Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Drug Chronotherapy: The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Nanoconjugates: Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Acrylic ResinsPharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.PolyvinylsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Zinc Acetate: A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.AcrylatesMice, Inbred BALB CTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Receptors, Albumin: Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Phonophoresis: Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The most promising drug delivery system is using nanoparticle delivery systems, these are systems where the drug is bound to a ... The most promising compound for the nanoparticles is Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The main benefits of this is that particles ... Drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 19(3), 401-424. doi:10.1016/0169-409x(96)00011-7 ... Drug delivery to the brain is the process of passing therapeutically active molecules across the blood-brain barrier for the ...
Kreuter, Jörg (2001). "Nanoparticulate systems for brain delivery of drugs". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 47 (1): 65-81. doi ... Human serum albumin (HSA) and chitosan are also materials of interest. PBCA undergoes degradation through enzymatic cleavage of ... "Drug delivery to the central nervous system by polymeric nanoparticles: What do we know?". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 71: ... PBCA, chitosan, and PLGA nanoparticles were used as delivery systems for these drugs. Overall, the results from each drug ...
... nanocarriers may offer additional advantages in terms of drug delivery systems. Such drug carrier particles possess additional ... which contained fluorescent albumin with dog-fluorescein isothiocyanate were prepared as a model drug, as well as super ... Delivery from compartmented nanotubes[edit]. Nano tubes are also used for carrying drugs in general therapy and in tumor ... The role of them is to protect the drugs from destruction in blood stream, to control the delivery with a well-defined release ...
Drug delivery systems may also be able to prevent tissue damage through regulated drug release; reduce drug clearance rates; or ... is the nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel. Doxil was originally approved by the FDA for the use on HIV-related Kaposi's ... For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ... These devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery. The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is ...
... both systems facilitate drug transport. ASMs behave as unimolecular micelles, where four polymer particles are covalently bound ... The delivery of these polymeric particles is now undergoing investigation with Professor Prabhas Moghe. Thirdly, her group is ... interested in micro-sized striped patterns of protein (such as serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, laminin and other growth ... Contrary to most anti-atherosclerotic drugs, the anionic polymer only targets the bad cholesterol LDL particles and not the ...
"Drug delivery to the central nervous system by polymeric nanoparticles: What do we know?". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 71: ... It was reported that those natural substances such as albumin, α-1-fetoprotein or transferrin with elevated plasma ... Mechanisms for drug targeting in the brain involve going either "through" or "behind" the BBB. Modalities for drug delivery/ ... Methods for drug delivery behind the BBB include intracerebral implantation (such as with needles) and convection-enhanced ...
... challenges of improving conventional cancer chemotherapy using suitable combinations with nano-sized drug delivery systems". J ... aldoxorubicin rapidly binds endogenous circulating albumin through the EMCH linker. Circulating albumin preferentially ... "Cell penetrating peptides fused to a thermally targeted biopolymer drug carrier improve the delivery and antitumor efficacy of ... Once albumin-bound aldoxorubicin reaches the tumor, the acidic environment of the tumor causes cleavage of the acid sensitive ...
Experimental data demonstrate that a cysteine-rich whey protein concentrate represents an effective cysteine delivery system ... Lactalbumin, also known as "whey protein", is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. Lactalbumin is found in the ... Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012 Dec;7(3):230-5.. Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion are both recognized as ... It is conceivable that the priority of the immune system for the survival of the host has drawn to this vital area the ever- ...
In 1975, they applied drug-conjugated antibodies for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic compounds to cancer cells.[10] They ... The avidin-biotin system[edit]. The avidin-biotin system is a technique for studying the interaction between two biomolecules ... as exemplified by the removal of heme peptides from blood using immobilized human serum albumin, thus laying the grounds for ... between the antibody and the drug and showed the effectiveness of conjugating simple polymers such as dextran for drug delivery ...
Selbo, PK; A Hogset; L Prasmickaite; K Berg (2002). "Photochemical internalisation: a novel drug delivery system". Tumour Biol ... In February 2019, medical scientists announced that iridium attached to albumin, creating a photosensitized molecule, can ... Otherwise, a hydrophilic delivery system must enable efficient and effective transportation of the photosensitiser to the ... Although these systems may increase therapeutic effects, the carrier system may inadvertently decrease the "observed" singlet ...
