The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Excision of kidney.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (1/2491)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. (2/2491)

BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria.  (+info)

Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. (3/2491)

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistance detected by ultrasound (US) Doppler has been reported in severe essential hypertension (EH) and recently was shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. However, the pathophysiological significance of this finding is still controversial. METHODS: In a group of 211 untreated patients with EH, we evaluated renal resistive index (RI) by US Doppler of interlobar arteries and early signs of target organ damage (TOD). Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in three non-consecutive first morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass was evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, and carotid wall thickness (IMT) by high resolution US scan. RESULTS: RI was positively correlated with age (r=0.25, P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and with signs of early TOD, namely ACR (r=0.22, P=0.01) and IMT (r=0.17, P<0.05), and inversely correlated with renal volume (r=-0.22, P=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.23, P=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ACR and SBP independently influence RI and together account for approximately 20% of its variations (F=8.153, P<0.0001). When clinical data were analysed according to the degree of RI, the patients in the top quartile were found to be older (P<0.05) and with higher SBP (P<0.05) as well as early signs of TOD, namely increased ACR (P<0.002) and IMT (P<0.005 by ANOVA), despite similar body mass index, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and duration of hypertension. Furthermore, patients with higher RI showed a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (13 vs 12 vs 3 vs 33% chi2=11.72, P=0.008) and left ventricular hypertrophy (40 vs 43 vs 32 vs 60%, chi2=9.25, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased RI is associated with early signs of TOD in EH and could be a marker of intrarenal atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (4/2491)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

Microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial disease are independent predictors of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, especially among hypertensive subjects: five-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. (5/2491)

Microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It has been proposed that MA reflects generalized atherosclerosis and may thus predict mortality. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the associations between, on the one hand, MA and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a generally accepted marker of generalized atherosclerosis, and, on the other hand, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in an age-, sex-, and glucose tolerance-stratified sample (n=631) of a population-based cohort aged 50 to 75 years followed prospectively for 5 years. At baseline, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in an overnight spot urine sample; MA was defined as ACR >2.0 mg/mmol. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial pressure index below 0.90 and/or a history of a peripheral arterial bypass or amputation. After 5 years of follow-up, 58 subjects had died (24 of cardiovascular causes). Both MA and PAD were associated with a 4-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, levels of total and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride, body mass index, smoking habits, and preexistent ischemic heart disease, the relative risks (RR) (95% confidence intervals) were 3.2 (1.3 to 8.1) for MA and 2.4 (0.9 to 6.1) for PAD. When both MA and PAD were included in the multivariate analysis, the RRs were 2.9 (1.1 to 7.3) for MA and 2.0 (0.7 to 5.7) for PAD. MA and PAD were both associated with an about 2-fold increase in all-cause mortality. The RRs of all-cause mortality associated with MA and PAD were about 4 times higher among hypertensive than among normotensive subjects. We conclude that both MA and PAD are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. MA and PAD are mutually independent risk indicators. The associations of MA and PAD with all-cause mortality are somewhat weaker. They are more pronounced in the presence of hypertension than in its absence. These data suggest that MA affects mortality risk through a mechanism different from generalized atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Chronic bradykinin infusion and receptor blockade in angiotensin II hypertension in rats. (6/2491)

The influence of endogenous bradykinin(BK) on the control of arterial pressure and the development of cardiac hypertrophy was assessed in chronically angiotensin II(Ang II)-infused rats (200 ng. kg-1. min-1) through the effects of concomitant infusion of 3 doses of BK (15 ng. kg-1. d-1, 100 ng. kg-1. d-1 and 100 ng. kg-1. min-1 ie, 144 000 ng. kg-1. d-1) or BK-blockade by Hoe140 (300 microg. kg-1. d-1) for 10 days. In Ang II-infused rats, tail-cuff pressure increased from 124+/-3 to 174+/-6 mm Hg (P<0.001). The pressor effect of Ang II was not affected by simultaneous infusion of BK or Hoe140. At the end of the experiments, cardiac mass was higher in rats infused with Ang II alone (3.56+/-0.10 versus 2.89+/-0.05 mg/g in untreated controls, P<0.01) and the development of cardiac hypertrophy was not modified by administration of the 3 doses of BK or Hoe140. In addition, the fall in cardiac output associated with Ang II was prevented only by the moderate and high doses of BK, mainly through an increase in stroke volume and a decrease in total peripheral resistance. In the same way, the renal vasoconstrictor effect of Ang II was abolished by the medium and high dose of BK. Hoe140 did not affect cardiac output or renal blood flow in this model. No influence of BK or Hoe140 on the increase in albuminuria induced by Ang II was detected. In conclusion, exogenous BK may oppose the effect of Ang II on vascular tone, but it cannot prevent hypertension and target-organ damage associated with this experimental model of hypertension, even at a very high dose.  (+info)

Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in type 1 diabetic patients. A 7-year follow-up study. (7/2491)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate kidney function 7 years after the end of treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA) (initial dosage of 9.3 tapered off to 7.0 in young patients (mean age 20 years) with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CsA trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, 21 patients received CsA for 12.5 +/- 4.0 months (mean +/- SD) and 19 patients received placebo for 14.4 +/- 3.8 months. The two groups were similar with regard to mean arterial blood pressure (BP), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR [Cockcroft and Gault]) at initiation of CsA treatment (baseline). HbA1c (mean +/- SEM) during 7 years of follow-up was also the same: 8.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.4% in the CsA and placebo groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the 7 years after cessation of study medication, two CsA group patients and one control patient were lost to follow-up. One placebo-treated patient developed IgA nephropathy (biopsy proven) and was excluded. Four CsA-treated patients developed persistently elevated UAER > 30 mg/24 h (n = 3 with microalbuminuria), whereas all the 17 placebo-treated patients had normal UAER (< 30 mg/24 h) after 7 years of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, the CsA group had a more pronounced rise in UAER: 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.4-4.5) higher than baseline value vs. 1.1-fold (0.7-1.7) in the placebo-treated group (P < 0.05). Estimated GFR (ml.min-1.1.73 m-2) declined from baseline to end of follow-up (1994) by 6.3 +/- 6.0 in the former CsA group, whereas it rose by 7.4 +/- 5.0 in the placebo group (P = 0.05). In 1994, 24-h blood pressure was nearly the same: 131/77 +/- 4/2 vs. 127/75 +/- 2/2 mmHg (NS) in the CsA and placebo groups, respectively. Five randomly selected CsA-treated patients had a kidney biopsy performed shortly after the CsA treatment was stopped. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and/or arteriolopathy were present in two subjects who both subsequently developed persistent microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our 7-year follow-up study suggested that short-lasting CsA treatment in young, newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients accelerated the rate of progression in UAER and tended to induce a loss in kidney function. Longer term follow-up is mandatory to clarify whether CsA-treated patients are at increased risk of developing clinical nephropathy.  (+info)

Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group. (8/2491)

OBJECTIVE: The predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in children with type 1 diabetes has not been defined. We describe the natural history of MA in a large cohort of children recruited at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 514 children (279 male) who developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 16 years (91% of those eligible from a region where ascertainment of new cases is 95%) were recruited for a longitudinal study with central annual assessment of HbAlc and albumin excretion (three urine samples). Dropout rates have been < 1% per year, and 287 children have been followed for > 4.5 years. RESULTS: MA (defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 3.5 and > or = 4.0 mg/mmol in boys and girls, respectively) developed in 63 (12.8%) and was persistent in 22 (4.8%) of the subjects. The cumulative probability (based on the Kaplan-Meier method) for developing MA was 40% after 11 years. HbAlc was worse in those who developed MA than in others (mean difference +/- SEM: 1.1% +/- 0.2, P < 0.001). In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes (< 5, 5-11, and > 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years' duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

In an attempt to detect patients at high risk of developing diabetic nephropathy, a longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion) was carried out in 15 female and 8 male long-term insulin-dependent diabetics without proteinuria (negative Albustix test).. Five females and 3 males had an elevated urinary albumin excretion at the time of screening, mean 115 ± 26 (sd) mg/24 h. Our upper normal range for urinary albumin excretion is ≤ 40 mg/24 h. The 5 patients with the highest albumin excretion subsequently developed persistent albuminuria, 132 → 1007 mg/24 h, P , 0.05, elevated serum creatinine, 83 → 128 μmol/l, P , 0.05, and raised blood pressure, 135/86 → 163/112 mmHg, P , 0.05. One patient developed intermittent albuminuria (positive Albustix test), while the variables in the remaining 2 patients were about the same during the 6 years observation period. Fifteen patients had a normal urinary albumin excretion, mean 17 ± 9 (sd) mg/24 h, at the time of ...
Glomerular hyperfiltration is not able to be detected in clinical practice. We assessed whether hyperfiltration is associated with albuminuria progression among Indigenous Australians at high risk of diabetes and kidney disease to determine its role in kidney disease progression. Longitudinal observational study of Indigenous Australians aged ≥18 years recruited from ,20 sites, across diabetes and/or kidney function strata. At baseline, iohexol clearance was used to measure glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and hyperfiltration was defined as (i) a mGFR of ≥125 mL/min/1.73 m2, and (ii) an age-adjusted definition, with the top 10% of the mGFR for each 10 year age group at baseline. Baseline and follow-up urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) was collected, and linear regression was used to assess the associations of hyperfiltration and uACR at follow up. 407 individuals (33% men, mean age 47 years) were followed-up for a median of 3 years. At baseline, 234 had normoalbuminuria and 173 had ...
Endothelial dysfunction, a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk, is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microalbuminuria is frequent in HIV-infected patients, and is a predictor of renal impairment and CV risk. We investigated the association between microalbuminuria and endothelial dysfunction among HIV-infected patients receiving highly-Active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Endothelial function, measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (bFMD), and urine albumin-To-creatinine ratio (UACR), were measured in 170 HAART-Treated HIV-infected adults. The relationship between UACR and bFMD was evaluated. The prevalence of increased UACR, defined by two cut-off levels (20 mg/g and 30 mg/g), was 29 and 17. UACR was significantly higher while bFMD was lower among patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). UACR was associated with bFMD (r = â 0.31; p , 0.001). This association was stronger in MS-patients (r = â 0.44; p = 0.003). UACR above 20 mg/g was associated with ...
We compared random urine ACR with 4-hour AER in a large, well-characterized population with type 1 diabetes. Despite moderate correlation between ACR and AER, there were systematic differences in these measurements, altered classification of prevalent albuminuria states and changes in albuminuria states over time, and differences in within-individual variability. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and research, supporting the use of consistent ascertainment methods over time and further efforts to standardize and optimally interpret measurement of urine albumin excretion.. It has previously been recognized that ACR values are biased in relation to AER by determinants of urine creatinine excretion, particularly gender (2). Creatinine is generated in muscle, and urinary excretion is the main disposition for generated creatinine, so muscle mass is a major determinant of urine creatinine excretion (17-20). Because men have greater muscle mass than women, men have ...
Analytic note on comparing the urine albumin-creatinine ratio of the random urine (first collection) and the follow-up first-morning void urine (second collection). Persistent albuminuria, as measured by the urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in two urines from an individual, is used to determine the prevalence of stages 1 and 2 of chronic kidney disease. In NHANES 2009-2010, two urine samples were collected from participants ages 6 years and older. A random urine was initially collected in the NHANES mobile examination center (MEC). Participants were then asked to collect a first-morning void urine in their home within 10 days of the MEC examination.. The random urine (first collection) has a higher mean ACR compared with the mean of the first-morning void urine (second collection) because of factors such as orthostatic (postural) proteinuria and exercise. For participants 20 years and older in NHANES 2009-2010 (n=5247), the weighted (using MEC examined sample weights) mean random ACR (first ...
Background: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority.. Objective: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.. Design: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program.. Setting: 309 secondary care centers.. Patients: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 µg/min).. Intervention: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients, caregivers, and researchers were blinded to treatment assignment. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, ...
We investigated the single and combined effects of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on albuminuria in Chinese. We measured blood pressure (BP), anthropometry and urinary excretions of albumin and creatinine, and defined albuminuria as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of at least 17 and 25 mg/g in men and women, respectively. The 1068 participants (mean age 56.3 years) included 407 (38.5%) men and 410 (38.4%) hypertensive patients. A J-shaped relationship between the risk of albuminuria and BP was observed for both SBP (mean ± SD, 126.1 ± 18.9 mmHg) and DBP (77.1 ± 9.4 mmHg) with nadir levels of 110 mmHg and 70 mmHg, respectively. The risk of albuminuria was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) associated with DBP in the subjects with a SBP of at least 130 mmHg and with SBP in subjects with a DBP of at least 80 mmHg, and inversely and significantly (p = 0.04) associated with SBP in subjects with a DBP below 70 mmHg. In conclusion, as far as albuminuria is concerned, there is indeed ...
