relief, your symptoms get worse, and/or you need to take the product more frequently than usual, you should seek medical attention immediately. (uprx.com)
  • While you are taking albuterol sulfate syrup, other asthma medications and inhaled drugs should be taken only as directed by your physician. (uprx.com)
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  • Ventolin HFA is normally known as just Ventolin or Generic Ventolin and the active ingredient is Albuterol (Albuterol Sulfate). (albuterol-sulfate.com)
  • Intravenous studies in rats with albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5.0% of the plasma concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol Sulfate - ProAir HFA / Quick Relief / Page 3 On October 1, 2022, Teva discontinued manufacturing ProAir® HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol. (aafa.org)
  • As of December 31, 2008, you will not longer be able to purchase chlorofluorocarbons propelled albuterol inhalers as a result of the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. (green-talk.com)
  • Albuterol is used in fast-acting inhalers for treatment of asthma. (mothertobaby.org)
  • Participants in the SoC group were treated with their SoC albuterol reliever inhalers and did not use the Digihaler System throughout the study's treatment period. (tevausa.com)
  • 1. Incorrect usage: It is important to use albuterol inhalers correctly for optimal effectiveness. (marymorrison.com)
  • Albuterol can be taken in a variety of forms, including inhalers, nebulizers, and tablets. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • The albuterol and levalbuterol HFA inhalers have a different propellant called hydrofluoroalkane (HFA). (albuterol-sulfate.com)
  • Albuterol HFA and albuterol CFC inhalers may taste and feel different. (albuterol-sulfate.com)
  • Albuterol sulphate dilates the airways of the lung and is used for treating asthma and other conditions of the lung. (hdkino.org)
  • Albuterol sulphate inhalation solution is used for the treatment of bronchospasm in patients 2 to 12 years of age with asthma (reversible obstructive airway disease). (hdkino.org)
  • studies have shown that the R- and S-enantiomers of racemic albuterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist used in asthma treatment, have differential effects on the contractile properties of airway smooth muscle. (scirp.org)
  • As a kind of well mature pharmaceutical for asthma treatment, it would be very important to distinguish the effect of two different isomers of albuterol on proliferation and migration activities of airway smooth muscle cells. (scirp.org)
  • Albuterol (also called salbutamol) is a medication used for the treatment of asthma. (mothertobaby.org)
  • If albuterol doesn't work, there may be alternative medications or treatments available for managing asthma symptoms. (marymorrison.com)
  • Albuterol is a common medication used to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. (marymorrison.com)
  • Albuterol is a commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory conditions. (marymorrison.com)
  • 4. Severe asthma: If you have severe asthma, albuterol alone may not be enough to control your symptoms. (marymorrison.com)
  • This is where albuterol comes in as a natural solution to help manage asthma symptoms. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • Albuterol is a bronchodilator that widens the air passages in your lungs to increase airflow, making it easier to breathe and reducing the risk of asthma attacks. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • It's important to note that albuterol is not a cure for asthma, but rather a tool used to manage symptoms. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • Consistent use of albuterol and being mindful of triggers that may cause an asthma attack can help you take control of your asthma and improve your overall quality of life. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
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  • If you have asthma, it's important to work with your healthcare provider to develop an asthma management plan that includes albuterol. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • This plan should detail how often you should take albuterol and when to use it during an asthma attack. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • In addition to using albuterol, you can also make lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers that can cause asthma attacks, quitting smoking, and participating in regular exercise, which can help manage asthma symptoms. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
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  • By investing the time and energy into developing a comprehensive asthma management plan that includes regular use of albuterol, patients can greatly improve their quality of life and reduce the risk of complications associated with uncontrolled asthma. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • With careful guidance from a healthcare provider, asthma sufferers can learn how to use albuterol safely and effectively to reduce wheezing, coughing, and other symptoms, allowing them to breathe easy and enjoy all of life's adventures. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
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  • Albuterol is a prescription medication that is used to treat a variety of breathing disorders, including asthma . (wise-geek.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new genome-wide association study has identified variants associated with worse albuterol response in African American and Puerto Rican children with asthma. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Michael Wechsler, director of the NJH Cohen Family Asthma Institute at National Jewish Health in Denver, said, "In this study, several new genetic variants associated with responsiveness or lack of responsiveness to albuterol were identified that may potentially give clues to what is causing asthma in these minority patients specifically. (medscape.com)
  • Albuterol is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to albuterol, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in albuterol tablets, extended-release tablets, or capsules. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, and Ventolin HFA are the brand-name medications that albuterol metered aerosol is based on. (medicalnewstoday.com)
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  • Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and sold under the brand name Ventolin among others, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advantage of levalbuterol is that it is less likely to cause paradoxical bronchospasm than racemic albuterol. (medscape.com)
  • This nonracemic form of albuterol offers a significant reduction in the adverse effects associated with racemic albuterol (eg, muscle tremors, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia). (medscape.com)
  • Albuterol metered aerosol is available in brand-name forms called Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, and Ventolin HFA . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you're interested in using Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, or Ventolin HFA instead of albuterol metered aerosol, talk with your doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Albuterol tablets are indicated for the relief of bronchospasm in adults and children 6 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease. (druglib.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) added to nebulized albuterol may induce bronchospasm. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Albuterol inhalation is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in people with reversible obstructive airway disease. (rakshakfoundation.org)
  • Short-acting bronchodilators (i.e., albuterol, levalbuterol) are used to treat acute bronchospasm. (medscape.com)
  • Albuterol Inhalation Aerosol is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation. (nih.gov)
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  • Nonracemic form of albuterol, levalbuterol (R isomer) is effective in smaller doses and is reported to have fewer adverse effects (eg, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia). (medscape.com)
