Rats, Inbred BNAlbinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rats, Inbred F344Rats, Inbred LewRats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Aegle: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Inbred ACIRats, Inbred WFHibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Semecarpus: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE that is the source of anacarcin forte. The nut milk extract is cytotoxic.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Lipoxygenases: Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.Bixaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Bixa contains bixin. Cochlospermum contains arjunolic acid and gum kondagogu (POLYSACCHARIDES).Melia azedarach: A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Phenylphosphonothioic Acid, 2-Ethyl 2-(4-Nitrophenyl) Ester: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as a acaricide.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Inbred BUFAsparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.OcimumCatalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Albinism, Oculocutaneous: Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nigella sativa: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains alpha-hederin, a triterpene saponin in the seeds, and is the source of black seed oil.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Rats, Gunn: Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nerium: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.ArthritisMice, Inbred BALB CSpermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Inbred C57BLGenetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
... rat, a strain of albino laboratory rats developed at the institute. Wister (disambiguation). ...
... two nucleotide substitutions attenuate the Sabin 2 strain, and 10 substitutions are involved in attenuating the Sabin 3 strain ... After one to three further passages on rats, the vaccine was deemed safe for human use. On 27 February 1950, Koprowski's live, ... Koprowski's attenuated vaccine was prepared by successive passages through the brains of Swiss albino mice. By the seventh ... By 1958, the National Institutes of Health had determined that OPV produced using the Sabin strains were the safest. Between ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... These three strains are called "tremper albinos", "rainwater albinos" and "bell albinos". As with reptiles, many amphibians ... "Albino". Retrieved January 31, 2015. "Albino". Cambridge Dictionaries On-line. Retrieved January 31, 2015. "Albino". Albino.com ... albino driftwood catfish, albino festivium, albino red tailed shark and albino tiger shark, however, photographs of these four ...
... and the inbred Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) are the two main strains of rats that have been used in studies ... The rats from these two strains show spontaneously occurring absence seizures that consist of typical spike-and-wave activity ... Also, WAG/Rij rats show an increased expression of mGlu4 receptors in the nRT when compared to a control group of normal rats. ... The use of rats has also been a common method for studying the spike-and-wave phenomenon. The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats ...
Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. ... showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. As there is ... Rat Genome Rat Genome Database Charles River Laboratories Harlan Sprague Dawley Jax Index of Inbred Rat Strains Knock Out Rat ... Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune ...
Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344,[8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats ... Biobreeding rat[edit]. Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an ... showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor.[3] As there is ... "Lab rat" redirects here. For other uses, see Lab rat (disambiguation).. The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white ...
The two standard strains are brown and "black cross" which, when paired, produce numerous colour variations. When an albino ... They are sometimes more effective ratters than terriers, as they can enter rat holes and drive rats from their hiding places. ... The following graph is a simplification of the main colour strains: Wild minks can be tamed if caught young, but can be ... Among the rodents killed by the American mink in its native range are rats and mice of the genera Hesperomys, Microtus, ...
Marmorston-Gottesman, J; Perla, D (Oct 31, 1932). "The etiology of Bartonella muris anemia of the albino rat : the isolation of ... "Two Clusters among Mycoplasma haemomuris Strains, Defined by the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Transcribed Spacer Sequences". Journal ... It is known to cause anemia in rats and mice. Neimark, H; Johansson, KE; Rikihisa, Y; Tully, JG (March 2002). "Revision of ...
Creamsicle corn snake is a hybrid involving an albino corn snake and an Emory's Rat snake (Pantherophis emoryi). The first ... These originated from a somewhat unicolor Jacksonville and Gainesville, Florida strain of corn snake. Through selective ... The Ultra gene is derived from the grey rat snake. All Ultras and Ultramels have some amount of grey rat snake in them. ... described here and the Great Plains rat snake (Pantherophis guttatus emoryi). The Great Plains rat snake has since been split ...
"Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass in albino rats - a subchronic study." Regul. Toxicol. ... Aki, T. and Suzuki O. "Production of arachidonic acid by filamentous fungus, Mortierella alliacea strain YN-15." J. Am. Oil ...