The present data demonstrate that DHEA may be a causal intermediate in the relationship between degree of urinary albumin excretion and CVD in male patients with type 2 diabetes.. Albuminuria, a marker of established CVD (5) and an independent predictor of carotid intima-media thickness as determined by carotid ultrasonography (19), is associated with several known and potential CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased platelet aggregability, and hyperinsulinemia (20-22). As an indication of increased renal endothelial permeability, albuminuria may be a convenient marker of diffuse endothelial dysfunction. Thus, albuminuria could serve as a readily determined marker of CVD as well as of existing endothelial dysfunction, being likely to reflect both macrovascular and microvascular disease.. Previous investigations could not establish a direct causal link between elevated urinary albumin excretion and increased CVD risk. Mattock et al. (23) demonstrated that ...
Glomerular hyperfiltration, correlated with nephromegaly, is a frequent finding in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. In type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, very few studies have been performed, and the results have been inconclusive. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and kidney volume, using |sup|99|/sup|mTc-DTPA scintigraphy and ultrasonography, respectively, were evaluated in 58 control subjects and 163 type 2 diabetic patients; 79 of whom were normoalbuminuric and 84 microalbuminuric. In the two groups of patients, these parameters did not differ significantly from those of controls, even when hypertensive subjects were excluded. Glomerular hyperfiltration was observed in 10 cases; all were normotensive (9.8%), of whom 7 were normoalbuminuric and 3 microalbuminuric. Nephromegaly was observed in 3 other normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients. Hypertensive subjects showed a lower GFR than normotensive patients and control subjects. Multivariate analysis showed a negative correlation
AIMS Cardiovascular events are the most relevant events in patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to compare the predictive values of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the state-of-the-art marker, albuminuria, for cardiac events in diabetic patients. METHODS In this prospective observational study we recruited 1071 patients with diabetes mellitus. NT-proBNP and albuminuria ⊟ defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio |30 mg/g were measured at baseline. Patients were followed during a mean observation period of 33.1 months. A total of 103 patients reached the defined endpoint (unplanned hospitalization due to a cardiac event or death). RESULTS The mean duration of diabetes was 15 ± 12 years and the mean HbA(1c) was 7.5 ± 3.1%. At baseline, 23.7% of the patients presented with albuminuria and 36.6% had plasma NT-proBNP values |125 pg/ml. Multiple Cox regression analysis including age, gender, duration of diabetes HbA(1c), albuminuria, and lnNT-proBNP revealed that lnNT
Find Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine (Protein/Creatine Ratio) Test Labs in Mumbai - View Cost of Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine (Protein/Creatine Ratio) Test, Normal Range, Sample Results & Book Online for Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine (Protein/Creatine Ratio) Test Labs in Delhi | Lybrate
The exact time window of albuminuria onset in individual patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension is difficult to identify, and to obtain renal tissues from patients with repetitive biopsies would be, for ethical reasons, not feasible. Thus, to identify the early molecular glomerular changes preceding the onset of albuminuria at the tissue level appears impossible in humans. In contrast, a recent study in the MWF rat model demonstrated the importance and feasibility of the experimental approach to obtain new insights into the sequence of events leading to the development of spontaneous albuminuria.13. We demonstrated that reduction of the nephron number in MWF animals and the consecutive increase in single glomerular filtration rate demonstrated previously in this strain9,16 associates with early adaptation of the glomerulus, which includes the development of glomerular hypertrophy in young MWF animals at 4 weeks of age.13 Moreover, preceding the onset of significant albuminuria at 6 ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Proteinuria assessment is key in investigating chronic kidney disease (CKD) but uncertainty exists regarding optimal methods. Albuminuria, reflecting glomerular damage, is usually measured, but non-albumin proteinuria (NAP), reflecting tubular damage, may be important. This study investigated the prevalence and associations of albuminuria and NAP, and the optimum number of urine specimens required. METHODS: 1,741 patients with CKD stage 3, recruited from primary care, underwent medical history, clinical assessment, blood sampling, and submitted three early morning urine samples for albumin to creatinine ratio (uACR) and protein to creatinine ratios (uPCR). Albuminuria was defined as uACR ≥ 3 mg/mmol in at least two of three samples. Isolated NAP was defined as uPCR ≥ 17 mg/mmol in two of three samples and uACR ,3 mg/mmol in all three. Prevalence and associations of albuminuria and NAP, degree of agreement between single uACR and average of three uACRs, and urine ...
In this post hoc SPRINT analysis, we found that intensive systolic BP lowering resulted in similar absolute effects on ≥40% eGFR decline in those with and without albuminuria. This observation was in contrast to our expectation that the effects of intensive systolic BP lowering on ≥40% eGFR decline may be augmented in those with albuminuria, given higher baseline risk among those with albuminuria. In time to event analyses, intensive systolic BP lowering resulted in a stronger relative risk of ≥40% eGFR decline in participants without albuminuria compared with those with albuminuria. In terms of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, intensive systolic BP lowering reduced risk similarly in patients with and without albuminuria on both the absolute and relative risk scales.. On the basis of the results of ≥40% eGFR decline on the hazard ratio scale, one should not conclude that the absence of albuminuria somehow augments the risk for eGFR decline with intensive systolic BP ...
Albuminuria meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Albuminuria in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Albuminuria in Hindi dictionary? Albuminuria ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Albuminuria का हिंदी में मतलब ). Albuminuria meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is पेशाब में अन्नसार जाना.English definition of Albuminuria : the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
albuminuria definition. Explain albuminuria. What is albuminuria? albuminuria meaning. albuminuria sense. albuminuria FAQ. albuminuria synonyms.
This study examines the effect of rosiglitazone on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with type II diabetes. Urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in a 52-week, open-label, cardiac safety study comparing rosiglitazone and glyburide. Patients were randomised to treatment with …
Macroalbuminuria can be diagnosed using a dipstick test. Microalbuminuria is detected using a spot urine sample (positive if 30 to 300 mg/L) or 24-hour urine collection (positive if 30 - 300 mg/24 hours).. At least two out of three measurements over a three to six months period confirms the diagnosis of microalbuminuria [3]. Early morning sample is preferred.. Another method of measuring microalbuminuria is urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). It is positive if ACR ,3.5 mg/mmol (female) or ,2.5 mg/mmol (male). This method will compensate variations in urine concentration in spot-check sample.. Patient should refrain from heavy exercises 24 hours before the test. The test is inaccurate in individuals with too much or too little muscle mass. ...
Albuminuria development in hypertensive patients is an indicator of higher cardiovascular (CV) risk and renal damage. Chronic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suppression facilitates blood pressure control but it does not prevent from albuminuria development. We pursued the identification of protein indicators in urine behind albuminuria development in hypertensive patients under RAS suppression. Urine was collected from 100 patients classified in three groups according to albuminuria development: (a) patients with persistent normoalbuminuria; (b) patients developing de novo albuminuria; (c) patients with maintained albuminuria. Quantitative analysis was performed in a first discovery cohort by isobaric labeling methodology. Alterations of proteins of interest were confirmed by target mass spectrometry analysis in an independent cohort. A total of 2416 proteins and 1223 functional categories (coordinated protein responses) were identified. Immune response, adhesion of immune and blood cells, and ...
In this study, we observed a significant reduction of 36% (95% CI 15.8-56.4) in the UAER levels of patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria after the CD when compared with their usual diet. It was also observed that both the LPD and the CD reduced total cholesterol, LDL, and apolipoprotein B levels in microalbuminuric patients and GFR in normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, only the LPD decreased GFR.. Changes in the amount or source of protein can influence renal function. The reduction of GFR observed in our normoalbuminuric patients after the CD and the LPD confirms our previous observation in patients with type 1 diabetes (13,21). Other authors have also reported reduction of GFR in normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes after protein restriction (22) or replacement of animal protein with vegetarian protein (23). The mechanism behind this effect is still unknown; it might result from hemodynamic glomerular factors related to reduction of renal plasma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Validity of Random Urine Specimen Albumin Measurement as a Screening Test for Diabetic Nephropathy. AU - Ahn, Churl Woo. AU - Song, Young Duk. AU - Kim, Jung Ho. AU - Lim, Sung Kil. AU - Choi, Kyu Hyun. AU - Kim, Kyung Rae. AU - Lee, Hyun Chul. AU - Huh, Kap Bum. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. N2 - To assess the validity of urine albumin concentration (UAC) and the urine albumin:creatine ratio (UACR) in a random urine specimen (RUS) for screening diabetic nephropathy in Korea, a total of 105 ambulatory diabetes mellitus patients (male:female, 52 : 53), ages 40-75 years (median 59 years) collected 105 RUSs after completing a timed 24 hour urine collection. Albumin was measured by immunonephelometry. According to the timed urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) measured in the 24 hour collection (criterion standard), samples were classified as normoalbuminuric (UAER , 20 μg/min; n=50), microalbuminuric (UAER 20-200 μg/min; n=30), and macroalbuminuric (UAER , 200 μg/min; n=25). The ...
For microalbuminuria screening in patients with diabetes, measuring urinary albumin concentration (UAC) in random urine samples offers sensitivity and specificity similar to those of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), reports a study in JAMA Internal Medicine.A meta-analysis was performed with the use of data on 2078 patients from 14 studies evaluating UAC and ACR in random urine samples. All studies included 24-hour urine collections as the criterion standard for diagnosis of microalbuminuria.
Micro- or macroalbuminuria is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes, but whether albuminuria within the normal range predicts long-term cardiovascular risk is unknown. We evaluated the relationships between albuminuria and cardiovascular events in 1208 hypertensive, normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes from the BErgamo NEphrologic Diabetes Complication Trial (BENEDICT), all of whom received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy at the end of the trial and were followed for a median of 9.2 years. The main outcome was time to the first of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction; stroke; coronary, carotid, or peripheral artery revascularization; or hospitalization for heart failure. Overall, 189 (15.6%) of the patients experienced a main outcome event (2.14 events/100 patient-years); 24 events were fatal. Albuminuria independently predicted events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.08). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimated GFR, albuminuria, and complications of chronic kidney disease. AU - Inker, Lesley A.. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Levey, Andrew S.. AU - Tonelli, Marcello. AU - Muntner, Paul. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Higher levels of albuminuria associate with increased risk for adverse outcomes independent of estimated GFR (eGFR), but whether albuminuria also associates with concurrent complications specific to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Here, we assessed the association of spot albumin-to- creatinine ratio with anemia, acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypertension among 30,528 adult participants in NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2006. After multivariable adjustment including eGFR, higher albumin-to-creatinine ratios associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypertension but only weakly associated with acidosis and anemia. Furthermore, the associations between albumin-to-creatinine ratio and both ...
In the Bakker abstract [Albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a timed overnight urine sample was accurate for screening for microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus (1)], under the subheading Description of tests and diagnostic standard, Patients with UAER (20 mg/min) should have been Patients with UAER (20 µg/min ...
Current therapies targeting albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy leave residual urinary albumin secretion, which meanwhile leave residual cardiovascular risk. Previous studies demonstrated that sulodexide could reduce albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. But no data concerning Chinese population is available. The investigators aim to provide evidence of effects of sulodexide on diabetic nephropathy in Chinese diabetic patients. Further the investigators also test the hypothesis that sequential administration of intravenous and oral replacement of the drug would gain an earlier and greater reduction of albuminuria, compared with oral use only ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetes. T2 - The Strong Heart Study. AU - Xu, Susan. AU - Lee, Elisa T.. AU - Best, Lyle G.. AU - Begum, Momotaz. AU - Knowler, William C.. AU - Fabsitz, Richard R.. AU - Howard, Barbara V.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Objectives - To estimate the relative risks of albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large cohort of American Indians with diabetes. Methods - A total of 1,953 diabetic participants in the Strong Heart Study were evaluated based on albuminuria categories at baseline examination. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations. Results - Of the 1,953 participants, 605 (31%) and 410 (21%) had microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, respectively, at baseline examination. Microalbuminuria (HR=1.42, 95% Cl 1.15-1.77 for all-cause, and HR=1.48, Cl 1.01-2.17 for CVD), and macroalbuminuria (HR=3.39, Cl 2.71-4.25 for all-cause, ...
