A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying isoleucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

tRNA synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 are resistant to the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin. (1/81)

In previous studies we demonstrated that mutations in the genes cysB, cysE, and cls (nov) affect resistance of Escherichia coli to novobiocin (J. Rakonjac, M. Milic, and D. J. Savic, Mol. Gen. Genet. 228:307-311, 1991; R. Ivanisevic, M. Milic, D. Ajdic, J. Rakonjac, and D. J. Savic, J. Bacteriol. 177:1766-1771, 1995). In this work we expand this list with mutations in rpoN (the gene for RNA polymerase subunit sigma54) and the tRNA synthetase genes alaS, argS, ileS, and leuS. Similarly to resistance to the penicillin antibiotic mecillinam, resistance to novobiocin of tRNA synthetase mutants appears to depend upon the RelA-mediated stringent response. However, at this point the overlapping pathways of mecillinam and novobiocin resistance diverge. Under conditions of stringent response induction, either by the presence of tRNA synthetase mutations or by constitutive production of RelA protein, inactivation of the cls gene diminishes resistance to novobiocin but not to mecillinam.  (+info)

SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein essential for the peptide-tagging activity of SsrA (tmRNA). (2/81)

In bacteria, SsrA RNA recognizes ribosomes stalled on defective messages and acts as a tRNA and mRNA to mediate the addition of a short peptide tag to the C-terminus of the partially synthesized nascent polypeptide chain. The SsrA-tagged protein is then degraded by C-terminal-specific proteases. SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein that is conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, is shown here to be an essential component of the SsrA quality-control system. Deletion of the smpB gene in Escherichia coli results in the same phenotypes observed in ssrA-defective cells, including a variety of phage development defects and the failure to tag proteins translated from defective mRNAs. Purified SmpB binds specifically and with high affinity to SsrA RNA and is required for stable association of SsrA with ribosomes in vivo. Formation of an SmpB-SsrA complex appears to be critical in mediating SsrA activity after aminoacylation with alanine but prior to the transpeptidation reaction that couples this alanine to the nascent chain. SsrA RNA is present at wild-type levels in the smpB mutant arguing against a model of SsrA action that involves direct competition for transcription factors.  (+info)

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms can cause different structural folds of mRNA. (3/81)

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in man. Genes containing one or more SNPs can give rise to two or more allelic forms of mRNAs. These mRNA variants may possess different biological functions as a result of differences in primary or higher order structures that interact with other cellular components. Here we report the observation of marked differences in mRNA secondary structure associated with SNPs in the coding regions of two human mRNAs: alanyl tRNA synthetase and replication protein A, 70-kDa subunit (RPA70). Enzymatic probing of SNP-containing allelic fragments of the mRNAs revealed pronounced allelic differences in cleavage pattern at sites 14 or 18 nt away from the SNP, suggesting that a single-nucleotide variation can give rise to different mRNA folds. By using phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides complementary to the region of different allelic structures in the RPA70 mRNA, but not extending to the SNP itself, we find that the SNP exerts an allele-specific effect on the accessibility of its flanking site in the endogenous human RPA70 mRNA. This further supports the allele-specific structural features identified by enzymatic probing. These results demonstrate the contribution of common genetic variation to structural diversity of mRNA and suggest a broader role than previously thought for the effects of SNPs on mRNA structure and, ultimately, biological function.  (+info)

CDC64 encodes cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase, Ala1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/81)

The cdc64-1 mutation causes G(1) arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to a type II Start phenotype. We report that CDC64 encodes Ala1p, an alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Thus, cdc64-1 might affect charging of tRNA(Ala) and thereby initiation of cell division.  (+info)

Identification of discriminator base atomic groups that modulate the alanine aminoacylation reaction. (5/81)

Specific aminoacylation of tRNAs involves activation of an amino acid with ATP followed by amino acid transfer to the tRNA. Previous work showed that the transfer of alanine from Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase to a cognate RNA minihelix involves a transition state sensitive to changes in the tRNA acceptor stem. Specifically, the "discriminator" base at position 73 of minihelix(Ala) is a critical determinant of the transfer step of aminoacylation. This single-stranded nucleotide has previously been shown by solution NMR to be stacked predominantly onto G(1) of the first base pair of the alanine acceptor stem helix. In this work, RNA duplex(Ala) variants were prepared to investigate the role of specific discriminator base atomic groups in aminoacylation catalytic efficiency. Results indicate that the purine structure appears to be important for stabilization of the transition state and that major groove elements are more critical than those located in the minor groove. This result is in accordance with the predicted orientation of a class II synthetase at the end of the acceptor helix. In particular, substitution of the exocyclic amino group of A(73) with a keto-oxygen resulted in negative discrimination at this site. Taken together, these new results are consistent with the involvement of major groove atomic groups of the discriminator base in the formation of the transition state for the amino acid transfer step.  (+info)

Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase is not sufficient to trigger mitochondrial import of tRNAAla in yeast. (6/81)

It has often been suggested that precursors to mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are likely carriers for mitochondrial import of tRNAs in those organisms where this process occurs. In plants, it has been shown that mutation of U(70) to C(70) in Arabidopsis thaliana tRNA(Ala)(UGC) blocks aminoacylation and also prevents import of the tRNA into mitochondria. This suggests that interaction of tRNA(Ala) with alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) is necessary for import to occur. To test whether this interaction is sufficient to drive import, we co-expressed A. thaliana tRNA(Ala)(UGC) and the precursor to the A. thaliana mitochondrial AlaRS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The A. thaliana enzyme and its cognate tRNA were correctly expressed in yeast in vivo. However, although the plant AlaRS was efficiently imported into mitochondria in the transformed strains, we found no evidence for import of the A. thaliana tRNA(Ala) nor of the endogenous cytosolic tRNA(Ala) isoacceptors. We conclude that at least one other factor besides the mitochondrial AlaRS precursor must be involved in mitochondrial import of tRNA(Ala) in plants.  (+info)

Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. (7/81)

Transfer of alanine from Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) to RNA minihelices that mimic the amino acid acceptor stem of tRNA(Ala) has been shown, by analysis of variant minihelix aminoacylation activities, to involve a transition state sensitive to changes in the 'discriminator' base at position 73. Solution NMR has indicated that this single-stranded nucleotide is predominantly stacked onto G1 of the first base pair of the alanine acceptor stem helix. We report the activity of a new variant with the adenine at position 73 substituted by its non-polar isostere 4-methylindole (M). Despite lacking N7, this analog is well tolerated by AlaRS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the M substitution improves position 73 base stacking over G1, as measured by a stacking lifetime analysis. Additional MD simulations of wild-type microhelix(Ala) and six variants reveal a positive correlation between N73 base stacking propensity over G1 and aminoacylation activity. For the two DeltaN7 variants simulated we found that the propensity to stack over G1 was similar to the analogous variants that contain N7 and we conclude that the decrease in aminoacylation efficiency observed upon deletion of N7 is likely due to loss of a direct stabilizing interaction with the synthetase.  (+info)

