A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/555)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

Double-blind placebo-controlled study of concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel in schoolchildren with schistosomiasis and geohelminths. (2/555)

A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel was conducted in>1500 children with high prevalences of geohelminths and schistosomiasis. The study sites were in China and the Philippines, including 2 strains of Schistosoma japonicum, and 2 different regions of Kenya, 1 each with endemic Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium. Neither medication affected the cure rate of the other. There was no difference between the side effect rate from albendazole or the double placebo. Praziquantel-treated children had more nausea, abdominal pain, and headache but these side effects were statistically more common in children with schistosomiasis, suggesting a strong influence of dying parasites. The subjects were followed for 6 months for changes in infection status, growth parameters, hemoglobin, and schistosomiasis morbidity. In all 4 sites, a significant 6-month increase in serum hemoglobin was observed in children who received praziquantel, strongly supporting population-based mass treatment.  (+info)

Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (3/555)

Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease.  (+info)

The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. (4/555)

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

Serum cytokine detection in the clinical follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis. (5/555)

The relation of serum cytokine levels and outcome of chemotherapy was evaluated in 15 patients with cystic echinococcosis. Serum IL-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentrations were determined by ELISA before and after a 3-month course of albendazole treatment: at least one serum sample per patient from 13 patients (87%) contained measurable amounts of IL-4; samples from five patients (33%) measurable amounts of IL-10 and samples from only two patients (13%) measurable amounts of IFN-gamma. Clinical assessment at 1 year after the end of therapy showed that 11 of the 15 patients had responded clinically. Seven of these patients had lower IL-4 serum concentrations, two had unchanged and two undetectable amounts (pre- versus post-therapy, n = 11, P = 0.008). Conversely, of the patients who did not respond, three had higher and one patient unchanged serum IL-4 concentrations. Serum IL-10 10 levels also decreased in all patients who responded (3/5) and increased in all patients who did not (2/5). No association was found between cytokine concentrations and cyst characteristics or antibody levels. Overall these data suggest that serum IL-4 detection may be useful in the follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis.  (+info)

Efficacies of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone against In vitro-cultivated Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes. (6/555)

The metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic disease affecting the liver, with occasional metastasis into other organs. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives such as mebendazole and albendazole are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of AE. Albendazole is poorly resorbed and is metabolically converted to its main metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, which is believed to be the active component, and further to albendazole sulfone. Chemotherapy with albendazole has been shown to have a parasitostatic rather than a parasitocidal effect; it is not effective in all cases, and the recurrence rate is rather high once chemotherapy is stopped. Thus, development of new means of chemotherapy of AE is needed. This could include modifications of benzimidazoles and elucidiation of the respective biological pathways. In this study we performed in vitro drug treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vesicle fluids showed that the drugs were taken up rapidly by the parasite. Transmission electron microscopic investigation of parasite tissues and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vesicle fluids demonstrated that albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone had similar effects with respect to parasite ultrastructure and changes in metabolites in vesicle fluids. This study shows that the in vitro cultivation model presented here provides an ideal first-round test system for screening of antiparasite drugs.  (+info)

Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development. (7/555)

It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention.  (+info)

Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren. (8/555)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory.  (+info)

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. There are several species of Echinococcus that can cause disease in humans, but the most common ones are Echinococcus granulosus (causing cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (causing alveolar echinococcosis).

Humans typically become infected with echinococcosis by accidentally ingesting eggs of the tapeworm, which are shed in the feces of infected animals such as dogs, foxes, and wolves. The eggs hatch in the small intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs in the body, where they form cysts or hydatids.

The symptoms of echinococcosis depend on the location and size of the cysts. Cystic echinococcosis often affects the liver and lungs, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, cough, and shortness of breath. Alveolar echinococcosis typically involves the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Treatment of echinococcosis may involve surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or both. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with dogs and other animals that may be infected with Echinococcus, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Diethylcarbamazine (DECT or DEC) is an anti-parasitic medication used to treat infections caused by roundworms, including lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and river blindness (onchocerciasis). It works by killing the parasitic worms, thus helping to prevent the progression of these diseases.

