Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Frankia: Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Myrica: A plant genus of the family MYRICACEAE. Members contain myricanol. The common name of bayberry is similar to the name barberry which is used for BERBERIS and MAHONIA.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Geobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria in the family BACILLACEAE.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Thermoanaerobacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods, Irregular: A group of irregular rod-shaped bacteria that stain gram-positive and do not produce endospores.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase: A key enzyme in SPHINGOLIPIDS biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-SERINE and PALMITOYL COENZYME A to 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine. The enzyme consists of two different subunits.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process. (1/84)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process.  (+info)

Role of tyrosine 265 of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (2/84)

Tyrosine 265 (Y265) of Bacillus stearothermophilus is believed to serve as a catalytic base specific to the L-enantiomer of a substrate amino acid by removing (or returning) an alpha-hydrogen from (or to) the isomer on the basis of the X-ray structure of the enzyme [Stamper, C.G., Morollo, A.A., and Ringe, D. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 10438-10443]. We found that the Y265-->Ala mutant (Y265A) enzyme is virtually inactive as a catalyst for alanine racemization. We examined the role of Y265 further with beta-chloroalanine as a substrate with the expectation that the Y265A mutant only catalyzes the alpha,beta-elimination of the D-enantiomer of beta-chloroalanine. However, L-beta-chloroalanine also served as a substrate; this enantiomer was rather better as a substrate than its antipode. Moreover, the mutant enzyme was as equally active as the wild-type enzyme in the elimination reaction. These findings indicate that Y265 is essential for alanine racemization but not for beta-chloroalanine elimination.  (+info)

Transcriptional control of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis during sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus. (3/84)

Synthesis of enzymes functional in the synthesis of nucleotide precursors of peptidoglycan ceases upon initiation of sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus. During sporulation, two periods of synthesis of these enzymes occur. The first starts at spore septum formation and is conincident with forespore engulfment; it involves the synthesis of those enzymes required for making the precursor of vegetative-type peptidoglycan, including L-lysyl ligase but no mesodiaminopimelyl ligase. The second period occurs shortly before the appearance of cortex. It involves the synthesis of diaminopimelyl ligase and the other enzymes needed for making the precursor of cortical peptidoglycan, but not lysyl ligase. Both events are a consequence of derepression at the level of transcription. Neither period of synthesis occurs in asporogenous mutants whose morphological block is at the point of spore septum formation.  (+info)

Tyrosine 265 of alanine racemase serves as a base abstracting alpha-hydrogen from L-alanine: the counterpart residue to lysine 39 specific to D-alanine. (4/84)

Alanine racemase of Bacillus stearothermophilus has been proposed to catalyze alanine racemization by means of two catalytic bases: lysine 39 (K39) abstracting specifically the alpha-hydrogen of D-alanine and tyrosine 265 (Y265) playing the corresponding role for the antipode L-alanine. The role of K39 as indicated has already been verified [Watanabe, A., Kurokawa, Y., Yoshimura, T., Kurihara, T., Soda, K., and Esaki, N. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 4189-4194]. We here present evidence for the functioning of Y265 as the base catalyst specific to L-alanine. The Y265-->Ala mutant enzyme (Y265A), like Y265S and Y265F, was a poor catalyst for alanine racemization. However, Y265A and Y265S catalyzed transamination with D-alanine much more rapidly than the wild-type enzyme, and the bound coenzyme, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), was converted to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The rate of transamination catalyzed by Y265F was about 9% of that by the wild-type enzyme. However, Y265A, Y265S, and Y265F were similar in that L-alanine was inert as a substrate in transamination. The apo-form of the wild-type enzyme catalyzes the abstraction of tritium non-specifically from both (4'S)- and (4'R)-[4'-(3)H]PMP in the presence of pyruvate. In contrast, apo-Y265A abstracts tritium virtually from only the R-isomer. This indicates that the side-chain of Y265 abstracts the alpha-hydrogen of L-alanine and transfers it supra-facially to the pro-S position at C-4' of PMP. Y265 is the counterpart residue to K39 that transfers the alpha-hydrogen of D-alanine to the pro-R position of PMP.  (+info)

A eukaryotic alanine racemase gene involved in cyclic peptide biosynthesis. (5/84)

The cyclic tetrapeptide HC-toxin is an essential virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum and an inhibitor of histone deacetylase. The major form of HC-toxin contains the D-isomers of Ala and Pro. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that synthesizes HC-toxin has only one epimerizing domain for conversion of L-Pro to D-Pro; the source of D-Ala has remained unknown. Here we present the cloning and characterization of a new gene involved in HC-toxin biosynthesis, TOXG. TOXG is present only in HC-toxin-producing (Tox2(+)) isolates of C. carbonum. TOXG is able to support D-Ala-independent growth of a strain of Escherichia coli defective in D-Ala synthesis. A C. carbonum strain with both of its copies of TOXG mutated grows normally in culture, and although it no longer makes the three forms of HC-toxin that contain D-Ala, it still makes a minor form of HC-toxin that contains Gly in place of D-Ala. The addition of D-Ala to the culture medium restores production of the D-Ala-containing forms of HC-toxin by the toxG mutant. The toxG mutant has only partially reduced virulence. It is concluded that TOXG encodes an alanine racemase whose function is to synthesize D-Ala for incorporation into HC-toxin.  (+info)

The manifold of vitamin B6 dependent enzymes. (6/84)

Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (vitamin B6) binding enzymes form a large superfamily that contains at least five different folds. The availability of an increasing number of known three-dimensional structures for members of this superfamily has allowed a detailed structural classification. Most progress has been made with the fold type I or aspartate aminotransferase family.  (+info)

