Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.GalactosamineLiver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Aminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.beta-Alanine-Pyruvate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-ALANINE to 3-oxopropanoate to generate PYRUVATE and BETA-ALANINE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLPyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic: An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glycine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of GLYCINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate GLYOXYLATE and L-GLUTAMATE.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Keto AcidsAspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.PyruvatesMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Succinyldiaminopimelate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate N-succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate and L-GLUTAMATE, respectively.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.ValeratesLyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.KynurenineAmination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/3443)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (2/3443)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Blockade of type beta transforming growth factor signaling prevents liver fibrosis and dysfunction in the rat. (3/3443)

We eliminated type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) signaling by adenovirus-mediated local expression of a dominant-negative type II TGF-beta receptor (AdCATbeta-TR) in the liver of rats treated with dimethylnitrosamine, a model of persistent liver fibrosis. In rats that received a single application of AdCATbeta-TR via the portal vein, liver fibrosis as assessed by histology and hydroxyproline content was markedly attenuated. All AdCATbeta-TR-treated rats remained alive, and their serum levels of hyaluronic acid and transaminases remained at low levels, whereas all the AdCATbeta-TR-untreated rats died of liver dysfunction. The results demonstrate that TGF-beta does play a central role in liver fibrogenesis and indicate clearly in a persistent fibrosis model that prevention of fibrosis by anti-TGF-beta intervention could be therapeutically useful.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (4/3443)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

Influences of Kupffer cell stimulation and suppression on immunological liver injury in mice. (5/3443)

AIM: To study the possible involvement of Kupffer cells (KC) in immunological liver injury in mice. METHODS: Liver injury was induced by i.v. injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) 5 x 10(7) viable bacilli followed by i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 7.5 micrograms to each mouse. Indian ink and silica were i.v. injected to suppress KC and retinol was given po to stimulate KC in these mice. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspatate aminotransferase (AspAT), nitric oxide (NO), and liver tissue were examined. RESULTS: Injection of LPS following BCG injection resulted in a remarkable elevation of plasma NO, AlaAT, and AspAT levels, and severe liver damage. The damages were enhanced by the activation of KC with retinol and reduced by suppression of KC with silica and Indian ink. CONCLUSION: The degree of liver injury induced by BCG + LPS is closely correlated with the status of KC, and NO from KC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in mice.  (+info)

Effect of epidermal growth factor on cultured rat hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4. (6/3443)

AIM: To study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on CCl4-induced primary cultured hepatocytes injury. METHODS: Alanine amino-transferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activities and K+ concentractions were determined by the Auto-biochemistry Assay System. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillometry. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used. RESULTS: EGF 40 micrograms.L-1 decreased CCl4 (10 mmol.L-1)-induced damages of rat primary cultured hepatocytes by decreasing AlaAT and AspAT leakage and MDA production, and promoted RNA and DNA synthesis, with a high positive correlation between intracellular K+ leakage and DNA syntheses (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Cytopathological study showed that EGF decreased damage of liver cells. CONCLUSION: EGF maintains the stability of cellular lipid membrane and promotes syntheses of RNA and DNA of hepatocytes, and intracellular K+ transference is a promotor of the message transmission of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Continuous versus intermittent portal triad clamping for liver resection: a controlled study. (7/3443)

OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. RESULTS: The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma.  (+info)

Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. (8/3443)

Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low.  (+info)

Aoki, Y.-h., Ohkoshi, S., Yamagiwa, S., Yano, M., Takahashi, H., Waguri, N., Igarashi, K., Sugitani, S.-i., Takahashi, T., Ishikawa, T., Kamimura, T., Wakabayashi, H., Watanabe, T., Matsuda, Y., Nomoto, M. and Aoyagi, Y. (2011), Characterization of elevated alanine aminotransferase levels during pegylated-interferon α-2b plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology Research, 41: 118-125. doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00749.x ...
Background: About 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values (1). No agreement about management of these patients exists (2). The standard of care for chronic HCV infection is the combination of peginterferon plus ribavirin, and the addition of amantadine may increase the virologic response (3, 4). However, optimal treatment in patients with persistently normal ALT levels has not been investigated ...