Diethylcarbamazine is typically available as a prescription oral medication in the form of tablets or capsules. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and severity of the infection being treated. It's important to note that DEC should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it may have side effects and potential drug interactions.

Medical Citation:
"Diethylcarbamazine." National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. . Accessed on April 18, 2023.

'Echinococcus' is a genus of tapeworms that can cause serious infections known as echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The most common species that infect humans are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis.

Echinococcus granulosus typically causes cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, which affects the liver, lungs, or other organs. The tapeworm's eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals, such as dogs or sheep, and can be ingested by humans, leading to the development of cysts in various organs.

Echinococcus multilocularis typically causes alveolar echinococcosis, a more severe and invasive form of the disease that affects the liver and can spread to other organs. This species has a complex life cycle involving small mammals as intermediate hosts and canids (such as foxes or dogs) as definitive hosts.

Human infections with Echinococcus are rare but can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. Preventive measures include proper hygiene, avoiding contact with infected animals, and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption.

Echinococcosis, hepatic is a type of parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The infection typically occurs when a person accidentally ingests microscopic eggs of the tapeworm, which can be present in contaminated food, water, or soil.

Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the liver. In the liver, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs that can grow slowly over several years, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.

Hepatic echinococcosis is a serious condition that can lead to complications such as cyst rupture, infection, or organ damage if left untreated. Treatment options include surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or a combination of both. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

Filaricides are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by filarial worms, which are parasitic roundworms that can infect humans and animals. These medications work by killing or inhibiting the development of the larval stages of the worms, thereby helping to eliminate the infection and prevent further transmission.

Filaricides are often used to treat diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness), lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), and loiasis (African eye worm). Examples of filaricides include ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Ascariasis is a medical condition caused by infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. This type of worm infection, also known as intestinal ascariasis, occurs when people ingest contaminated soil, food, or water that contains Ascaris eggs. Once inside the body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which then migrate through the tissues and eventually reach the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms.

The adult worms can grow to be several inches long and live in the small intestine, where they feed on partially digested food. Female worms can produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then passed out of the body in feces. If these eggs hatch and infect other people, the cycle of infection continues.

Symptoms of ascariasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Mild infections may not cause any symptoms, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In some cases, the worms can cause intestinal blockages or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to potentially serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the adult worms and prevent them from producing more eggs. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

'Echinococcus granulosus' is a species of tapeworm that causes hydatid disease or echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The adult worms are small, typically less than 1 cm in length, and live in the intestines of their definitive hosts, which are usually dogs or other canids.

The life cycle of 'Echinococcus granulosus' involves the shedding of eggs in the feces of the definitive host, which are then ingested by an intermediate host, such as a sheep or a human. Once inside the intermediate host, the eggs hatch and release larvae that migrate to various organs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and may cause significant damage to the affected organ.

Humans can become accidentally infected with 'Echinococcus granulosus' by ingesting contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected dogs. The treatment of hydatid disease typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by anti-parasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. Prevention measures include proper hygiene and sanitation practices, as well as regular deworming of dogs and other definitive hosts.

Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Trichuris trichiura, also known as the whipworm. This infection primarily affects the large intestine (cecum and colon). The main symptoms of trichuriasis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. In heavy infections, there can be severe complications such as anemia, growth retardation, and rectal prolapse. Trichuriasis is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated soil containing Trichuris trichiura eggs, often through poor hygiene practices or exposure to contaminated food and water.

'Ascaris lumbricoides' is the medical term for a type of intestinal roundworm that can infect humans. This parasitic worm is one of the largest that can infest humans, and it is particularly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.

The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides begins when an infected person passes eggs in their feces. These eggs can then be ingested through contaminated food or water, or by accidentally ingesting soil that contains the eggs. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the tissues to the lungs, where they mature further. They are then coughed up and swallowed, entering the digestive system again, where they mature into adult worms.

