Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Liver Function Tests
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Disease Models, Animal
Predictive Value of Tests
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Clinical Enzyme Tests
Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing)
Amino Acid Substitution
Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/3443)Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed. (+info)
Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (2/3443)1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate. (+info)
Blockade of type beta transforming growth factor signaling prevents liver fibrosis and dysfunction in the rat. (3/3443)We eliminated type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) signaling by adenovirus-mediated local expression of a dominant-negative type II TGF-beta receptor (AdCATbeta-TR) in the liver of rats treated with dimethylnitrosamine, a model of persistent liver fibrosis. In rats that received a single application of AdCATbeta-TR via the portal vein, liver fibrosis as assessed by histology and hydroxyproline content was markedly attenuated. All AdCATbeta-TR-treated rats remained alive, and their serum levels of hyaluronic acid and transaminases remained at low levels, whereas all the AdCATbeta-TR-untreated rats died of liver dysfunction. The results demonstrate that TGF-beta does play a central role in liver fibrogenesis and indicate clearly in a persistent fibrosis model that prevention of fibrosis by anti-TGF-beta intervention could be therapeutically useful. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (4/3443)We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered. (+info)
Influences of Kupffer cell stimulation and suppression on immunological liver injury in mice. (5/3443)AIM: To study the possible involvement of Kupffer cells (KC) in immunological liver injury in mice. METHODS: Liver injury was induced by i.v. injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) 5 x 10(7) viable bacilli followed by i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 7.5 micrograms to each mouse. Indian ink and silica were i.v. injected to suppress KC and retinol was given po to stimulate KC in these mice. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspatate aminotransferase (AspAT), nitric oxide (NO), and liver tissue were examined. RESULTS: Injection of LPS following BCG injection resulted in a remarkable elevation of plasma NO, AlaAT, and AspAT levels, and severe liver damage. The damages were enhanced by the activation of KC with retinol and reduced by suppression of KC with silica and Indian ink. CONCLUSION: The degree of liver injury induced by BCG + LPS is closely correlated with the status of KC, and NO from KC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in mice. (+info)
Effect of epidermal growth factor on cultured rat hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4. (6/3443)AIM: To study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on CCl4-induced primary cultured hepatocytes injury. METHODS: Alanine amino-transferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activities and K+ concentractions were determined by the Auto-biochemistry Assay System. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillometry. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used. RESULTS: EGF 40 micrograms.L-1 decreased CCl4 (10 mmol.L-1)-induced damages of rat primary cultured hepatocytes by decreasing AlaAT and AspAT leakage and MDA production, and promoted RNA and DNA synthesis, with a high positive correlation between intracellular K+ leakage and DNA syntheses (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Cytopathological study showed that EGF decreased damage of liver cells. CONCLUSION: EGF maintains the stability of cellular lipid membrane and promotes syntheses of RNA and DNA of hepatocytes, and intracellular K+ transference is a promotor of the message transmission of DNA synthesis. (+info)
Continuous versus intermittent portal triad clamping for liver resection: a controlled study. (7/3443)OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. RESULTS: The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. (+info)
Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. (8/3443)Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low. (+info)
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the production of energy. In the medical field, AST is often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess liver function. When the liver is damaged or diseased, AST levels may increase in the blood. This can be an indication of a variety of liver conditions, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AST levels may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the heart, muscles, or kidneys. For example, AST levels may be increased in people with heart muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a heart attack or myocarditis. In addition, AST levels may be elevated in people with muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a muscle strain or injury. Overall, AST is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information about the health of the liver and other organs in the body.
Alanine is an amino acid that is a building block of proteins. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Alanine plays a number of important roles in the body, including: 1. Energy production: Alanine can be converted into glucose, which is a source of energy for the body. 2. Muscle function: Alanine is involved in the metabolism of muscle tissue and can help to prevent muscle damage. 3. Liver function: Alanine is an important component of the liver's detoxification process and can help to protect the liver from damage. 4. Acid-base balance: Alanine helps to regulate the body's acid-base balance by buffering excess acid in the blood. In the medical field, alanine is often used as a biomarker to assess liver function. Elevated levels of alanine in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease. Alanine is also used as a dietary supplement to support muscle growth and recovery.