ACS Drug Guide: Ifosfamide Harvard Medical School Health Information on Ifosfamide MedlinePlus Drug Information BC Cancer ... The delivery is intravenous. Ifosfamide is often used in conjunction with mesna to avoid internal bleeding in the patient, in ... Other treatments include albumin and thiamine, and dialysis as a rescue modality. Ifosfamide may also cause a normal anion gap ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 7.35 to ...
A drug carrier is any substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, effectiveness, ... of many drugs with poor water solubility and/or membrane permeability. A wide variety of drug carrier systems have been ... "A Novel Macromolecular Prodrug Concept Exploiting Endogenous Serum Albumin as a Drug Carrier for Cancer Chemotherapy". Journal ... Disadvantages associated with using liposomes as drug carriers involve poor control over drug release. Drugs which have high ...
Drug. Del. Rev. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 46 (1-3): 3-26. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(00)00129-0. ISSN 0169-409X. PMID ... An efficient structure- and concentration-dependent transcription inhibition in a model in vitro systems based on RNA and DNA ... albumin, etc.), and vaccines as well. At the same time, only limited number of the middle-weight compounds with a molecular ... The concept of the "topological drugs" seems to be a promising one for the drug search from the library of the middle-weight ...
Microneedles, formulation systems, and implantable systems are bio-MEMS applicable to drug delivery. Microneedles of ... been patterned to co-culture at specific cell densities with fibroblasts to maintain liver-specific functions such as albumin ... Implantable drug delivery systems have also been developed to administer therapeutic agents that have poor bioavailability or ... Drug delivery by microneedles include coating the surface with therapeutic agents, loading drugs into porous or hollow ...
Delivery aspects". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 5 (4): 371-83. doi:10.1517/17425247.5.4.371. PMID 18426380. Kawai, F (2002 ... The covalent attachment of PEG to a drug or therapeutic protein can "mask" the agent from the host's immune system (reduced ... "Alteration of immunological properties of bovine serum albumin by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol". The Journal of ... a powerful and flexible strategy to improve the drug delivery". Current Drug Metabolism. 13 (1): 105-119. doi:10.2174/ ...
"Melarsoprol Drug Information, Professional". www.drugs.com. 20 December 1994. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. ... In stage 2 disease, trypanosomes have crossed the blood brain barrier and are present in the central nervous system. The ... Additional potentially serious side effects of melarsoprol include damage to the heart, presence of albumin in the urine that ... The World Health Organization suggests that treatment be deferred until immediately after delivery since the effects of the ...
... in which paclitaxel is bonded to albumin as an alternative delivery agent to the often toxic solvent delivery method. This was ... ISBN 978-0-521-56123-5. NCI Drug Information Summary for Patients. NCI Drug Dictionary Definition Molecule of the Month: TAXOL ... In 1975, it was shown to be active in another in vitro system; two years later, a new department head reviewed the data and ... doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(01)00171-X. "Abraxane Drug Information Archived 2005-05-26 at the Wayback Machine.." Food and Drug ...
Specifically, Wyeth asserted that the BHRT drugs are not licensed by the FDA according to section 505 of the Food, Drug and ... AHP waived patent royalties on its innovative bifurcated needle, aiding in the delivery of over 200 million smallpox vaccines ... Plasma/Albumin-Free); a new form of AHF, recently approved by the US FDA Zosyn (piperacillin/tazobactam); another intravenous ... and approached AHP to develop a better injection system for smallpox vaccines which could be used in the field. ...
Apart from the metabolic interactions, highly protein bound drugs can displace warfarin from serum albumin and cause an ... The haemostasis system becomes temporarily biased towards thrombus formation, leading to a prothrombotic state. Thus, when ... Various solutions exist for the time around delivery. When warfarin (or another 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative) is given during ... Kurnik D, Loebstein R, Farfel Z, Ezra D, Halkin H, Olchovsky D (March 2004). "Complex drug-drug-disease interactions between ...
Introductory systems of high-field NMR and 2D NMR in conjunction with microfluidics have also been developed. These systems use ... Magnetic particles coated with antihuman serum albumin antibodies have been used to isolate human serum albumin, as proof of ... Extraction of drug analytes from dried urine samples has also been reported. A droplet of extraction solvent, in this case ... The process uses electrodes to deliver reagents to produce the hydrogel, and then delivery of cell culture reagents for ...