Adult female Ascaris lumbricoides worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length, while males are smaller, typically around 15-30 cm. They live in the small intestine and feed on partially digested food. Females can lay tens of thousands of eggs per day, which are passed in the feces and can infect other people if they come into contact with them.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the number of worms present and the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may cause no symptoms at all, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In rare cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventing infection requires good hygiene practices, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

Elephantiasis, filarial is a medical condition characterized by the severe swelling of limbs or other parts of the body due to the blockage of lymphatic vessels by parasitic worms. It is caused by infection with threadlike nematode filarial worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori. These worms are transmitted to humans through mosquito bites.

The blockage of lymphatic vessels leads to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the affected area, causing progressive swelling, thickening, and hardening of the skin and underlying tissues. In advanced cases, the skin may become rough, nodular, and fissured, resembling the hide of an elephant, hence the name "elephantiasis."

The condition is usually chronic and can cause significant disability and social stigma. While there is no cure for filarial elephantiasis, various treatments are available to alleviate symptoms, prevent transmission, and halt the progression of the disease. These include antibiotics to kill the worms, surgery to remove the lymphatic obstruction, and various supportive measures to manage the swelling and prevent secondary infections.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Hookworm infections are parasitic diseases caused by the ingestion or penetration of hookworm larvae (immature worms) into the human body. The two main species that infect humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

The infection typically occurs through skin contact with contaminated soil, often when walking barefoot on dirty ground. The larvae then penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the lungs where they mature further. They are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, chronic hookworm infections can lead to serious complications such as protein malnutrition and heart failure. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms and allow the body to expel them. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and regular deworming of at-risk populations.

"Trichuris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the intestines of various mammals, including humans. The species that commonly infects humans is called "Trichuris trichiura," which is also known as the human whipworm. These worms are named for their long, thin shape that resembles a whip.

The life cycle of Trichuris involves ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms that live in the caecum and colon. Adult female worms lay thousands of eggs every day, which are passed in the feces and can survive in the environment for years, waiting to infect a new host.

Infections with Trichuris trichiura can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and impaired growth in children. Treatment for trichuriasis typically involves medication that kills the adult worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Fenbendazole is an anti-parasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infestations in both humans and animals. In humans, it is primarily used to treat intestinal worms such as roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. It works by binding to the parasite's tubulin, which disrupts its microtubule function and ultimately leads to the death of the parasite. Fenbendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, granules, and suspensions, and is typically administered orally.

It is important to note that while fenbendazole is approved for use in animals, its use in humans is off-label and should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Additionally, long-term or high-dose use of fenbendazole in humans has not been well studied, and there may be potential risks associated with such use.

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

Wuchereria bancrofti is a parasitic roundworm that causes lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The worms infect the lymphatic system and can lead to chronic swelling of body parts such as the limbs, breasts, and genitals, as well as other symptoms including fever, chills, and skin rashes. Wuchereria bancrofti is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Encephalitozoonosis is a medical condition caused by infection with microsporidian parasites of the genus Encephalitozoon. The two most common species that cause disease in humans are Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis.

The infection typically occurs through the ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil. Once inside the body, the spores can infect various organs, including the brain, lungs, eyes, and kidneys. The resulting disease can manifest as a wide range of symptoms, depending on the organ systems involved.

In the central nervous system, encephalitozoonosis can cause inflammation and damage to the brain and surrounding tissues, leading to symptoms such as headache, confusion, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination or balance. In the eyes, the infection can cause inflammation and scarring of the cornea, leading to vision loss. In the kidneys, encephalitozoonosis can cause interstitial nephritis, which can lead to kidney failure in severe cases.

Encephalitozoonosis is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. However, it has also been reported in otherwise healthy individuals. Treatment typically involves the use of antimicrobial agents, such as albendazole or fumagillin, to eliminate the parasites from the body.

Strongyloidiasis is a tropical and subtropical parasitic disease caused by the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection occurs when the larvae of this parasite penetrate the skin, usually of the feet, and are carried through the bloodstream to the lungs. Here they mature, are coughed up and swallowed, and then mature in the small intestine where they lay eggs. These hatch into larvae that can either pass out with the feces or penetrate the skin of the anal area and restart the cycle.