4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase (4-ABAT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. It catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from 4-aminobutyrate (4-ABA) to alpha-ketoglutarate, producing succinyl-CoA and glutamate. This reaction is reversible, and the enzyme can also catalyze the reverse reaction, which is important for maintaining the balance of GABA and glutamate in the brain. 4-ABAT is primarily found in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell that plays a key role in supporting neurons in the brain. It is involved in the metabolism of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and is important for regulating brain activity and preventing seizures. Abnormal levels of 4-ABAT activity have been associated with several neurological disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. In addition, mutations in the gene encoding 4-ABAT have been identified in some cases of inherited epilepsy.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a type of liver damage that occurs as a result of taking medications or other substances. It can range from mild to severe and can be caused by a variety of drugs, including antibiotics, painkillers, and certain herbal supplements. DILI can present with a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. In severe cases, DILI can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of DILI typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve discontinuing the suspected drug, administering supportive care, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. Preventing DILI involves careful monitoring of patients who are taking medications that have the potential to cause liver damage, as well as educating patients about the potential risks and symptoms of DILI.
Transaminases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another. In the medical field, the most commonly measured transaminases are alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). These enzymes are found in high concentrations in the liver, but are also present in other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Elevated levels of ALT and AST in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, and certain genetic conditions. In some cases, elevated transaminase levels may also be a sign of heart or muscle damage. In addition to their role in liver function, transaminases are also used as markers of liver disease in clinical practice. They are often included in routine blood tests, and elevated levels can prompt further diagnostic testing and treatment.
Liver diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the liver, which is a vital organ responsible for many essential functions in the body. These diseases can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, genetic mutations, and metabolic disorders. Some common liver diseases include: 1. Hepatitis: An inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection, such as hepatitis A, B, or C. 2. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by the scarring and hardening of liver tissue, which can lead to liver failure. 3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver, often as a result of obesity, insulin resistance, or a high-fat diet. 4. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A group of liver diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. 5. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver and can lead to cirrhosis. 7. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and other organs, leading to liver damage and other health problems. 8. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, leading to iron overload in the liver and other organs. Treatment for liver diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise may be sufficient to manage the disease. In more severe cases, medications, surgery, or liver transplantation may be necessary.
D-Alanine Transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). ALT is found in high concentrations in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues such as the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys. In the liver, ALT is involved in the conversion of alanine to pyruvate, which is a key step in the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. ALT is released into the bloodstream when liver cells are damaged or destroyed, such as in cases of liver disease, alcoholism, or viral hepatitis. Measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a common diagnostic test used to assess liver function and detect liver disease. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood can indicate liver damage or inflammation, and may be a sign of conditions such as hepatitis, fatty liver disease, or liver cancer.
Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, dense liquid with a sweet, chlorinated smell. It is a commonly used solvent in the medical field, particularly in the preparation of medications and in the sterilization of medical equipment. However, carbon tetrachloride is also a known neurotoxin and can cause serious health problems if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It has been linked to liver damage, kidney damage, and even death in severe cases. As a result, its use in the medical field has been largely phased out in favor of safer alternatives.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals and other harmful substances. In the liver, GGT is involved in the breakdown of certain toxins and drugs, as well as the production of bile, which is a fluid that helps digest fats. In the pancreas, GGT is involved in the production of digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. In the medical field, GGT is often measured as a blood test to help diagnose and monitor a variety of liver and pancreatic disorders, including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. High levels of GGT in the blood can also be an indicator of other conditions, such as kidney disease, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down in the body. It is primarily produced in the liver and is then excreted in the bile, which is released into the small intestine. Bilirubin is an important part of the body's waste removal system and helps to remove old red blood cells from the bloodstream. In the medical field, bilirubin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. High levels of bilirubin in the blood can be a sign of liver disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, or of problems with the gallbladder or bile ducts. Bilirubin levels can also be affected by certain medications, infections, or genetic disorders. Low levels of bilirubin can be a sign of anemia or other blood disorders.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
Acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol, is a medication commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation, pain, and fever. Acetaminophen is available over-the-counter (OTC) in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids, and is also used in combination with other medications to treat conditions such as colds, flu, and headaches. It is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but high doses or prolonged use can lead to liver damage, which can be fatal. In the medical field, acetaminophen is often prescribed for patients with chronic pain, such as cancer pain or post-surgical pain, as well as for patients with fever or other symptoms associated with viral infections. It is also used as an analgesic during childbirth and as an antipyretic to reduce fever in children.