Both a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To determine their joint contribution to ESRD and other kidney outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of nine general population cohorts with 845,125 participants and an …
BACKGROUND: Whether measures of central adiposity are more or less strongly associated with risk of albuminuria than body mass index (BMI), and by how much diabetes/levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) explain or modify these associations, is uncertain. METHODS: Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate associations between values of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio) and, separately, general adiposity (BMI) with categories of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) in 408,527 UK Biobank participants. Separate central and general adiposity-based models were initially adjusted for potential confounders and measurement error, then sequentially, models were mutually adjusted (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI, and vice versa), and finally they were adjusted for potential mediators. RESULTS: Levels of albuminuria were generally low: 20,425 (5%) had a uACR ≥3 mg/mmol. After adjustment for confounders and measurement error, each 0.06 higher waist-to-hip ratio was associated with a
To the Editor:. It was with great interest that I read the article in Circulation by Wang et al,1 who reported on the results of a recent analysis of low-grade albuminuria (UA) performed within the Framingham Heart Study. The authors found that UA increased the future risk for development of hypertension among the normotensive segment of the Framingham cohort. They concluded that UA can be considered as a useful biomarker for better targeting prehypertensive individuals for nonpharmacological intervention. These results are at variance with those from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording VEnetia STudy (HARVEST) recently published by our group.2 In a cohort of 1033 young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension and never treated for the disease, we found that UA was not helpful for identifying those subjects destined to develop sustained hypertension requiring antihypertensive therapy. The reason for the discrepancy between the Framingham and HARVEST findings could be the different mean ...
1. Microalbumuria in non-diabetic elderly subjects is predictive of vascular disease and mortality, and related to levels of blood pressure.. 2. This study was designed to examine whether more restricted periods of urine collection retained the relation to the prevailing level of blood pressure and successfully identified subjects with microalbuminura.. 3. Fifty elderly subjects (aged over 60 years) made two consecutive 24-h urine collections for measurement of urinary albumin excretion, divided between daytime and night-time periods. Thirty-three subjects also provided a random spot urine sample. Clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were also recorded.. 4. Median 24-h urinary albumin excretion was 15.75 mg; 17 subjects had microalbuminuria. The median 24-h albumin-creatinine ratio was 1.91 mg/mmol. A threshold albumin-creatinine ratio of ≧ 3.0 mg/mmol in a random urine sample predicted microalbuminura with 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Alternatively, threshold values of 2.5 ...
In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), microalbuminuria is a predictor of widespread severe microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Patients with microalbuminuria show generalized dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, but it is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of microalbuminuria. We examined a cohort of 17 IDDM patients at baseline and on three occasions during a follow-up of (median) 64 months (range 51-89). All had normal (| 15 micrograms/min) urinary albumin excretion (UAE) at the first three examinations. At the fourth examination, 11 patients had normal UAE and 6 had microalbuminuria (median 25.7 micrograms/min [range 15.3-42.8]). Compared with patients with normal UAE, microalbuminuric patients had significantly higher plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, at the second (200% [168-274] vs. 131% [69-186]), third (208% [188-270] vs. 125% [82-190]), and fourth examinations (231% [202-269] vs. 132% [88
YKL-40 is involved in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes, with an independent association between increasing YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria. YKL-40 is associated with atherosclerosis and an increased cardiovascular mortality in the general population. In the present study YKL-40 levels were examined in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with increasing levels of albuminuria, known to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One-hundred-five patients with T2D were examined: 49 with normoalbuminuria (N, U-albumin/creatinine | 2.5 mg/mmol), 35 with persistent microalbuminuria (MA, 2.5-25 mg/mmol) and 21 with persistent macroalbuminuria/diabetic nephropathy (DN, | 25 mg/mmol). The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals (C). Groups were matched according to age, gender and known duration of diabetes. Median levels (interquartile range) of serum YKL-40 were significantly higher in N and MA vs. C (86
We studied 42 white subjects with normal glucose tolerance and microalbuminuria and 79 with normoalbuminuria. Because we were studying healthy subjects on two occasions over a period of 3 years and needed to maximize subject compliance, we estimated AER both at screening and at recall on two rather than three collections, as would be usual in diabetic patients. In consequence, we used for our main classification of microalbuminuria an AER of 20 to 200 μg/min on either or both collections. We found that only 29% of individuals identified as microalbuminuric at screening remained so at follow-up, while 15% of normoalbuminuric subjects changed category. Microalbuminuria is thus a highly unstable variable in nondiabetic subjects. Nevertheless, we have previously shown it to be powerfully related to cardiovascular risk in this population.6 These observations suggest that, allowing for biological variability, the relationship between microalbuminuria (or its genetic or environmental determinants) and ...
Studies have shown that microalbuminuria may develop within 5 years of onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In NIDDM, microalbuminuria may be present at the diagnosis of diabetes because the diagnosis is often delayed for several years after the onset of asymptomatic hyperglycemia. The most important reason for screening for microalbuminuria in patients with NIDDM has been its predictive power for progressive increases in albumin excretion and decline in renal function. This important meta-analysis by Dineen and Gerstein also confirms microalbuminuria in patients with NIDDM as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many mechanisms for this increased cardiovascular risk have been postulated. For example, it may be caused by a generalized state of vascular hyperpermeability leading to increased penetration of lipoproteins into the subendothelial space or may simply be another manifestation of an atherogenic insulin-resistant state (1, 2). Currently, the ...
Sharon Greenberg American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology Published 1 June 2016 Vol. 310 no. 11, F1192-F1196 Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 ...
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) |2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to detrimental health effects. This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD.. urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ..There was no significant PM2.5-eGFR association at baseline. Each 1-μg/m3 higher…
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods: The presented data were derived from the `KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study, conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results: Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, ...
There are three major findings from this prospective investigation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. First, patients with (micro)albuminuria and high plasma concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (a putative marker of endothelial dysfunction) and C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation) had an increased risk of death. Importantly, these associations were not only independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, but also of each other, which suggests that the pathway linking (micro)albuminuria to mortality does not involve endothelial dysfunction or increased inflammatory activity to the extent reflected by these markers. Second, however, markers of endothelial dysfunction and of inflammatory activity were strongly associated with increases in urinary albumin excretion during the 10-year follow-up. These associations were independent of major risk factors for developing (micro)albuminuria, such as high blood pressure and poor glycemic control. These findings ...
Background The usefulness of estimated glomerular fi ltration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta-analytic approach. Methods We meta-analysed individual-level data for 637 315 individuals without a history of cardiovascular disease from 24 cohorts (median follow-up 4·2-19·0 years) included in the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium. We assessed C statistic diff erence and reclassifi cation improvement for cardiovascular mortality and fatal and nonfatal cases of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure in a 5 year timeframe, contrasting prediction models for traditional risk factors with and without creatinine-based eGFR, albuminuria (either albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR] or semi-quantitative dipstick proteinuria), or both. Findings The addition of eGFR and ACR signifi cantly ...
A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Effect on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR), Pharmacodynamics, Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Oral Doses of MT-3995 as Add-on Therapy to ACE-I or ARB in Type II Diabetic Nephropathy Subjects With Albuminuria and an eGFR ≥60 mL/Min/1.73m^ ...
Urinary TGF-beta1 was not independently associated with renal function in diabetes mellitus Rani Sauriasari, Mia Yuliana Pratiwi Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia Background: Several clinical studies have shown increased level of urinary TGF-β1 in diabetic nephropathy patients and its correlation with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), but other studies showed different results. Because of this contradiction, this study aims to analyze the correlation between urinary TGF-β1 concentration and UACR, and also estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients by controlling some confounding factors.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, and the samples were obtained using consecutive sampling technique. The study was performed on 99 subjects (62 DM normoalbuminuria patients, 27 DM albuminuria patients, and 10 non-DM patients as controls) at Pasar Minggu Community Health Center. Urinary TGF-β1 concentration was measured by ELISA,
The prevention or reversal of albuminuria has become a benchmark in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, because proteinuria seems to play a crucial role as a promoter of progressive kidney disease (23). We found that albuminuria was decreased in the diabetic db/db mice that were treated with the VEGF receptor inhibitor SU5416. This positive result expands on the findings that antibody neutralization of VEGF ligand ameliorates albuminuria in both type 1 (streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats) and type 2 (db/db mice) models of diabetes (7,8). The mechanism of VEGF-induced albuminuria likely is related to its signaling through the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, because SU5416 significantly attenuated VEGF receptor activation in the diabetic state when assayed by the extent of VEGFR-1 autophosphorylation. The inhibition of VEGFR-1 activity is consistent with the known mechanism of action of SU5416 (9). It also is possible that the benefit of SU5416 in diabetes may derive partly from its modest ...
Normally, the glomerular filtration barrier almost completely excludes circulating albumin from entering the urine. Genetic variation and both pre- and postnatal environmental factors may affect albuminuria in humans. Here we determine whether glomerular gene expression in mouse strains with naturally occurring variations in albuminuria would allow identification of proteins deregulated in relatively leaky glomeruli. Albuminuria increased in female B6 to male B6 to female FVB/N to male FVB/N mice, whereas the number of glomeruli/kidney was the exact opposite. Testosterone administration led to increased albuminuria in female B6 but not female FVB/N mice. A common set of 39 genes, many expressed in podocytes, were significantly differentially expressed in each of the four comparisons: male versus female B6 mice, male versus female FVB/N mice, male FVB/N versus male B6 mice, and female FVB/N versus female B6 mice. The transcripts encoded proteins involved in oxidation/reduction reactions, ion transport,
Introduction Changes in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) may affect the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). How much the effect depends upon natural variation and the time period for the change is unknown. Methods English Clinical Practice Research Datalink records (2000-2015), with linkage to secondary care and death certification, were used to identify prospective cohorts with at least two measures of UACR within 1, 2 and 3 years. Adjusted Cox regression assessed the separate relevance of baseline UACR and UACR change to the risk of developing CKD stage 4-5 and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Associations were compared before and after accounting for the effects of natural regression to the mean (RtM). Results 212,810 individuals had baseline UACR measurements; 22% had a UACR ≥3.4, and 3% had UACR ≥33.9, mg/mmol. During a median 4.0 years follow-up, 5976 developed CKD stage 4-5 and 1076 developed ESRD. There were strong associations between baseline UACR and CKD stage 4-5 or
Increased urinary albumin excretion is an important marker of kidney injury and a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Black individuals have higher levels of urinary albumin excretion than white individuals, which may contribute to racial disparities in cardiovascular outcomes, according to background information in the study. Previous research indicated that the association of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with incident stroke differed by race, such that higher urinary ACR was independently associated with a greater risk of incident stroke in black individuals but not in white individuals. Whether similar associations extend to coronary heart disease (CHD) is unclear. Orlando M. Gutierrez, M.D., M.M.Sc., of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and colleagues conducted a study to determine whether the association of urinary albumin excretion with CHD events differs by race. The study included black and white U.S. adults, 45 years and older, who were enrolled within ...
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of the increased morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin dependent diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was determined in adults with insulin dependent diabetes of five or more years duration that had started before the age of 41. All eligible patients (n=982) attending a diabetes clinic were asked to collect a 24 hour urine sample for analysis of albumin excretion by radio-immunoassay; 957 patients complied. Normoalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin excretion of ≤30 mg/24 h (n=562), microalbuminuria as 31-299 mg/24 h (n=215), and macroalbuminuria as ≥300 mg/24 h (n=180). The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria was significantly higher in patients whose diabetes had developed before rather than after the age of 20. The prevalence of arterial hypertension increased with increased albuminuria, being 19%, 30%, and 65% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. The ...
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors prevent the progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and we studied how that benefit varies by the type of diabetes and baseline urinary albumin. We pooled data from 49 randomized controlled trials in a meta-analysis using the ratio of endpoint urinary albumin levels in those treated compared to those untreated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in both fixed- and random-effects models. The urinary albumin excretion for treated microalbuminuric patients with Type 1 diabetes was on average 60% lower at the end of the trial compared with patients not treated with renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system inhibitors using the fixed-effects model and 67% lower using the random-effects model. There was no significant effect of treatment in patients with normal albumin excretion. For normoalbuminuric patients with Type 2 diabetes, urinary albumin excretion was on average 12% lower after treatment using the fixed-effects
We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected for CKD of diverse etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). There was significant heterogeneity between studies for both HR estimates. After adjustment for risk factors and eGFR, an eightfold higher albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with mortality (pooled HR 1.40) without evidence of significant heterogeneity and with ESRD (pooled HR 3.04), with significant heterogeneity between HR estimates. Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria ...
