RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific: A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.RNA, Transfer, Ser: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.RNA, Transfer, Arg: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).RNA, Transfer, Gly: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.RNA, Transfer, Ile: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying isoleucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Val: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Gln: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Pro: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Transfer, His: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)

tRNA synthetase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 are resistant to the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin. (1/81)

In previous studies we demonstrated that mutations in the genes cysB, cysE, and cls (nov) affect resistance of Escherichia coli to novobiocin (J. Rakonjac, M. Milic, and D. J. Savic, Mol. Gen. Genet. 228:307-311, 1991; R. Ivanisevic, M. Milic, D. Ajdic, J. Rakonjac, and D. J. Savic, J. Bacteriol. 177:1766-1771, 1995). In this work we expand this list with mutations in rpoN (the gene for RNA polymerase subunit sigma54) and the tRNA synthetase genes alaS, argS, ileS, and leuS. Similarly to resistance to the penicillin antibiotic mecillinam, resistance to novobiocin of tRNA synthetase mutants appears to depend upon the RelA-mediated stringent response. However, at this point the overlapping pathways of mecillinam and novobiocin resistance diverge. Under conditions of stringent response induction, either by the presence of tRNA synthetase mutations or by constitutive production of RelA protein, inactivation of the cls gene diminishes resistance to novobiocin but not to mecillinam.  (+info)

SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein essential for the peptide-tagging activity of SsrA (tmRNA). (2/81)

In bacteria, SsrA RNA recognizes ribosomes stalled on defective messages and acts as a tRNA and mRNA to mediate the addition of a short peptide tag to the C-terminus of the partially synthesized nascent polypeptide chain. The SsrA-tagged protein is then degraded by C-terminal-specific proteases. SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein that is conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, is shown here to be an essential component of the SsrA quality-control system. Deletion of the smpB gene in Escherichia coli results in the same phenotypes observed in ssrA-defective cells, including a variety of phage development defects and the failure to tag proteins translated from defective mRNAs. Purified SmpB binds specifically and with high affinity to SsrA RNA and is required for stable association of SsrA with ribosomes in vivo. Formation of an SmpB-SsrA complex appears to be critical in mediating SsrA activity after aminoacylation with alanine but prior to the transpeptidation reaction that couples this alanine to the nascent chain. SsrA RNA is present at wild-type levels in the smpB mutant arguing against a model of SsrA action that involves direct competition for transcription factors.  (+info)

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms can cause different structural folds of mRNA. (3/81)

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in man. Genes containing one or more SNPs can give rise to two or more allelic forms of mRNAs. These mRNA variants may possess different biological functions as a result of differences in primary or higher order structures that interact with other cellular components. Here we report the observation of marked differences in mRNA secondary structure associated with SNPs in the coding regions of two human mRNAs: alanyl tRNA synthetase and replication protein A, 70-kDa subunit (RPA70). Enzymatic probing of SNP-containing allelic fragments of the mRNAs revealed pronounced allelic differences in cleavage pattern at sites 14 or 18 nt away from the SNP, suggesting that a single-nucleotide variation can give rise to different mRNA folds. By using phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides complementary to the region of different allelic structures in the RPA70 mRNA, but not extending to the SNP itself, we find that the SNP exerts an allele-specific effect on the accessibility of its flanking site in the endogenous human RPA70 mRNA. This further supports the allele-specific structural features identified by enzymatic probing. These results demonstrate the contribution of common genetic variation to structural diversity of mRNA and suggest a broader role than previously thought for the effects of SNPs on mRNA structure and, ultimately, biological function.  (+info)

CDC64 encodes cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase, Ala1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/81)

The cdc64-1 mutation causes G(1) arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to a type II Start phenotype. We report that CDC64 encodes Ala1p, an alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Thus, cdc64-1 might affect charging of tRNA(Ala) and thereby initiation of cell division.  (+info)

Identification of discriminator base atomic groups that modulate the alanine aminoacylation reaction. (5/81)