Origin of mitochondria in relation to evolutionary history of eukaryotic alanyl-tRNA synthetase. (8/81)

The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains an unsolved question. Numerous experimental and phylogenetic observations support the symbiotic origin of the modern eukaryotic cell, with its nucleus and (typically) mitochondria. Incorporation of mitochondria has been proposed to precede development of the nucleus, but it is still unclear whether mitochondria were initially part of basal eukaryotes. Data on alanyl-tRNA synthetase from an early eukaryote and other sources are presented and analyzed here. These data are consistent with the notion that mitochondrial genesis did not significantly precede nucleus formation. Moreover, the data raise the possibility that diplomonads are primary amitochondriates that radiated from the eukaryotic lineage before mitochondria became fully integrated as a cellular organelle.  (+info)

'RNA, Transfer, Ala' refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that is involved in protein synthesis. In molecular biology, the term 'RNA' stands for ribonucleic acid, which is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms. Transfer RNAs are a type of RNA that help translate genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins during the process of protein synthesis or translation.

'Transfer, Ala' more specifically refers to a transfer RNA molecule that carries the amino acid alanine (Ala) to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that can base-pair with a complementary codon sequence in the mRNA, and it also carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon. In this case, the anticodon on the 'Transfer, Ala' tRNA molecule is capable of base-pairing with any one of the three codons (GCU, GCC, GCA, or GCG) that specify alanine in the genetic code.

Therefore, 'RNA, Transfer, Ala' can be defined as a type of transfer RNA molecule that carries and delivers the amino acid alanine to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

Alanine-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. Its primary function is to join alanine, one of the 20 standard amino acids, with its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA). This enzyme catalyzes the formation of an alanine-tRNA complex, which is essential for translating genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) into a specific sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.

In humans, there are two types of alanine-tRNA ligases: cytoplasmic and mitochondrial. The cytoplasmic enzyme is responsible for attaching alanine to cytosolic tRNAs, while the mitochondrial enzyme performs this function for mitochondrial tRNAs. Both forms of the enzyme are necessary for maintaining proper cellular functions and overall health.

Deficiencies or mutations in alanine-tRNA ligase can lead to various genetic disorders, such as mitochondrial disorders, that may result in neurological symptoms, muscle weakness, and other health issues.

Polynucleotide ligases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate ends of two adjacent nucleotides in a polynucleotide chain, such as DNA. These enzymes play a crucial role in the repair and replication of DNA, by sealing breaks or gaps in the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule. They are essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability, and have been widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnological applications, including DNA sequencing, cloning, and genetic engineering. Polynucleotide ligases can be found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and they typically require ATP or NAD+ as a cofactor for the ligation reaction.

Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase (PNK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to the 5'-hydroxyl end of a polynucleotide strand, such as DNA or RNA. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the repair and maintenance of DNA ends during various cellular processes, including DNA replication, recombination, and repair.

PNK has two distinct activities: 5'-kinase activity and 3'-phosphatase activity. The 5'-kinase activity adds a phosphate group to the 5'-hydroxyl end of a polynucleotide strand, while the 3'-phosphatase activity removes a phosphate group from the 3'-end of a strand. These activities enable PNK to process and repair DNA ends with missing or damaged phosphate groups, ensuring their proper alignment and ligation during DNA repair and recombination.

PNK is involved in several essential cellular pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Dysregulation or mutations in PNK can lead to genomic instability and contribute to the development of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. In protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

Each tRNA molecule has a distinct structure, consisting of approximately 70-90 nucleotides arranged in a cloverleaf shape with several loops and stems. The most important feature of a tRNA is its anticodon, a sequence of three nucleotides located in one of the loops. This anticodon base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA during translation, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain.

Before tRNAs can participate in protein synthesis, they must be charged with their specific amino acids through an enzymatic process involving aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes recognize and bind to both the tRNA and its corresponding amino acid, forming a covalent bond between them. Once charged, the aminoacyl-tRNA complex is ready to engage in translation and contribute to protein formation.

In summary, transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA molecule that facilitates protein synthesis by translating genetic information from messenger RNA into specific amino acids, ultimately leading to the creation of functional proteins within cells.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (also known as aminoacyl-tRNA ligases) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in protein synthesis. They are responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their corresponding transfer RNAs (tRNAs), creating aminoacyl-tRNA complexes. These complexes are then used in the translation process to construct proteins according to the genetic code.

Each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is specific to a particular amino acid, and there are 20 different synthetases in total, one for each of the standard amino acids. The enzymes catalyze the reaction between an amino acid and ATP to form an aminoacyl-AMP intermediate, which then reacts with the appropriate tRNA to create the aminoacyl-tRNA complex. This two-step process ensures the fidelity of the translation process by preventing mismatching of amino acids with their corresponding tRNAs.

Defects in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can lead to various genetic disorders and diseases, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D, distal spinal muscular atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate acidosis (LBSL).

RNA splicing is a post-transcriptional modification process in which the non-coding sequences (introns) are removed and the coding sequences (exons) are joined together in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. This results in a continuous mRNA sequence that can be translated into a single protein. Alternative splicing, where different combinations of exons are included or excluded, allows for the creation of multiple proteins from a single gene.

Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins characterized by the presence of a basic region and a leucine zipper motif. The basic region, which is rich in basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, is responsible for DNA binding, while the leucine zipper motif mediates protein-protein interactions and dimerization.

BZIP transcription factors play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression regulation, cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. They bind to specific DNA sequences called AP-1 sites, which are often found in the promoter regions of target genes. BZIP transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing for combinatorial control of gene expression.

Examples of bZIP transcription factors include c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF (activating transcription factor), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Dysregulation of bZIP transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

tRNA (transfer RNA) methyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group (-CH3) to specific positions on the tRNA molecule. These enzymes play a crucial role in modifying and regulating tRNA function, stability, and interaction with other components of the translation machinery during protein synthesis.