Our findings demonstrate that elevated ALT levels are independently associated with increased CVD- or diabetes-related mortality in Koreans. Thus, elevated ALT levels, as a marker for NAFLD, may serve as a surrogate predictor of CVD- or diabetes-related mortality among the Korean population.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Updated thresholds for serum alanine aminotransferase level in a large-scale population study composed of 34 346 subjects. AU - Wu, W. C.. AU - Wu, C. Y.. AU - Wang, Y. J.. AU - Hung, H. H.. AU - Yang, H. I.. AU - Kao, W. Y.. AU - Su, C. W.. AU - Wu, J. C.. AU - Chan, W. L.. AU - Lin, H. C.. AU - Lee, F. Y.. AU - Lee, S. D.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Background: The sensitivity of current upper limit of normal (ULN) of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for detecting chronic liver disease has been challenged recently. Aim: To identify modulating factors for serum ALT levels and to refine its ULN threshold. Methods: We enrolled 34 346 consecutive subjects who completed the health check-up at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. ULN was set for healthy ALT level to the 95th percentile of the reference healthy population. Results: A group of 21 282 subjects were used as a training set to define an ULN with the highest sensitivity; afterwards, this ...
Phenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated Show morePhenobarbital (PB) therapy is frequently associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities in dogs without clinical signs of liver disease. The goal of this study was to determine if increased serum ALT and AP activities in clinically healthy PB-treated epileptic dogs are due to hepatic enzyme induction or to subclinical liver injury. Liver biopsies were obtained from 12 PB-treated dogs without clinical signs of liver disease but with elevated ...
Results: Risk factors for ALT elevation differed by gender. Predictor variables that were significantly associated with ALT elevation in both sexes included; elevated baseline ALT level [β=10.14 (95%CI 7.34- 12.96); P,0.001], [β=13.52 (95%CI 9.36 -17.68); P , 0.001] and renal disease [β=5.44 (95%CI 2.62 - 8.25); P ,0.001], [β=11.52 (95%CI 3.46 - 19.60); P = 0.005] in females and males respectively. Ethnicity had a protective effect in both sexes; [β-6.61(95%CI- 9.28, -3.93); P, 0.001] in males and [β-1.20 (95% CI-2.39, -0.01); P= 0.048] in females. Among the different ethnic groups, Nilotes and Cushites had lower ALT levels compared to Bantus. Other factors that were significant included; smoking (P=0.001), concurrent illnesses (P=0.045), previous adverse drug reactions (P=0.040) in females and a longer duration of anti-retroviral therapy [β 1.81(95%CI 0.89 - 2.73); P , 0.001] in males. Poor adherence had a protective effect [β -1.62(95%CI -3.20, -0.04); P=0.045] among females, whereas ...
Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints
The clinical pharmacokinetics of etoposide were studied in eight pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors. The α-phase half-life, β-phase half-life, volume of distribution, and elimination rate constant averaged 0.82 hr, 6.5 hr, 4.0 liters/sq m, and 0.25 hr-1, respectively. Noncompartmental parameters such as systemic clearance, mean residence time, and volume of distribution at steady-state averaged 20.9 ml/min/sq m, 7.8 hr, and 7.2 liters/sq m, respectively. A significant relationship between serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and systemic clearance was observed, with patients having elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase showing slower systemic clearance of etoposide. Systemic clearance, mean residence time, and β-phase half-life of etoposide were significantly lower in those patients who had received cisplatin prior to their Phase II etoposide trial. The average pharmacokinetic values derived from these eight pediatric patients with solid tumors did not differ significantly ...
Hepatitis Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of hepatitis.
Some chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients exhibit persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (PNAL). Patients with PNAL experience significantly milder disease. In order to understand the differences between CHC patients with elevated ALT levels compared with those with PNAL better, we compared epidemiological, immunological and histological findings, in particular, the value of proliferating hepatocyte activity (PCNA) between the two groups of patients. We studied 40 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers with increased ALT who underwent liver biopsy for histological diagnosis and determination of clinical prognosis, and 24 PNAL patients under follow-up for 10 years. Immunological response to different HCV genomic epitopes was tested in both the control group and in PNAL subjects. PCNA values from liver specimens of all patients as well as liver biopsies of PNAL patients at time points 0 and 5 years were calculated according to Hall et al.Age, sex and body mass index (BMI) were ...
To the editor: Previous studies (1, 2) have established a direct relation between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in donor blood and the risk for post-transfusion hepatitis. In an independent study (3), we determined the extent to which continuing transaminase elevation is a manifestation of chronic persistent hepatitis (non-A, non-B chronic persistent hepatitis) or of insignificant steatosis.. Of 103 patients with persistent or intermittent asymptomatic transaminase elevation, no patient had acute or chronic infectious hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, or thesaurismosis, or was receiving hepatotoxic drugs. Seronegative chronic hepatitis (group 1) was differentiated from steatosis (group 2) by biopsy means. The histologic findings in group 1 were mild portal infiltration rich in lymphocytes and plasma cells, and lymph follicles with germinal centers and bile duct lesions.. Group 1 comprised 46 patients with different modes of infection (posttransfusion h ...