Specific aminoacylation of tRNAs involves activation of an amino acid with ATP followed by amino acid transfer to the tRNA. Previous work showed that the transfer of alanine from Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase to a cognate RNA minihelix involves a transition state sensitive to changes in the tRNA acceptor stem. Specifically, the "discriminator" base at position 73 of minihelix(Ala) is a critical determinant of the transfer step of aminoacylation. This single-stranded nucleotide has previously been shown by solution NMR to be stacked predominantly onto G(1) of the first base pair of the alanine acceptor stem helix. In this work, RNA duplex(Ala) variants were prepared to investigate the role of specific discriminator base atomic groups in aminoacylation catalytic efficiency. Results indicate that the purine structure appears to be important for stabilization of the transition state and that major groove elements are more critical than those located in the minor groove. This result is in accordance with the predicted orientation of a class II synthetase at the end of the acceptor helix. In particular, substitution of the exocyclic amino group of A(73) with a keto-oxygen resulted in negative discrimination at this site. Taken together, these new results are consistent with the involvement of major groove atomic groups of the discriminator base in the formation of the transition state for the amino acid transfer step.  (+info)

Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase is not sufficient to trigger mitochondrial import of tRNAAla in yeast. (6/81)

It has often been suggested that precursors to mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are likely carriers for mitochondrial import of tRNAs in those organisms where this process occurs. In plants, it has been shown that mutation of U(70) to C(70) in Arabidopsis thaliana tRNA(Ala)(UGC) blocks aminoacylation and also prevents import of the tRNA into mitochondria. This suggests that interaction of tRNA(Ala) with alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) is necessary for import to occur. To test whether this interaction is sufficient to drive import, we co-expressed A. thaliana tRNA(Ala)(UGC) and the precursor to the A. thaliana mitochondrial AlaRS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The A. thaliana enzyme and its cognate tRNA were correctly expressed in yeast in vivo. However, although the plant AlaRS was efficiently imported into mitochondria in the transformed strains, we found no evidence for import of the A. thaliana tRNA(Ala) nor of the endogenous cytosolic tRNA(Ala) isoacceptors. We conclude that at least one other factor besides the mitochondrial AlaRS precursor must be involved in mitochondrial import of tRNA(Ala) in plants.  (+info)

Importance of discriminator base stacking interactions: molecular dynamics analysis of A73 microhelix(Ala) variants. (7/81)

Transfer of alanine from Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) to RNA minihelices that mimic the amino acid acceptor stem of tRNA(Ala) has been shown, by analysis of variant minihelix aminoacylation activities, to involve a transition state sensitive to changes in the 'discriminator' base at position 73. Solution NMR has indicated that this single-stranded nucleotide is predominantly stacked onto G1 of the first base pair of the alanine acceptor stem helix. We report the activity of a new variant with the adenine at position 73 substituted by its non-polar isostere 4-methylindole (M). Despite lacking N7, this analog is well tolerated by AlaRS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the M substitution improves position 73 base stacking over G1, as measured by a stacking lifetime analysis. Additional MD simulations of wild-type microhelix(Ala) and six variants reveal a positive correlation between N73 base stacking propensity over G1 and aminoacylation activity. For the two DeltaN7 variants simulated we found that the propensity to stack over G1 was similar to the analogous variants that contain N7 and we conclude that the decrease in aminoacylation efficiency observed upon deletion of N7 is likely due to loss of a direct stabilizing interaction with the synthetase.  (+info)

Origin of mitochondria in relation to evolutionary history of eukaryotic alanyl-tRNA synthetase. (8/81)

The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains an unsolved question. Numerous experimental and phylogenetic observations support the symbiotic origin of the modern eukaryotic cell, with its nucleus and (typically) mitochondria. Incorporation of mitochondria has been proposed to precede development of the nucleus, but it is still unclear whether mitochondria were initially part of basal eukaryotes. Data on alanyl-tRNA synthetase from an early eukaryote and other sources are presented and analyzed here. These data are consistent with the notion that mitochondrial genesis did not significantly precede nucleus formation. Moreover, the data raise the possibility that diplomonads are primary amitochondriates that radiated from the eukaryotic lineage before mitochondria became fully integrated as a cellular organelle.  (+info)