The addition of methyl groups to tRNAs can occur at various sites, including the base moieties of nucleotides within the anticodon loop, the TψC loop, and the variable region. These modifications help maintain the structural integrity of tRNA molecules, enhance their ability to recognize specific codons during translation, and protect them from degradation by cellular nucleases.

tRNA methyltransferases are classified based on the type of methylation they catalyze:

1. N1-methyladenosine (m1A) methyltransferases: These enzymes add a methyl group to the N1 position of adenosine residues in tRNAs. An example is TRMT6/TRMT61A, which methylates adenosines at position 58 in human tRNAs.
2. N3-methylcytosine (m3C) methyltransferases: These enzymes add a methyl group to the N3 position of cytosine residues in tRNAs. An example is Dnmt2, which methylates cytosines at position 38 in various organisms.
3. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) methyltransferases: These enzymes add a methyl group to the N7 position of guanosine residues in tRNAs, primarily at position 46 within the TψC loop. An example is Trm8/Trm82, which catalyzes this modification in yeast and humans.
4. 2'-O-methylated nucleotides (Nm) methyltransferases: These enzymes add a methyl group to the 2'-hydroxyl group of ribose sugars in tRNAs, which can occur at various positions throughout the molecule. An example is FTSJ1, which methylates uridines at position 8 in human tRNAs.
5. Pseudouridine (Ψ) synthases: Although not technically methyltransferases, pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine, which can enhance tRNA stability and function. An example is Dyskerin (DKC1), which introduces Ψ at various positions in human tRNAs.

These enzymes play crucial roles in modifying tRNAs, ensuring proper folding, stability, and function during translation. Defects in these enzymes can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and premature aging.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or for other regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases catalyze the final step in this process by binding to both the ubiquitin protein and the target protein, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to the target protein. There are several different types of ubiquitin-protein ligases, each with their own specificity for particular target proteins and regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases have been implicated in various cellular processes such as protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in biology and medicine.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

An anticodon is a sequence of three ribonucleotides (RNA bases) in a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that pair with a complementary codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during protein synthesis. This interaction occurs within the ribosome during translation, where the genetic code in the mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence in a polypeptide. Specifically, each tRNA carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to its anticodon sequence, allowing for the accurate and systematic addition of amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.

In summary, an anticodon is a crucial component of the translation machinery, facilitating the precise decoding of genetic information and enabling the synthesis of proteins according to the instructions encoded in mRNA molecules.

DNA ligases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond between two compatible ends of DNA molecules, effectively joining or "ligating" them together. There are several types of DNA ligases found in nature, each with specific functions and preferences for the type of DNA ends they can seal.

The most well-known DNA ligase is DNA ligase I, which plays a crucial role in replicating and repairing DNA in eukaryotic cells. It seals nicks or gaps in double-stranded DNA during replication and participates in the final step of DNA excision repair by rejoining the repaired strand to the original strand.

DNA ligase IV, another important enzyme, is primarily involved in the repair of double-strand breaks through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). This pathway is essential for maintaining genome stability and preventing chromosomal abnormalities.

Bacterial DNA ligases, such as T4 DNA ligase, are often used in molecular biology techniques due to their ability to join various types of DNA ends with high efficiency. These enzymes have been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning methods.

Alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid alanine between its two stereoisomeric forms, D-alanine and L-alanine. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. In humans, alanine racemase is found in the cytosol of many tissues, including the liver, kidneys, and brain. It is also an important enzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and has been implicated in various disease processes, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) are small RNA molecules that play a crucial role in protein synthesis. They are responsible for translating the genetic code contained within messenger RNA (mRNA) into the specific sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.

Amino acid-specific tRNAs are specialized tRNAs that recognize and bind to specific amino acids. Each tRNA has an anticodon region that can base-pair with a complementary codon on the mRNA, which determines the specific amino acid that will be added to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

Therefore, a more detailed medical definition of "RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific" would be:

A type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that is specific to a particular amino acid and plays a role in translating the genetic code contained within messenger RNA (mRNA) into the specific sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The anticodon region of an amino acid-specific tRNA base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, which determines the specific amino acid that will be added to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It serves as the adaptor molecule that translates the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids, which are then linked together to form a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

Aminoacyl tRNA is a specific type of tRNA molecule that has been charged or activated with an amino acid. This process is called aminoacylation and is carried out by enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Each synthetase specifically recognizes and attaches a particular amino acid to its corresponding tRNA, ensuring the fidelity of protein synthesis. Once an amino acid is attached to a tRNA, it forms an aminoacyl-tRNA complex, which can then participate in translation and contribute to the formation of a new protein.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis in the cell. It carries and transfers specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation, the process by which the genetic code in mRNA is translated into a protein sequence.

tRNAs have a characteristic cloverleaf-like secondary structure and a stem-loop tertiary structure, which allows them to bind both to specific amino acids and to complementary codon sequences on the messenger RNA (mRNA) through anticodons. This enables the precise matching of the correct amino acid to its corresponding codon in the mRNA during protein synthesis.

Ser, or serine, is one of the 20 standard amino acids that make up proteins. It is encoded by six different codons (UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, and AGC) in the genetic code. The corresponding tRNA molecule that carries serine during protein synthesis is called tRNASer. There are multiple tRNASer isoacceptors, each with a different anticodon sequence but all carrying the same amino acid, serine.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process in which a ubiquitin protein is covalently attached to a target protein. This process plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular functions, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The addition of ubiquitin can lead to different outcomes depending on the number and location of ubiquitin molecules attached to the target protein. Monoubiquitination (the attachment of a single ubiquitin molecule) or multiubiquitination (the attachment of multiple ubiquitin molecules) can mark proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, while specific types of ubiquitination (e.g., K63-linked polyubiquitination) can serve as a signal for nonproteolytic functions such as endocytosis, autophagy, or DNA repair. Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that involves the coordinated action of three enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps translate genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Each tRNA carries a specific amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis, based on the anticodon sequence in its variable loop region that recognizes and binds to a complementary codon sequence in the mRNA.

Phenylalanine (Phe) is one of the twenty standard amino acids found in proteins. It has a hydrophobic side chain, which means it tends to repel water and interact with other non-polar molecules. In tRNA, phenylalanine is attached to a specific tRNA molecule known as tRNAPhe. This tRNA recognizes the mRNA codons UUC and UUU, which specify phenylalanine during protein synthesis.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or altering their function, localization, or interaction with other proteins.