Abstract Microalbuminuria is a known marker of subclinical organ damage. Its prevalence is higher in patients with resistant hypertension than in subjects with blood pressure at goal. On the other hand, some patients with apparently well-controlled hypertension still have microalbuminuria. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between microalbuminuria and both office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. A cohort of 356 patients (mean age 64±11 years; 40.2% females) with resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 drugs, diuretic included) were selected from Spanish hypertension units. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ,30 mL/min/1.73 m2 were excluded. All patients underwent clinical and demographic evaluation, complete laboratory analyses, and good technical-quality 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was averaged from 3 first-morning void urine samples. Microalbuminuria ...
Looking for online definition of postural albuminuria in the Medical Dictionary? postural albuminuria explanation free. What is postural albuminuria? Meaning of postural albuminuria medical term. What does postural albuminuria mean?
Chapter 1. Executive Summary 1.1. Market Snapshot 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion) 1.2.1. Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market, by Region, 2018-2027 (USD Billion) 1.2.2. Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market, by Type, 2018-2027 (USD Billion) 1.2.3. Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market, by Product, 2018-2027 (USD Billion) 1.2.4 Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market, by End user, 2018-2027 (USD Billion) 1.3. Key Trends 1.4. Estimation Methodology 1.5. Research Assumption Chapter 2. Global Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market Definition and Scope 2.1. Objective of the Study 2.2. Market Definition & Scope 2.2.1. Scope of the Study 2.2.2. Processing Evolution 2.3. Years Considered for the Study 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates Chapter 3. Global Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market Dynamics 3.1. Albumin & Creatinine Tests Market Impact Analysis (2018-2027) 3.1.1. Market Drivers 3.1.2. Market Challenges 3.1.3. Market Opportunities Chapter 4. Global Albumin & Creatinine Tests ...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 mt2, persisting for 3 months or more, irrespective of the cause.[1] It is a state of progressive loss of kidney function ultimately resulting in the need for renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation). Kidney damage refers to pathologic abnormalities either suggested by imaging studies or renal biopsy, abnormalities in urinary sediment, or increased urinary albumin excretion rates. The 2012 KDIGO CKD classification recommends details about the cause of the CKD and classifies into 6 categories based on glomerular filtration rate (G1 to G5 with G3 split into 3a and 3b). It also includes the staging based on three levels of albuminuria (A1, A2, and A3), with each stage of CKD being sub-categorized according to the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in (mg/gm) or (mg/mmol) in an early morning
We can confirm that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensisn system, both at the level of ACE and at the level of the AII receptor, is associated with more effective reduction in blood pressure than observed with a single agent and that this observation extends to patients with diabetes. We cannot, however, determine from the present study if these further effects on urinary albumin excretion relate to more effective reduction in blood pressure or to more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Our results provide additional evidence for a role for agents which interrupt the renin-angiotensin system in conferring renoprotective effects in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy.. Our results are consistent with experimental data that emphasise the central role of interruption of the renin-angiotensin system in mediating the renoprotective effects of ACE inhibitors.13 We cannot exclude that the similarity in effects between ACE inhibitors and AII receptor antagonists relates ...
Looking for online definition of albuminuric retinitis in the Medical Dictionary? albuminuric retinitis explanation free. What is albuminuric retinitis? Meaning of albuminuric retinitis medical term. What does albuminuric retinitis mean?
Patients with chronic kidney disease and severely decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk for kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Accurate estimates of risk and timing of these clinical outcomes could guide patient counseling and therapy. Therefore, we developed models using data of 264,296 individuals in 30 countries participating in the international Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium with estimated GFR (eGFR)s under 30 ml/min/1.73m2. Median participant eGFR and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 24 ml/min/1.73m2 and 168 mg/g, respectively. Using competing-risk regression, random-effect meta-analysis, and Markov processes with Monte Carlo simulations, we developed two- and four-year models of the probability and timing of kidney failure requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT), a non-fatal CVD event, and death according to age, sex, race, eGFR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and ...
This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in hypertensive Korean adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. The study included 2330 hypertensive participants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. Dyslipidemia parameters were defined as high TG ≥200 mg/dL, low HDL-C as HDL-C ,40 mg/dL, high TC/HDL-C as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥4, high TG/HDL-C as TG/HDL-C ratio ≥3.8, and high LDL-C/HDL-C as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio ≥2.5. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Women with albuminuria showed significantly higher levels of TG, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C and a lower level of HDL-C than women without albuminuria (all P , 0.05). LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were positively correlated with ACR in both men and women; ...
Methods-We retrospectively reviewed 85 consecutive patients with acute small subcortical infarcts in the lenticulostriate artery territory who were admitted to our stroke center within 24 hours of symptom onset and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Albuminuria was determined based on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio obtained from a first morning spot urine after admission. Infarct volume was measured on axial sections of the initial and follow-up DWI. Early neurological deterioration (END) was defined as an increase of ≥2 points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score during the first 5 days after admission.. ...
BACKGROUND: The association between waist circumference and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains poorly explored.. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort.. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study (n=30,239) with information for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; n=26,960).. PREDICTOR: Elevated waist circumference or BMI.. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Incident cases of ESRD were identified through linkage of REGARDS participants with the US Renal Data System.. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 64.8 years, 45.8% were men, and 40.3% were black. Overall, 297 (1.1%) individuals developed ESRD during a median of 6.3 years. After adjustment for all covariates including waist circumference, no significant association was noted between BMI categories and ESRD incidence compared to BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 (referent). Higher ...
. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uacr) urine creatinine (g/dl) uacr is a ratio between two measured substances. unlike a dipstick test for albumin,. Mg/dl
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare autosomal dominant kidney disease that is most commonly caused by mutations in ApoE Kyoto (p.R43C) and ApoE Sendai (p.R163P). Differences in phenotype among the various ApoE mutations have been suggested, but the pathogenic role of ApoE Kyoto has not been validated in an animal model. This study intended to establish an ApoE Kyoto murine model and to further compare the pathologic differences between ApoE Kyoto and ApoE Sendai. Male ApoE-deficient mice, 3 months of age, were divided into five groups, including the AD-ApoE Sendai, AD-ApoE Kyoto, AD-ApoE3, AD-eGFP, and ApoE (−/−) groups. The first four groups received recombinant adenovirus that contained the entire coding regions of the human ApoE Sendai and ApoE Kyoto, apoE3, and eGFP genes, respectively. Fasting blood and urine samples were collected at multiple time points. Lipid profiles and urine albumin-creatinine ratio were measured. Renal and aortic histopathologic alterations were analyzed. After
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kidney Function and Arterial Calcification in Major Vascular Beds. AU - Sedaghat, Sanaz. AU - Hoorn, Ewout J.. AU - Ikram, M. Arfan. AU - Koop-Nieuwelink, Carolien. AU - Kavousi, Maryam. AU - Franco, Oscar H.. AU - van der Lugt, Aad. AU - Vernooij, Meike W.. AU - Bos, Daniel. PY - 2019/5/7. Y1 - 2019/5/7. N2 - Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and arterial calcification in major vascular beds and to establish whether arterial calcification mediates the relation between kidney function measures and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Methods and Results: In 2241 participants from the Rotterdam Study (mean age 69 years, 52% female), kidney function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. All participants underwent noncontrast computed tomography to quantify the amount of arterial calcification in the coronary arteries, aortic arch, extracranial, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex hormones and measures of kidney function in the diabetes prevention program outcomes study. AU - Kim, Catherine. AU - Ricardo, Ana C.. AU - Boyko, Edward J.. AU - Christophi, Costas A.. AU - Temprosa, Marinella. AU - Watson, Karol E.. AU - Pi-Sunyer, Xavier. AU - Kalyani, Rita R.. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Context: Despite sex differences in chronic kidney disease (CKD) onset and progression, it is unclear whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with kidney function in persons without CKD. Design and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its follow-up observational study, the DPP Outcomes Study, over 11 years. Participants included overweight and glucose-intolerant men (n = 889) and pre- A nd postmenopausal women (n = 1281) not using exogenous sex hormones andwhose urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was, ,30 mg/g and normal estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) was ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at ...
Objective. To explore the relationship between adiponectin and albuminuria in a large group of overweight and obese nondiabetic individuals after controlling for potential confounders. Material and Methods. Detailed anthropometiy, computed tomography-measured visceral abdominal adipose tissue, 24-h albuminuria, adiponectin and a series of biochemical parameters were assessed. Four hundred forty patients, predominantly of Caucasian origin, were included (80.2% female). A multiple linear regression model was developed, with albuminuria as the dependent variable and potential predictors as independent variables. Results. The mean age was 40 +/- 13 years, the mean body mass index was 35.7 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2), and the median visceral abdominal adipose tissue was 142.4 (92.3-194.0) cm(2). 10.9% of subjects exhibited microalbuminuria. The median adiponectin level was 9.08 (6.23-12.94) mu g/ml, and the median fasting serum glucose level was 83 (77-89) mg/dl. The strongest significant univariate correlations ...
We have demonstrated for the first time that not only the brachial artery but also retinal and intrarenal hemodynamic responses to an intravenous infusion of l-arginine are impaired in type 2 diabetic patients. Despite no significant difference in the vascular responses of the retinal and brachial arteries after the nitroglycerin administration between the patient and control groups, there were significant differences in the vascular responses of these arteries in both the normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric patients compared with the control subjects after the l-arginine infusion, suggesting that the endothelium-dependent vascular responses in the retinal and brachial arteries are impaired but that the responsiveness of the smooth muscle to exogenous NO is not impaired in diabetic patients. On the other hand, the reduction in vascular resistance of the interlobar artery after the nitroglycerin administration was significantly lower in the microalbuminuric patients than in the control ...
Újabb klinikai vizsgálatok szerint az albuminuria a cardiovascularis betegségek korai markere. Míg a proteinuria elsősorban a vesefunkció-romlás, az albuminuria a cardiovascularis rizikó paramétere. A régebbi laboratóriumi tesztek érzékenysége nem megfelelő, és a 24 órás vizeletgyűjtés pontatlansága is sok bizonytalanságot okoz. Ezért a mai nemzetközi irányelvek 24 órás gyűjtés helyett a reggeli első vizeletből az albumin/kreatinin (ACR) és protein/kreatinin (PCR) meghatározását javasolják. Klinikai laboratóriumok számára javasolhatók az újabb, nagy érzékenységű immunkémiai vizeletalbumin-reagensek. Az albuminspecifikus tesztcsíkok az albuminuria fokának meghatározására nem elég érzékenyek. A vizeletfehérje-meghatározáshoz szintén léteznek nagy érzékenységű, széles mérési tartományú reagensek, így erre nem alkalmazhatók a szérumfehérje-reagensek (például Biuret). A módszerválasztás sarkalatos pontja, hogy a kalibrátor ...
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How is urinary albumin to urinary creatinine ratio abbreviated? UA/UC stands for urinary albumin to urinary creatinine ratio. UA/UC is defined as urinary albumin to urinary creatinine ratio very rarely.
Thorough history taking and physical examination with calculation of body mass index (BMI), investigations were done including serum creatinine, lipid profile, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbAIc), C-reactive protein (CRP), urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and serum omentin-1. Fundus examination was carried out by an expert ophthalmologist.. Results: Serum omentin-1 level was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared with the control, and in DR compared with diabetics without DR and in PDR compared with NPDR.. There was a negative significant correlation between serum omentin-1 level and BMI, HbA1c, CRP, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and Serum triglycerides (TG) and positive significant correlation with high density lipoprotein (HDL).. Conclusions: From this study we can conclude that serum omentin-1 is significantly lower in patients with DR compared with diabetics without retinopathy and in PDR patients compared with NPDR patients.. Also, there is a negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diabetic kidney disease in children and adolescents. AU - Afkarian, Maryam. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Diabetes, more frequently type 1, but increasingly also type 2, commonly occurs in childhood. While more advanced diabetic kidney disease (DKD), e.g., loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), does not occur until adulthood, kidney biopsies show DKD structural changes as early as 1.5-5 years after the onset of type 1 diabetes. Earliest clinical sign of DKD, increased urine albumin excretion, commonly appears during childhood and adolescence and presents an important opportunity to detect and intervene in early DKD, perhaps more successfully than later in the disease course. Longitudinal studies of type 1 diabetes have enriched our understanding of the DKD natural history and modifiable risk factors for DKD progression. These studies have also shown that the presence of DKD marks a subset of people with diabetes who are at the highest risk of early mortality, supporting ...