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of mortality among U.S. Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. Since Hispanics/Latinos, in general, are twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to have elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a biomarker of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is vital to understand the CVD risk factor-ALT relationship in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study investigated the elevated ALT status in Hispanic/Latino farmworkers and the relationships between ALT and CVD risk markers.Methods: In 210 Hispanic/Latino farmworkers (48% female; aged 35.2 ± 9.2 years), fasting blood samples were measured for serum ALT, and elevated ALT was defined by | 43 U/L. CVD risk markers were measured with standard methods and defined according to the definitions of metabolic syndrome.Results: The overall prevalence for elevated ALT was 12.4%. Significant linear upward trends across tertiles of serum ALT were observed for body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose
Case Reports in Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports and case series related to the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Between December 1990 and August 1998, 19 patients with acute hepatitis B were admitted to our institution. A diagnosis of acute hepatitis B was based on elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity, detection of HBsAg and immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in the serum, and the recent onset of jaundice and other typical symptoms. Coinfection with hepatitis A, C, D, or E; Epstein-Barr virus; or cytomegalovirus was ruled out because of the negative results of serologic tests. Confounding etiology of liver disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and other immunodeficient diseases were not found in any patient. In 2000, this complete series of patients with acute hepatitis B was contacted for follow-up. Fourteen patients (74%) revisited our institution and were reevaluated for clinical, serologic, histologic, and virologic recovery from the disease. The group comprised 11 men and 3 women ranging in age from 26 to 65 years (median, 43 years). All patients ...
Diabetes is a less-recognized association of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection, although several recent studies provide data linking HCV infection and diabetes (1-5). To investigate whether patients with chronic HCV infection without evidence of cirrhosis have an increased risk of diabetes, we conducted a case-control study in 44 consecutive eligible patients with HCV infection and no clinical or histological evidence of cirrhosis and in 20 control subjects without liver disease who were matched by age, sex, and BMI. All 44 patients with chronic HCV infection had biochemical evidence of ongoing inflamation with elevated alanine aminotransferase activity and histologic confirmation. There was no evidence of decompensated liver disease. No patient received any antiviral, immunomodulatory, or immunosuppressive therapy. Immunoreactive insulin was determined by double-antibody radiomimmunosassay (Coat-a-count; Diagnostic Products, Los Angeles, CA). Serum leptin level was determined by the ...
Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis is an A5 sized multiauthor textbook of over 300 pages which forms one of eight books in a gastroenterology and hepatology series. Curiously, the only other hepatological title in this series is a book entitled Viral Hepatitis: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention by a different editor. The stated intention of the book is to bring the recent advances in clinical and basic research into the doctors office. Through the use of clinical vignettes, it tries to cover some of the recent advances in the treatment of viral hepatitis and to demonstrate how these treatments are incorporated into everyday practice. This is a good idea, which works well, particularly in those chapters concerning treatment. In addition to looking at the general treatment of viral hepatitis, the book also has informative chapters on specific disease subsets such as those with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase levels or those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and ...
The changes in the gut microbiota of healthy hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers, including asymptomatic and non-cirrhotic subjects, have been rarely scrutinized. From 1463 faecal samples in health examinees, in total 112 subjects, including 36 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and 76 control subjects, were included. Twenty-eight of 36 HBsAg-positive individuals (78%) showed normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (normal ALT group), whereas eight subjects exhibited elevated ALT levels (22%, high ALT group). By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the distance between normal and high ALT groups among HBsAg-positive subjects showed a significant separation after the pairwise comparison of weighted UniFrac distance (permutational analysis of variance q-value = 0.039), when compared with the distances to the control group. In comparison with the control group, the normal ALT group had Anaerostipes as a significant taxon that showed a positive association (Coefficient (Coef.) = 0.028, q = 0.039).
To the Editor: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects almost 200 000 Australians.1 It is monitored clinically by serial liver function tests (LFTs) and HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HCV RNA is a marker of chronic infection and levels reflect response to antiviral therapy. However, testing for the presence of HCV RNA is expensive and, under the current Medicare Benefits Schedule, is not available to people with HCV antibodies and abnormal LFTs unless they are undergoing antiviral therapy.. ...
Percentage of overall number of adverse events experienced during Weeks 0-144 by adverse event type. Doctors asked participants for adverse events, grouped them into categories given in the electronic case report form (eCRF). The list of adverse events included in the eCRF were hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT), elevated alkaline phosphatase, stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, mood disorder, neurocerebellar disorder, neurocontrol disorder, headache, fatigue, fever, other (listed as 'not specified&apos ...