The ubiquitination process involves three main steps:

1. Ubiquitin activation: Ubiquitin is activated by an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme in an ATP-dependent reaction.
2. Ubiquitin conjugation: The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme.
3. Ubiquitin ligation: Finally, the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme interacts with a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which facilitates the transfer and ligation of ubiquitin to the target protein.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific substrate proteins, ensuring that ubiquitination occurs on the correct targets. They can be divided into three main categories based on their structural features and mechanisms of action:

1. Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a RING finger domain, which directly interacts with both the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and the substrate protein. They facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the target protein by bringing them into close proximity.
2. Homologous to E6-AP C terminus (HECT) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a HECT domain, which interacts with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and forms a thioester bond with ubiquitin before transferring it to the substrate protein.
3. RING-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain both RING finger and HECT-like domains, which allow them to function similarly to both RING finger and HECT E3 ligases. They first form a thioester bond with ubiquitin using their RING1 domain before transferring it to the substrate protein via their RING2 domain.

Dysregulation of Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding their mechanisms and functions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) for tryptophan (Trp) is a specific type of tRNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. In the process of translation, genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into a corresponding sequence of amino acids to form a protein.

Tryptophan is one of the twenty standard amino acids found in proteins. Each tRNA molecule carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to a particular codon (a sequence of three nucleotides) on the mRNA. The tRNA with tryptophan attached to it recognizes and binds to the mRNA codon UGG, which is the only codon that specifies tryptophan in the genetic code.

The tRNA molecule has a characteristic cloverleaf-like structure, composed of a stem region made up of base pairs and loop regions containing unpaired nucleotides. The anticodon loop contains the complementary sequence to the mRNA codon, allowing for specific recognition and binding. The other end of the tRNA molecule carries the amino acid, in this case tryptophan, which is attached via an ester linkage to a specific nucleotide called the 3'-end of the tRNA.

In summary, tRNA (Trp) is a key player in protein synthesis, responsible for delivering tryptophan to the ribosome during translation, where it can be incorporated into the growing polypeptide chain according to the genetic information encoded in mRNA.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cullin proteins are a family of structurally related proteins that play a crucial role in the function of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. These complexes are responsible for targeting specific cellular proteins for degradation by the proteasome, which is a key process in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells.

Cullin proteins act as scaffolds that bring together different components of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, including RING finger proteins and substrate receptors. There are several different cullin proteins identified in humans (CUL1, CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, CUL4B, CUL5, and CUL7), each of which can form distinct E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes with unique substrate specificities.

The regulation of cullin proteins is critical for normal cellular function, and dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer. For example, mutations in CUL1 have been found in certain types of breast and ovarian cancers, while alterations in CUL3 have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

Overall, cullin proteins are essential components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which plays a critical role in regulating protein turnover and maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Alanine Dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between alanine and pyruvate with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH). This reaction plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly in the catabolism of alanine.

In humans, there are multiple isoforms of ADH that are expressed in different tissues and have different functions. The isoform known as ALDH4A1 is primarily responsible for the conversion of alanine to pyruvate in the liver. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, which is characterized by elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in the urine and neurological symptoms.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems like the term you're looking for is "Transfer RNA arginine," not "Arg." Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. Specifically, tRNAs are responsible for delivering amino acids to the ribosome, where they are joined together to form proteins.

Each tRNA molecule contains a specific anticodon sequence that can base-pair with a complementary codon sequence on messenger RNA (mRNA). When a tRNA molecule encounters an mRNA codon that matches its anticodon, it binds to the mRNA and delivers the amino acid associated with that tRNA.

In the case of tRNA arginine, this type of tRNA is responsible for delivering the amino acid arginine to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Arginine is a positively charged amino acid that plays important roles in various cellular processes, including protein structure and function, signal transduction, and gene regulation.

Therefore, Transfer RNA arginine refers to the specific tRNA molecule that delivers the amino acid arginine during protein synthesis.

Ligases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, usually involving the joining of two nucleotides in a DNA or RNA strand. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In DNA ligases, the enzyme seals nicks or breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 5'-phosphate group of adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. During protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

Each tRNA molecule has an anticodon region that can base-pair with specific codons (three-nucleotide sequences) on the mRNA. At the other end of the tRNA is the acceptor stem, which contains a binding site for the corresponding amino acid. When an amino acid attaches to the tRNA, it forms an ester bond between the carboxyl group of the amino acid and the 3'-hydroxyl group of the ribose in the tRNA. This aminoacylated tRNA then participates in the translation process, delivering the amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome.

In summary, transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that facilitates protein synthesis by transporting and delivering specific amino acids to the ribosome for incorporation into a polypeptide chain, based on the codon-anticodon pairing between tRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA).

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. During this process, tRNAs serve as adaptors between the mRNA (messenger RNA) molecules and the amino acids used to construct proteins. Each tRNA contains a specific anticodon sequence that can base-pair with a complementary codon on the mRNA. At the other end of the tRNA, there is a site where an amino acid can attach. This attachment is facilitated by enzymes called aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, which recognize specific tRNAs and catalyze the formation of the ester bond between the tRNA and its cognate amino acid.

Gly (glycine) is one of the 20 standard amino acids found in proteins. It has a simple structure, consisting of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and a side chain made up of a single hydrogen atom (-CH2-). Glycine is the smallest and most flexible of all amino acids due to its lack of a bulky side chain, which allows it to fit into tight spaces within protein structures.

Therefore, 'RNA, Transfer, Gly' can be understood as a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule specifically responsible for delivering the amino acid glycine (-Gly) during protein synthesis. This tRNA will have an anticodon sequence that base-pairs with the mRNA codons specifying glycine: GGU, GGC, GGA, or GGG.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is present in all eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and stress response. It is involved in marking proteins for destruction by attaching to them, a process known as ubiquitination. This modification can target proteins for degradation by the proteasome, a large protein complex that breaks down unneeded or damaged proteins in the cell. Ubiquitin also has other functions, such as regulating the localization and activity of certain proteins. The ability of ubiquitin to modify many different proteins and play a role in multiple cellular processes makes it an essential player in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) that carries the amino acid isoleucine is referred to as 'tRNA-Ile' in medical and molecular biology terminology.

tRNAs are specialized RNA molecules that play a crucial role in protein synthesis, by transporting specific amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes, where proteins are assembled. Each tRNA has an anticodon region that recognizes and binds to a complementary codon sequence on messenger RNA (mRNA). When a tRNA with the correct anticodon pairs with an mRNA codon during translation, the attached amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain.

Ile, or isoleucine, is a genetically encoded, hydrophobic amino acid that is one of the 20 standard amino acids found in proteins. Isoleucine is transported by its specific tRNA-Ile molecule during protein synthesis.

Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of glutathione, a major antioxidant in cells. It catalyzes the reaction between glutamate and cysteine to form γ-glutamylcysteine, which is then combined with glycine by glutathione synthetase to produce glutathione.