RESULTS: CTRP9 was detected in plasma from 14 out of a total of 28 patients. The values were not normally distributed. In comparing between groups in which CTRP9 was or was not detected, there were statistically significant differences in the high molecular weight adiponectin (HAN) and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). This indicates that both CTRP9 and HAN reflect the pathophysiology of renal involvement in T2DM. HAN correlated with Body Mass Index, ACR, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. However, CTRP9 did not correlate with HAN or any other parameters ...
To investigate gene expression of podocyte-specific proteins in urine of diabetes and prediabetes subjects and the association of these proteins with albuminuria. Fifteen controls, 19 prediabetes, and 67 diabetes subjects were included. Messenger RNA of nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, synaptopodin, TRPC6, alpha-actinin-4, and TGF-β1 were measured using RT-PCR. Podocyte marker expression was correlated with albuminuria, glycemic control, and renal function. The diagnostic performance of the genes used to detect increased albuminuria was assessed using ROC curves and Poisson regressions. Podocyte marker expression was significantly higher in diabetic subjects. Urinary nephrin was correlated with increasing levels of albuminuria; risk of albuminuria increased by 20% for every one-unit increase in the log10 of nephrin mRNA. Nephrinuria was found in 53%, 71%, and 90% of normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuric diabetes subjects, respectively (p = 0.023). Urinary nephrin, podocalyxin, TRPC6, podocin, and alpha
Diabetes has become the main public health challenge for the 21st century. Pronounced changes in the human environment and in human behavior and lifestyle, have accompanied globalization, and these have resulted in escalating rates of diabetes. Microalbuminuria is considered as a clinically important indicator of deteriorating renal function in diabetic patients. Microalbuminuria is the strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy, which is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is also characterized by increased prevalence of arterial hypertension, proliferative retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Detection of microalbuminuria is an indication for initiation of appropriate therapy for the purpose of preventing the advance of progressive diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease or nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or kidney failure. One of the early markers of not only diabetic nephropathy, but also vascular disease
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Etiology and pathogenesis of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.. AU - Skyler, J. S.. AU - Rabinovitch, A.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. UR - UR - U2 - 10.3928/0090-4481-19870901-06. DO - 10.3928/0090-4481-19870901-06. M3 - Review article. C2 - 3309846. AN - SCOPUS:0023409033. VL - 16. SP - 682-683, 686-692. JO - Pediatric Annals. JF - Pediatric Annals. SN - 0090-4481. IS - 9. ER - ...
9 Unfortunately, the measurement of UPC cannot be standardized because urine protein is composed of variable proportions of albumin and other proteins.18 Dip-stick proteinuria correlates poorly with ACR,22,23 while PCR correlates reasonably well with ACR.24 Proteinuria of 0.5 g/day or more usually signifies macroalbuminuria.1,4 However, there have been no studies on the direct comparison between proteinuria and albuminuria in CKD in terms of utilities (biomarker, surrogate end-point and cost-effectiveness). Thus, any comparison between proteinuria and albuminuria in CKD is subject to problems inherent in indirect comparisons.25 Proteinuria and. albuminuria are good biomarkers (Table 1) because they predict clinical end-points (CV events, renal events or mortality) Hydroxychloroquine in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients.2,3 However, there must be three general lines of evidence to support the acceptance of a biomarker to be a surrogate end-point: biological plausibility, epidemiological ...
BACKGROUND: Urine albumin excretion in the high normal range [urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) 10-29 mg/g)] predicts hypertension in European-origin populations. However, the prognostic significance of UACR in the high normal range for incident hypertension is unclear in Indo-Asians. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of normal to high normal levels of UACR and incident hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study within a cluster randomized controlled trial in Pakistan on 1272 normotensive non-diabetic adults aged ≥ 40 years with UACR/g. Incident hypertension was defined as new onset of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg or initiation of antihypertensive therapy. RESULTS: A total of 920 (72.3%) participants completed the 2-year final follow-up. During this time, 105 (11.4%) developed incident hypertension. In the multivariable model, the odds [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident hypertension were 2.45(1.21-4.98)
Is it reversible for patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy? Diabetic Nephropathy is the most serious disease in kidney problems. It has so many common complications, so people need to pay attention to it in daily life.
The prevalence of CKD in men and women was 6.9% and 9.1%, respectively (p , 0.001). Besides gender itself, age distribution, frequency of obesity (BMI ≥ 25), and concurrent chronic diseases, including DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, were different according to gender. Thus, the risk of CKD is higher in women than men (OR, 1.354; p , 0.001), and the difference seems to be caused by the susceptibility to albuminuria (OR, 1.416; p , 0.001) rather than decreased GFR (OR, 1.057; p = 0.683). When GFR was estimated using the MDRD Study equation, the increased risks of GFR , 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in women were observed in previous studies: OR, 3.16 (p , 0.001) using KNHANES III and IV-1 [12]; frequencies of 3.4%, 9.7%, 10.2%, and 4.6% in women, and 1.0%, 5.4%, 3.1%, and 2.6% were seen in men through KNHANES I-IV [13]. There seemed to be no difference in ACR according to gender in the previous study (10.1% and 10.3% in women and men, respectively) [11]. A similar observation was reported for ...
After rather completely reviewing the extensive literature of the last twenty years on orthostatic albuminuria, it is apparent that many clinical impressions have been accepted as fact without proper critical study. Few authors have presented sufficient data on carefully studied series of cases to lend weight to their conclusions.. In an effort to obtain some accurate information about orthostatic albuminuria, its effect on the patients health, the relation it bears to glomerulonephritis, the type of patient affected, and if possible its etiology, the records of 185 patients seen at The Mayo Clinic over a period of approximately ten years were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-glycation and anti-albuminuric effects of GLY-230 in human diabetes. AU - Kennedy, Laurence. AU - Pilar Solano, Maria. AU - Meneghini, Luigi. AU - Lo, Margaret. AU - Cohen, Margo P.. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Background/Aims: Inhibiting nonenzymatic glycation with GLY-230 lowers glycated albumin without affecting hyperglycemia and ameliorates renal dysfunction in the db/db mouse, but the effects of this compound in man have not been assessed. We report results from the first clinical trial in patients with diabetes of this new glycation inhibitor. Methods: 21 diabetic men were randomly assigned to receive a total dose of 250, 500 or 750 mg of GLY-230 or placebo (1:1:1:1.2 ratio) daily for 14 days to evaluate safety and the effect of drug on plasma concentrations of glycated albumin and on urinary albumin. Results: GLY-230 dose-responsively decreased glycated albumin in all participants, in whom HbA1c did not change. Among participants exhibiting microalbuminuria at ...
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Thus, although in overt diabetic renal disease, the experimental evidence for albuminuria as a potential surrogate for ESRD is reasonably robust, results of recent trials in which greater reductions in albuminuria were sought have raised some concern. In diabetes, short-term combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and ARB, ACE inhibitor and diuretic, or ARB and direct renin inhibitor lowers albuminuria by a greater degree than respective monotherapies.35-37 However, secondary analyses of CVD outcome studies in mixed populations, such as the Outcomes With Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both, in People at High Vascular Risk and also the Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension, showed that combination therapies that lower albuminuria to a greater degree result in worse renal disease outcomes (doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD or need for dialysis) in the overall population and afford no unique benefit in the smaller subset of subjects ...
Although albuminuria is the most frequently used marker of DN, it has a limited sensitivity as many patients with DN experience ... Normal albuminuria: urinary albumin excretion ,30 mg/24h;. *Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin excretion in the range of 30-299 ... mainly a reduction in albuminuria and progression of renal damage.[45][46] Other classes of diabetic medications that have been ... coupled with exclusion of other causes of albuminuria. Albumin measurements are defined as follows:[25] ...
Normal albuminuria: urinary albumin excretion ,30 mg/24h;. *Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin excretion in the range of 30-299 ... called albuminuria).[14] As diabetic nephropathy progresses, a structure in the glomeruli known as the glomerular filtration ... coupled with exclusion of other causes of albuminuria. Albumin measurements are defined as follows:[17] ...
Vomiting, diarrhea, albuminuria n/a n/a Liver No effects seen at exposure dose Fatty livers, focal necrosis No studies ...
Albuminuria. Rujukan[sunting , sunting sumber]. *^ a b (Inggris). "A Physiologic Approach to Diagnosis of the Cushing Syndrome" ...
Bell ME (September 1933). "Albuminuria in the normal male rat". The Journal of Physiology. 79 (2): 191-3. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... Comper WD, Hilliard LM, Nikolic-Paterson DJ, Russo LM (December 2008). "Disease-dependent mechanisms of albuminuria". American ...
albuminuria and gross oedema,. also nephrosis Meat 3s. 6d. adult, 1s. 9d. child under six ...
An albumin level above the upper limit values is called "macroalbuminuria", or sometimes just albuminuria. Sometimes, the upper ... "Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5 ... and has been replaced by moderately increased albuminuria. ... "Association of dietary patterns with albuminuria and kidney ...
Edelstein D, Brownlee M (January 1992). "Aminoguanidine ameliorates albuminuria in diabetic hypertensive rats". Diabetologia. ... "Retardation by aminoguanidine of development of albuminuria, mesangial expansion, and tissue fluorescence in streptozocin- ...
"The Bearing of Albuminuria on Life Assurance". British Medical Journal. 1 (1416): 348. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1416.348. PMC 2197491 ...
Albuminuria release of the protein albumin in urine. As this protein is strongly conserved, this is evidence of abnormal kidney ...
This leads to an elevated concentration of albumin in the urine (albuminuria). This albuminuria usually does not cause symptoms ...
... discovered albuminuria (about a half century before Richard Bright); one of the first scientists to identify urea in human ...
1855). "Cases of Albuminuria Occurring after Scarlatina, with Remarks". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 53 (5): 92-99 ...
Lin, Julie; Fung, Teresa T.; Hu, Frank B.; Curhan, Gary C. (2011-02-01). "Association of dietary patterns with albuminuria and ... "Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5 ( ...
It can be a risk factor for future albuminuria. In adults, the signs and symptoms of infection may still be present at the time ...
Dickinson, W. H. (1876). "The Croonian Lectures on the Pathology and Relations of Albuminuria". BMJ. 1 (799): 499-501. doi: ... The Pathology and Relations of Albuminuria 1875 Edward Headlam Greenhow, On Addison's Disease 1874 Charles Murchison, ...
He was the author of influential works associated with diabetes and albuminuria, and is credited with disproving the once held ... Gansevoort, RT; Ritz, E (2008). "Hermann Senator and albuminuria--forgotten pioneering work in the 19th century". Nephrol Dial ... Berlin, A. Hirschwald, 1882, (Albuminuria in healthy and diseased states); translated into several foreign languages. Die ... "Hermann Senator and albuminuria--forgotten pioneering work in the 19th century". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 24 (3): 1058. doi: ...
Lucas RC (1833). "Form of late rickets associated with albuminuria, rickets of adolescents". The Lancet. 1 (3119): 993-994. doi ...
Crowley's family removed him from the school when he developed albuminuria. He then attended Malvern College and Tonbridge ...
He provided early descriptions of hematogenous albuminuria, uremic pericarditis and progressive polyserositis. The eponymous " ... Volume 15 Bamberger's albuminuria @ Who Named It JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 25 Bamberger's ...
with J. F. Ward: Bury, Judsons.; Ward, J.F. (1 January 1910). "A case of postural albuminuria in a boy the subject of chorea". ...
Other clinical findings include albuminuria, hematuria, hepatic enzyme derangement, and cardiac arrhythmias. Doses as low as 10 ...
Other clinical findings include albuminuria, hematuria, hepatic enzyme derangement, and cardiac arrhythmias. Doses as low as 10 ...
name="Cambridge 2017, p28-35." Donkin A S (1863) On the pathological relation between albuminuria and puerperal mania. ... one of those who first recognized the importance of albuminuria) in Edinburgh, and recognized that some cases of eclamptic ...
"Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5 ... "Association of dietary patterns with albuminuria and kidney function decline in older white women: a subgroup analysis from ...
In men the significant predictors of CVD were diabetes, age, LDL, albuminuria, and hypertension. Unlike other ethnic groups, ... The significant independent predictors of CVD in Native American women were diabetes, age, obesity, LDL, albuminuria, ...
September 2015). "Effect of Finerenone on Albuminuria in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial". JAMA ...
A case of intermittent albuminuria and chromaturia]. Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische ...
The Significance of Albuminuria. Br Med J 1873; 1 doi: (Published 01 February 1873) Cite ...