... when scientists published a review of the mouse immune system compared to the human immune system, and showed that on a systems ... Access to therapeutic drug monitoring is important to ensure adequate drug therapeutic level while at the same time preventing ... Albumin can be used if large amount of crystalloid is required for resuscitaition. Crystalloid solutions and albumin are better ... The goal is to optimize oxygen delivery to tissues and achieve a balance between systemic oxygen delivery and demand. An ...
Drug Delivery: drugs can be incorporated into the microbubble's lipid shell. The microbubble's large size relative to other ... Optison, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved microbubble made by GE Healthcare, has an albumin shell and ... The ultrasound system converts the strong echogenicity into a contrast-enhanced image of the area of interest. In this way, the ... drug delivery vehicles like liposomes may allow a greater amount of drug to be delivered per vehicle. By targeted the drug- ...
Velayudham LS, Farrell GC (2003). "Drug-induced cholestasis". Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2 (3): 287-304. PMID 12904107. Arrese M, ... Research is underway to determine if risks of estrogen supplement use are the same for all methods of delivery. In particular, ... Estrogens are typically bound to albumin and/or sex hormone-binding globulin in the circulation. They are metabolized in the ... Estrogens affect liver protein synthesis and thereby influence the cardiovascular system. They have been found to affect the ...
Psychiatrist-on-a-chip In clinical brain sciences drug delivery and in vivo Bio-MEMS based biosensors may assist with ... Hemodynamic monitoring, which monitors the blood pressure and blood flow within the circulatory system. Blood pressure can be ... Critical differences for other tests include early morning urinary albumin concentration, with a critical difference of 40%. ... The development cycle in medicine is extremely long, up to 20 years, because of the need for U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
... human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs.[84][85] Mouse hybridomas, cells ... "Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine. 3 (1): 7-20. doi:10.1002/wsbm.104. PMC 3057768. PMID 21064036.. ... Main article: Gene delivery. A gene gun uses biolistics to insert DNA into plant tissue ... Pharming uses crops and animals as bioreactors to produce vaccines, drug intermediates, or the drugs themselves; the useful ...
Wanger and colleagues had in effect invented the modern I.V.-drip method of drug delivery [...]. ... Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and ... albumin, plasma, etc.) ... Intravenous systems can be categorized by which type of vein ... This occurs when fluids are given at a higher rate or in a larger volume than the system can absorb or excrete. Possible ...
A novel method developed helps to produce various albumin-based gels that aid in delivering drugs into the bloodstream. ... Drug Toxicity Drugs Banned in India Nanotechnology Drug Delivery System Oncology Drug Delivery Systems Drug Delivery Systems - ... Drug Delivery Systems - Use in Diabetes Management. Different types of drug delivery systems for insulin delivery have been ... Drug Delivery System. Drug delivery systems, is a technology using various chemicals to bind the target drugs, carry them to ...
Predict more albumin - ligand interactions now!. The biopolymer bacterial nanocellulose as drug delivery system: Investigation ... the applicability of BNC as drug delivery system for proteins using serum albumin as model drug was systematically investigated ... investigations about its potential as drug delivery system are very rare. In the present study, for the first time, ... and controllable drug loading and release render BNC an innovative and attractive biopolymer for controlled drug delivery. © ...
Oral Hemocompatibility of albumin nanoparticles as drug delivery system, In vitro study ... The characteristics of Albumin microspheres such as particle size, particlemorphologie, and drug loading were evaluated. That ... The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the Hemocompatibility of albumin microspheres. Albumin microsphereswere ... coacervation method is well suited to produce albumin microspheres andthe preparative variables of the procedure can be fine ...
Albumin-based nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery systems.. Misak HE, Asmatulu R, Gopu JS, Man KP, Zacharias NM, ... Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013 Dec 10;8:1-11. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S52714. eCollection 2014. ...
The produced nanoparticles can be used in novel drug and food delivery systems.. The aim of the research was to design a drug ... which is ideal to be used in novel drug delivery systems.. In this research, egg albumin nanoparticles were produced through ... simple coacervation method so they can be used as an appropriate drug nano-carrier in novel drug delivery systems. The ... Therefore, egg albumin nanoparticles can be considered very good candidates to be used as drug and food nano-carriers.. Results ...
A complete review on Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery System which covers all basic points regarding this topics .- authorSTREAM ... Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1998;24: 1113-28. 12) Patil GV. Biopolymer albumin for diagnosis and in drug delivery. Drug Dev Res 2003; 58 ... NANOPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM : A REVIEW: NANOPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM : A REVIEW 1 By Mr. Satish D. Pawar Email ... Drug loading: should have a high drug-loading capacity. Drug release: Solubility of drug. Desorption of the adsorbed drug. Drug ...