Percentage of overall number of adverse events experienced during Weeks 0-144 by adverse event type. Doctors asked participants for adverse events, grouped them into categories given in the electronic case report form (eCRF). The list of adverse events included in the eCRF were hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT), elevated alkaline phosphatase, stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, mood disorder, neurocerebellar disorder, neurocontrol disorder, headache, fatigue, fever, other (listed as not specified ...
Results: We included 8 articles comprising 7,467 COVID-19 patients. When compared between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients, the pooled ORs of elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were 2.35 (95% CI 1.38-3.98), 3.21 (95% CI 2.59-3.98), 1.87 (95% CI 1.32-2.65), and 4.83 (95% CI 2.90-8.05), respectively. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Alanine Aminotransferase, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum ALT, ALT, SGPT, Aminotransferase.
Diagnosis and monitoring of liver disease associated with hepatic necrosisAlanine transaminase (ALT) is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). ALT is found in plasma and in various body tissues, but is most common in the liver. This test is commonly measured clinically as biomarkers for liver health. The tests is a are part of Liver function test (LFT). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serodiagnostic Assay of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Using Viral Proteins Expressed in Escherichia coli. AU - Mori, Shigehisa. AU - Ohkoshi, Showgo. AU - Hijikata, Makoto. AU - Kato, Nobuyuki. AU - Shimotohno, Kunitada. PY - 1992/3. Y1 - 1992/3. N2 - Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was analyzed by an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant viral proteins encoded by regions of the putative viral core, NS3, NS4 and NS5, which were expressed in E.coli Results showed that 106 of 124 cases (85.5%) of non‐A, non‐B chronic hepatitis and 43 of 45 cases (95.5%) of hepatocellular carcinoma, negative for HBV marker, were positive for antibodies against at least one of these viral proteins. One of 87 healthy individuals with normal alanine aminotransferase activity was positive for antibody against only the viral core, but was negative for HCV RNA. The serum of one patient with chronic hepatitis was positive for one of these proteins, but negative for HCV RNA. ...
Reference: Ilin V.S., Kovner F.Ia., Hexokinase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activity in transplanted rat sarcomas, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 644-649 ...
Miriam Vos, MD, from Emory University and Childrens Healthcare in Atlanta, Georgia, and colleagues reviewed data on 10,359 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from the National Health and Examination Survey, spanning 1988 to 2008. Suspected NAFLD was defined as a body mass index at least in the 85th percentile and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT; above 25.8 U/L for boys and above 22.1 U/L for girls). To allow for comparisons with earlier studies, they also analyzed the data based on ALT levels above 30.0 U/L ...
SGPT/Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (Alanine Transaminase /ALT) adalah enzim yang ditemukan terutama di sel-sel hati dan ginjal, dan dalam jumlah yang lebih kecil ditemukan di jantung dan otot ...
Lutful Haque Saran, Mohsina Mukti, Md. Reyad-Ul-Ferdous*, A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman, Md. Mamun- Ur- Rashid, Naim Islam, Adnan Taher. ABSTRACT. Objective: In recent era diabetics becomes most pathological condition worldwide. Maximum populations in both develop and developing countries suffering from diabetic. There are several diseases associated with diabetics like as kidney, liver, heart diseases etc. Methods: In this study, retrospectively study conducted at BUSB. Then data were entered into computer and results were calculated with the help of Microsoft Excel. Results: In the study, it has been found that the percentage of female is found to be 53% with diabetes and the percentage of male is found to be 46%.The level of Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) also called (Alanin Transaminase) is found to be relatively high amongst the diabetes patient who reflects that the liver problems are prominent amongst diabetes patients. The average value of alanine transaminase which is released ...
SGPT, or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, is an enzyme that enters the blood when the heart or liver are damaged, according to MedicineNet. When a condition like hepatitis C causes damage to the...
The investigators reported that of 5780 eligible persons aged 18 to 75 years, 3345 agreed to participate in the study.. The team defined subjects with suspected liver disease on the basis of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and -glutamyl-transferase activity.. Suspected liver disease was also defined on the basis of hepatitis B surface antigen, or hepatitis C virus-RNA positivity.. The subjects were matched with randomly selected subjects of the same age and sex without suspected liver disease.. The investigators reported that 311 subjects with and 287 without suspected liver disease underwent clinical, laboratory, and anthropometrical evaluation.. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and alcohol intake was assessed by using a 7-day diary.. The investigative team used multinomial logistic regression to detect risk factors for normal liver versus nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and vice versa.. The investigators found that the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was ...