GCL has two subunits: a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modulatory subunit (GCLM). The former contains the active site for the formation of the peptide bond between glutamate and cysteine, while the latter regulates the activity of GCLC by affecting its sensitivity to feedback inhibition by glutathione.

The proper functioning of GCL is critical for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and protecting against oxidative stress, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention in various diseases associated with oxidative damage, such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and aging-related conditions.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) that is specific for the amino acid glutamic acid (Glu or E) is referred to as "tRNA-Glu" or "tRNAGlu." This tRNA carries the amino acid glutamic acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis, where it gets incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain according to the genetic code.

The transfer RNA molecules are small adaptor molecules that facilitate translation of the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acid sequence of proteins. Each tRNA has an anticodon region, which recognizes and binds to a specific codon on the mRNA through base-pairing interactions. The other end of the tRNA contains a binding site for the corresponding amino acid, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added during protein synthesis.

In summary, "tRNA-Glu" or "tRNAGlu" refers to the specific transfer RNA molecule responsible for transporting and incorporating glutamic acid into proteins during translation.

I believe there may be a slight error in the term you're asking about. "Asp" doesn't specifically relate to RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) or its types. However, I can provide a definition for "Transfer RNA" (tRNA).

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It carries and transfers specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation, according to the genetic code provided by messenger RNA (mRNA). Each tRNA molecule has an anticodon region which can base-pair with a complementary codon in the mRNA, and a corresponding amino acid attached to its other end. This enables the correct matching of amino acids to form proteins according to the genetic information encoded in mRNA.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis in the cell. It carries amino acids to the ribosome, where they are joined together in a specific sequence to form a polypeptide chain, which eventually becomes a protein.

Each tRNA molecule has a unique structure and is responsible for carrying a specific amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis. The amino acids are attached to the tRNA at a site called the acceptor stem, which contains a three-base sequence known as the anticodon.

Val (or V) is one of the twenty standard amino acids found in proteins. It stands for Valine, and its codons are GUA, GUC, GUG, and GUU. Therefore, tRNA Val refers to a specific type of transfer RNA molecule that carries valine to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) that carries glutamine (Gln) is a type of RNA molecule involved in protein synthesis. Glutamine is one of the twenty standard amino acids used by cells to construct proteins. During protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors between the mRNA code and the corresponding amino acids. Specifically, the tRNA with the anticodon complementary to the mRNA codon for glutamine (CAA or CAG) binds to glutamine and delivers it to the growing polypeptide chain during translation. This particular tRNA is referred to as 'tRNA Gln' or 'tRNA for Gln'.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. In protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

tRNAs have a distinct cloverleaf-like secondary structure and a compact L-shaped tertiary structure. Each tRNA molecule contains a specific anticodon triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a complementary codon in the mRNA during translation. At the other end of the tRNA, there is an amino acid attachment site where the corresponding amino acid is covalently attached through the action of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes.

Pro (also known as proline) is a specific amino acid that can be carried by certain tRNAs during protein synthesis. Therefore, in a medical definition context, 'RNA, Transfer, Pro' would refer to the transfer RNA molecule(s) specifically responsible for carrying and delivering proline during protein synthesis. This tRNA is typically denoted as tRNA^Pro^ or tRNA-Pro, with the superscript indicating the specific amino acid it carries.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It carries amino acids to the ribosome, where they are incorporated into growing polypeptide chains during translation, the process by which the genetic code in mRNA is translated into a protein sequence.

tRNAs have a characteristic cloverleaf-like secondary structure and a stem-loop tertiary structure, which allows them to recognize specific codons on the mRNA through base-pairing between their anticodon loops and the complementary codons. Each tRNA is specific for one amino acid, and there are multiple tRNAs for each amino acid that differ in their anticodon sequences, allowing them to recognize different codons that specify the same amino acid.