Key words: Isoalantolactone, nanoparticles, serum albumin, folic acid, drug delivery system. ... FHNs-IAL exhibited good property to improve the uptake ofHeLa cells and could become a potential targeted drug delivery system ... Here, we developed folic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles for IAL (FHNs-IAL) encapsulation to improve the ... Therefore, folic acid-conjugated human serum albumin (HAS) nanoparticles for IAL encapsulation would be highly beneficial for ...
Could Be The First To Personalize Medicine For Albumin-Based Drug Delivery Systems. LOS ANGELES, March 12, 2019 /PRNewswire ... Linker Activated Drug Release) drug candidates, LADR-7, LADR-8, LADR-9 and LADR-10, and for its unique albumin companion ... This technology allows for the delivery of higher doses of drug directly to the tumor, while avoiding much of the off-target ... CytRx Corporation Announces Conclusion of Pre-Clinical Phase for Its Albumin Binding Ultra High Potency LADR™ Drug Candidates ...
Making a case for albumin-a highly promising drug-delivery system. Future Med. Chem. 7 (5), 553-556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Test system for trifunctional antibodies in 3D MCTS culture. J. Biomol. Screening. 14 (8), 980-990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Engineering antibodies as drugs: Principles and practice. Mol. Biol. (Moscow). 51 (6), 772-781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Preclinical studies on targeted delivery of multiple IFN-α2b to HLA-DR in diverse hematologic cancers. Blood. 118, 1877-1884. ...
In a particular embodiment of the invention, a TNA composition using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stabilizer has been ... compositions which are useful for the in vivo parenteral delivery of pharmacologically acceptable lipids or fats, as well as ... Burgess et al., "Potential use of albumin microspheres as a drug delivery system. I. Preparation and in vitro release of ... Leucuta et al., "Albumin microspheres as a drug delivery system for epirubicin: pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and biological ...
2010) investigated the antitumor effects of resveratrol (RES) bovine serum albumin nanoparticles. The results showed that the ... Drug delivery systems represent an alternative strategy to carrier antineoplastic agents. Many advantages of drug delivery ... liposomes were a suitable delivery system for 5 ALA.. Chen et al. (2012) [123] developed a transdermal drug delivery system for ... clinically relevant improvements in drug delivery. New challenges in developing nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for ...
Albumin-based nanoparticles as potential controlled release drug delivery systems Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 157, ... Adaptive micro and nanoparticles: Temporal control over carrier properties to facilitate drug delivery Advanced Drug Delivery ... Polymeric drugs for efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery based on EPR-effect European Journal of Pharmaceutics and ... Controlling drug nanoparticle formation by rapid precipitation Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Volume 63, Issue 6, 30 May 2011 ...
Formulation And Evaluation Of Topical Drug Delivery Systems Containing Ciprofloxacin And Tinidazole. S Pandey, M Basheer, N ... Mode Of Interaction Of Metronidazole With Bovine Serum Albumin. Neelam Seedher, B Singh, P Singh ... All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit ... Determination Of Some Sulpha Drugs With Potassium Ditelluratocuprate (III) In Alkaline Medium. D Singh, Kalpana Singh, B. B ...
To develop a biotin targeted drug delivery system, we employed human serum albumin (HSA) as a carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) ... targeted drug delivery, in vivo anticancer delivery, human serum albumin, methotrexate, conjugates ... Biotin molecules could be used as suitable targeting moieties in targeted drug delivery systems against tumors. ... Use of biotin targeted methotrexateâ human serum albumin conjugated nanoparticles to enhance methotrexate antitumor efficacy ...
Making a case for albumin - a highly promising drug-delivery system. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 7(5), 553-556. [More ... Making a case for albumin - a highly promising drug-delivery system. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 7(5), 553-556. [More ... Yingchoncharoen, P., Kalinowski, D., Richardson, D. (2016). Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy: What Is ... Yingchoncharoen, P., Kalinowski, D., Richardson, D. (2016). Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy: What Is ...