  • They consist of a catalytic domain which interacts with the amino acid acceptor-T psi C helix of the tRNA, and a second domain which interacts with the rest of the tRNA structure. (genecards.org)
  • Preliminary data suggest that epitope spreading occurs in the autoimmune PL-12 response such that even antibodies to an isolated alanyl-tRNA molecule can develop. (prospecbio.com)
  • TRNASYNTHALA is a 5-element fingerprint that provides a signature for alanyl-tRNA synthetases. (130.88.97)
  • Here, we show that DTD's active site architecture can efficiently edit mischarged Gly-tRNA Ala species four orders of magnitude more efficiently than even AlaRS, the only ubiquitous cellular checkpoint known for clearing the error. (nih.gov)
  • Also, DTD knockout in AlaRS editing-defective background causes pronounced toxicity in Escherichia coli even at low-glycine levels which is alleviated by alanine supplementation. (nih.gov)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine racemase, a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme which catalyses isomerisation of L-alanine to D-alanine is present in both Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii genomes and annotated to the pyridoxal phosphate metabolism pathway in MPMP as an example of an enzyme that requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor for its function. (llamp.net)
  • The enzyme responsible for generating these peptidoglycan precursors is dipeptide ligase (Ddl). (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that heterologous expression of the enzyme Ddl (dipeptide ligase)-an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan synthesis-increases sensitivity to vancomycin in a dose-dependent manner. (asm.org)
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase , an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology laboratories to join together DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family is pantoate--beta-alanine ligase, the last enzyme of pantothenate biosynthesis. (bu.edu)
  • Furthermore, L-Histidine and beta-alanine can be converted into carnosine through the action of the enzyme carnosine synthase 1. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Finally, beta-Alanine and L-histidine can be biosynthesized from carnosine through the action of the enzyme Beta-ala-his dipeptidase. (bovinedb.ca)
  • aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP + Enzyme In the first step, they form an aminoacyl-adenylate, in which the carboxyl of the amino acid is linked to the alpha-phosphate of ATP, by displacing the pyrophosphate. (130.88.97)
  • It was found that the A281G substitution greatly affects the enzyme specificity and allows efficient activation of both polar and small aliphatic amino acids (serine, glycine and alanine), confirming predictions and conclusions based on molecular dynamics simulations. (rsc.org)
  • Together, our data suggest that impaired tRNA charging plays a role in the molecular pathology of CMT2N, and that patients with CMT should be directly tested for the p.Arg329His AARS mutation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Each aaRS contains a catalytic central domain (CCD), responsible for activating amino acid, and an anticodon-binding domain (ABD), necessary for binding the anticodon in cognate tRNA. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Strict L-chiral rejection through Gly- cis Pro motif during chiral proofreading underlies the inability of D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase (DTD) to discriminate between D-amino acids and achiral glycine. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, DTD's activity on non-cognate Gly-tRNA Ala is conserved across all bacteria and eukaryotes, suggesting DTD's key cellular role as a glycine deacylator. (nih.gov)
  • Alanine and derivatives are compounds containing alanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of alanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. (foodb.ca)
  • In contrast to methanogenic SerRS which exclusively activates serine, the Bj Gly:CP ligase 1 predominantly activates glycine. (rsc.org)
  • Hydrolyzes lysyl-AMP (AMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester)) generated by lysine tRNA ligase, as well as Met-AMP, His-AMP and Asp-AMP, lysyl-GMP (GMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester)) and AMP-N-alanine methyl ester. (drugbank.ca)
  • These four Mur ligases are responsible for the successive additions of L-alanine, D-glutamate, meso- diaminopimelate or L-lysine, and D-alanyl-D-alanine to UDP- N-acetylmuramic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of lysine 233 to alanine (K233A) decreases the affinity of the active subunit for ATP at both saturating and subsaturating tyrosine concentrations (from the Hill plot, kcat = 0.56 s-1, nH = 1.54, Kd = 372 mM at 50 microM tyrosine). (nih.gov)
  • The selenocysteine tRNAs are initially charged with serine by seryl-tRNA ligase, but the resulting Ser-tRNASec is not used for translation because it is not recognised by the normal translation elongation factor (EF-Tu in bacteria, eEF1A in eukaryotes). (hmdb.ca)
  • Besides, it shows low activity in the presence of alanine, but it is incapable of activating serine. (rsc.org)
  • The A281G mutation is predicted to increase the active site volume, allowing alanine and serine to establish important hydrogen bonds within the active site, and to adopt an optimal orientation for the reaction. (rsc.org)