"His" refers to the amino acid Histidine, which is encoded by the codons CAU and CAC on mRNA. Therefore, tRNA-His is a type of tRNA molecule that carries the amino acid Histidine to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... L-alanine, and tRNA(Ala), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-alanyl-tRNA(Ala). This enzyme belongs to the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ...
Alanyl-tRNA synthetase, mitochondrial, also known as alanine-tRNA ligase (AlaRS) or alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (AARS2), is an ... "Entrez Gene: alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2". Bonnefond L, Fender A, Rudinger-Thirion J, Giegé R, Florentz C, Sissler M (March 2005 ... "Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS". Biochemistry. 44 ( ... "Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS". Biochemistry. 44 ( ...
This enzyme participates in alanine and asparagine metabolism. Ibba M, Soll D (2000). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis". Annual Review ... Aspartate-tRNAAsn ligase (EC 6.1.1.23, nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase) is an enzyme with systematic name L- ... When this enzyme acts on tRNAAsp, it catalyses the same reaction as EC 6.1.1.12, aspartate---tRNA ligase. It has, however, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ...
... histidine-tRNA ligase, and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. These molecular signatures provide a novel and reliable means of ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related ... D-alanine: membrane acceptor ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-membrane acceptor ligase, and D- ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (EC 6.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use ...
O-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase, tetratricopeptide repeat protein, d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase, ribonuclease Z, late ... tRNA uridine-5- carboxymethylaminomethyl(34) synthesis enzyme MnmG, ...
... leucine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.5: isoleucine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.6: lysine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.7: alanine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1. ... valine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.10: methionine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.11: serine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.12: aspartate-tRNA ligase EC ... glycine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.15: proline-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.16: cysteine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.17: glutamate-tRNA ligase EC ... glutamine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.19: arginine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.20: phenylalanine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.21: histidine-tRNA ...
... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 - arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 - aspartate-tRNA ligase ... glutamate-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.350 - glycine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.400 - histidine-trna ligase ... isoleucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.500 - leucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.550 - lysine-trna ligase ... serine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.800 - threonine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.850 - tryptophan-tRNA ligase ...
This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 10 structures ... In enzymology, an aspartate-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... and L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp). This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in ... aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:tRNAAsp ligase (AMP-forming). ...
This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 3 structures ... In enzymology, an asparagine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-asparagine + ... and L-asparaginyl-tRNA(Asn). This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in ... aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparagine:tRNAAsn ligase (AMP-forming). ...
... including the acceptor stem with elements like those in alanine tRNA that promote its aminoacylation by alanine-tRNA ligase. It ... The standard bacterial tmRNA consists of a tRNA(Ala)-like domain (allowing addition of a non-encoded alanine to mRNAs that ... the tmRNA can be charged by alanyl-tRNA synthetase with alanine. CLPP Ribosome Messenger RNA Keiler KC (2008). "Biology of ... With the exception of the N-terminal alanine, which comes from the 3' end of tmRNA itself, this tag sequence was traced to a ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... This enzyme participates in glutamate metabolism and alanine and aspartate metabolism. Min B, Pelaschier JT, Graham DE, Tumbula ... aspartyl-tRNA(Asn), and L-glutamine, whereas its 4 products are ADP, phosphate, asparaginyl-tRNA(Asn), and L-glutamate. ... In enzymology, an asparaginyl-tRNA synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) (EC 6.3.5.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... This enzyme participates in glutamate metabolism and alanine and aspartate metabolism. Horiuchi KY, Harpel MR, Shen L, Luo Y, ... glutamyl-tRNA(Gln), and L-glutamine, whereas its 4 products are ADP, phosphate, glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln), and L-glutamate. ... Ibba M, Soll D (2000). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69: 617-50. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.617. PMID ...
The selenocysteine tRNAs are initially charged with serine by seryl-tRNA ligase, but the resulting Ser-tRNASec is not used for ... Selenocysteine is decomposed by the enzyme selenocysteine lyase into L-alanine and selenide. As of 2021[update], 136 human ... two enzymes are required to convert tRNA-bound seryl residue into tRNA selenocysteinyl residue: PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser] ... The primary and secondary structure of selenocysteine-specific tRNA, tRNASec, differ from those of standard tRNAs in several ...
... in this case alanine). Lactase Lactic acid Lactose Lanolin Lauric acid Lectin Leptin Leptomycin B Leucine Leukotriene Ligase ... tRNA) Triacsin C Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Thyroxine (T4) Tocopherol (Vitamin E) ... prefix such as L-alanine or DL-alanine, please see the parent page ( ... Aequorin Aflatoxin Agar Alamethicin Alanine Albumins Aldosterone Aleurone Alpha-amanitin Alpha-MSH (Melaninocyte stimulating ...
3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase EC 4.5.1.3: dichloromethane dehalogenase EC 4.5.1.4: L-2-amino-4-chloropent-4-enoate ... tRNA-intron lyase EC 4.6.1.17: cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthase * EC 4.6.1.18: pancreatic ribonuclease * EC 4.6.1.19 ... heme ligase EC 4.99.1.9:: coproporphyrin ferrochelatase * EC 4.99.1.10: magnesium dechelatase * EC 4.99.1.11: sirohydrochlorin ... tRNA 4-demethylwyosine synthase (AdoMet-dependent) * EC 4.1.3.45: 3-hydroxybenzoate synthase * EC 4.1.3.46: (R)-citramalyl-CoA ...
... lysine-tRNA(Pyl) ligase - M13 phage - m7G(5')pppN diphosphatase - malformation - maltose-transporting ATPase - manganese- ... ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase - ribosomal binding sequence - ribosome - ribosyldihydronicotinamide ... tRNA - tRNA (adenine-N1-)-methyltransferase - tRNA (guanine-N1-)-methyltransferase - TUG-UBL1 protein domain - tumor suppressor ... DNA ligase -DNA Bank - DNA polymerase - DNA replication - DNA sequencing - DNase - dominant - dot blot - double helix - ...
The removal of the methionine is more efficient when the second residue is small and uncharged (for example alanine), but ... In eukaryotic cells, these N-terminal residues are recognized and targeted by ubiquitin ligases, mediating ubiquitination ... destabilising residues are modified by the attachment of a Primary destabilising residue by the enzyme leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA ... This study revealed that Alanine, Serine, Threonine, and Valine were the most abundant N-terminal residues, while Leucine, ...