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain from which a number of common substrains are derived. With over 200 generations ... "Rules and guidelines for nomenclature of mouse and rat strains". "Outbred stocks". Crow JF (August 2002). "C. C. Little, cancer ... Laboratory mice can have a variety of coat colours, including agouti, black and albino. Many (but not all) laboratory strains ... Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains ...
They found in albino rats that Fos has altered immunoreactive levels in a phase-dependent manner when exposed to light. This ... Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ... Sumová A, Trávnícková Z, Peters R, Schwartz WJ, Illnerová H. The rat suprachiasmatic nucleus is a clock for all seasons. Proc ... Light regulates expression of a Fos-related protein in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 5959-5962 ...
Absorption of blue light, however, has been shown in rats and a susceptible strain of mice to cause a reversal of the process ... Williams TP, Howell WL (March 1983). "Action spectrum of retinal light-damage in albino rats". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24 ... Grimm C, Wenzel A, Williams T, Rol P, Hafezi F, Remy C (February 2001). "Rhodopsin-mediated blue-light damage to the rat retina ... Lougheed, Tim (March 2014). "Hidden Blue Hazard? LED Lighting and Retinal Damage in Rats". Environmental Health Perspectives. ...
In order to produce Gypchek, a laboratory strain of the gypsy moth is reared and infected with the virus. After the larvae die ... Gypsy moth NPV doses were shown to have no mortality or toxicity in rats. Four studies showed no toxicity or mortality across ... A study done on albino guinea pigs found no toxicity, mortality or irritation after dermal application of LdNPV. One study ... A study into ocular irritation in rats found no irritation after the animals were observed for 21 days. Three inhalation tests ...
A laboratory rat strain, known as a Zucker rat, bred to be genetically prone to diabetes, a metabolic disorder also found among ... Thorndike, R (1935). "Organization of behavior in the albino rat". Genet. Psychol. Monogr. 17: 1-70.. ... Other rat genera include Neotoma (pack rats), Bandicota (bandicoot rats) and Dipodomys (kangaroo rats). ... Pet rats are typically variants of the species brown rat - but black rats and giant pouched rats are also sometimes kept. Pet ...
Analysis of sniffing in the albino rat. In this study, Welker used video recordings of rats during presentation with odors and ... Sniffing is quantified by measuring intra-nasal pressure or flow or air or, while less accurate, through a strain gauge on the ... "Analysis of sniffing in the albino rat". Behavior. 22: 223-244. doi:10.1163/156853964x00030. Youngentob, S.L.; Mozell, M. M.; ... This includes rats and mice. Thus, in these animals the distinction between a breath and a sniff is not clear and could be ...
Holson, Joseph F. (1970). Teratogenic Potential of D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (delysid) in the Albino Rat (Master's Thesis). ... 5-T study was a large-scale multireplicated study in various strains/stocks of mice that included replicated test groups, at ... "Developmental toxicity in rats of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier results from impeded function of the inverted visceral yolk ... in rats exposed by whole-body vapor inhalation". Reproductive Toxicology. 23 (2): 202-215. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.11.011. ...
Her grandfather was a rat lover and invented a way to safely and effectively get rid of them, The Reverse Pied Piper (a device ... Kiki Strike Kiki Strike is a small, albino girl who founds the Irregulars and is often considered the leader of the group. ... She is first introduced at a Girl Scouts meeting, where she has just "succeeded in refining a particularly dangerous strain of ... Her parents travel a lot, and they once brought back a very strong smelling perfume that turns out to keep the rats of the ...
March 2002). "Effect of Sarcostemma acidum stem extract on spermatogenesis in male albino rats". Asian Journal of Andrology. 4 ... But it seems this effect was only true for several genetically related strains of laboratory mice. Miglustat showed no ... One test in rats (20 milligrams of the 80% ethanol extract) found that these reduced sperm count by more than half. In medieval ... of long term oral treatment of methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats". ...
These results indicate that systemic and topical beta glucan improve (Wistar albino rat) wound healing that has been impaired ... The degree of cholesterol reduction will also depend upon the particular strain of β-glucan and its composite food matrix. To ... Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Henk van den Berg, Hendrik van Loveren and Hans Verhagen (2009). "Scientific Opinion on ...