The disease is often asymptomatic but can cause a range of symptoms including gastrointestinal (diarrhea, abdominal pain) and pulmonary (cough, wheezing) symptoms. Disseminated strongyloidiasis, where the larvae spread throughout the body, can occur in immunocompromised individuals and can be life-threatening.

Treatment is with anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or thiabendazole. Prevention involves avoiding skin contact with contaminated soil and good hygiene practices.

Strongylida is an order of parasitic roundworms, also known as nematodes. These parasites are primarily found in the gastrointestinal tracts of various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. Strongylida species have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. They are known for their strong epidemiological significance, as they can cause significant disease burden and production losses in livestock industries worldwide.

Some well-known Strongylida genera include:

* Strongyloides (threadworms)
* Ancylostoma (hookworms)
* Necator (hookworms)
* Ostertagia (brown stomach worms)
* Haemonchus (barber's pole worms)

These parasites can cause a range of clinical signs, depending on the species and intensity of infection. Common symptoms include diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and decreased productivity in affected animals. In humans, Strongyloides species can cause strongyloidiasis, which may present as cutaneous larva migrans or intestinal infection, with potential dissemination to various organs in severe cases.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Encephalitozoon is a genus of intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. The two species that are most relevant to human health are Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (previously known as Septata intestinalis). These microscopic organisms are capable of infecting a wide range of hosts, including humans, and are often associated with opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

E. cuniculi is well-known for causing encephalitozoonosis, a disease that can lead to various symptoms depending on the infected organ. In humans, it primarily affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurological issues such as seizures, cognitive impairment, and motor function loss. E. intestinalis, on the other hand, tends to infect the gastrointestinal tract, causing diarrhea and wasting syndrome.

Transmission of these parasites typically occurs through the ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil. Once inside a host, the spores germinate and invade various cells, including intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. The subsequent infection can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe, life-threatening disease.

Effective treatment for encephalitozoonosis involves the administration of antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or nitazoxanide. In immunocompromised patients, improving immune function through appropriate therapy is also crucial to prevent recurrence and manage the infection effectively.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic flatworms, also known as platyhelminths. These include tapeworms, flukes, and other types of flatworms that can infect various organs of the body, such as the intestines, liver, lungs, and blood vessels.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents work by disrupting the metabolism or reproductive processes of the parasitic worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Some commonly used antiplatyhelmintic agents include praziquantel, niclosamide, and albendazole.

It is important to note that while these medications can be effective in treating platyhelminth infections, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects or treatment failures.

"Taenia" is a genus of tapeworms that are known to infect humans and animals. The most common species that affect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by consuming raw or undercooked meat from infected animals. Once inside the human body, the larvae can mature into adult tapeworms in the intestines, leading to a condition called taeniasis. Symptoms of taeniasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Ingesting eggs of Taenia solium, through contact with feces from an infected person or contaminated food, can lead to a more serious condition called cysticercosis, where larvae form cysts in various tissues throughout the body, including muscles, brain, and eyes. Cysticercosis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location of the cysts, and it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Preventive measures include cooking meat thoroughly, practicing good hygiene, and washing hands and food properly before eating.

Pulmonary echinococcosis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. The infection occurs when the eggs of the tapeworm, which are passed in the feces of an infected animal (usually a dog or fox), are ingested by another host (usually a human). Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the lungs. In the lungs, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by medication to prevent recurrence.

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm *Taenia solium*. The infection occurs when humans ingest eggs of this tapeworm, usually through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these eggs hatch and release larvae that can invade various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, forming cysts known as "cysticerci." Symptoms depend on the location and number of cysts but may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, or muscle weakness. Prevention measures include proper cooking of pork, improved sanitation, and personal hygiene.

"Strongyloides stercoralis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The adult female worms live in the small intestine, where they lay eggs that hatch into larvae. These larvae can then either mature into adult worms within the host's intestine or be passed out of the body in feces. If the larvae in the feces come into contact with suitable moist soil, they can mature into infective larvae that can penetrate the skin of a new host and cause infection.