Popow J, Schleiffer A, Martinez J (August 2012). "Diversity and roles of (t)RNA ligases". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences ... leading to a substitution at position 307 of alanine by serine. This mutation causes destabilization of the β-β-interaction, ... The use of tRNA-intron endonuclease in pre-tRNA intron excision is just one of the steps for tRNA maturation. pre-tRNAs undergo ... tRNA-intron lyase (EC 4.6.1.16, tRNA intron endonuclease, transfer ribonucleate intron endoribonuclease, tRNA splicing ...
... alanine carboxypeptidase EC 3.4.17.7: Now EC 3.5.1.28, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase EC 3.4.17.8: muramoylpentapeptide ... tRNA(adenine34) deaminase * EC 3.5.4.34: tRNAAla(adenine37) deaminase * EC 3.5.4.35: tRNA(cytosine8) deaminase * EC 3.5.4.36: ... glutamateammonia ligase] phosphorylase EC 3.1.4.16: 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 2′-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.17: 3′,5′-cyclic- ... tRNA-intron lyase EC 3.1.27.10: Now EC 4.6.1.23, ribotoxin, EC 3.1.30.1: Aspergillus nuclease S1 EC 3.1.30.2: Serratia ...
Mitochondrial tRNA genes have different sequences from the nuclear tRNAs, but lookalikes of mitochondrial tRNAs have been found ... which converts lactate and de-aminated alanine into glucose, under the influence of high levels of glucagon and/or epinephrine ... kynurenine hydroxylase and fatty acid Co-A ligase. Disruption of the outer membrane permits proteins in the intermembrane space ... It encodes 37 genes: 13 for subunits of respiratory complexes I, III, IV and V, 22 for mitochondrial tRNA (for the 20 standard ...
L-firefly luciferin-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.53: L-proline-L-prolyl-carrier protein ligase EC 6.2.1.54: D-alanine-D-alanyl-carrier ... L-seryl-tRNA(Sec) selenium transferase EC 2.9.1.2: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA(Sec):L-selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase Hydrolytic ... Glutarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.7: Cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: Oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: Malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: ... ligase EC 6.2.1.23: Dicarboxylate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.24: Phytanate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.25: Benzoate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.26: o- ...
Ubiquitin ligase PLGLB2: Plasminogen-related protein B POLR1A: DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1 PREPL: Prolyl ... "genetype trna"[Properties] OR "genetype scrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snorna"[Properties]) ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (oxalosis I; hyperoxaluria I; glycolicaciduria; serine-pyruvate aminotransferase) ALS2: ... encoding protein Neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3 NCL: Nucleolin NR4A2: nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 ...
Taq DNA ligase repairs the nicks on both DNA strands. Because the T5 exonuclease is heat labile, it is inactivated at 50 °C ... Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. Synthesis of ... Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer ribonucleic acid from yeast". Journal of Molecular Biology. 72 ( ... Next, each linker part is attached to its respective DNA part by incubating with T4 DNA ligase. Each DNA part will have a ...
... glutamate-tRNA ligase, EC 1.2.1.70, glutamyl-tRNA reductase and EC 5.4.3.8 glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase EC 2.7.2.14 ... D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase EC 2.1.2.8: deoxycytidylate 5-hydroxymethyltransferase EC 2.1.2.9: methionyl-tRNA ... tRNA (guanine46-N7)-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.34: tRNA (guanosine18-2′-O)-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.35: tRNA (uracil54-C5)- ... tRNA (guanine110-N2)-dimethyltransferase EC 2.1.1.214: tRNA (guanine10-N2)-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.215: tRNA (guanine26-N2/ ...
... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... L-alanine, and tRNA(Ala), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-alanyl-tRNA(Ala). This enzyme belongs to the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ...
Recombinant Hahella chejuensis Alanine--tRNA ligase (alaS), partial. CSB-YP647075HAAI. CSB-EP647075HAAI. CSB-BP647075HAAI. CSB- ... Recombinant Rhodospirillum rubrum Alanine--tRNA ligase (alaS), partial. CSB-YP646992RMB. CSB-EP646992RMB. CSB-BP646992RMB. CSB- ... Recombinant Burkholderia thailandensis Alanine--tRNA ligase (alaS), partial. CSB-YP647136BAAJ. CSB-EP647136BAAJ. CSB- ... oryzae Arginine--tRNA ligase (argS), partial. CSB-YP646882XAAB. CSB-EP646882XAAB. CSB-BP646882XAAB. CSB-MP646882XAAB. CSB- ...
aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0004813. alanine-tRNA ligase activity. IEP. Enrichment. ... ligase activity, forming carbon-oxygen bonds. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0016884. carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine ... tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:0006520. cellular amino acid metabolic process. IEP. ... tRNA metabolic process. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:0006418. ... valine-tRNA ligase activity. IEP. Enrichment. MF. GO:0005524. ...
Alanine tRNA ligase 1, cytoplasmic antibody. *Alanine tRNA ligase antibody. *Alanine tRNA ligase cytoplasmic antibody ... Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and ... The editing domain removes incorrectly charged amino acids, while the C-Ala domain, along with tRNA(Ala), serves as a bridge to ... The C-terminal C-Ala domain (residues 756 to 968), along with tRNA(Ala), serves as a bridge to cooperatively bring together the ...
... and alanine-tRNA ligase (B8B4H5) upregulated in IR29 and FL478 indicate key mechanisms of M. oryzae CBMB20 mediated plant ...
ATP + L-Tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) <=> AMP + Diphosphate + L-Tryptophanyl-tRNA(Trp). L-Tryptophan -tRNA(Trp) ligase (AMP-forming) ... L-Tryptophan + Pyruvate <=> Indolepyruvate + L-Alanine. L-tryptophan:pyruvate aminotransferase R12055 L-Methionine + ...
threonine--tRNA ligase [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_RS08950. isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) [1] (data from MRSA252). ... alanine dehydrogenase [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_RS08260. superoxide dismutase [1] (data from MRSA252). ... succinyl-CoA ligase subunit beta [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_RS06165. succinyl-CoA ligase subunit alpha [1] (data from ...
Biosynthesis of wyosine derivatives in tRNA: an ancient and highly diverse pathway in Archaea. Mol Biol Evol 27, 2062-2077.. , ... Thiol-based regulation of redox-active glutamate-cysteine ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 19, 2653-2661.. , PubMed ... Unexpected weakening of polyamide-DNA binding and selectivity by replacing an internal N-Me-pyrrole with β-alanine. Biochimie ... Structural and Kinetic Analysis of the Unnatural Fusion Protein 4-Coumaroyl-CoA Ligase::Stilbene Synthase. J Am Chem Soc133, ...
putative ribosomal-protein-alanine acetyltransferase (NCBI). 326, 372. RSP_1875. RSP_1875. hypothetical protein (NCBI). 345, ... Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase (NCBI). 258, 372. RSP_2009. argF. Aspartate/ornithine carbamoyltransferase (NCBI ... Arginyl-tRNA synthetase, class I (NCBI). 160, 372. RSP_2976. RSP_2976. hypothetical protein (NCBI). 58, 372. ...
"Valine-tRNA ligase isoform A","protein_coding" "lcl,LHPG02000009.1_cds_PRW55984.1_10344","PRW55984","Chlorella sorokiniana"," ... ","Alanine aminotransferase 2","protein_coding" "lcl,LHPG02000002.1_cds_PRW60651.1_4326","PRW60651","Chlorella sorokiniana"," ... "Putative phenylalanine-tRNA ligase beta subunit","protein_coding" "lcl,LHPG02000014.1_cds_PRW39282.1_2468","PRW39282"," ... tRNA ligase","protein_coding" "lcl,VRMN01000003.1_cds_KAA8496173.1_2171","KAA8496173","Porphyridium purpureum","Serine/ ...
has been demonstrated by mutants in the D-alanine-D-alanyl-carrier protein Morin Hydrate ligase DltA [24, 25]. Finally, the ... Contains two catalytic core domains of leucyl tRNA synthetase (LeuRS_core) and an anticodon-binding domain Leucyl-tRNA ...