In 1921, C57BL became one of the most widely used mice in genetics and was the first strain to have its genome sequenced. In ... In 1915, N.M Haldane identified first linkage in mouse between Albino mice and pink eye dilution on chromosome seven. ... researchers have fused the mouse gene containing neu and a rat gene containing neu. This addresses the issue in terms of ... In 1909, Clarence C. Little developed the first inbred strain, the DBA (Dilute, brown non-Agouti) mouse. ...
These Albino Saurus are seen as prophets, chosen by the Old Ones for their Grand Scheme. A good example of one of these albino ... As a last resort they pleaded to the Horned Rat to help them. The foul deity did just that and thus the plague monks were ... Rendered unconscious due to the magical strain of defending Lustria from warpstone meteors, shaken from world's second moon due ... Nakai is an albino Kroxigor with unusually thick skin, even for a Kroxigor. In the siege of one of the temple cities, Nakai ...
... "albino" and "tiger" strains. They can make good captives, but keepers should have previous experience with such large ... Small specimens up to 3-4 m (9.8-13.1 ft) long eat mainly rodents such as rats, whereas larger individuals switch to prey such ...
Influence of caloric intake and methionine supplementation on the protein metabolism of albino rats fed rations low in nitrogen ... Additionally, she stated that Black Americans suffered from greater psychosocial stress and other social strains due to racism ... She was involved in a study that measured how well following surgery adult rats were able to absorb methionine (whose methyl ... Moreover, Edwards observed that in the two weeks following surgery, the radio labeled plasma and tissue proteins in the rats ...
Donovan told Albino to ask if a man can have some fun, but maybe not. Albino feels a bit nervous and clears his throat. Donovan ... Back at the Donovan Corporation, Steppenwolf, Meg, Octavio, and Reggie are at the lab with the Heruka strained to get her back ... Steppenwolf goes into the sewer (thieves are blocking his path at the buildings and rats are blocking the sewers, until he ... Albino asks if Steppenwolf has the sample. Steppenwolf reveals the blood and Albino tells them to get in the jeep, because ...
Researchers now know deafness in albino and piebald animals is caused by the absence of mature melanocytes in the inner ear.[19 ... Strain. *"Congenital Sensorineural Deafness in Dalmatian Dogs Associated with Quantitative Trait Loci," by Susanne Kluth and ... Dalmatians have a strong hunting instinct and are an excellent exterminator of rats and vermin. In sporting, they have been ...
... rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the ... by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk ( ... rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the ... by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk ( ...
Wistar rat, a strain of albino laboratory rats developed at the institute. Wister (disambiguation). ...
Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. ... showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. As there is ... Rat Genome Rat Genome Database Charles River Laboratories Harlan Sprague Dawley Jax Index of Inbred Rat Strains Knock Out Rat ... Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune ...
Inbred Strains of Rats: OXYS. OXYS Inbr.F>75. Colour: Albino. Genet. c. Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology ... INBRED STRAINS OF RATS. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Inherited enhancement of hydroxyl radical generation and lipid peroxidation in the S strain rats results in DNA rearrangments, ... since this S symbol has previously been used to designate the Dahl Salt Sensitive strain the symbol assigned to the strain is ...
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats of local strain were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. ... of green coffee administration on experimental cisplatin induced renal apoptosis in adult male albino rats of local strain. ... All rats were sacrificed after 30 days and blood was withdrawn for biochemical examinations of kidney function tests (blood ... Green coffee improved the general condition of cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis rats due to its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic ...
rat. Strain:. other: albino. Sex:. not specified. Route of administration:. oral: gavage. Vehicle:. not specified. Doses:. ... Deaths in rats were as follows: 3/10 (low dose), 8/10 (next dose), and 10/10 rats at the two highest doses. Rats died within 1- ... rat. Strain:. other: Crl: CD BR. Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Young adult male and ... 10 rats per dose. Details on study design:. Doses were given via stomach tube to test animals and observed to toxic symptoms ...