Galactosamine is a type of sugar molecule that is found in the human body. It is a component of certain types of carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are found in the cell membranes of cells throughout the body. Galactosamine is also a component of the polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate, which is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in the body. In the medical field, galactosamine is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to detect certain types of diseases or conditions. For example, it is used in the laboratory to detect the presence of certain types of bacteria or viruses in the body. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of liver disease, such as cirrhosis, by helping to reduce the buildup of toxins in the liver.
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue, leading to a loss of liver function. This scarring, or fibrosis, is caused by a variety of factors, including chronic alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases. As the liver becomes increasingly damaged, it becomes less able to perform its many functions, such as filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to aid in digestion, and regulating blood sugar levels. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, jaundice, and confusion. In advanced cases, liver cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment options for liver cirrhosis depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, liver transplantation.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, bone, and intestines. In the medical field, ALP levels are often measured as a diagnostic tool to help identify various conditions and diseases. There are several types of ALP, including tissue-nonspecific ALP (TN-ALP), bone-specific ALP (B-ALP), and liver-specific ALP (L-ALP). Each type of ALP is produced by different tissues and has different functions. In general, elevated levels of ALP can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, bone disease, and certain types of cancer. For example, elevated levels of ALP in the blood can be a sign of liver damage or disease, while elevated levels in the urine can be a sign of bone disease or kidney problems. On the other hand, low levels of ALP can also be a cause for concern, as they may indicate a deficiency in certain vitamins or minerals, such as vitamin D or calcium. Overall, ALP is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental refers to a condition in which the liver becomes scarred and damaged due to various experimental procedures or treatments. This can occur in laboratory animals or humans who are undergoing medical research or clinical trials. Experimental liver cirrhosis can be induced by various methods, such as administering toxins, viruses, or other substances that cause liver damage. The purpose of such experiments is to study the pathophysiology of liver disease and to develop new treatments or therapies. The severity and extent of liver damage in experimental liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the type and duration of the experimental procedure. In some cases, the liver damage may be reversible, while in others, it may be irreversible and lead to liver failure or death. It is important to note that experimental liver cirrhosis is a controlled and regulated process that is conducted under strict ethical guidelines to minimize harm to the animals or humans involved.
Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver cells. It is a common condition that can affect people of all ages and is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Fatty liver can be classified into two types: 1. Simple fatty liver: This is the most common type of fatty liver and is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver cells. It is usually reversible with lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet. 2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver is caused by factors other than alcohol consumption, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. NAFLD can progress to more severe liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Fatty liver can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and liver biopsy. Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or in severe cases, liver transplantation.
Alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine, which is an essential component of bacterial cell walls. In the medical field, alanine racemase is an important target for the development of antibiotics because it is not present in human cells and is therefore not toxic to humans. Inhibitors of alanine racemase have been shown to be effective in treating bacterial infections caused by a variety of pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is characterized by persistent inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. CHB can develop in people who have been infected with HBV for more than six months. The virus can remain in the body for years or even decades, causing ongoing liver damage. Symptoms of CHB may include fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. However, many people with CHB do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection. CHB is typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus and measure liver function. Treatment options for CHB include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, liver transplantation. It is important to diagnose and treat CHB early to prevent liver damage and reduce the risk of complications.