  • Previous delineation of a core genome encompassing 826 genes based on draft genome sequences from 14 Acanthamoeba species allowed designing PCR systems for one of these core genes that encodes an alanine-tRNA ligase. (doaj.org)
  • A number of genes exist only within deep-sea adapted species, such as those encoding d-alanine-d-alanine ligase for peptidoglycan formation, alanine dehydrogenase for NADH/NAD + homeostasis, and a SAM methyltransferase for tRNA modification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are divided into two classes, I and II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contain a characteristic Rossman fold catalytic domain and are mostly monomeric [ PMID: 10673435 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases share an anti-parallel beta-sheet fold flanked by alpha-helices [ PMID: 8364025 ], and are mostly dimeric or multimeric, containing at least three conserved regions [ PMID: 8274143 , PMID: 2053131 , PMID: 1852601 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • However, tRNA binding involves an alpha-helical structure that is conserved between class I and class II synthetases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In reactions catalysed by the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the aminoacyl group is coupled to the 2'-hydroxyl of the tRNA, while, in class II reactions, the 3'-hydroxyl site is preferred. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Based on their mode of binding to the tRNA acceptor stem, both classes of tRNA synthetases have been subdivided into three subclasses, designated 1a, 1b, 1c and 2a, 2b, 2c [ PMID: 10447505 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the genetic code, and the evolutionary process. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: versatile players in the changing theater of translation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Partition of tRNA synthetases into two classes based on mutually exclusive sets of sequence motifs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and the establishment of the genetic code. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sequence, structural and evolutionary relationships between class 2 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • PanC belongs to a large superfamily of nucleotidyltransferases that includes , ATP sulfurylase (ATPS), phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT), and the amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. (bu.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) of all 20specificities from completely sequenced bacterial, archaeal, andeukaryotic genomes reveals a complex evolutionary picture. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Several unexpected evolutionaryconnections were identified, including the apparent origin of thebeta-subunit of bacterial GlyRS from the HD superfamily of hydrolases, adomain shared by bacterial AspRS and the B subunit of archaealglutamyl-tRNA amidotransferases, and another previously undetected domainthat is conserved in a subset of ThrRS, guanosine polyphosphate hydrolasesand synthetases, and a family of GTPases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This domain is found methionyl, valyl, leucyl and isoleucyl tRNA synthetases. (embl.de)
  • 2. DELARUE, M. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (130.88.97)
  • This entry represents the methionyl and leucyl tRNA synthetases, which are class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (embl.de)
  • This DALR domain is found in cysteinyl-tRNA-synthetases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In cattle, L-histidine is involved in a couple of metabolic pathways, which include the histidine metabolism pathway and the beta-alanine metabolism pathway. (bovinedb.ca)
  • The most modified RNAs are tRNAs containing approximately 2-22 modified nucleotides per molecule of ~75 nucleotide length, and there have been more than 130 different signature modified nucleotides reported [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged Ser-tRNA(Ala) and Gly-tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain. (uniprot.org)
  • Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala) (PubMed:27622773, PubMed:27911835, PubMed:28493438). (genecards.org)
  • Vancomycin binds relatively poorly to peptidoglycan ending in d -alanyl- d -lactate and binds with high affinity to peptidoglycan ending in d -alanyl- d -alanine ( d -Ala- d -Ala), which results in vancomycin resistance and sensitivity, respectively. (asm.org)
  • The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 7 sequences: the motifs were drawn from the N-terminal half of the alignment - motif 2 includes the region encoded by PROSITE pattern AA_TRNA_LIGASE_II_2 (PS00339). (130.88.97)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alanine and derivatives. (foodb.ca)
  • Selenocysteine, also known as 3-seleno-alanine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. (selfdecode.com)
  • The single step synthesis of alanine from pyruvate is unique to Coccidians such as Toxoplasma and Neospora among the phylum of Apicomplexa . (llamp.net)
  • Is the sequence-specific binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs by EF-Tu universal among bacteria? (northwestern.edu)
  • The results delineate some of the kinetic boundaries for the design and accommodation of tRNA sequence variations in the elaboration of identity in vivo. (scripps.edu)
  • All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. (wikipedia.org)