rat. Strain:. other: Albino. Sex:. male. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Five male albino rats weer used ... 1 rat died 1 day after dosing at the 3.98 g/kg dose level.. All 5 rats died at the 7.95 g/kg dose level, with 4 rats dead 4 ... Doses were administered by stomach intubation to groups of five male albino rats who were non-fasted. Each rat received between ... The acute oral toxicity of Trimethylolpropane monoallyl ether was determined in male albino rats. Groups of five male albino ...
rat. Strain:. not specified. Remarks:. albino. Sex:. male. Route of administration:. inhalation: aerosol. Type of inhalation ... Five groups of five male albino rats of the Sherman-Wistar Strain weighing between 200 and 300 gm were employed in this study. ... Five groups of five male albino rats of the Sherman-Wistar Strain weighing between 200 and 300 gm were employed in this study. ... A group of ten male albino rats was used in this study. The rats were placed in a 70 liter all glass exposure chamber and ...
rat. Strain:. other: albino. Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - Source: ... SHELLSOL TC was administered by inhalation to albino rats for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks at nominal vapor ... On each of four consecutive days, four male and four female rats per chamber were started on the experiment. The remaining two ... Liver and kidney weights were increased in male rats at all exposure levels, male heart weights were increased at the highest ...
... rat, for use in basic research and nonclinical drug discovery and development. ... SAS Sprague Dawley Rat Details. To SASCO from ARS/Sprague Dawley in 1979. To Charles River in 1996. ... Try out the SAS Sprague Dawley rat with our animal model evaluation program→ ... White (albino) Strain Code. 400 Ideal For. general multipurpose model, safety and efficacy testing, aging, nutrition, diet- ...
Strain reports include a comprehensive description of function and biological process as well as disease, expression, ... Albino. Last Known Status:. Unknown. Annotation (Toggle Annotation Detail/Summary View). Phenotype Annotations ... strain_life_disease. GH allele of Npr1 cosegregates with blood pressure in male rats whereas Tnf cosegregates with increased ... Festing, MFW, Inbred Strains, The Laboratory Rat, 1979, Baker HK, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH, 55-72, Academic Press. ...
Strain reports include a comprehensive description of function and biological process as well as disease, expression, ... Strain Medical Records Phylogenetics Strain Availability Calendar Rats 101 Submissions Photo Archive ... strain_life_disease. Survival 26% at 2 years (Lindsey et al 1968). In a study involving 305 female and 324 male rats of the LEW ... strain_life_disease. Survival 26% at 2 years (Lindsey et al 1968). In a study involving 305 female and 324 male rats of the LEW ...
Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344,[8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats ... Biobreeding rat[edit]. Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an ... showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor.[3] As there is ... "Lab rat" redirects here. For other uses, see Lab rat (disambiguation).. The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white ...
Oncins France Strain A) rats, for use in basic research and nonclinical drug discovery and development. ... OFA Rat Details. The original strain was composed in 1925 by Robert Worthington Dawley. Carworth Farms obtained it in 1955 and ... For more information about OFA rats, please contact us at [email protected]. ...
Selective breeding of the Brown Rat has produced the albino laboratory rat. Rats grow quickly to sexual maturity and are easy ... Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. Generally, these lines are not ... The Virtual Rat - The humble rat has had an outsized impact on human history. In the Middle Ages, the black rat (Rattus rattus ... Rat Brain Tissue Sections - The rat brain has served as an excellent model for elucidating the complex anatomy and ...
... and a better appreciation of the natural history of wild rats would increase its value as a research organism. ... The rat is much more than a simple model, ... and between pigmented and albino rat strains * GT Prusky. * KT ... common rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norwegian rat, city rat, water rat and wharf rat. Living in close proximity to humans, wild ... sewer rat, water rat, city rat, common rat - but then continue to use one name, i.e. Norway rat, throughout the rest of the ...
In the present study, unacclimatized adult albino male rats (wistar strain) were exposed to repeated heat stress of moderate ... In the present study, unacclimatized adult albino male rats were exposed to repeated heat stress of moderate level and observed ... Behavioural changes in albino rats due to repetitive heat stress of moderate level ... Assessment of liver damage in male albino rats after repetitive heat stress of moderate level ...