Clincal Lecture on Albuminuria Delivered in the Leeds Public Dispensary Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 1849; s1-13 : ... Clincal Lecture on Albuminuria. Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 1849; s1-13 doi: ...
Definition of functional albuminuria. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... functional albuminuria. Definition: a collective term denoting types of benign albuminuria that are associated with physical ...
Definition of postrenal albuminuria. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ...
Pathological Physiology Albuminuria may be produced by alterations in the composition of the blood and by structural or ... Albuminuria. Pathological Physiology. Albuminuria may be produced by alterations in the composition of the blood and by ...
λευκωματινουρία -, albuminuria. Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type ...
... and albuminuria category (A1, A2, A3). Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted. ... Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein the protein albumin is abnormally present in the urine. It is a type of ... The term albuminuria is now preferred in Nephrology since there is not a "small albumin" (microalbuminuria) or a "big albumin ... Also a urine dipstick test for proteinuria can give a rough estimate of albuminuria. This is because albumin is by far the ...
Evaluation of Albuminuria HIV-Infected Patients. Official Title Prospective Evaluation of Albuminuria in HIV Positive Patients ... Evaluation of Albuminuria HIV-Infected Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Participants who are found to have albuminuria or proteinuria are asked to undergo a kidney biopsy for research purposes. The ... The earliest indicator of the possible presence of kidney disease is albuminuria (increased amounts of the protein albumin in ...
Orthostatic proteinuria (synonyms: orthostatic albuminuria, postural proteinuria) is a benign condition. A change in renal ...
... suffered from persistent albuminuria (13.8%). The prevalence of albuminuria was significantly higher in males (19%) than in ... Prevalence and causes of albuminuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.. Parving HH1, Gall MA, Skøtt P, Jørgensen HE, ... Our cross sectional study has revealed a high prevalence of albuminuria and of non-diabetic glomerulopathy as a cause of this ... A prospective study of the prevalence and causes of persistent albuminuria (greater than 300 mg/24 hr) was conducted in non- ...
Albuminuria. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental. Urination Disorders. Urologic Diseases. Urological Manifestations. Signs and ... Participants who are found to have albuminuria or proteinuria are asked to undergo a kidney biopsy for research purposes. The ... The earliest indicator of the possible presence of kidney disease is albuminuria (increased amounts of the protein albumin in ... This study will examine the following: 1) how common albuminuria and proteinuria are among HIV-positive patients, 2) what ...
Treatment of hypertension induced albuminuria. Albuminuria is a renal disease that is found to be independently associated with ... Changes in albuminuria were considered to moderate prognostic value in routine evaluations. ACEIs and ARBs were prescribed in ... Hence, it was also advised that patients should use different antihypertensive drugs if their goal is to reduce albuminuria ... A multifactorial and early antialbuminuric treatment is suggested for patients even when albuminuria values are below the cut- ...
Differential dyslipidemia associated with albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan.. Tseng CH1. ... This study evaluated the lipid abnormalities associated with different stages of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. ... Ln(TG) increased progressively with increasing albuminuria. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, only ApoB showed ...
... Ann Clin Biochem. 2010 Mar;47( ...
Evolution, Risk Factors, and Prognostic Implications of Albuminuria in NIDDM. Leo K Niskanen, Ilkka Penttilã, Markku Parviainen ... Evolution, Risk Factors, and Prognostic Implications of Albuminuria in NIDDM. Leo K Niskanen, Ilkka Penttilã, Markku Parviainen ... control subjects for any albuminuria; 5 years: 6.0 and 0.8%, P , 0.01; 10 years: 11.9 and 0.8%, P , 0.001). The most important ... Evolution, Risk Factors, and Prognostic Implications of Albuminuria in NIDDM Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
acetic acid albuminuria and nephritis amount of albumin animals Apparently normal bladder Born breeder breeds calculi calves ... Albuminuria and Nephritis in Dairy Cows. Issue 373 of Bulletin (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station). Volume 373 of ... material postmortem notes regarding pus cells Record Date Albumin record is given samples of urine Sept showed albuminuria Sold ... gb-gplus-shareAlbuminuria and Nephritis in Dairy Cows. ... Albuminuria and Nephritis in Dairy Cows. Herbert John Metzger, ...
... particularly if the aim is also to reduce albuminuria. ... Patients with albuminuria will usually need more than one drug ... Treatment of hypertension induced albuminuria. December 10, 2018. Albuminuria is a renal disease that is found to be ... Treatment of hypertension induced albuminuria. Patients with albuminuria will usually need more than one drug to achieve blood ... Changes in albuminuria were considered to moderate prognostic value in routine evaluations. ACEIs and ARBs were prescribed in ...
Understanding the biological link between albuminuria and cancer will be critical for determining whether albuminuria ... Association of albuminuria and cancer mortality. Yu-Sheng Lin, Fu-Chun Chiu, Jou Wei Lin, Juey-Jen Hwang and James L Caffrey ... Association of albuminuria and cancer mortality Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ... Results: Albuminuria was present in 705 men (17.5%) and 592 women (14.3%). During an average follow-up of 149 months, 613 of ...
... Kidney Int. 2007 Dec;72(11):1367-73. doi: 10.1038/ ... The percentage decrease in albuminuria correlated with the decrease in fasting plasma glucose, free fatty acids TNF-alpha and ... showed the decrease in TNF-alpha and the increase in adiponectin were independently associated with decreased albuminuria. Our ...
Thus, albuminuria is not only a good risk marker, but the therapy-induced fall of albuminuria is also predictive of renal and ... Some patients show a nearly 100% reduction in albuminuria, whereas others can show no change or even a rise in albuminuria upon ... The above findings with albuminuria constitute sound reason to measure albuminuria in each diabetic individual to monitor the ... or albuminuria fell and blood pressure rose. Most importantly, the patients who had a drop in albuminuria in the first months ...
Albuminuria was increased in diabetic mice compared with control animals and was significantly ameliorated by treatment with ... Effect of CB1 receptor blockade on albuminuria, NAG activity, and renal function.. After 14 weeks of diabetes, there was a more ... After 14 weeks of diabetes, there was a 10-fold increase in albuminuria in diabetic mice compared with controls. Treatment with ... To clarify the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effect of CB1 blockade on albuminuria, we assessed the effect of ...
Podocyte Number in Normotensive Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Albuminuria. Kathryn E. White, Rudolf W. Bilous, Sally M. ... Podocyte Number in Normotensive Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Albuminuria. Kathryn E. White, Rudolf W. Bilous, Sally M. ... Podocyte Number in Normotensive Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Albuminuria Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Our cross-sectional data show that this group of type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria but normal BP have increased numbers ...
What is Bamberger albuminuria? Meaning of Bamberger albuminuria medical term. What does Bamberger albuminuria mean? ... Looking for online definition of Bamberger albuminuria in the Medical Dictionary? Bamberger albuminuria explanation free. ... Bamberger albuminuria. Bam·ber·ger al·bu·min·ur·i·a. (bambĕr-gĕr), obsolete term for hematogenous albuminuria that is ... Bamberger albuminuria - obsolete term for hematogenous albuminuria that is sometimes observed during the later phases of ...
Albuminuria change as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease strongly supported by biological ... Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease strongly supported by biological ... A study was done to assess the consistency of the association between change in albuminuria and risk of end-stage kidney ... Cohort data were eligible if participants were age 18 years or older, they had a repeated measure of albuminuria during an ...
Peter W. MATHIESON; The cellular basis of albuminuria. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 December 2004; 107 (6): 533-538. doi: ... known mechanisms of proteinuria in disease states and to suggest a possible explanation for the link between albuminuria and ... glomerular cells in vitro have dramatically improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of albuminuria. This ...
What is regulatory albuminuria? Meaning of regulatory albuminuria medical term. What does regulatory albuminuria mean? ... Looking for online definition of regulatory albuminuria in the Medical Dictionary? regulatory albuminuria explanation free. ... regulatory albuminuria. reg·u·la·to·ry al·bu·min·ur·i·a. transitory albuminuria occurring after unusual physical exertion. ... Regulatory albuminuria , definition of regulatory albuminuria by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
How to measure and monitor albuminuria in healthy toddlers?. van den Belt, S. M., Gracchi, V., de Zeeuw, D. & Heerspink, H. J. ... How to measure and monitor albuminuria in healthy toddlers? Final publishers version, 1004 KB, PDF document ... We tested several urine collection strategies for albuminuria measurement in toddlers in a prospective observational study. ... urine samples collected over three days is the recommended method for measuring and monitoring albuminuria in adults in the ...
Having protein in your urine is called "albuminuria" or "proteinuria." If I have albuminuria, does it mean I have kidney ... If I have albuminuria, will I need treatment?. If kidney disease is confirmed, your healthcare provider will create a treatment ... It may be an early sign of kidney disease, but your doctor will check you again to make sure albuminuria is not caused by ... How often do I need to have a test for albuminuria (proteinuria)?. People who are at increased risk for kidney disease should ...