Definition : Clinical chemistry reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative chemical analyses of body fluids (typically serum) to determine the level of the enzyme alanine transferase (ALT), also known as alanine aminotransferase. ALT in serum is typically increased in liver diseases associated with hepatic necrosis, such as viral hepatitis and infectious mononucleosis with involvement of the liver.. Entry Terms : "Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Reagents" , "ALT (Alanine Transferase) Determination Reagents" , "Alanine Transferase (ALT) Determination Reagents" , "Alanine Transaminase Reagents" , "Alanine Amino-Transferase Determination Reagents" , "Alanine Aminotransferase Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Clinical Chemistry, Enzyme, Alanine Transferase". UMDC code : 18872 ...
Acute and chronic liver injuries increase serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Abnormal AST and ALT liver enzymes may signal liver damage. ALT elevation is more specific for liver damage because AST is present in the heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain, and red blood cells. AST and ALT elevations greater than 10 times the normal limit are associated with acute hepatic injury (eg, toxic liver injury or acute viral hepatitis). Cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis also increase AST and ALT, but not to the same degree as acute injury. AST and ALT levels may be within the normal range in patients with cirrhosis or chronic liver disease. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase (alk phos) and γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) may accompany cholestatic liver disease (eg, drug-induced cholestasis, cholangitis). Alk phos and GGT are present in other tissues; therefore, they lack specificity for liver disease. Though also nonspecific for liver disease, ...
Primate model of sepsis. (a) Lethal E. coli infusion alone. (b) Lethal E.coli plus Activated Protein C infusion. SGPT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (indi
alaA; glutamate-pyruvate aminotransferase; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT); alanine transaminase; K14260 alanine-synthesizing transaminase [EC:2.6.1.66 2.6.1.2] ...
alaA; glutamate-pyruvate aminotransferase; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT); alanine transaminase; K14260 alanine-synthesizing transaminase [EC:2.6.1.66 2.6.1.2] ...
Everything you need to know about Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and find out which of our blood tests check Alanine Aminotransferase levels.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT or GPT) test Liver Function Panel Colorimetric Technique General Concept 1) Names:- Formal name: Alanine Aminotransferase and abbreviated as (ALT) Also known as: Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase; SGPT; GPT; Alanine Transaminase. 2) What is the ALT? Read about it... Continue reading → ...
Purpose: It has been shown that liver fibrosis, and even cirrhosis, may be reversible in humans. For this reason there is a great need for the imminent introduction of non-invasive and clinically useful methods in order to monitor fibrosis in patients [1, 2]. A body of evidence points to the fact that MRE is a highly useful candidate towards this end [3]. However, before using such techniques more widely, it is important to verify that comparable physical measures are provided by alternative and clinically relevant MRE approaches. The aim of this pilot study was to compare 2D and 3D MRE, also known as MR Rheology, using a commercially available 2D system, with an acoustic transducer, and 3D MRE research system, with an electromagnetic transducer, with respect to liver stiffness and elasticity in patients with diffuse or suspected diffuse liver disease. Materials and Methods: Seven patients, referred to our hospital for evaluation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or alkaline ...
abbr. (in clinical biochemistry): ALT; EC 2.6.1.2; systematic name: l‐alanine:2‐oxoglutarate aminotransferase; other names: glutamic‐pyruvic transaminase; glutamic‐alanine transaminase. An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction:. l‐alanine + 2‐oxoglutarate = pyruvate + l‐glutamate.. [...] ...
Endotoxin-mediated proinflammatory cytokines play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver diseases. Heat shock protein 90 (molecular weight, 90 kDa) (hsp90) functions as an important chaperone of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling and is required for the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that inhibition of hsp90 would prevent LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with an hsp90 inhibitor, 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), and LPS. Parameters of liver injury, proinflammatory cytokines, and associated mechanisms were studied by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Inhibition of hsp90 by 17-DMAG prevented LPS-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and significantly reduced serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. Enhanced DNA-binding activity of heat shock
Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcomas. However, treatment of patients with advanced disease can be challenging due to impaired liver function from metastasis. Pazopanibs package insert has a black box warning due to severe and fatal hepatotoxicity observed in clinical trials and currently there is limited information regarding pazopanib in patients with liver dysfunction. In a phase I study of pazopanib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, the maximum-tolerated dose was determined to be 600 mg per day. Evidence of antitumor activity was seen at this dose; however, the 800 mg per day dose was not tolerable due to dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 malaise and grade 3 AST/ALT elevation. Liver abnormalities were seen in a majority of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with pazopanib. AST elevation was seen in 63% of the patients. ALT elevation occurred in ...
Alanine aminotransferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g. viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. In viral hepatitis and other forms of liver disease associated with hepatic necrosis, serum ALT levels are elevated even before clinical signs and symptoms of the disease ...
Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C100675 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). Validated for Flow, IHC and WB.
Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C292687 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). Validated for WB.
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Of the 275 participants, 88 (32%) had HIV infection, 76% were black, and 67% were men. The group averaged 58 years in age, and time from HCV diagnosis to SVR averaged 9.3 years. Time since SVR averaged 18 months. HAI fibrosis stages were 0-1 in 60%, 2-3 in 27%, and 4 in 13%. Thirty-two people (12%) had cirrhosis, and 69 (31%) had grade 1 or worse steatosis. More than half of participants, 58%, had a history of injecting drugs ...
ASPARATE TRANSFERASE. Aspartate transferase AST is besides known as SGOT ( serum glutamic oxolacetic ) , an enzyme that is frequently present in liver cells are damaged, this enzyme is chiefly caused by the cell in the liver. High degrees of this enzyme implicates the liver is harm, AST is released into the blood the sum of protein is relative to the sum of damaged cells. The tallness of AST relies on how long the blood is tested after the accident, the consequences of rectification of circulatory upsets frequently shows a really rapid lessening in degrees of AST.. SERUM ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE. Serum alanine transaminase is besides known as ALT, which measures the sum of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ALT is found in liver and musculus, ALT does non needfully bespeak the badness of liver harm. ALT tends to be somewhat higher than the degree of AST and this may be of import in the sensing of necroinflammatory activity in patients with chronic diseases hepatisis.. ALKALINE PHOSPHATE. Alkaline ...
The clinical and epidemiological relevance of circulating antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis patients is uncertain, since clinical signs of infection are often mild or absent, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values that are virtually always normal, and liver biopsies are only rarely performed. Determination of HCV RNA in serum is therefore critical for distinguishing chronic HCV infection from previous exposure to the virus. We studied HCV viremia by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) in the 5-noncoding region of the viral genome in 77 dialysis patients who were screened for anti-HCV by a second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (the enzyme immunoassay II; Ortho HCV, 2nd generation, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Raritan, N.J.) and a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (Chiron Corporation and Ortho Diagnostic Systems) and prospectively evaluated for ALT elevations over a period of 5 years. of 77 patients tested, 29 (38%) had active ...
SGPT blood test is a test used to measure the amount of the enzyme glutamate pyruvate transaminase in blood serum. Know significance, benefits & features.
from alanine (Alanine cycle):. *Alanine transaminase. from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase ... Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts ... The noticeable difference between the two subunits that make up LDH's tertiary structure is the replacement of alanine (in the ...
from alanine (Alanine cycle):. *Alanine transaminase. from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase ...
... alanines. Humans express one kynureninase enzyme that is encoded by the KYNU gene located on chromosome 2.[6][7] ... Aspartate transaminase. *Glutamate dehydrogenase. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ...
alanine→. *Alanine transaminase. cysteine→. *D-cysteine desulfhydrase. threonine→. *L-threonine dehydrogenase. G→glutamate→. α- ...
from alanine (Alanine cycle):. *Alanine transaminase. from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase ...
from alanine (Alanine cycle):. *Alanine transaminase. from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase ... pyruvate and alanine, lead to excess lactate.[9] Normally, the excess lactate would be cleared by the kidneys, but in patients ...
... undergoes transamination catalyzed either by an alanine-valine transaminase or a glutamate-valine transaminase. Valine ... Alanine[edit]. Alanine is produced by the transamination of one molecule of pyruvate using two alternate steps: 1) conversion ... Pyruvate: alanine, valine, and leucine[edit]. Pyruvate, the end result of glycolysis, can feed into both the TCA cycle and ... Alanine and aspartate are synthesized by the transamination of pyruvate and oxaloacetate, respectively. Glutamine is ...
Aspartate transaminase. *Glutamate dehydrogenase. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. urea cycle. *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ...
alanine→. *Alanine transaminase. cysteine→. *D-cysteine desulfhydrase. threonine→. *L-threonine dehydrogenase. G→glutamate→. α- ...
Transamination by alanine transaminase produces alanine. Reduction by lactate dehydrogenase produces lactate. Pyruvate is sold ... It can also be used to construct the amino acid alanine and can be converted into ethanol or lactic acid via fermentation. ... to the amino acid alanine, and to ethanol. Therefore, it unites several key metabolic processes. In glycolysis, ...
Mildly increased serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase may also occur. Other reported events in dogs ...
16%). The drug also increases QT time and liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase). As ribociclib is mainly ...
The most important risks are Alanine transaminase elevation, hyperbilirubinemia, drug resistance development and drug ...