2002) Variation in visual acuity within pigmented, and between pigmented and albino rat strains. Behav Brain Res 136:339-348. ... Rats were trained for 10 successive sessions of 20 min each. B, Learning curves corresponding to the three groups of rats. The ... cortex of rats to trigger the presentation of a visual display on an iPad tablet. The rat was rewarded with a pellet of food ... than rats in the control group (Fig. 5G), indicating that the stimulated rats did not visit the feeder and get the pellets ...
... and one mouse strain. Animal strains with pigmented eyes develop cataracts faster and more severely than albino strains. The ... Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. In a single dose (300 mg/kg) study in mice, ... Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, ... Negative results have been reported for gene mutations (Salmonella), unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and ...
Myers, R.D. Ethyl alcohol consumption: Valid measurement in albino rats. Science, 1968, 164, 76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Myers, R.D., and Melchior, C.L. Dietary tryptophan and the selection of ethyl alcohol in different strains of rats. ... Eriksson, K. Ethyl alcohol consumption: Valid measurement in albino rats. Science, 1968, 164, 76-77.Google Scholar ... Amir, S. Brain and liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and voluntary ethanol consumption by rats: Relations to strain, sex ...
Dyer, RS; Swartzwelder, HS (1978). Sex and strain differences in the visual evoked potentials of albino and hooded rats.. ... Cha, YM; Li, Q; Wilson, WA; Swartzwelder, HS (2006). Sedative and GABAergic effects of ethanol on male and female rats.. ... Swartzwelder, HS; Myers, RD (1983). Kainic acid lesioning of alkaloid-sensitive brain sites and ethanol ingestion in the rat.. ... Fleming, RL; Acheson, SK; Risher, ML; Li, Q; Wilson, WA; Moore, SD; Swartzwelder, HS (2012). IN THE RAT, CHRONIC INTERMITTENT ...
Background: Mouse and rat models are mainstays in pharmacology, toxicology and drug development -- but differences between ... strains and between species complicate data interpretation and application to human health. Dioxin-like polyhalogenated ... Transcriptomic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in liver: Comparison of rat and mouse. Boutros, Paul C ... article presents a study which evaluates the chronic effects of hepatotoxicity of herbicide paraquat on the liver of the albino ...
... ratted on explanation free. What is ratted on? Meaning of ratted on medical term. What does ratted on mean? ... Looking for online definition of ratted on in the Medical Dictionary? ... rat-bite fever) to humans; laboratory rats belong to albino strains of the Norway rat, R. norvegicus. ... Related to ratted on: ratting out. rat. (rat), A rodent of the genus Rattus (family Muridae), involved in the spread of some ...
Healthy Wister strain albino rats were used.. They were housed in standard conditions of. temperature (252 C), 12 hours light ... antidiarrhoeal activity was screened in using Wister strain. albino rats and mice. All the crude extracts such as ethanol,. ... albino rats were used to determine the dose.. The animals were divided into twelve groups. of three in each. The animals were ... Healthy albino mice of Swiss strain of either. sex were used. They were housed in standard. conditions of temperature (252 C), ...