  • Recent international guidelines (KDIGO 2012) reclassified chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on cause, glomerular filtration rate category, and albuminuria category (A1, A2, A3). (
  • Albuminuria increases death risk 2-fold among individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or higher. (
  • Individuals with albuminuria who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or higher had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of death compared with those who did not have albuminuria, Jennifer Bragg-Gresham, PhD, a research scientist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and colleagues reported. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between arterial stiffness and albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • It is estimated that 20-40% of diabetic patients are affected by this disorder, which manifests clinically as albuminuria or as a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population and to measure the glomerular filtration rate in children with two positive albuminuria tests. (
  • Of the 180 children with persistent albuminuria, 160 (88.9%) were tested for serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin C. The 68.1% of the children studied, were found in stages 3a and 3b of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification (mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 51.9 and 38.4 mL/min/1.73 m 2 respectively). (
  • Of the 150 million+ type II diabetics 10-40% develop nephropathy, a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate associated with albuminuria. (
  • Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of general population cohorts. (
  • However, a better understanding of the relationship among uric acid (UA) values, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the excess of cardiovascular mortality associated with both chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia and lead to better risk stratification. (
  • albuminuria, biomarkers, chronic kidney disease, fibroblast growth factor 21, glomerular filtration rate INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 8-16% of the adult population worldwide [1]. (
  • Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. (
  • We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • For a number of reasons, clinical terminology is changing to focus on albuminuria more than proteinuria. (
  • Also a urine dipstick test for proteinuria can give a rough estimate of albuminuria. (
  • Orthostatic proteinuria (synonyms: orthostatic albuminuria, postural proteinuria) is a benign condition. (
  • This study will examine the following: 1) how common albuminuria and proteinuria are among HIV-positive patients, 2) what causes albuminuria or proteinuria in these patients and 3) whether the condition becomes more severe over time. (
  • Participants who are found to have albuminuria or proteinuria are asked to undergo a kidney biopsy for research purposes. (
  • This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge, to illustrate known mechanisms of proteinuria in disease states and to suggest a possible explanation for the link between albuminuria and insulin resistance. (
  • Having protein in your urine is called "albuminuria" or "proteinuria. (
  • How often do I need to have a test for albuminuria (proteinuria)? (
  • MWF rats demonstrate an inherited nephron deficit and mild hypertension and develop at young age spontaneous albuminuria followed by progressive proteinuria in aging animals. (
  • A simple Medline search combining the terms "albuminuria" or "proteinuria" with "cardiovascular disease," for example, reveals more than 10,000 citations on this topic since the first descriptions in 1984. (
  • 14 ) address these issues by examining the associations between estimated GFR and albuminuria (or proteinuria) and four CV outcomes: Hospitalization for stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, or coronary revascularization. (
  • Orthostatic proteinuria is a benign condition in which albuminuria is present when standing but disappears when supine. (
  • Albuminuria, also called proteinuria, is a condition in which albumin-a type of protein found in blood plasma-leaches into the urine. (
  • Hence, it was also advised that patients should use different antihypertensive drugs if their goal is to reduce albuminuria whilst maintaining blood pressure. (
  • Patients with albuminuria will usually need more than one drug to achieve blood pressure control, particularly if the aim is also to reduce albuminuria. (
  • Moreover, new antihypertensive therapies not only lower blood pressure, but also reduce albuminuria. (
  • In a multi-national, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, the selective vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol (Zemplar, Abbott Laboratories), at doses of 1 µg or 2 µg daily, can reduce albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, who were already being treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. (
  • In a multi-national, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, the selective vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol (Zemplar, Abbott Laboratories), at doses of 1 µg or 2 µg daily, can reduce albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, who were already being treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, according to research published online November 4 in The Lancet , as reported by HealthDay News. (
  • Our results suggest that both sitagliptin and SU reduce albuminuria as an add-on therapy to metformin, but that sitagliptin may provide greater reductions in albuminuria independent of glycemic control when compared to SU. (
  • Prevalence and causes of albuminuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. (
  • A prospective study of the prevalence and causes of persistent albuminuria (greater than 300 mg/24 hr) was conducted in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients, age less than 66 years, attending a diabetic clinic during 1987. (
  • Our cross sectional study has revealed a high prevalence of albuminuria and of non-diabetic glomerulopathy as a cause of this complication in NIDDM patients. (
  • In the present study, we have carried out a retrospective investigation of the prevalence of albuminuria and hyperfiltration in a larger cohort of adults with SCD. (
  • The prevalence of albuminuria increased with decreasing eGFR. (
  • The prevalence of albuminuria in children from this rural community is 3-5 times higher than reported in international literature. (
  • At baseline, prevalence of diabetes was 12.4% in Aboriginals and 22.3% in Torres Strait Islanders, prevalence of any albuminuria was similarly high (33.5%) in both groups, and participants with diabetes were 5.5 (95% CI, 4.2-7.3) times more likely to have albuminuria than those without diabetes. (
  • High prevalence of glycaemia and albuminuria in this population, especially when combined, account for much of the excess CHD risk beyond the traditional Framingham risk factors. (
  • Both the prevalence of gout and the frequency of allopurinol use increased significantly with the reduction of eGFR and the increase in albuminuria. (
  • When the smoking status was adjusted in a mixed effect meta-regression model, the duration of diabetes was the only statistically significant factor that influenced the prevalence of albuminuria. (
  • To document albuminuria prevalence and its associated factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) adults with high renal and metabolic risks from 19 rural and remote north Queensland communities. (
  • Background: The objective was to evaluate the association of albuminuria with cancer mortalities in adults aged 50 and older. (
  • However, the association of albuminuria with short-term outcomes and change in infarct volume in patients with acute small subcortical infarction remains unknown. (
  • The most important determinant of the development of albuminuria was the metabolic control of diabetes in NIDDM patients during the follow-up, whereas in nondiabetic subjects, the development of albuminuria was related to elevated blood pressure and fasting insulin levels. (
  • The podocyte forms part of the filtration barrier, and it has been suggested that a reduction in podocyte number may be a factor in the development of albuminuria ( 6 ). (
  • The underlying mechanisms for the development of albuminuria and the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with elevated albuminuria levels are incompletely understood. (
  • 1 , 2 Previous reports have shown that the genetic predisposition for development of albuminuria is complex and multifactorial. (
  • 3 - 7 The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat is a suitable animal model to investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms related to early development of albuminuria. (
  • OBJECTIVE To study the cumulative incidence of albuminuria and its determinants in NIDDM patients and nondiabetic subjects from the diagnosis and impact of albuminuria on cardiovascular mortality. (
  • Baseline and 5-year albuminuria predicted subsequent cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients, even when adjusted for multiple risk factors. (
  • Cohort data were eligible if participants were age 18 years or older, they had a repeated measure of albuminuria during an elapsed period of 8 months to 4 years, subsequent end-stage kidney disease or mortality follow-up data, and the cohort was active during this consortium phase. (
  • It was concluded that changes in UACR predicted changes in the risk of major clinical outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes, supporting the prognostic utility of monitoring albuminuria change over time. (
  • Wachtell K, Olsen MH, Ibsen H. Albuminuria and Mortality in Hypertension. (
  • Our results suggest that increased albuminuria testing, even among those with normal eGFR, could provide the impetus for preventive measures to lower mortality risk," Dr. Bragg-Gresham said in an NKF press release. (
  • Albuminuria, which is associated with noncardiovascular mortality, might be a result of altered vascular permeability caused by cytokines and other tumor cell products. (
  • 1 , 2 Independent of diabetes, albuminuria has been related to atherosclerosis, 3 - 7 to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, and to mortality caused by cardiovascular disease. (
  • Albuminuria is an important independent predictor for progression of both renal and cardiovascular disease and also of mortality risk in patients with hypertensive diabetes mellitus and even in the general population. (
  • Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and albuminuria are at increased risk of multiple competing causes of mortality, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and renal disease, yet studies to date have not implemented competing risks methodology. (
  • Using albuminuria in T2DM as a case study, this Thesis set out to quantify differences between standard- and competing-risks-adjusted survival analysis estimates of absolute and relative risk for the outcomes of cardiovascular and cancer mortality. (
  • To quantify differences in measures of relative risk, estimates for the effect of albuminuria on the relative hazards of cardiovascular and cancer mortality were compared between standard cause-specific hazard (CSH) models (Cox-proportional-hazards regression), competing risk CSH models (unstratified Lunn-McNeil model), and competing risk subdistribution hazard (SDH) models (Fine-Gray model). (
  • In patients with albuminuria, standard and competing-risks-adjusted estimates for cardiovascular mortality were 21.8% (95% CI: 20.9-22.7%) and 18.5% (95% CI: 17.8-19.3%), respectively. (
  • For the effect of albuminuria on cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratios from multivariable standard CSH, competing risks CSH, and subdistribution hazard ratios from competing risks SDH models were 1.75 (95% CI: 1.63-1.87), 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64-1.87), and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.48-1.69), respectively. (
  • For the effect of albuminuria on cancer mortality, these values were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.16-1.39), 1.28 (95% CI: 1.17-1.40), and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01-1.21). (
  • This large, international, multicenter, CV disease prevention trial-which found ramipril, but not vitamin E, protective-has clearly shown that the presence of albuminuria indicates increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, CV death, CHF, and all-cause mortality. (
  • Who should be screened for albuminuria and can it prognosticate risk for cardiovascular mortality? (
  • Albuminuria is an independent risk factor for CV mortality . (
  • Background Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (
  • 5 , 6 Prospective and epidemiologic studies have shown that albuminuria is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all‐cause mortality in subjects with hypertension, 7 , 8 type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 and the general population. (
  • After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m² was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). (
  • Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria independently predict mortality and ESRD among individuals selected for CKD, with the associations stronger for ESRD than for mortality. (
  • Epidemiologic studies have indicated that albuminuria is associated with mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), with substantial heterogeneity. (
  • Continuing to smoke and the duration of diabetes are two strong predictors of albuminuria in smokers with T2DM. (
  • Therefore, understanding albuminuria and its predictors is important in preventing and managing effectively these morbidities. (
  • Is any degree of albuminuria a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events in high-risk patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM)? (
  • Patients with increased cardiovascular risk, with or without diabetes mellitus, and any degree of albuminuria were at increased risk for major cardiovascular events. (
  • The proportion of patients with severe retinopathy increased with the degree of albuminuria, although 22% of the patients with clinical nephropathy continued to be nonretinopathic. (
  • They extracted participant-level data and quantified percentage change in albuminuria, measured as change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR), during baseline periods of 1, 2, and 3 years. (
  • Albuminuria was assessed by measuring the spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio at baseline and annually for 3 years. (
  • Conclusions Our study does not support a role of FGF21 as a biomarker for predicting kidney function decline or albuminuria in adults free of clinically apparent CVD at baseline. (
  • Given this, we examined the relationship of plasma FGF21 levels with kidney function decline and albuminuria among participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort of four racial/ethnic groups without baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • At both baseline and follow up, albuminuria was more prevalent among older participants. (
  • Overweight and obesity, glycaemia, increased GGT, and smoking were associated with albuminuria at baseline and/or follow up. (
  • Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. (
  • A multifactorial and early antialbuminuric treatment is suggested for patients even when albuminuria values are below the cut-off value for microalbuminuria. (
  • Along with treatment, low-salt intake is also advised for all hypertensive patients, especially those with albuminuria. (
  • Differential dyslipidemia associated with albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. (
  • This study evaluated the lipid abnormalities associated with different stages of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. (
  • The risk of cardiovascular death in NIDDM patients increased by simultaneous occurrence of hyperinsulinemia and albuminuria. (
  • Our aim was to estimate the number of mesangial and endothelial cells and podocytes in a group of normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria who were part of the European Study for the Prevention of Renal Disease in Type 1 Diabetes (ESPRIT) ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • The ESPRIT study ( 11 ) was a multicenter, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized pilot study of the effects of an ACE inhibitor, enalapril, or a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine retard, on renal structure and function over a 3-year period in a group of normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria. (
  • Tolvaptan decreases albuminuria over time in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) , independent of blood pressure (BP), according to a post-hoc analysis of the TEMPO 3:4 Trial. (
  • The new findings are particularly important because they indicate that, in ADPKD patients, tolvaptan induces structural renal benefits and assessing albuminuria status in this disease may help to identify ADPKD patients who may benefit more from tolvaptan treatment, according to the researchers. (
  • This clinical study is being conducted at multiple sites to determine the activity, safety and tolerability of XL784 when given daily to patients with albuminuria due to diabetic nephropathy. (
  • While significant associations were found in HbSS and HbSβ 0 (sickle cell anemia) patients with and without controlling for covariates between hemolytic markers and albuminuria, the associations were not significant in patients with HbSC. (
  • Alpha thalassemia, present in 34% of the sickle cell anaemia patients, had a protective effect against albuminuria in this group. (
  • HealthDay News - For patients with hypertension, albuminuria is associated with higher nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP), according to a study published online August 11 in Diabetes Care. (
  • Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, PhD, from the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre in Madrid, and colleagues examined the quantitative differences in nighttime SBP across albuminuria levels in patients with and without diabetes and chronic kidney disease. (
  • Albuminuria in hypertensive patients is accompanied by quantitatively striking higher nighttime SBP, particularly in those with diabetes with very high albuminuria and low eGFR," the authors write. (
  • The present findings indicate that arterial stiffness is more associated with albuminuria than a decrease in GFR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • 20 μ g/min) [ 16 ], and subsequent studies have supported the dissociation between a decreased GFR and increased albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes [ 17 - 19 ]. (
  • Exercise-induced albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to maximal exercise, but the response to light-moderate exercise is unclear. (
  • Albuminuria (albumin is present in the urine) has been reported by people with high blood pressure, hiv infection, kidney transplant, colorectal cancer metastatic, rheumatoid arthritis ( latest reports from 12,533 Albuminuria patients ). (
  • Results- Albuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g creatinine) was observed in 14 of 18 patients with END (77.8%) and in 25 of 67 patients without END (37.3%), P =0.002. (
  • Conclusions- Our findings suggest that albuminuria is associated with END and infarct volume expansion in patients with small subcortical infarcts in the lenticulostriate artery territory. (