... of which are alanine transaminase (ALA-T), and γ-Aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T), the latter of which is not caused by ... "Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on alanine and alanine transaminase in rat brain". Cellular and ... Transaminases such as GABA-transaminase have been shown to be dependent upon vitamin B6 and may be involved in a potentially ... phenelzine causes an increase in the alanine and GABA levels in the brain and body. GABA is the major inhibitory ...
Below is an example of how glutamate is used to synthesize alanine via alanine transaminase. Glutamate + pyruvate ⇌ α- ... ketoglutarate + Alanine Another example is the conversion of aspartate to glutamate via the enzyme aspartate transaminase. ... In the case of dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, where glutamate and aspartate transport are impaired, the alanine, aspartate and ...
serum proteins, serum albumin, serum globulin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, prothrombin time, partial ...
Laboratory abnormalities have included alanine transaminase (ALT) abnormalities, aspartate transaminase (AST) abnormalities, ...
Most have slightly abnormal liver function tests such as a raised aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and bilirubin ...
Aspartate transaminase Alanine transaminase Liver function tests Elevated transaminases Nyblom H, Berggren U, Balldin J, Olsson ... The AST/ALT ratio is the ratio between the concentrations of the enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase ... De Ritis F, Coltorti M, Giusti G (July 2006). "An enzymic test for the diagnosis of viral hepatitis: the transaminase serum ...
The enzyme alanine transaminase was also elevated in at least 5% of patients, but in most cases without symptoms. Elevated ...
... alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000099992 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
... can increase hepatic enzyme levels, especially those of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) ...
The alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme converts α-Ketoglutarate and L-alanine to L-glutamate and pyruvate, respectively, as a ...
... which include elevation in the levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartic acid. Schwarz, G. ( ...
Platelet count, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and haptoglobin are usually unaffected and may be used to ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was ... Alanine transaminase shows a marked diurnal variation.[citation needed] The ratio of ALT to AST (aspartate aminotransferase) ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ... Red Cross Donor Requirements Clin Chem 2000;46:2027-2049 Alanine transaminase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
Other names in common use include alanine-oxomalonate aminotransferase, L-alanine-ketomalonate transaminase, and alanine- ... In enzymology, an alanine-oxomalonate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.47) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ... ketomalonate (mesoxalate) transaminase. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Nagayama H, Muramatsu M, Shimura K (1958 ...
The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alanine transaminase, SGPT) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and ... The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ... Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003473.htm Alanine transaminase (ALT) ...
Redirected from Alanine aminotransferase). Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ... Alanine+transaminase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Alanine transaminase shows a marked diurnal variation.[citation needed]. The AST/ALT ratio (with AST being aspartate ...
Sheep polyclonal Alanine Transaminase antibody. Validated in WB, IP, ELISA, Dot and tested in Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Amino-acid degradation; L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway; pyruvate from L-alanine: step 1/1. ... Protein - Recombinant mouse Alanine Transaminase protein (Active) (ab222953) MS, Functional Studies, SDS-PAGE ... Primary - Sheep Anti-Alanine Transaminase antibody (ab34832) Dot blot, WB, ELISA, IP ...
ID:1,Note:Reference Interval has been last updated on 22 Apr 2013.,Date:2013-04-29T10:20:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Alanine Transaminase protein (ab113862). Please let us know if you have used this ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
What is alanine transaminase? Meaning of alanine transaminase medical term. What does alanine transaminase mean? ... Looking for online definition of alanine transaminase in the Medical Dictionary? alanine transaminase explanation free. ... Synonym(s): alanine transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic:pyruvic transaminase. alanine transaminase. /al ... Related to alanine transaminase: Aspartate transaminase. alanine transaminase. [al´ah-nēn trans-am´ĭ-nās] an enzyme that ...
We are leading Manufacturer of Alanine transaminase, UREA UV, Hemoglobin Kit, laboratory diagnostics, Bilurubin Total from ...
... and virological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal or abnormal alanine transaminase levels. ... and virological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal or abnormal alanine transaminase levels. ... Assessment of liver function in patients with hepatitis C and normal transaminase levels. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 8: ... Liver histology in hepatitis C infection: a comparison between patients with persistently normal or abnormal transaminases. Gut ...
... alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), peptide bond formation between the hetrosubunits has been ... alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), peptide bond formation between the hetrosubunits has been ... For the multimeric enzymes R-ω-transaminase (RTA), ... For the multimeric enzymes R-ω-transaminase (RTA), ... R-ω-Transaminase (RTA) and alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) are dimeric enzymes, each consisting of two subunits. ZE was fused to ...