  • Deaths in rats were as follows: 3/10 (low dose), 8/10 (next dose), and 10/10 rats at the two highest doses. (europa.eu)
  • Doses were administered by stomach intubation to groups of five male albino rats who were non-fasted. (europa.eu)
  • Mammary tumors can be induced in susceptible rat strains after single doses of carcinogens such as DMBA or nitrosomethylurea. (bioscirep.org)
  • Intraocular delivery of CNTF, which preserves photoreceptors in animal models of retinal degeneration, impairs visual function in normal rats at very high doses, but not at lower doses that still provide protection from constant light damage. (arvojournals.org)
  • The ulcerogenic potential was determined by administration of gum arabic at the above mentioned doses to normal healthy rats for 4 days. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Metabolism Rats Analysis of male and female rat urine after single or multiple doses of 14 C-ethion (for details on treatment regimens, see study summarized under "Absorption, distribution and excretion") by solvent partitioning with ethyl acetate, and by subsequent HPLC of the aqueous and organic phases so obtained, indicated the presence of 4 to 6 distinct radioactive products. (inchem.org)
  • Dominant lethal mutation assay was carried out on rats after being treated with graded doses of ethanol extract of the seeds of Mucuna urens. (academicjournals.org)
  • Materials and methods: An experimental model of breast cancer was induced in female albino rats using single intragastric dose of 7, 12 dimethylbenz (α) anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil (50 mg/kg b.wt). (bioscirep.org)
  • Methods Different sub-volumes of the rat lung were irradiated with protons known to induce different levels of pulmonary vascular damage. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, the present study was planned to investigate analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. erecta aerial parts using tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats, respectively. (ijpsonline.com)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat tumors are not extremely invasive, have short latency, rarely metastasize and are highly hormone-dependent [ 4 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • The rat and human mammary gland tumors induced by DMBA express many biochemical and molecular markers, such as p53, BRCA, Bcl2 and p63 [ 5 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • 24 of 49 unspayed rats developed mammary tumors. (rmca.org)
  • 2 of 47 spayed rats developed mammary tumors. (rmca.org)
  • 4 of the unspayed rats tumors were malignant. (rmca.org)
  • 5 of the unspayed rats who died spontaneously who were autopsied had pituitary tumors. (rmca.org)
  • 22 of the unspayed rats killed and necropsied at the end of the study had pituitary tumors. (rmca.org)
  • I agreed that spayed rats do get fewer tumors, but pointed out the risks involved with surgery, and detailed a few problems I saw with the study (which I will go into detail about later in this article). (rmca.org)
  • Also, the hormones administered in this study did increase the number of tumors these rats developed, so how can we be sure they didn t influence the study otherwise? (rmca.org)
  • So, yes, I believe that spaying reduces the incidence of tumors in female rats and may extend the life of the rat, but do I recommend it or tell people they should have it done? (rmca.org)
  • French scientists have revealed that rats fed on GMO corn sold by American firm Monsanto, suffered tumors and other complications including kidney and liver damage. (rt.com)
  • The research conducted by Gilles-Eric Seralini and his colleagues, said the rats suffered mammary tumors, as well as severe liver and kidney damage. (rt.com)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat brain aluminum content was significantly increased in the aluminum-exposed rats of the normal protein diet group but this increase was insignificant in the low protein diet group. (ispub.com)
  • moreover, the improvement was significantly greater ( P = 0.03) in old versus young animals and also greater when compared with old rats fed ALCAR or LA alone. (pnas.org)
  • The level of malondialdehyde, which was significantly higher ( P = 0.0001) in old versus young rats, also declined after ALCAR+LA supplementation and was not significantly different from that of young unsupplemented rats. (pnas.org)
  • 4 Brain and plasma tryptophan were not significantly different in the two strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • 6 Experiments with pargyline suggested that the turnover of 5‐HT was somewhat higher in the FH rats on a per gram basis, but not significantly so on a per brain basis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alanine amino transferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Results showed that noise-stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and corticosterone level with concomitant depletion of antioxidants in plasma and tissues of both non-immunized and immunized rats. (nih.gov)
  • A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. (plos.org)
  • Peak blood levels of radioactivity were reached after about 6 hours in both male and female rats, indicating that ethion was slowly absorbed. (inchem.org)
  • The percent distribution of radio- activity among the various HPLC bands was the same from high-dose male and female rats as from low-dose males. (inchem.org)
  • However, a different percent distribution was observed in the urine from both male and female rats after multiple dosing and from low-dose female animals. (inchem.org)