  • Patients with albuminuria, compared to those with normoalbuminuria, were older (p<0.001), had higher systolic blood pressure (p<0.001), had worse glycaemic control (p<0.001), and were more likely to be current or ex-smokers (p<0.001). (
  • 24 hour urine protein is the gold standard for quantifying albuminuria, especially for patients at the extremes of body weight, but is cumbersome and time-consuming. (
  • 1 , 2 Albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypertension, 4 and the general population. (
  • Albuminuria and associated medical risk factors: a cross-sectional study in 451 type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetic patients. (
  • Only a minority of diabetic patients with DKD had quantitative albuminuria assessments. (
  • Significance of micro albuminuria as a predictive factor in acute myocardial infection. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Micro-albuminuria (MA) is thought to be a marker of widespread vascular damage. (
  • Associations of micro-albuminuria with intra-uterine growth retardation. (
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Micro-albuminuria is associated with insulin resistance and a high blood pressure and predicts an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in both diabetic and non-diabetic populations. (
  • Relationships have been described for micro-albuminuria with both low birth weight and short stature in adulthood. (
  • We have tested the hypothesis that micro-albuminuria in non-diabetic adults may be associated with markers of intra-uterine growth retardation. (
  • Compared to those subjects whose ponderal index had been in the upper third of the distribution, people whose ponderal index had been in the lower third of the distribution had an odds ratio for micro-albuminuria of 3.1 (p for trend 0.05). (
  • CONCLUSION: The association between micro-albuminuria, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease may be a consequence of growth retardation representing a common antecedent. (
  • The inherited nephron deficit and progressive albuminuria development observed in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats are influenced by quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome (RNO) 6 and RNO8. (
  • Long-term follow up in MWF-6 SHR 8 SHR rats demonstrates the relevance of the absence of glomerular changes in young animals, because double-consomics demonstrate a complete suppression of progressive albuminuria and kidney damage compared with MWF rats despite similar blood pressures. (
  • The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor saxagliptin has been found to reduce progressive albuminuria, but the exact mechanism of inhibition is unclear. (
  • Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that saxagliptin reduces progressive albuminuria by preventing podocyte EMT through inhibition of SDF-1α cleavage in DN. (
  • Persistent albuminuria and progressive albuminuria are associated with a decline in cognitive function in relatively young individuals with diabetes with unimpaired eGFR. (
  • Urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (U-ACR) in first morning void (FMV) urine samples collected over three days is the recommended method for measuring and monitoring albuminuria in adults in the clinical setting. (
  • Kramer, H.J., Nguyen, Q.D., Curhan, G. and Hsu, C.Y. (2003) Renal insufficiency in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • In this study, we aimed to explore the contribution of non-traditional risk factors, especially albuminuria and high fasting glucose, to CHD incidence in a large cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults from north Queensland. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the association of Cr- and cystatin C-based eGFR and albuminuria with CVD in a population of older adults. (
  • Albuminuria was measured with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in mg/mmol. (
  • How good is a urine dipstick, urinalysis and UACR in detecting albuminuria? (
  • A urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) is recommended in detection of albuminuria and consistent with the gold standard 24 hour urine collection. (
  • In a more recent analysis of the RENAAL database, researchers have shown that albuminuria predicts heart failure as well as other cardiovascular events and that the degree of success with which Losartan can reduce albumin levels is related to the extent of cardiovascular protection. (
  • Previous studies have shown that albuminuria increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and is associated with a more rapid progression of kidney disease and increased risk of kidney failure . (
  • It is concluded that albuminuria is associated with cancer incidence in individuals without a history of diabetes, macroalbuminuria, or previous cancer and that it might confer risks of varying magnitude for different types of cancer. (
  • In this meta-analysis, researchers collected individual-level data from eligible cohorts in the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium (CKD-PC) with data on serum creatinine and change in albuminuria and more than 50 events on outcomes of interest. (
  • Studies examining this question have generally confirmed that the associations between albuminuria or low GFR and CV outcomes are independent of each other, although not all studies have found that there is effect modification when both GFR and albuminuria are present (statistical interaction) ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • Background and Purpose- Albuminuria, a marker of chronic kidney disease, is associated with an increased risk of incident stroke and unfavorable long-term outcomes. (
  • Higher levels of albuminuria associate with increased risk for adverse outcomes independent of estimated GFR (eGFR), but whether albuminuria also associates with concurrent complications specific to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. (
  • In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Budhiraja, P. , Thajudeen, B. and Popovtzer, M. (2013) Absence of albuminuria in type 2 diabetics with classical diabetic nephropathy: Clinical pathological study. (
  • The primary aims of the subanalysis of that study conducted here were to determine whether arterial stiffness is associated with diabetic nephropathy and to evaluate the associations of baPWV with albuminuria and GFR as key factors underlying the development and progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Since both of these comorbities are predictive of cardiovascular events, albuminuria may be an independent cardiac risk marker in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. (
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with maximal exercise-induced albuminuria, which may be an early marker of diabetic nephropathy ( 20 ). (
  • These results suggest that miR-184 may act as a downstream effector of albuminuria through LPP3 to promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and offer the rationale to investigate whether targeting miR-184 in association with albuminuria-lowering drugs may be a new strategy to achieve fully anti-fibrotic effects in diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Higher doses of ACE/ARBs have shown to decreased progression to overt nephropathy, decreased the amount of albuminuria and even return to normoalbuminuria. (
  • The correlation between hs-CRP level and albuminuria, suggests that the inflammatory process plays a role in nephropathy in T2DM. (
  • They defined albuminuria as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio greater than 30 mg/g and calculated eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. (
  • Subjects with two or more positive albuminuria test donated blood samples for the determination of serum biomarkers. (
  • Though there is some evidence that dietary interventions (to lower red meat intake) can be helpful in lowering albuminuria levels, there is currently no evidence that low protein interventions correlate to improvement in kidney function. (
  • The term albuminuria is now preferred in Nephrology since there is not a "small albumin" (microalbuminuria) or a "big albumin" (macroalbuminuria). (
  • The steady increase in CV risk by deciles of albuminuria to a doubling of risk at the traditional level of microalbuminuria is so striking that clinicians may want to direct interventions to decrease albuminuria, but this approach may be premature. (
  • Changes in albuminuria were considered to moderate prognostic value in routine evaluations. (
  • Notably, albuminuria carried additional prognostic information for subsequent CVD risk in this elderly population. (
  • Thus, these relationships are consistent with CKD stage classifications based on eGFR and suggest that albuminuria provides additional prognostic information among individuals with CKD. (
  • Cumulative risk estimates were stratified by patient albuminuria level (normoalbuminuria vs albuminuria). (
  • Understanding the biological link between albuminuria and cancer will be critical for determining whether albuminuria represents an early marker or a potential therapeutic target. (
  • We will address the need of not only measuring the risk marker, but also targeting therapies to lower albuminuria. (
  • utilized a marker of red cell survival derived from mature red blood cell hemoglobin (RBC Hb) and reticulocyte hemoglobin (RET Hb), and showed that the log (RBC Hb/RET Hb) was highly correlated with LDH, bilirubin and albuminuria. (
  • therefore, albuminuria has been suggested to be a nonspecific marker of malignancy reflecting a microvascular response (and altered glomerular permeability) to tumor cell products such as cytokines. (
  • Previous studies in young MWF rats suggested that the nephron deficit represents a cause for glomerular hypertrophy preceding onset of albuminuria at 8 weeks and demonstrated a simultaneous induction of the podocyte stress marker desmin and podoplanin loss in podocytes. (
  • More important, researchers need to clarify whether increasing albuminuria is a causal risk factor for CV disease or simply a marker of diffuse endothelial disease characteristic of early atherosclerosis. (
  • 23 Albuminuria is also a marker of generalized endothelial dysfunction, a key step in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). (
  • A tablet test for albuminuria, requiring but one drop of urine, has been studied in the department of pathology of Harper Hospital. (
  • Exton 6 devised a colorimetric test for albuminuria in 1925 with use of sulfosalicylic acid and bromphenol blue. (
  • Our main goal was to study the relationships between serum uric acid and kidney disease measures (namely estimated GFR [eGFR] and albuminuria) in a large cohort of individuals at cardiovascular risk from the URic acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) Project database. (
  • Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted. (
  • It is a priority to find the causes of albuminuria and CKD in this Mexican region. (
  • We therefore took any difference in blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors between levels of albuminuria into account. (
  • Researchers have also investigated the effects of different classes of antihypertensive drugs which, regardless of having a similar antihypertensive effect in other cases, had completely different effect on albuminuria with regards to each other. (
  • The finding contrasts with the initial trial report, which concluded that tolvaptan had no effect on albuminuria. (
  • Conclusions: It is becoming increasingly apparent that a considerable proportion of subjects with type 2 diabetes can develop renal impairment in the absence of albuminuria. (
  • By and large, these studies have confirmed that the presence of albuminuria is independently associated with the risk for death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other cardiovascular (CV) events ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease strongly supported by biological plausibility, but empirical evidence to support validity in epidemiological studies still lacking. (
  • From the results, it was determined that the change in albuminuria was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease across a range of cohorts, lending support to the use of change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for end-stage kidney disease in clinical trials of progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of increased albuminuria. (
  • We assessed whether home blood pressure monitoring improved the prediction of progression of albuminuria when added to office measurements and compared it with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a multiethnic cohort of older people (n=392) with diabetes mellitus, without macroalbuminuria, participating in the telemedicine arm of the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine Study. (
  • Cox proportional hazards models examined the progression of albuminuria (n=74) as defined by cutoff values used by clinicians. (
  • The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA ) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. (
  • Conclusions EPA and DHA supplementation attenuated progression of albuminuria in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐inhibitor or angiotensin‐receptor blocker. (
  • The earliest indicator of the possible presence of kidney disease is albuminuria (increased amounts of the protein albumin in the urine). (
  • A study was done to assess the consistency of the association between change in albuminuria and risk of end-stage kidney disease in a large individual participant-level meta-analysis of observational studies. (
  • Researchers defined an end-stage kidney disease event as initiation of kidney replacement therapy and quantified associations of percentage change in albuminuria with subsequent end-stage kidney disease using Cox regression in each cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analysis. (
  • If I have albuminuria, does it mean I have kidney disease? (
  • It may be an early sign of kidney disease, but your doctor will check you again to make sure albuminuria is not caused by something else, like not drinking enough water. (
  • Our findings suggest that TRPC6 promotes albuminuria, perhaps by promoting angiotensin II-dependent increases in Ca 2+ , suggesting that TRPC6 blockade may be therapeutically beneficial in proteinuric kidney disease. (
  • Because albuminuria doesn't cause noticeable symptoms, people at risk of kidney disease typically are advised to be tested regularly for protein in their urine in order to detect the condition. (
  • Because albuminuria is not a disease itself but rather a side effect (of diabetes or hypertension, for instance) or a symptom (of kidney disease), there's no treatment per se for the condition. (
  • This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM 2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD. (
  • Albuminuria screening is used as a tool to detect individuals with undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • Smoking is a strong risk factor for albuminuria in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (
  • Albuminuria was assessed by the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and 30 min postexercise. (
  • Albuminuria is a renal disease that is found to be independently associated with cardiovascular and renal problems without any links to diabetes. (
  • Shephard M, Allen GG, Barratt LJ, Barbara JA, Paizis K, McLeod G, Brown M, Vanajek A. Albuminuria in a remote South Australian Aboriginal community: results of a community-based screening program for renal disease. (
  • medical citation needed] Nephritic syndrome results in far less albuminuria. (
  • The unexpected association between higher eGFR/lower albuminuria and increased F2-isoprostanes in urine merits further studies. (
  • GSK3 inhibition increases glucose uptake in insulin-insensitive muscle and adipose tissue, while it reduces albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in acute kidney injury. (
  • Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between B12 and incident albuminuria and RKF. (
  • There was no association between B12 and incident albuminuria (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.79 - 1.73) or RKF (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.97 - 1.88). (
  • After rather completely reviewing the extensive literature of the last twenty years on orthostatic albuminuria, it is apparent that many clinical impressions have been accepted as fact without proper critical study. (
  • Conclusions: The analysis shows that albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cancer death, specifically for all-cause, lung and prostate cancers in men aged 50 and above. (
  • This so-called albuminuria not only marks risk in advanced stages of diabetic disease, but also indicates risk in the very early stages of the disease. (
  • In our study sample, the relative impact of blood pressure on the relation between albuminuria and cardiovascular outcome was minor compared with the other risk factors that were included in the model. (
  • BOSTON-Albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of death even among individuals with normal kidney function, according to study findings presented at the National Kidney Foundation 2016 Spring Clinical Meetings. (
  • Although the reasons are not entirely clear albuminuria is also a risk factor for hypertension. (
  • Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk: Time for a New Direction? (
  • This shared underlying pathology raises the important question of whether the individual associations of low GFR and albuminuria with CV risk signify unique pathophysiologic pathways or are simply different markers of the identical underlying biological processes. (
  • Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, smoking and waist circumference as independent risk factors associated with albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria). (
  • The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of CKD-stages and albuminuria with nonfatal and fatal CVD events after adjustment for established risk factors. (
  • For the evaluation of risk prediction using relative hazards models, CSH models produced consistently higher risk estimates than SDH models, and their use may lead to over-estimation of the predictive effect of albuminuria on either outcome. (
  • Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. (
  • Although the authors adjusted for many of these factors in the analyses, further research is necessary to more clearly assess the independent CV risk signaled by albuminuria. (
  • This is particularly important since African Americans have been reported to be at higher risk of CKD incidence and albuminuria [16]. (
  • In smokers, each year's increase in the duration of T2DM was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria of 0.19 units (95% CI 0.07, 0.31) on the log odds scale or increased the odds approximately by 23%, compared to non-smokers. (
  • Indigenous Australians in north Queensland are at high risk of albuminuria. (
  • Conclusions Exposure to higher annual average PM 2.5 concentrations was associated with a higher level of albuminuria and higher risk for incident CKD in a community-based cohort. (
  • Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein the protein albumin is abnormally present in the urine. (
  • Albuminuria was determined based on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio obtained from a first morning spot urine after admission. (
  • In conclusion, nocturnal blood pressure elevation was the strongest predictor of worsening albuminuria. (
  • Aims: To evaluate the relationship of hs-CRP levels to metabolic syndrome (MS) and albuminuria in T2DM. (