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lactate, a byproduct of cellular respiration. In the medical field, LDH is often used as a diagnostic marker for various diseases and conditions, including liver and heart diseases, cancer, and muscle injuries. LDH is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, kidneys, and red blood cells. When these tissues are damaged or injured, LDH is released into the bloodstream, which can be detected through blood tests. In addition to its diagnostic use, LDH is also used as a prognostic marker in certain diseases, such as cancer. High levels of LDH in the blood can indicate a more aggressive form of cancer or a poorer prognosis for the patient. Overall, LDH is an important enzyme in the body's metabolism and plays a critical role in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Reperfusion injury is a type of damage that occurs when blood flow is restored to an organ or tissue that has been deprived of oxygen for a prolonged period of time. This can happen during a heart attack, stroke, or other conditions that cause blood flow to be blocked to a particular area of the body. When blood flow is restored, it can cause an inflammatory response in the affected tissue, leading to the release of free radicals and other harmful substances that can damage cells and tissues. This can result in a range of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and organ dysfunction. Reperfusion injury can be particularly damaging to the heart and brain, as these organs are highly sensitive to oxygen deprivation and have a limited ability to repair themselves. Treatment for reperfusion injury may involve medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and promote healing.
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) are a group of compounds that are formed when lipids, such as those found in cell membranes, are oxidized. TBARS are often used as a measure of oxidative stress in biological samples, as they are thought to be a marker of damage to cellular membranes and other lipids. In the medical field, TBARS are often used to assess the extent of oxidative damage in diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. They are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in preventing or reducing oxidative damage.
Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is a serious health condition that can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer if left untreated. CHC is characterized by the persistence of the HCV virus in the liver for more than six months, despite the body's immune system attempting to clear the virus. The virus can remain dormant for years, and symptoms may not appear until significant liver damage has occurred. CHC is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, such as through sharing needles or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. Treatment for CHC typically involves antiviral medications that can help the body clear the virus and prevent further liver damage. However, some people may not respond to treatment or may experience side effects, so treatment decisions are made on an individual basis.
Tyrosine transaminase, also known as tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of tyrosine, an amino acid that is essential for the production of various hormones, neurotransmitters, and other important molecules in the body. TAT is primarily found in the liver, kidneys, and brain, where it catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from tyrosine to α-ketoglutarate, producing L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and α-ketoglutarate. L-DOPA is then converted into dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are important neurotransmitters involved in regulating mood, attention, and other physiological processes. In addition to its role in tyrosine metabolism, TAT also plays a role in the metabolism of other amino acids, including tryptophan and phenylalanine. TAT activity is regulated by various factors, including hormones, nutrients, and drugs, and alterations in TAT activity have been associated with a number of diseases, including liver disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and certain types of cancer.
Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells in the body die due to injury, infection, or lack of oxygen and nutrients. In necrosis, the cells break down and release their contents into the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Necrosis can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, infection, toxins, and certain diseases. It is different from apoptosis, which is a programmed cell death that occurs as part of normal development and tissue turnover. In the medical field, necrosis is often seen as a sign of tissue injury or disease, and it can be a serious condition if it affects vital organs or tissues. Treatment for necrosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying condition and promote healing.
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling protein produced by immune cells in response to viral infections or other stimuli. IFN-alpha has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects, and is used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including viral infections such as hepatitis B and C, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. IFN-alpha is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and can cause a range of side effects, including flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and depression.
Alanine dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of alanine to pyruvate, which is a key intermediate in the breakdown of glucose to produce energy. ALDH is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidneys, and muscles. In the medical field, ALDH is often measured as a diagnostic marker for liver disease, as levels of the enzyme can be elevated in people with liver damage or cirrhosis. ALDH is also used as a target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of liver disease and other conditions. Additionally, ALDH has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of certain types of cancer, as high levels of the enzyme have been associated with poor prognosis in some cases.
Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase, also known as OAT, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the human body. It is a type of transaminase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from ornithine to alpha-ketoglutarate, producing citrulline and glutamate as products. OAT is primarily found in the liver, kidneys, and lungs, where it is involved in the urea cycle, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for removing excess nitrogen from the body. In this cycle, OAT helps to convert ornithine to citrulline, which is then used to synthesize urea, a waste product that is excreted from the body through urine. Abnormal levels of OAT activity can be an indication of liver or kidney disease, as well as certain genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of amino acids. In some cases, high levels of OAT activity may also be associated with certain types of cancer. Therefore, measuring OAT levels in the blood can be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying and monitoring these conditions.
Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) is a chemical compound that has been used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for detecting liver function. It is a prodrug, meaning that it is converted into an active form in the body. AOAA is typically administered orally and is then metabolized in the liver, where it is converted into a toxic compound that can be detected in the blood. The level of AOAA in the blood can be used to assess liver function and to diagnose liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatitis.
Vigabatrin is a medication that is primarily used to treat epilepsy, specifically in patients who have partial seizures that are not well-controlled by other medications. It works by inhibiting the enzyme gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase, which leads to an increase in the levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain. This increase in GABA activity can help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures in people with epilepsy. Vigabatrin is usually taken orally and is typically prescribed at bedtime to help reduce the risk of side effects such as drowsiness. It is important to note that vigabatrin can cause vision problems, including loss of vision, and patients who take this medication should have regular eye exams.
Beta-alanine pyruvate transaminase (also known as alanine aminotransferase or ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from alanine to pyruvate, producing alpha-ketoglutarate and alanine. This reaction is reversible, and ALT can also transfer an amino group from alpha-ketoglutarate to pyruvate, producing alanine and glutamate. ALT is primarily found in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys. In the liver, ALT is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, the breakdown of glucose, and the production of energy. It also plays a role in the detoxification of harmful substances, such as alcohol and drugs. In medical testing, the ALT enzyme is often measured as a marker of liver function. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. However, it is important to note that ALT levels can also be affected by other factors, such as alcohol consumption, medications, and certain medical conditions. Therefore, the interpretation of ALT levels should always be done in the context of a patient's overall health and medical history.
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes in the body. It is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hemoglobin. In the medical field, PLP deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including anemia, seizures, and neurological disorders. It is also used as a dietary supplement to treat or prevent vitamin B6 deficiency and related conditions. In addition, PLP is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia, and in the management of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. There are two forms of AST: cytoplasmic AST (AST-C) and mitochondrial AST (AST-M). Cytoplasmic AST is found in the cytoplasm of cells and is released into the bloodstream when cells are damaged or destroyed. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including liver disease, heart disease, muscle injury, and certain infections. When AST levels in the blood are elevated, it can be an indication of tissue damage or injury. However, it is important to note that AST levels can also be affected by other factors, such as age, gender, and certain medications. Therefore, AST levels should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and laboratory tests.
Isoleucine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, isoleucine is used to treat various conditions, including: 1. Malnutrition: Isoleucine is an important component of protein and is essential for proper growth and development. It is often used in the treatment of malnutrition to help restore protein balance in the body. 2. Wound healing: Isoleucine has been shown to promote wound healing by stimulating the production of collagen, a protein that is essential for tissue repair. 3. Diabetes: Isoleucine has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes. 4. Cancer: Isoleucine has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of cancer cells. 5. Immune system: Isoleucine is an important component of immune cells and is essential for proper immune function. Overall, isoleucine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body and is used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Ketoglutaric acid is a chemical compound that is involved in the metabolism of amino acids in the body. It is a key intermediate in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is a series of chemical reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from glucose and other nutrients. In the medical field, ketoglutaric acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for certain medical conditions. For example, it has been suggested that ketoglutaric acid may have potential as a treatment for cancer, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some studies. It has also been suggested that ketoglutaric acid may have potential as a treatment for other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, although more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits. It is important to note that the use of ketoglutaric acid as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for medical conditions is not well-established, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. It is always a good idea to talk to a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or treatment.