Making a case for albumin - a highly promising drug-delivery system. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 7(5), 553-556. [More ... Making a case for albumin - a highly promising drug-delivery system. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 7(5), 553-556. [More ... Glutathione-S-Transferase Machinery and its Role as a Novel Nitric Oxide Storage and Transport System in Macrophage Biology. ... Yamagishi, T., Sahni, S., Sharp, D., Arvind, A., Jansson, P., Richardson, D. (2013). P-Glycoprotein Mediates Drug Resistance ...
Results of the research lead to the production and confirmation of a new drug delivery system based on albumin nanoparticles, ... The new system can be used in the delivery of various drugs used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment.. In this research, ... University used nanoparticles containing anti-cancer medicine to produce a new targeted drug delivery system to deliver drug to ... target system on MCF7 cells showed the higher performance of the system in removing cells in comparison with the free drug. In ...
In addition, micro emulsions or colloidal drug delivery systems such as liposomes and albumin microspheres, may also be used. ... A drug-resistance gene marker introduced simultaneously with the novel cDNA would facilitate the cloning of the cell line. Many ... Thus, albumin could function as a stabilizing protein during the freeze-drying process. The methods for formulating a ... Storage can also be facilitated by adding proteins such as human albumin that can reduce the loss of activity of the ...
By-Products Used as Essential Building Blocks for Modern Drug Delivery Systems, Current Drug Targets. 15, 502-517. ... Pulipati, V.K., and Lu, D. (March 24-26, 2014). "Gemcitabine encapsulated albumin nanoparticles against pancreatic cancer cells ... Novel Drug Delivery Systems. San Antonio, Texas.. Wahawisan, J. (May 20, 2014). COPD Therapy: Incorporating clinical evidence ... Paliwal, R., & Palakurthi, S. (2014). Zein in Controlled Drug Delivery and Tissue engineering. J Control Release, 189C:108-122 ...
In addition, microemulsions or colloidal drug delivery systems such as liposomes and albumin microspheres, may also be used. ... Such delivery systems include intravascular catheter delivery systems. A variety of catheter systems useful for the direct ... Non-balloon drug delivery catheters are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,180,366; 5,112,305; and 5,021,044; and PCT Publication WO ... Ultrasonically assisted drug delivery catheters phonophoresis devices) are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,362,309; 5,318,014; ...
"Advances and new technologies applied in controlled drug delivery system, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the ... Albumin microspheres as an ocular delivery for pilocarpine nitrate. Rathode, S; Deshpande, SG ... Drug delivery systems are molecular tools which, without undesired interactions at other sites, target a specific drug receptor ... Drug delivery systems are molecular tools which, without undesired interactions at other sites, target a specific drug receptor ...
... were prepared from bovine serum albumin by coacervation. They have an average sized of 311 nm. They were characterized and used ... Elzoghby AO, Samy WM, Elgindy NA (2012) Albumin-based nanoparticles as potential controlled release drug delivery systems. J ... It is shown that both high protein affinity drugs (propranolol) and low protein affinity drugs (atenolol) could be rapidly ... Kim HM, Park JH, Long NP, Kim DD, Kwon SW (2019) Simultaneous determination of cardiovascular drugs in dried blood spot by ...
Albumin. Albumin based drug delivery systems are having much importance for the treatment of arthritis, since albumin has a ... However, each novel drug delivery systems has to be evaluated on its merits. One cannot generalise about novel delivery systems ... Why a new drug delivery system?. Development of new drug molecule is expensive and time consuming. Improving safety efficacy ... Drug delivery systems. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 32:54-61, 2000.. 6. Deasy, P.B., Microencapsulation and Related Drug ...
HSA nanoparticles are a safe and effective drug delivery system for hydrophobic anticancer drugs such as CBT. ... Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles as a Novel Delivery System for Cabazitaxel.. Zhou G1, Jin X1, Zhu P1, Yao JU2, Zhang Y2, Teng ... Search: Zhou G[author] AND Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles as a Novel Delivery System for Cabazitaxel ... Zhou G[Author] AND (Human[Title] AND Serum[Title] AND Albumin[Title] AND Nanoparticles[Title] AND Novel[Title] AND Delivery[ ...
The most promising drug delivery system is using nanoparticle delivery systems, these are systems where the drug is bound to a ... The most promising compound for the nanoparticles is Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The main benefits of this is that particles ... Drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 19(3), 401-424. doi:10.1016/0169-409x(96)00011-7 ... Drug delivery to the brain is the process of passing therapeutically active molecules across the blood-brain barrier for the ...