In humans, "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and weight loss. In some cases, the infection can become chronic and lead to serious complications, such as disseminated disease or gram-negative sepsis, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The diagnosis of "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection typically involves the detection of larvae in the stool or other bodily fluids, although serological tests and PCR assays are also available. Treatment usually involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, such as ivermectin or albendazole, to kill the worms and prevent the progression of the infection.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Larva migrans is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of certain nematode (roundworm) species. The term "larva migrans" is used to describe two distinct clinical syndromes: cutaneous larva migrans and visceral larva migrans.

1. Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM): Also known as creeping eruption, it is caused by the hookworm species that typically infect dogs and cats (Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma caninum). The larvae penetrate human skin, usually through bare feet in contact with contaminated soil or sand, and cause an intensely pruritic (itchy) serpiginous (snake-like) track as they migrate under the skin.

2. Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM): It is caused by the migration of larvae from certain roundworm species, such as Toxocara spp., which primarily infect canids (dogs and related animals). Humans become accidental hosts when they ingest embryonated eggs present in contaminated soil, water, or undercooked meat. The larvae then migrate through various organs, causing inflammation and damage to tissues. VLM often affects the liver, lungs, eyes, and less commonly the central nervous system. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the organs involved but may include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and eye inflammation.

It is important to note that these infections are not transmitted from person-to-person. Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, washing hands thoroughly after contact with soil or pets, cooking meat properly, and avoiding the ingestion of dirt or sand by young children.

Nematode infections, also known as roundworm infections, are caused by various species of nematodes or roundworms. These parasitic worms can infect humans and animals, leading to a range of health problems depending on the specific type of nematode and the location of the infection within the body.

Common forms of nematode infections include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, this infection occurs when people ingest the parasite's eggs through contaminated food or water. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the worms may obstruct the intestines or migrate to other organs, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Hookworm infections: These are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The larvae penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet, and migrate to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.
3. Trichuriasis: Also known as whipworm infection, this is caused by Trichuris trichiura. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal prolapse in severe cases.
4. Strongyloidiasis: Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection occurs when the larvae penetrate the skin, usually through contaminated soil, and migrate to the lungs and then the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. In immunocompromised individuals, strongyloidiasis can lead to disseminated disease, which is potentially fatal.
5. Toxocariasis: This infection is caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, found in dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through ingestion of contaminated soil or undercooked meat. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss in severe cases.
6. Enterobiasis: Also known as pinworm infection, this is caused by Enterobius vermicularis. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing perianal itching and restlessness, especially at night.

Preventive measures include:

1. Proper hand hygiene: Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets or their feces, and before preparing or eating food.
2. Personal hygiene: Keep fingernails short and clean, avoid biting nails, and wear shoes in public areas, especially where soil may be contaminated with human or animal feces.
3. Food safety: Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, cook meat properly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish.
4. Environmental cleanliness: Regularly clean surfaces that come into contact with food, such as countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Dispose of trash properly and maintain a clean living environment.
5. Pet care: Keep pets healthy and regularly deworm them as recommended by a veterinarian. Pick up pet feces promptly to prevent contamination of the environment.
6. Public health measures: Implement public health interventions, such as regular waste disposal, sewage treatment, and vector control, to reduce the transmission of parasitic infections.

Parasitic eye infections are conditions characterized by the invasion and infestation of the eye or its surrounding structures by parasites. These can be protozoans, helminths, or ectoparasites. Examples of such infections include Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is caused by a free-living amoeba found in water and soil; Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; Loiasis, which is caused by the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa; and Demodicosis, which is caused by the mite Demodex folliculorum. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of parasite but often include redness, pain, discharge, and vision changes. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications and sometimes surgery to remove the parasites or damaged tissue. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil.

Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type. The infection is spread through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can lead to various symptoms depending on the type of filarial worm, including lymphatic dysfunction (elephantiasis), eye damage (onchocerciasis or river blindness), and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. The disease is prevalent in tropical areas with poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water. Preventive measures include wearing protective clothing, using insect repellents, and sleeping under mosquito nets. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin.