Aminobutyrates are a class of compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a butyrate group (-COOCH3). They are derivatives of the amino acid alanine and are used in the medical field as muscle relaxants and as anesthetic agents. Aminobutyrates work by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in muscle contraction. This leads to muscle relaxation and a decrease in pain and discomfort. Some examples of aminobutyrates used in medicine include amobarbital, pentobarbital, and thiopental. These drugs are typically administered intravenously and are used to induce anesthesia for surgery or to treat certain medical conditions such as epilepsy and insomnia.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. It is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, as well as the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Pyridoxine is also essential for the proper functioning of the immune system and the prevention of anemia. In the medical field, pyridoxine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Anemia: Pyridoxine is used to treat anemia caused by a deficiency in vitamin B6. 2. Morning sickness: Pyridoxine is sometimes used to treat morning sickness during pregnancy. 3. Depression: Pyridoxine may be used as an adjunct therapy for depression, as it is involved in the production of neurotransmitters. 4. Alcoholism: Pyridoxine may be used to treat alcoholism, as it can help prevent the formation of acetaldehyde, a toxic substance produced during alcohol metabolism. 5. Pernicious anemia: Pyridoxine is used in combination with other vitamins to treat pernicious anemia, a type of anemia caused by a deficiency in vitamin B12. Pyridoxine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injections. It is generally well-tolerated, but high doses may cause side effects such as nausea, dizziness, and confusion.
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (ASTm) is an enzyme that is found in the mitochondria of cells. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and the production of energy in the form of ATP. ASTm is also found in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In the medical field, ASTm levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool. Elevated levels of ASTm in the blood can indicate damage or dysfunction of the liver, heart, or skeletal muscle. For example, elevated ASTm levels can be seen in cases of liver disease, heart muscle damage, or muscle injury. However, it is important to note that ASTm levels can also be affected by other factors, such as age, gender, and medications, so it is important to consider these factors when interpreting ASTm levels.
Glycine transaminase, also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is responsible for converting the amino acid glycine into alanine and vice versa, using pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) as a coenzyme. ALT is primarily found in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues such as the kidneys, heart, and muscles. In the liver, ALT is involved in the breakdown of amino acids and the production of glucose, which is an important source of energy for the body. In the medical field, ALT is often used as a diagnostic marker for liver disease. When the liver is damaged or diseased, ALT levels in the blood can increase. This is because the liver is the primary site of ALT activity, and when the liver is damaged, ALT can leak out into the bloodstream. High levels of ALT in the blood can be an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease.
Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. It is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body and is involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Energy production: Glutamine is a major source of fuel for cells in the body, particularly in the muscles and immune system. 2. Protein synthesis: Glutamine is a key building block for proteins and is essential for the growth and repair of tissues. 3. Immune function: Glutamine plays a critical role in the function of the immune system, particularly in the production of white blood cells. 4. Gut health: Glutamine is important for maintaining the health of the gut lining and preventing damage to the gut. In the medical field, glutamine is often used as a supplement to support various health conditions, including: 1. Wound healing: Glutamine has been shown to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection. 2. Cancer treatment: Glutamine supplementation may help to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as fatigue and muscle wasting. 3. Immune system support: Glutamine supplementation may help to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 4. Digestive disorders: Glutamine may be helpful in treating digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, glutamine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many physiological processes in the body and may be beneficial in supporting various health conditions.
In the medical field, "Keto Acids" refer to a group of acidic compounds that are produced when the body breaks down fat for energy. These compounds are called ketones and are produced in the liver when there is not enough glucose (sugar) available for the body to use as fuel. Keto acids are an important source of energy for the body, especially during periods of fasting or when the body is under stress. They are also used by the brain as a source of fuel, which is why people on a ketogenic diet (a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet) often report feeling more alert and focused. However, high levels of ketones in the blood can also be a sign of a medical condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a serious complication of diabetes that requires immediate medical attention. In DKA, the body produces too many ketones and the blood becomes acidic, which can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications.
Aspartic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized by the body from other compounds and does not need to be obtained through the diet. Aspartic acid is found in high concentrations in the brain and spinal cord, and it plays a role in various physiological processes, including the production of neurotransmitters and the regulation of acid-base balance in the body. In the medical field, aspartic acid is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to measure the function of the liver and kidneys, as well as to monitor the progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and HIV. It is also used as a dietary supplement in some cases.