  • The FHNs-IAL exhibited good property to improve the uptake ofHeLa cells and could become a potential targeted drug delivery system for the future cancer chemotherapy. (academicjournals.org)
  • The FA-NPs were effective delivery systems for uptake by SGC7901 cells compared with folate-free NPs. (dovepress.com)
  • In response to the differences in the physiological blood circulation, tumor microenvironment, and intracellular environment, Ms-DDS can change their physicochemical properties (such as size, hydrophobicity, or zeta potential) to achieve deeper tumor penetration, enhanced cellular uptake, timely drug release, as well as effective endosomal escape. (thno.org)
  • These approaches, however, lack the capability of targeting specific anatomic regions, which can lead to non-specific drug uptake and consequential adverse off-target effects. (nature.com)
  • However, to provide an optimal biocompatibility (stable concentration during whole absorption period), a rapid release should be achieved at the first stage of drug uptake with following desorption prolongation. (scirp.org)
  • In-vitro evaluation of the synthesized target system on MCF7 cells showed the higher performance of the system in removing cells in comparison with the free drug. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Utterly, challenges being overthrown by researchers are brought up to anneal an effective, all in one targeted albumin NPs to passed through in vitro and preclinical trials. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, as of yet little work has been reported which attempts to model the effects of lung protease activity in an in vitro system. (management-forum.co.uk)
  • Herein, the authors reported that knockdown of RPS15A expression significantly inhibited human osteosarcoma U2OS cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro by using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system. (jove.com)
  • We show that, depending upon the drug molecule, the type of host molecule, and the laser illumination method (continuous wave or pulsed laser), in vitro light-triggered release can be achieved with both types of nanoparticle-based complexes. (pnas.org)
  • The midcycle period, characterized by the rapid increase and decline of estrogen and the beginning rise of progesterone, shows a prounced minimum of immunoglobulins, C'3, proteinase inhibitors, albumin, and lysozyme in cervical mucus, which is known to be most receptive to sperm penetration at this time. (meta.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) By loading magnetic nanoparticles with drugs and dressing them in biochemical camouflage, Houston Methodist researchers say they can destroy blood clots 100 to 1,000 times faster than a commonly used clot-busting technique. (nanowerk.com)
  • Also co-formulations of multiple monoclonal antibodies into a single drug product brings certainly convenience to the patients, however brings also the need for new analytical methods. (ddfevent.com)
  • Both formulations, however, exhibited profound increases of over 500-fold in tumor accumulation of drug as compared to free drug injected at the MTD (20 mg/kg doxorubicin). (ubc.ca)
  • Moreover, the addition of release-retardant cellulosic polymers sustained the drug release having first-order kinetics for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium with R 2 values of 0.9995 and 0.9954, respectively. (springer.com)
  • MONTREAL, Jan. 27, 2016 - A nanotherapy that converts near-infrared light to UV light may mitigate side effects caused by drug regimens that can damage healthy cells. (photonics.com)
  • Control & sustain release of the drug. (authorstream.com)
  • LOS ANGELES, Feb. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- CytRx Corporation (CYTR), a biopharmaceutical research and development company specializing in oncology, and its private, wholly-owned subsidiary Centurion BioPharma Corporation, today announced the publication of peer reviewed, scientific research for LADR-7 (AE-Keto-Sulf07), one of its lead LADR™ (Linker Activated Drug Release) candidates. (yahoo.com)
  • LOS ANGELES, Dec. 21, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- CytRx Corporation (CYTR), a biopharmaceutical research and development company specializing in oncology, today announced that its private, wholly-owned subsidiary Centurion BioPharma Corporation (the Company) has concluded the pre-clinical phase of its development for its albumin binding ultra high potency LADR™ (Linker Activated Drug Release) drug candidates, LADR-7, LADR-8, LADR-9 and LADR-10, and for its unique albumin companion diagnostic (ACDx). (yahoo.com)
  • Nanogels can be designed to be stimulus responsive, and react to internal or external stimuli such as pH, temperature, light and redox, thus resulting in the controlled release of loaded drugs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This review aims to provide an introduction to nanogels, their preparation methods,and to discuss the design of various stimulus-responsive nanogels that are able to provide controlled drug release in response to particular stimuli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to delivery systems of biologically active substances, and more particularly to bursting release systems capable of delivering substances in a burst or pulse at predetermined times. (google.com)
  • Such a controlled release system would deliver a second burst of antigen at a predetermined amount of time following a first burst. (google.com)
  • Drug release profiles from doxorubicin and curcumin-loaded lyophilisomes were studied in culture medium and showed slow release for doxorubicin (2.7% after 72 h), and rapid release for curcumin (55% after 72 h). (izon.com)