  • To determine whether rats would behave similarly toward strangers, the researchers worked with two rat strains, one albino and the other with a black-hooded fur pattern. (healthcanal.com)
  • When free albino rats were tested with a black-hooded stranger, however, the majority did not open the restrainer for the trapped individual. (healthcanal.com)
  • By contrast, albino rats who were housed with a black-hooded companion were observed to consistently liberate their black-hooded cage-mates. (healthcanal.com)
  • To see if a rat could be motivated to help a stranger of a different strain, albino rats were housed for two weeks with a black-hooded rat, and then re-housed with another albino rat before being tested with black-hooded strangers. (healthcanal.com)
  • These rats, which had known only one black-hooded individual during their lifetimes, freed trapped black-hooded strangers. (healthcanal.com)
  • To determine if this strain familiarity is needed for a rat's own strain, newborn albino rats were fostered with black-hooded mothers and littermates. (healthcanal.com)
  • When tested, these rats helped trapped black-hooded strangers but not albino strangers. (healthcanal.com)
  • Furthermore, gum arabic is reported to prevent development of indomethacin induced gastric ulcers in rats [ 10 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Four groups of five male and five female rats were exposed nose-only for 4 hours to several concentrations of the test material in air. (europa.eu)
  • For the surviving rats in the 2.00 and 3.98 g/kg dose groups, an increase in body weight was recorded. (europa.eu)
  • Groups of five male albino rats were administered a single dose of Trimethylolpropane monoallyl ether at dose levels of 2, 3.98, 7.95 and 15.8 g/kg via stomach intubation. (europa.eu)
  • In the 7.95 and 15.8 g/kg dose groups, all 5 rats in each group died within 1 day of dosing. (europa.eu)
  • Only some of the members of the rat and allied groups are listed below. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thirty American albino deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii ) were inoculated intraperitoneally with the D. C. rat strain of Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae and were killed in groups at daily intervals from the 2nd through the 7th day. (ajtmh.org)
  • Rats are apparently able to categorize others into groups and modify their social behavior according to group membership," Bartal said. (healthcanal.com)
  • The animals were maintained with normal (18%) protein diet for 7 days and then the animals were divided into four groups (containing six rats in each group) of equal average body weight. (ispub.com)
  • For this purpose, three groups (d = 5-6/group) of female rats were treated as follows: 1 - vaginal cream of copaiba oleoresin [28.6 mg/kg), 2 - base vaginal cream and 3 - control (physiological saline 0.9%), administered intravaginally, for 30 days before pregnancy, and from day zero to day 20 during pregnancy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. (ajol.info)
  • On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypoglycemic activity of the herbs and chlorpropamide was evaluated on diabetic and non-diabetic rats but biochemical effects of the treatments was evaluated only on diabetic rats, assigned into four study groups (n = 8). (scialert.net)
  • BIOLOGICAL DATA TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES Special studies on reproduction A three-generation reproduction study of amidated pectin was carried out using groups of eight male and 16 female Charles River CD strain mice. (inchem.org)
  • Special studies on teratology Groups of 20 or 22 pregnant females Charles River albino rats were fed a diet containing 2 or 5% amidated pectin on gestation days 6 through 15. (inchem.org)
  • Short-term studies Rat Four groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% pectin (21% amidated) for 90 days. (inchem.org)
  • Results Changes in elastographic patterns and strain ratios among groups II, III, and IV were statistically significant at both hours as determined by both radiologists ( P (ovid.com)
  • A slightly higher gain in body weight (on the 4th week) was observed in the aluminum-treated rats of both the normal and low protein dietary groups. (springer.com)
  • Eight different groups of rats namely, non-immunized: control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala with noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. (nih.gov)
  • The results of the dominant lethal mutation assay showed that only female rats in group II had implants on the uterine horn, of all the treated groups. (academicjournals.org)
  • The rats in groups III and IV did not have any implants at all. (academicjournals.org)
  • G1: control negative group was received isotonic saline (0.5 ml, i.p.) for 30 consecutive days, G2: sham operated group mice were received green coffee extract in water (40 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days, animals of G3 and G4 were administered cisplatin (8 mg/kg/day, i.p.) at 10th day, which is well known to produce significant nephrotoxicity in rats. (scirp.org)
  • All animals are stimulated with the constant current stimulator typical stimulation parameters include 50 mA in mice and 150 mA in rats, 50-60/Sec current delivered via corneal/ear electrodes for 0.2 Sec. The MES convulsions are divided into five phases such as Phase of tonic limb flexion, Phase of tonic limb extension, Phase of clonic convulsions, Stupor and Recovery or death. (hubpages.com)