Robert Holley discovers and you may publishes new sequence and you will build from alanine tRNA (transfer RNA), the fresh new ... The guy versions the brand new hybrid rounded molecule of the combining a couple DNA strands having fun with a great ligase ... Holleys experiments was held on tRNA extracted from industrial hoe werkt guyspy bakers fungus. ... RNA molecule thats guilty of incorporating brand new amino acid alanine to the broadening protein organizations. ...
LIGASE _struct_keywords.text class II tRNA synthetase, ligase, Zinc binding, cytosol # loop_ _struct_asym.id _struct_asym. ... y ALANINE ? C3 H7 N O2 89.093 ARG L-peptide linking y ARGININE ? C6 H15 N4 O2 1 175.209 ASN L-peptide linking y ... tRNA ligase 60548.102 1 6.1.1.15 ? UNP residues 1000-1512 ? 2 non-polymer syn ZINC ION 65.409 1 ? ? ? ? 3 non-polymer syn ... Prolyl-tRNA synthetase # _entity_poly.entity_id 1 _entity_poly.type polypeptide(L) _entity_poly.nstd_linkage no _entity_poly ...
Single cysteines in positions 439, 450, or 141, respectively, were exchanged against alanine. The modified Tom70cd proteins ... From powerhouse to processing plant: conserved roles of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins in tRNA splicing. Genes Dev. 2018 ... inserts were ligated into vectors using the T4 DNA ligase (Thermo Fisher Scientific) following the manufacturers ... 3c). We separately exchanged the individual cysteine residues against alanine and found that NEM pretreatment inhibited binding ...
... tRNA ligase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=FARS2 PE=1 SV=1 MVGSALRRGAHAYVYLVSKASHISRGHQHQAWGSRPPAAECATQRAPGSVVELLGKSYPQ ... HUMAN Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate OS=Homo sapiens GN=MARCKS PE=1 SV=4 ... HUMAN tRNA:m(4)X modification enzyme TRM13 homolog OS=Homo sapiens GN=TRMT13 PE=1 SV=2 ... HUMAN tRNA-dihydrouridine(16/17) synthase [NAD(P)(+)]-like OS=Homo sapiens GN=DUS1L PE=1 SV=1 ...
... and mutation of this serine residue to an alanine residue restores the basal activity of Raf-1.36 Raf-1 can also undergo ... inducing tRNA and 5S rRNA synthesis. Previous experiments demonstrated that ERK also upregulates synthesis of ribosomal RNA by ... Ubiquitin ligase (E3).97,98 ... ERK1/2 indirectly regulate translation by inducing tRNA and ...
2.1.2.7 D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase 2.1.2.8 deoxycytidylate 5-hydroxymethyltransferase 2.1.2.9 methionyl-tRNA ... 6 Ligases EC class 7", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, "12px", BORDER, 1); onmouseout="return ...
The tRNA methyltransferase TrmB is critical for Acinetobacter baumannii stress responses and pulmonary infection. McGuffey, J. ...
... "aminoacyl-tRNA ligases;ATP binding;nucleotide binding","protein_coding" "AT3G43110","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","unknown ... ","alanine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase 2","protein_coding" "AT1G70670","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","Caleosin-related ... ","Threonyl-tRNA synthetase","protein_coding" "AT1G18460","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","alpha/beta-Hydrolases superfamily ... ","AMP-dependent synthetase and ligase family protein","protein_coding" "AT1G20550","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","O- ...
6.1.1.17Name: glutamate---tRNA ligase. Other names: glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, ... beta-alanine aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase, alanine-pyruvate ... 6.1.1.17Name: glutamate---tRNA ligase. Other names: glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, ... RM03651Name: L-Glutamate:tRNA(Gln) ligase. Type: Regular. Location: Mitochondria. KEGG ID: R03651. click to see details on this ...
1. Alanine (Ala). 2. Arginine (Arg). 3. Asparagine (Asn). 4. Aspartic acid (Asp). 5. Cysteine (Cys). 6. Glutamine (Gln). 7. ... The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria. ... and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The ... tRNAs), and 2 genes that encode for ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Mutations in mitochondrial genes can lead to a variety of inherited ...
Each mitogenome contained 13 PCGs, 19 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 1 CR, with a lack of trnI, trnL2, and trnV compared to other ... and the catalytic subunit of glutamyl-cysteine ligase (GCLC) in patients with AE-COPD and stable COPD, but also in non- ... Tyr-135 and Phe-15 of nsp8 cause greater destabilizing effects to the protein complex based on a computational alanine scan ... 103 tRNAs, and 5 ncRNAs. The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive genomic exploration that promises to enhance our ...
p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase ... Total Synthesis of the Hypermodified tRNA Nucleoside Epoxyqueuosine. Unexpected non-Hoogsteen-based mutagenicity mechanism of ... Engineering of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis for novel cofactor specificity. Alkynol natural products target ... Target profiling of 4-hydroxyderricin in S. aureus reveals seryl-tRNA synthetase binding and inhibition by covalent ...
Rat MARCKS(Myristoylated Alanine Rich Protein Kinase C Substrate) ELISA Kit. *Mouse S1PR3(Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor 3) ... Mouse MTFMT(Mitochondrial Methionyl tRNA Formyltransferase) ELISA Kit. *Human CLMP(Coxsackie And Adenovirus Receptor Like ... Human WWP2(WW Domain Containing E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 2) ELISA Kit ...
tRNA-Alanine (Ala or A) 05,587-05,655 L MT-TR transfer RNA tRNA-Arginine (Arg or R) 10,405-10,469 H ... tRNAs). The light strand encodes one subunit, and 8 tRNAs. So, altogether mtDNA encodes for two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 protein ... Mutations in mitochondrial tRNAs can be responsible for severe diseases like the MELAS and MERRF syndromes.[80] ... Human mitochondrial DNA with groups of protein-, rRNA- and tRNA-encoding genes. The involvement of mitochondrial DNA in several ...
Rat MARCKS(Myristoylated Alanine Rich Protein Kinase C Substrate) ELISA Kit. *Rat MAT1a(Methionine Adenosyltransferase I Alpha ... Human WWP2(WW Domain Containing E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 2) ELISA Kit ... Mouse MTFMT(Mitochondrial Methionyl tRNA Formyltransferase) ELISA Kit. *Mouse MTPN(Myotrophin) ELISA Kit ...
a b Kennan, A. J., Haridas, V., Severin, K., Lee, D. H. and Ghadiri, M. R. (2001) A de novo designed peptide ligase: A ... such as alanine, that cannot be phosphorylated. While this approach has been successful in some cases, mutations are permanent ... an established technique in which one can insert an unnatural amino acid into a peptide sequence by charging synthetic tRNA ... In one example of this, an RNA ligase was created from a zinc finger scaffold after 17 rounds of directed evolution. This new ...
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. (abcam.cn)
  • loop_ _audit_author.name _audit_author.pdbx_ordinal 'Hwang, K.Y.' 1 'Son, J.H.' 2 'Lee, E.H.' 3 # _citation.id primary _citation.title ;Conformational changes in human prolyl-tRNA synthetase upon binding of the substrates proline and ATP and the inhibitor halofuginone. (rcsb.org)
  • This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • The guy versions the brand new hybrid rounded molecule of the combining a couple DNA strands having fun with a great ligase enzyme. (appgamehk.com)
  • The editing domain removes incorrectly charged amino acids, while the C-Ala domain, along with tRNA(Ala), serves as a bridge to cooperatively bring together the editing and aminoacylation centers thus stimulating deacylation of misacylated tRNAs. (abcam.cn)
  • Robert Holley discovers and you may publishes new sequence and you will build from alanine tRNA (transfer RNA), the fresh new RNA molecule that's guilty of incorporating brand new amino acid alanine to the broadening protein organizations. (appgamehk.com)
  • Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain. (abcam.cn)
  • Regulates E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of RNF19A (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play critical roles in mRNA translation by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Deacylates mischarged D-aminoacyl-tRNAs (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr), has no activity on correctly charged L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-triphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis, alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, histopathological analysis, and rotarod test. (nih.gov)