  • Albuterol sulphate dilates bronchial airways by relaxing the muscles that surround the airways. (hdkino.org)
  • Albuterol also can be helpful in patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when symptoms are partially related to spasm of the airways' muscles. (hdkino.org)
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  • Albuterol metered aerosol is a generic prescription medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Albuterol metered aerosol is approved for these uses in adults as well as children ages 4 years and older. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • See the " Albuterol metered aerosol uses " section below for details about how this drug is used. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For information about the effectiveness of albuterol metered aerosol, see the " Albuterol metered aerosol uses " section below. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Albuterol metered aerosol can cause mild or serious side effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For more information about the possible side effects of albuterol metered aerosol, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you would like to notify the FDA about a side effect you've had with albuterol metered aerosol, you can do so through MedWatch . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is a partial list of mild side effects from albuterol metered aerosol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Coughing up mucus was not reported in clinical studies of albuterol metered aerosol, but can happen after using the drug to treat reversible obstructive lung disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Serious side effects from albuterol metered aerosol aren't common, but they can occur. (medicalnewstoday.com)
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  • What is the dosage for albuterol? (hdkino.org)
  • 3. Insufficient dosage: The prescribed dosage of albuterol may not be sufficient for your condition. (marymorrison.com)
  • The most common usage of albuterol involves inhaling the medication directly into the lungs. (wise-geek.com)
  • A jet nebulizer connected to an air compressor equipped with a mouthpiece or face mask is used to administer albuterol sulphate solution. (hdkino.org)
  • The entire contents of one vial should be placed in the nebulizer and the flow rate should be adjusted to deliver albuterol sulphate over 5 to 15 minutes. (hdkino.org)
  • Those who use a nebulizer will likely require 2.5 mg of albuterol for a six to eight hour period. (wise-geek.com)
  • donasmrs-- As far as I know, a nebulizer is the most common way of administering albuterol for young children. (wise-geek.com)
  • My son had to use an albuterol nebulizer when he was little too. (wise-geek.com)
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  • This study is examining which delivery method of albuterol-inhaled or nebulizer-is better at improving lung function in adult women who have LAM. (nih.gov)
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  • Levo-Albuterol hydrochloride is a chiral β2-sympathomimetic that acts on the β2-adrenergic receptors. (midas-pharma.com)
  • Each actuation delivers 100 mcg of albuterol from the valve and 90 mcg of albuterol from the mouthpiece. (nih.gov)
  • Because albuterol is inhaled, it is absorbed into the body in lower amounts compared to pill / tablet forms of the medication. (mothertobaby.org)
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  • Your doctor may start you on a low dose of albuterol and gradually increase your dose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In humidified air, the dose of albuterol by MDI with an AeroVent spacer should be doubled for children intubated with 6.0-mm ETT, and four puffs administered for every one puff desired for 4.0-mm ETT. (nih.gov)
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  • It contains a microcrystalline (95% ≤ 10 µm) suspension of albuterol in propellants (trichloromonofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane) with oleic acid. (nih.gov)
  • An albuterol MDI canister was connected to an AeroVent spacer or Airlife MDI adapter and ETT 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0 mm at commercially available and equal lengths. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this investigation should prove useful in initial clinical trials of albuterol MDI in ventilator-dependent infants and children. (nih.gov)
  • But it's still the most effective way to give albuterol to infants and children. (wise-geek.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with albuterol? (hdkino.org)
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  • The pharmacologic effects of beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, including albuterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation through beta-adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3', 5'- adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). (nih.gov)
  • Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor if your symptoms worsen or if you feel that albuterol no longer controls your symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you find that albuterol is not effectively managing your symptoms or if it is causing unwanted side effects, it may be time to explore alternative treatments and solutions. (marymorrison.com)
  • In addition to preventing attacks, albuterol can also help to manage symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
  • However, through the use of albuterol, asthmatics can control and prevent symptoms naturally. (rxxbuynoprescriptiononline.net)
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  • For treatment of preterm delivery, albuterol was given in high oral doses (by mouth). (mothertobaby.org)
  • Treatment with inhaled albuterol at prescribed doses has not been shown to cause these effects. (mothertobaby.org)
  • Albuterol has been shown in most controlled clinical trials to have more effect on the respiratory tract, in the form of bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, than isoproterenol at comparable doses while producing fewer cardiovascular effects. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of rising doses of albuterol and isoproterenol aerosols were studied in volunteers and asthmatic patients. (nih.gov)
  • Because of its gradual absorption from the bronchi, systemic levels of albuterol are low after inhalation of recommended doses. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have suggested that short-acting beta2-agonists such as albuterol may produce adverse outcomes (eg, decreased peak flow or increased risk of exacerbations) in patients homozygous for arginine (Arg/Arg) at the 16th amino acid position of beta-adrenergic receptor gene compared with patients homozygous for glycine (Gly-Gly). (medscape.com)
  • Since (R)-, but not (S)-albuterol enhances bronchodilation, we expect the two racemic isomers would also affect proliferation and migration of tracheal cells differentially. (scirp.org)
  • Concurrent bronchodilation and decreased REE after albuterol administration suggest that increased work of breathing as a result of airway obstruction may contribute to increased energy demands in horses with RAO. (avma.org)
  • The FDA approved albuterol sulphate solution in January 1987. (hdkino.org)
  • The molecular weight of albuterol is 239.2, and the molecular formula is C13H21NO3. (nih.gov)
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  • Objective -To evaluate effects of sedation on stability of resistance of the respiratory system (RRS) and measures of resting energy expenditure (REE) by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry (IC) and treatment with aerosolized albuterol on REE in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). (avma.org)
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  • This page shows results related to Albuterol and Therapeutic Response Decreased from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). (drugcite.com)
  • To learn more about all adverse events for Albuterol, view the complete Albuterol adverse event report . (drugcite.com)