  • the present study was envisaged to explore its effect on stomach in normal animals and on different experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Yes, widespread: Just as mice and rats edged out the other lab animals in biomedicine, Black-6 has displaced the other mice and rats. (slate.com)
  • The animals (36) were randomly grouped into six with six rats in each group. (academicjournals.org)
  • Amit, Z., Brown, Z.W., Levitan, D.E., and Ogren, S.O. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: I. Suppression of ethanol consumption in laboratory rats following dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. (springer.com)
  • Brown, Z.W., Amit, Z. and Rockman, G.E. Intraventricular self-administration of acetaldehyde but not ethanol in naive laboratory rats. (springer.com)
  • Brown, Z.W., Amit, Z. and Smith, B. Intraventricular self-administration of acetaldehyde and voluntary consumption of ethanol in rats. (springer.com)
  • Brown, Z.W., and Amit, Z. The effects of selective catecholamine depletions by 6-hydroxydopamine on ethanol preference in rats. (springer.com)
  • The effect of ethanol leaf extract of Gnetum africanum was studied in albino rats induced with benign prostatic hyperplasia. (academicjournals.org)
  • Angelov SD, Dietrich C, Krauss JK, Schwabe K (2014) Effect of deep brain stimulation in rats selectively bred for reduced prepulse inhibition. (springer.com)
  • Thus, we discuss several selective breeding programs leading to rat lines/strains which present impaired prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response and (in some cases) latent inhibition deficits (both of which may be considered as endophenotypes of schizophrenia related with pre-attentive processes and attention, respec tively), as well as other schizophrenia-relevant symptoms (e.g. learning deficits). (scirp.org)
  • As several recent works have already reviewed the main behavioural and developmental models, as well as the most used drug-induced, lesion-induced and genetic mouse models, the present review focuses on describing the most relevant genetically-based rat models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. (scirp.org)
  • How did Tryon (1940) attempt to genetically select for brightness and dullness in rats? (brainscape.com)
  • They found that rats consistently freed companions that were trapped inside clear restrainers, and this behavior was driven by a rat version of empathy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Caen found that rats fed on a diet containing NK603 - a seed variety made tolerant to amounts of Monsanto's Roundup weedkiller - or given water mixed with the product, at levels permitted in the United States - died earlier than those on a standard diet. (rt.com)
  • Interestingly, it slightly intensified adverse cardiac histological changes in rats receiving a lower dose of doxorubicin. (hindawi.com)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • PF ) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compositae), Catharantus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceace) and chlorpropamide were compared and status of macrovascular complications evaluated using biochemical indices in normal and diabetic rats. (scialert.net)
  • LD50 for rats was calculated by the method of Bliss (1938), but was not reported. (europa.eu)
  • The oral LD50 of the substance in the rat is 4930 mg/kg bw. (europa.eu)
  • Resuming studies of wild rats would give the opportunity to not only 'refresh' genetic lines and create new highly specialized strains, but also document the many changes that have taken place in wild populations since most laboratory lines were first obtained. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transferred to Charles River Laboratories France in 1967, it then became known as OFA (Oncins France Strain A), in 1968. (criver.com)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (jax.org)
  • Conclusions Our results show that real-time strain elastography can be a complementary method in the evaluation of testicular tissue in testicular torsion and can guide surgeons in their surgical approach. (ovid.com)
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (jax.org)
  • Make rats run maze - breed together over several generations those with lots of errors and those with few errors. (brainscape.com)
  • Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, and one mouse strain. (epa.gov)
  • Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. (epa.gov)
  • The complexity of symptoms (positive, negative and cognitive) of schizophrenia makes it a very difficult task for a model to mimic all the main features of the disorder, but some rodent (mouse and rat) models have behavioural and even neurobiological phenotype characteristics resembling positive-like symptoms, cognitive symptoms and some neurochemical features of schizophrenia. (scirp.org)
  • 7 It is concluded that although brain tryptophan metabolism may be somewhat accelerated along both the 5‐HT and kynurenine pathways in the FH rats there is no gross deficiency in the binding of 5‐HT in their brains analogous to that found in their platelets. (deepdyve.com)
  • Green coffee improved the general condition of cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis rats due to its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. (scirp.org)
  • This increased metabolic activity may come at a price, however, because supplementing rats with high levels of ALCAR lowered hepatocellular antioxidant status ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Angst MJ, Macedo CE, Guiberteau T, Sandner G (2007) Alteration of conditioned emotional response and conditioned taste aversion after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions in rats. (springer.com)