Results: HCV etiology, Non-White race, and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) predicted elevated AFP in cirrhotics. Non-White ... Performance of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis in HCV cirrhosis with Normal Alanine Transaminase ... Performance of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis in HCV cirrhosis with Normal Alanine Transaminase ... Performance of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis in HCV cirrhosis with Normal Alanine Transaminase ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
Diversification analysis of ScAlt1/ScAlt2 indicated that while ScAlt1 is an alanine transaminase, ScAlt2 lost this activity, ... functional diversification could have determined loss of ScAlt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine ... functional diversification could have determined loss of ScAlt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine ... that could result in lack of alanine transaminase activity in ScAlt2. The fact that ScAlt2 forms a catalytically active Schiff ...
Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C100675 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). ... Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C100675 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). ... GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa31‑80) LS‑C80760 Species: Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Bat, Bovine, Dog, Guinea pig, ... GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa86‑112) LS‑C100675 GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa86‑112) LS‑C100675 ...
Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C292687 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). ... Alanine Transaminase antibody LS-C292687 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Alanine Transaminase (GPT ). ... GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa31‑80) LS‑C80760 Species: Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Bat, Bovine, Dog, Guinea pig, ... GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa1‑496) LS‑C292687 GPT / Alanine Transaminase Antibody (aa1‑496) LS‑C292687 ...
Hepatoprotective activity against CCL4-induced toxicity in human HuH7 cells assessed as decrease in alanine transaminase level ...
Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test. SGPT; Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase; Alanine transaminase; Alanine ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alanine transaminase, SGPT) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and ... The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood.. Enzyme. Enzymes are complex ... Tests for Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test. *Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ...
... The Role of Alanine Transaminase in Increasing BMI, Cholesterol, Blood Pressure and Blood Glucose. In: Bose, Kaushik; ...
... on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled ... The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled ... on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. ... Flow chart for the study subjects. AEs, adverse events; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; FTP, fermented turmeric powder; ITT, ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
alanine transaminase can also refer to... alanine transaminase The Association of Alanine Transaminase With Aging, Frailty, ... pyruvic transaminase; glutamic‐alanine transaminase. An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction:. l‐alanine + 2‐ ... Fine Particle Pollution, Alanine Transaminase, and Liver Cancer: A Taiwanese Prospective Cohort Study (REVEAL-HBV) ... Elevated serum alanine transaminase in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Viapath is a founding member of The Association of Independent Pathology Providers (AIPP), which is a trade association representing innovative research-based diagnostic testing companies. www.pathologyassociation.com. ...
  • Serum T3, T4, TSH were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence, total bilirubin by diazzonium ion (blanked) and ALT (Alanine transaminase) by IFCC without PLP method. (innovativepublication.com)
  • Hepatotoxicity: Monitor liver laboratory tests every 2 weeks during the first 3 months of treatment, then once a month and as clinically indicated, with more frequent testing in patients who develop transaminase and bilirubin elevations. (nih.gov)
  • Monitor patients at least weekly, with bilirubin, transaminases, glucose and clinical examinations until recovery from the cycle of therapy. (drugs.com)
  • This paper analyzes structural organization and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding properties of Sc Alt1 and Sc Alt2 indicating functional diversification could have determined loss of Sc Alt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • But pay attention to a point, "small Sanyang" patients, the hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA) higher than 10 of the 5 party, no matter how much can transaminase, HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. Why, in general, the immune function under the action of "big 3 this world" to "small three", HBV DNA will soon turn. (scleritis.net)
  • Potential causes of liver transaminase elevations include viral hepatitis, alcohol use, medication use, steatosis or steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. (aafp.org)
  • The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, if there is any damage to the liver, alanine transaminase is released in the blood. (1mg.com)
  • The alanine then enters the blood stream and is transported to the liver. (prezi.com)
  • At the end of the 6-month intervention, women in the black tea group showed a 4 mmHg decrease (p = 0.01) in systolic blood pressure while female in the green tea group showed a 30.1% decrease (p = 0.035) in Alanine transaminase (ALT). (omicsonline.org)
  • Also known as Cahill cycle or alanine cycle.A series of reactions in which amino groups from the muscle are transported to the liver. (prezi.com)
  • Datta, K. (1986) Affinity purification and properties of rat liver mitochondrial L-alanine:4,5-dioxovalerate transaminase and its inhibition by hemin Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 248 (2). (ias.ac.in)
  • Inhibition of Pantothenate Synthetase by Analogs of β-Alanine Precursor Ineffective as an Antibacterial Strategy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diversification analysis of Sc Alt1/ Sc Alt2 indicated that while Sc Alt1 is an alanine transaminase, Sc Alt2 lost this activity, constituting an example in which one of the members of the gene pair lacks the apparent ancestral physiological role. (frontiersin.org)