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. (springer.com)
  • The BC capsule shells were studied for drug release using an USP type-I dissolution apparatus. (springer.com)
  • Irrespective of the drying method and the thickness of the BC sheet, the capsule shells displayed an immediate drug release profile. (springer.com)
  • This study showed that BC is a promising alternative to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials. (springer.com)
  • The scaffolds were further functionalized by covalent grafting of a BMSC affinity peptide (E7) to develop a dual drug release system for the delivery of the BMP2-derived peptide and E7. (rsc.org)
  • To minimize this risk, researchers have developed nanoparticles that only release a drug when exposed to near-infrared light, which doctors could beam onto a specific site. (phys.org)
  • Bolaamphiphile nano-vesicles can cross the BBB, and they allow controlled release of the drug to target sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system enabled the controlled release of a drug from an antibody-drug conjugate in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • When combined with nanoparticle-mediated delivery, desilylation catalysed by Phe-BF3 could release a client protein-including an active gasdermin-from a nanoparticle conjugate, selectively into tumour cells in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of late, organogels have seen an increased used as drug delivery vehicles due to patient compliance and its ability towards tailored release of the bioactive agents. (ukessays.com)
  • The release profiles of acidic form of diclofenac sodium adsorbed on mesoporous silicas (Silochrom and two samples of spherical silicas) were compared with the dissolution characteristics of the pure drug. (scirp.org)
  • Despite the pharmaceutical effectiveness, a novel slow release drugs based on diclofenac or diclofenac sodium are insufficiently developed. (scirp.org)
  • Various types of pores like open, closed, transport and blind pores in the porous solid allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. (ijpsonline.com)
  • When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Delivery of drugs by means of controlled release technology began in the 1970s and has continued to expand rapidly [ 2 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • These features allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. (ijpsonline.com)
  • When a porous hydrophobic polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with the appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels [ 18 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Sustained release of BSA from a novel drug delivery matrix -- bullfrog skin collagen film. (semanticscholar.org)
  • From an application point of view, our protein hydrogels are very easy to form, without any need of complex chemical modification, they are very low cost as compared to other hydrogels, and show slow and sustained drug release profiles, all very sought-after properties. (rsc.org)
  • Recent focus on particle based drug delivery systems, necessitates improved drug loading and sustainable release for water soluble drugs. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • This is hoped that this would improve the loading of water soluble drugs, while allowing for the release behavior to be governed by the core-shell geometry of the particulates formed. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Two breast cancer drugs, docetaxel and HER2-targeted lapatinib, were delivered to MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 (overexpressing HER2) breast cancer cells and compared with release in noncancerous RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. (pnas.org)
  • Both methods provide spatially and temporally localized drug-release strategies that can facilitate high local concentrations of chemotherapy drugs deliverable at a specific treatment site over a specific time window, with the potential for greatly minimized side effects. (pnas.org)
  • Research presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) demonstrates a potentially more effective method of imaging and treating prostate cancer that modifies a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand by adding an albumin-binding Evans blue (an azo dye) derivative. (acnmonline.org)
  • Desolvation is the most common method to synthesize albumin NPs, through which HSA NPs are synthesized with the continuous addition of a desolvator such as ethanol to an aqueous solution of albumin under constant stirring. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Albumin/AlbiVax elicits ~10 times more frequent peripheral antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes with immune memory than IFA-emulsifying vaccines. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • As for the ligand-modified actively targeted delivery systems, despite promising results in preclinical studies, most of the clinical trials did not yield the expected results. (thno.org)
  • 11 B) Production from natural macromolecules: i ) Albumin nanoparticles produced in an external-oily emulsion: Homogenization of oil phase containing the albumin droplets and thermally stabilized by heating at 175 0 to 180 0 C for 10 minutes. (authorstream.com)
  • The cytosolic delivery of macromolecules was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The FITC-labelled albumin, which can not be passively delivered to nucleus, was successfully targeted to nucleus by adding NLS.This system for intracellular control of macromolecules can be a basic strategy to manipulate intracellular trafficking of high molecular weight compounds. (nii.ac.jp)