Loiasis is a tropical parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode worm, Loa loa. It is also known as "African eye worm" due to the migration of the adult worm through the subconjunctival tissues of the eye, which is a common symptom. The infection is transmitted through the bite of deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops spp.).

After transmission, the larval form of the parasite migrates through the soft tissues and matures into an adult worm that lives in the subcutaneous tissue. Adult worms can be up to 7 cm long and may cause localized itching or a transient subconjunctival migration, which is painless but alarming to the patient.

Loiasis is usually asymptomatic, but severe symptoms such as Calabar swellings (recurrent angioedema), arthralgia, pruritus, and cardiac or respiratory complications can occur in heavy infections. Diagnosis is made by detecting microfilariae or adult worms in the blood, skin snips, or eye fluid. Treatment typically involves diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) therapy, but ivermectin and albendazole can also be used. Preventive measures include avoiding fly bites through the use of protective clothing, insect repellents, and bed nets.

Microfilaria is the larval form of certain parasitic roundworms (nematodes) belonging to the family Onchocercidae. These worms include species that cause filariasis, which are diseases transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes or blackflies. The microfilariae are found in the blood or tissue fluids of the host and can measure from 200 to 300 microns in length. They have a distinct sheath and a characteristic tail taper, which helps in their identification under a microscope. Different filarial species have specific microfilariae characteristics, such as size, shape, and lifestyle patterns (nocturnal or diurnal periodicity). The presence of microfilariae in the host's blood or tissue fluids is indicative of an ongoing infection with the respective filarial parasite.

Thiabendazole is a medication that belongs to the class of antiparasitic drugs. It works by inhibiting the growth of parasites, particularly roundworms, hookworms, and threadworms, in the body. Thiabendazole is used to treat a variety of infections caused by these parasites, including intestinal infections, skin infections, and eye infections. It may also be used to prevent certain parasitic infections in people who are at high risk.

Thiabendazole works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasite's cells, which ultimately leads to their death. The medication is available in both oral and topical forms, depending on the type of infection being treated. Thiabendazole is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting thiabendazole therapy.

It is important to note that Thiabendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and should not be used for self-treatment without proper medical advice.

"Taenia solium" is a medical term that refers to a type of tapeworm that infects the human intestines. This parasitic worm is acquired by ingesting undercooked pork containing larval cysts (cysticerci) of the parasite. Once inside the human body, these cysts develop into adult tapeworms, which can grow up to 8 meters in length and live for several years.

The infection caused by T. solium is called taeniasis when it affects the intestines, and cysticercosis when the larval cysts infect other parts of the body, such as muscles, eyes, or the brain. Cysticercosis can cause serious health complications, including seizures, neurological disorders, and even death in some cases.

Preventing taeniasis and cysticercosis involves practicing good hygiene, cooking pork thoroughly before eating it, and avoiding contact with human feces. In areas where T. solium is endemic, public health interventions such as mass deworming campaigns and improvements in sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the burden of infection.

Parasitic skin diseases are conditions caused by parasites living on or in the skin. These parasites can be insects, mites, or fungi that feed off of the host for their own survival. They can cause a variety of symptoms including itching, rashes, blisters, and lesions on the skin. Examples of parasitic skin diseases include scabies, lice infestations, and ringworm. Treatment typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode, also known as the rat lungworm, which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The life cycle of this parasite involves rats as the definitive host and various mollusks, such as snails and slugs, as intermediate hosts. Humans can become accidentally infected by consuming raw or undercooked mollusks, contaminated vegetables, or through accidental ingestion of larvae present on produce. The parasite then migrates to the central nervous system, causing inflammation and potentially severe neurological symptoms.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

'Encephalitozoon cuniculi' is a small, intracellular parasitic protozoan that belongs to the phylum Microspora. It is the causative agent of encephalitozoonosis, a disease that primarily affects rabbits but can also infect other animals including humans, particularly those with weakened immune systems.