In the medical field, glutamates refer to a group of amino acids that are important for various physiological functions in the body. Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in many important processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of blood pressure. In the brain, glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, meaning that it stimulates the activity of neurons. However, excessive levels of glutamate can be toxic to neurons and have been implicated in the development of several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Glutamates are also important for the regulation of blood pressure, as they help to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. In addition, glutamates play a role in the immune system, as they help to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. Overall, glutamates are a critical component of many physiological processes in the body and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Pyruvates are organic compounds that are produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. They are the end product of glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. In the medical field, pyruvates are often used as a source of energy for cells. They can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle) and is further metabolized to produce ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell. Pyruvates are also used in the production of certain amino acids, such as alanine and glutamate, and in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as lipids and nucleotides. In some cases, pyruvates can also be converted into lactic acid, which can accumulate in the muscles during periods of intense exercise and contribute to muscle fatigue. This process is known as anaerobic glycolysis. Overall, pyruvates play a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the production of energy in the body.
Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, and inherited metabolic disorders. There are several types of hepatitis, including: 1. Hepatitis A: caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and typically spreads through contaminated food or water. 2. Hepatitis B: caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be transmitted through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. 3. Hepatitis C: caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used for injecting drugs. 4. Hepatitis D: caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and can only occur in people who are already infected with HBV. 5. Hepatitis E: caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and is typically transmitted through contaminated food or water. Symptoms of hepatitis can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, hepatitis can be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms. Treatment for hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and can include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have hepatitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Succinyldiaminopimelate transaminase (SDAP) is an enzyme that plays a role in the biosynthesis of the amino acid lysine. It catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from glutamate to succinyl-CoA, producing alpha-aminoadipate and CoA-SH. This reaction is the first step in the lysine biosynthesis pathway. SDAP is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, as well as in humans. In humans, SDAP is encoded by the SDAP gene and is primarily located in the mitochondria. Mutations in the SDAP gene can lead to lysinuric protein intolerance, a rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of alpha-aminoadipate in the body and the deficiency of lysine.
Pyridoxamine is a vitamin B6 analog that is used in the treatment of certain types of anemia, such as sideroblastic anemia and anemia of chronic disease. It works by increasing the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of iron and heme, which are essential components of red blood cells. Pyridoxamine is also being studied for its potential use in the treatment of other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It is usually administered orally as a tablet or capsule.
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Lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two smaller molecules. They are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. There are several types of lyases, including oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, and ligases. Each type of lyase has a specific mechanism of action and is involved in different metabolic processes. In the medical field, lyases are often studied in the context of disease and drug development. For example, certain lyases are involved in the metabolism of drugs, and changes in the activity of these enzymes can affect the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Additionally, some lyases are involved in the metabolism of harmful substances, such as toxins and carcinogens, and their activity can be targeted for therapeutic purposes.
Leucine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, leucine is often used as a dietary supplement to promote muscle growth and recovery, particularly in athletes and bodybuilders. It is also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of amino acids. Leucine has been shown to have various physiological effects, including increasing protein synthesis, stimulating muscle growth, and improving insulin sensitivity. It is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the production of neurotransmitters. However, excessive consumption of leucine can have negative effects on health, such as liver damage and increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, it is important to consume leucine in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.
Valine is an essential amino acid that is required for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Valine plays a role in the production of energy and the maintenance of muscle tissue. It is also involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels and the production of certain hormones. In the medical field, valine is sometimes used as a dietary supplement to help support muscle growth and recovery, as well as to treat certain medical conditions such as liver disease and muscle wasting.
Kynurenine is an amino acid that is produced from the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. It is a key intermediate in the kynurenine pathway, which is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the liver and other tissues. The kynurenine pathway is involved in the production of several important molecules, including kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). These molecules have a variety of functions in the body, including regulating the activity of certain neurotransmitters and modulating the immune response. In the medical field, kynurenine and the kynurenine pathway are of interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and viral infections.
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is located in the mitochondria of cells and is responsible for converting succinate-semialdehyde, a toxic byproduct of GABA metabolism, into succinic acid, which is a normal component of the citric acid cycle. In the medical field, SSADH deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that results in an accumulation of succinate-semialdehyde in the body. This can lead to a range of neurological symptoms, including seizures, intellectual disability, and movement disorders. The diagnosis of SSADH deficiency is typically made through blood tests and genetic testing. Treatment for SSADH deficiency typically involves a combination of medications to control seizures and other symptoms, as well as dietary modifications to help manage the accumulation of succinate-semialdehyde in the body. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to replace the affected liver cells.