In rabbits, E. cuniculi can cause a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, torticollis (wry neck), and hind limb paresis or paralysis. It can also lead to kidney disease and eye lesions. The parasite is typically transmitted through the ingestion of spores shed in the urine of infected animals.

In humans, E. cuniculi infection is usually asymptomatic but can cause serious complications in immunocompromised individuals, including encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs), and disseminated disease. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated soil, or water.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with infected animals, and proper handling and disposal of animal waste. In rabbits, vaccination and treatment with antiparasitic drugs may help reduce the risk of infection and transmission.

"Gnathostoma" is a genus of parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that are known to cause gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonotic disease. The adult worms typically infect the stomach of carnivorous animals such as cats and dogs, while the larvae can migrate through various tissues in humans and other animals, causing cutaneous and visceral lesions.

The term "Gnathostoma" itself is derived from the Greek words "gnathos" meaning jaw and "stoma" meaning mouth, which refers to the distinctive muscular mouthparts (called "hooks") that these parasites use to attach themselves to their host's tissues.

It's worth noting that there are several species of Gnathostoma that can infect humans, with Gnathostoma spinigerum being one of the most common and widely distributed species. Proper cooking and hygiene practices can help prevent gnathostomiasis infection in humans.

Microsporidia are a group of small, spore-forming, obligate intracellular parasites that were once considered to be primitive protozoans but are now classified within the fungi. They are characterized by a unique infection mechanism called "polysporous invasion," where a single spore can infect multiple host cells and produce numerous progeny spores.

Microsporidia infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. In humans, microsporidiosis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and those undergoing chemotherapy.

The most common Microsporidia species that infect humans are Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, which can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Other species can infect various organs, including the eyes, muscles, and respiratory system, causing a range of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia have a complex life cycle that involves several developmental stages, including spores, meronts, and sporonts. The spores are highly resistant to environmental stresses and can survive for long periods outside the host, facilitating their transmission. Once inside the host cell, the spore releases its infectious contents, including a coiled tubular structure called the polar filament, which penetrates the host cell membrane and injects the parasite's genetic material into the host cytoplasm. The parasite then undergoes rapid multiplication, eventually producing numerous progeny spores that are released into the environment upon host cell lysis.

Microsporidia have been identified as potential bioterrorism agents due to their high infectivity, environmental resistance, and ability to cause severe disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, there are currently no effective vaccines or specific antimicrobial therapies available for microsporidiosis, and treatment is mainly supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and improving immune function.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. The infection typically occurs when contaminated raw or undercooked meat, often pork, is consumed. After ingestion, the larvae of the worm are released from the cysts in the meat and migrate to the small intestine, where they mature into adults.

The adult females then lay new larvae that penetrate the intestinal wall and travel through the bloodstream to striated muscle tissue (such as skeletal muscles), where they encapsulate and form new cysts. The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary widely, depending on the number of worms ingested and the intensity of infection. Early symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. As the larvae migrate to muscle tissue, additional symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, swelling of the face, eyelids, or tongue, and skin rashes can occur. Severe infections may lead to life-threatening complications, including heart and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly (to an internal temperature of at least 160°F or 71°C), freezing meat properly (at -15°F or -26°C for several days) to kill the parasites, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, especially from wild animals.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Strongylida infections are a group of parasitic diseases caused by roundworms that belong to the order Strongylida. These nematodes infect various hosts, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations depending on the specific species involved. Here are some examples:

1. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite can penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs and small intestine, causing respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as cough, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals, the infection can become severe and disseminated, leading to systemic illness and even death.
2. Hookworm infections: The hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infect humans through skin contact with contaminated soil. The larvae migrate to the lungs and then to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Heavy infections can cause anemia, protein loss, and developmental delays in children.
3. Trichostrongyliasis: This is a group of infections caused by various species of nematodes that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The parasites can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
4. Toxocariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which infect dogs and cats, respectively. Humans can become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil or food. The larvae migrate to various organs such as the liver, lungs, and eyes, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss.

Preventive measures for Strongylida infections include personal hygiene, proper sanitation, and avoidance of contact with contaminated soil or water. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or ivermectin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Strongyloides is a type of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The most common species to infect humans is Strongyloides stercoralis. These tiny worms can cause a condition known as strongyloidiasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes.

The life cycle of Strongyloides is unique among parasitic roundworms because it can complete its entire life cycle within a single host, without needing to exit the body and infect a new host. This is known as "autoinfection" and it allows the worm to persist in the human body for many years, even in the absence of new infections.

Strongyloides infection typically occurs when larvae (immature worms) penetrate the skin, often through contaminated soil. The larvae then travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the intestines and mature into adults. Female adult worms can lay eggs that hatch into larvae, which can either be excreted in feces or undergo autoinfection by penetrating the intestinal wall and entering the bloodstream again.

While many people with Strongyloides infection do not experience any symptoms, severe infections can lead to complications such as chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and bacterial bloodstream infections. In immunocompromised individuals, Strongyloides infection can be life-threatening due to the rapid multiplication of larvae in the body, a condition known as "hyperinfection."

Microsporidiosis is an infection caused by microscopic, single-celled parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. These parasites are primarily intracellular and can infect various organisms, including humans. Infection typically occurs through ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil, or through inhalation of spores. Once inside a host, the spores germinate, releasing the infective sporoplasm that invades host cells and multiplies within them.

In humans, microsporidiosis can cause various symptoms depending on the species involved and the immune status of the host. In immunocompetent individuals, it may present as self-limiting diarrhea or mild gastrointestinal disturbances. However, in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or using immunosuppressive medications), microsporidiosis can lead to severe and chronic diarrhea, wasting, and potentially life-threatening complications affecting various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, and respiratory system.

Diagnosis of microsporidiosis typically involves detecting the parasites in stool or tissue samples using specialized staining techniques (e.g., chromotrope stains) or molecular methods (e.g., PCR). Treatment usually includes antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole, which has activity against many microsporidian species. In severe cases or when the infection involves multiple organs, additional supportive care and management of underlying immunodeficiencies may be necessary.

"Giardia lamblia," also known as "Giardia duodenalis" or "Giardia intestinalis," is a species of microscopic parasitic protozoan that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine of various vertebrates, including humans. It is the most common cause of human giardiasis, a diarrheal disease. The trophozoite (feeding form) of Giardia lamblia has a distinctive tear-drop shape and possesses flagella for locomotion. It attaches to the intestinal epithelium, disrupting the normal function of the small intestine and leading to various gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and dehydration. Giardia lamblia is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water.

Central nervous system helminthiasis is a medical condition that refers to the invasion and infection of the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the brain and spinal cord, by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. This rare but serious condition can occur when helminth larvae or eggs accidentally migrate from their usual location in the body to the CNS through the bloodstream or cerebrospinal fluid.

The most common types of helminths that can cause CNS helminthiasis include:

1. Neurocysticercosis: This is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, which typically infects the muscles and brain. However, when the larvae invade the CNS, they can form cysts that cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue.
2. Echinococcosis: This is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. The larvae can form hydatid cysts in various organs, including the brain, leading to neurological symptoms.
3. Gnathostomiasis: This is caused by the larval stage of the nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum or Gnathostoma hispidum. The larvae can migrate to various organs, including the CNS, causing inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
4. Angiostrongyliasis: This is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which typically infects rats but can accidentally infect humans through contaminated food or water. The larvae can migrate to the CNS and cause eosinophilic meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Symptoms of CNS helminthiasis depend on the type of parasite involved, the location and extent of the infection, and the host's immune response. They can range from mild to severe and may include headache, seizures, weakness, numbness, vision changes, confusion, and cognitive impairment. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as serology or CSF analysis. Treatment depends on the type of parasite involved and may include antiparasitic drugs, corticosteroids, and supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding contaminated food and water, practicing good hygiene, and using insect repellents to prevent mosquito-borne infections.

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