Oxaloacetic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid that plays a central role in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and is involved in the production of energy in the form of ATP. In the citric acid cycle, oxaloacetic acid is produced from the condensation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. It is then converted to malate, which can be transported to the mitochondria for further metabolism or converted back to oxaloacetate to continue the cycle. Oxaloacetic acid is also involved in the synthesis of other important molecules in the body, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and heme. It is a precursor to aspartate, which is used in the synthesis of asparagine, glutamate, and other amino acids. In the medical field, oxaloacetic acid is not typically used as a therapeutic agent. However, it is an important molecule in the metabolism of the body and is involved in the production of energy. Abnormalities in the metabolism of oxaloacetic acid can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease, which is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme that converts oxaloacetic acid to aspartate.
Aminocaproates are a class of amino acid derivatives that are commonly used in the medical field as chelating agents. They are used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead poisoning, by binding to the heavy metal ions and facilitating their elimination from the body. Aminocaproates are also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, by disrupting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. They are typically administered intravenously and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
Serine is an amino acid that is a building block of proteins. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized by the body from other compounds. In the medical field, serine is known to play a role in various physiological processes, including the production of neurotransmitters, the regulation of blood sugar levels, and the maintenance of healthy skin and hair. It is also used as a dietary supplement to support these functions and to promote overall health. In some cases, serine may be prescribed by a healthcare provider to treat certain medical conditions, such as liver disease or depression.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP) is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a diagnostic agent for bone scans. It is a radiopharmaceutical, which means that it is a compound that contains a radioactive isotope that can be detected by medical imaging equipment. AEP is typically used to diagnose bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, and bone infections. It is administered to a patient as a solution that is injected into a vein. The radioactive isotope in AEP is taken up by the bones, and the distribution of the isotope can be imaged using a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. This allows doctors to visualize the bones and identify any abnormalities or areas of increased bone activity. AEP is also used in research to study bone metabolism and to develop new treatments for bone disorders. It is a relatively safe and well-tolerated compound, and its use in medical imaging has been well-established. However, like all radioactive compounds, it should be handled with care and used only by trained medical professionals.
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- A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. (bris.ac.uk)
- Alanine Transaminase (ALT), also known as Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), is an enzyme found primarily in the liver. (prognohealth.com)
- The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Follow-up LTs were offered to all individuals with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) values. (nih.gov)
- Serum triglyceride (TG), total-cholesterol (T-cho), glucose (Glu), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), geranylgeranyltransferase (GGT) and albumin (Alb) levels were measured. (spandidos-publications.com)
Normal alanine transaminase2
- Approximately 20-30% of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have persistently normal alanine transaminase (PNALT) levels. (medscape.com)
- Improved Performance of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis in HCV Cirrhosis with Normal Alanine Transaminase. (nih.gov)
- Hepatotoxicity: Monitor liver laboratory tests every 2 weeks during the first 3 months of treatment, then once a month and as clinically indicated, with more frequent testing in patients who develop transaminase and bilirubin elevations. (nih.gov)
- Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. (unipr.it)
- Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s). (unipr.it)
- Alanine Transaminase Level: Reliable Marker of HCV Histological Disease? (medscape.com)
- We conducted Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-triphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis, alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, histopathological analysis, and rotarod test. (nih.gov)
- ScALT2 functional diversification resulted in loss of both alanine transaminase activity and the additional alanine-independent LkAlt1 function, since ScALT2 did not complement the Lkalt1Δ phenotype. (unipr.it)
- This study determined whether 12 weeks of treatment with acetaminophen at half the maximum recommended daily dose causes an increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) in healthy adults participating in a clinical trial of the effect of acetaminophen on asthma control and severity. (nih.gov)
- Their blood was used to measure alanine transaminase (ALT), asparagine transaminase (AST), cholesterol, creatinine and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1 C). (aaem.pl)
- Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. (unipr.it)