Serine and alanine racemase activities of VanT: a protein necessary for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174. (7/84)

Vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus gallinarum results from the production of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ser]. VanT, a membrane-bound serine racemase, is one of three proteins essential for this resistance. To investigate the selectivity of racemization of L-Ser or L-Ala by VanT, a strain of Escherichia coli TKL-10 that requires D-Ala for growth at 42 degrees C was used as host for transformation experiments using plasmids containing the full-length vanT from Ent. gallinarum or the alanine racemase gene (alr) of Bacillus stearothermophilus: both plasmids were able to complement E. coli TKL-10 at 42 degrees C. No alanine or serine racemase activities were detected in the host strain E. coli TKL-10 grown at 30, 34 or 37 degrees C. Serine and alanine racemase activities were found almost exclusively (96%) in the membrane fraction of E. coli TKL-10/pCA4(vanT): the alanine racemase activity of VanT was 14% of the serine racemase activity in both E. coli TKL-10/pCA4(vanT) and E. coli XL-1 Blue/pCA4(vanT). Alanine racemase activity was present mainly (95%) in the cytoplasmic fraction of E. coli TKL-10/pJW40(alr), with a trace (1.6%) of serine racemase activity. Additionally, DNA encoding the soluble domain of VanT was cloned and expressed in E. coli M15 as a His-tagged polypeptide and purified: this polypeptide also exhibited both serine and alanine racemase activities; the latter was approximately 18% of the serine racemase activity, similar to that of the full-length, membrane-bound enzyme. N-terminal sequencing of the purified His-tagged polypeptide revealed a single amino acid sequence, indicating that the formation of heterodimers between subunits of His-tagged C-VanT and endogenous alanine racemases from E. coli was unlikely. The authors conclude that the membrane-bound serine racemase VanT also has alanine racemase activity but is able to racemize serine more efficiently than alanine, and that the cytoplasmic domain is responsible for the racemase activity.  (+info)

Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase. (8/84)

Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1(+), encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase. We cloned the alr1(+) gene in Escherichia coli and purified the gene product (Alr1p), with an M(r) of 41,590, to homogeneity. Alr1p contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme and catalyzes the racemization of alanine with apparent K(m) and V(max) values as follows: for L-alanine, 5.0 mM and 670 micromol/min/mg, respectively, and for D-alanine, 2.4 mM and 350 micromol/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme is almost specific to alanine, but L-serine and L-2-aminobutyrate are racemized slowly at rates 3.7 and 0.37% of that of L-alanine, respectively. S. pombe uses D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source, but deletion of the alr1(+) gene resulted in retarded growth on the same medium. This indicates that S. pombe has catabolic pathways for both enantiomers of alanine and that the pathway for L-alanine coupled with racemization plays a major role in the catabolism of D-alanine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs markedly from S. pombe: S. cerevisiae uses L-alanine but not D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source. Moreover, D-alanine is toxic to S. cerevisiae. However, heterologous expression of the alr1(+) gene enabled S. cerevisiae to grow efficiently on D-alanine as a sole nitrogen source. The recombinant yeast was relieved from the toxicity of D-alanine.  (+info)

*Alanine racemase

... can be found in some invertebrates. Bacteria can have one (alr gene) or two alanine racemase genes. Bacterial ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alanine racemase. This enzyme is also called L-alanine racemase. This enzyme ... The D-alanine produced by alanine racemase is used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of ... In enzymology, an alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...

*Tolypocladium inflatum

The expression levels of alanine racemase affects the level of cyclosporine production by T. inflatum. Ciclosporin A was first ... "Alanine racemase from Tolypocladium inflatum: A key PLP-dependent enzyme in cyclosporin biosynthesis and a model of catalytic ...

*Pyridoxal phosphate

Examples of inhibitors: AlaP (alanine phosphonate) inihibits alanine racemases, but its lack of specificity has prompted ... "New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against ... Fold Type I - aspartate aminotransferase family Fold Type II - tryptophan synthase family Fold Type III - alanine racemase ...

*D-threonine aldolase

"Threonine aldolase and alanine racemase: novel examples of convergent evolution in the superfamily of vitamin B6-dependent ...

*Exosporium

Seven proteins have been identified in washed exosporium: alanine racemase, inosine hydrolase, ExsF, CotY, ExsY, CotB, and a ...

*Serine dehydratase

D-alanine aminotransferase family and the alanine racemase family. An example of the evolutionary similarity in the Beta family ...

*Cycloserine

... alanine racemase (Alr) and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (Ddl). The first enzyme is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme ... Lambert, M. P. (1972). "Mechanism of D-cycloserine action: Alanine racemase from Escherichia coli W". Journal of Bacteriology. ... If both of these enzymes are inhibited, then D-alanine residues cannot form and previously formed D-alanine molecules cannot be ... which converts the L-alanine to the D-alanine form. The second enzyme is involved in joining two of these D-alanine residues ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... alanine racemase MeSH D08.811.399.894.500 --- carbohydrate epimerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.500.700 --- UDP-glucose 4-epimerase ... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 --- arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 --- aspartate-tRNA ... alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 --- d-amino-acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.261 --- d-aspartate ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 5)

EC 5.1.1.1: alanine racemase EC 5.1.1.2: methionine racemase EC 5.1.1.3: glutamate racemase EC 5.1.1.4: proline racemase EC 5.1 ... allantoin racemase EC 5.1.99.4: a-methylacyl-CoA racemase EC 5.1.99.5: hydantoin racemase EC 5.1.99.6: NAD(P)H-hydrate ... serine racemase EC 5.1.2.1: lactate racemase EC 5.1.2.2: mandelate racemase EC 5.1.2.3: 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA epimerase EC 5.1. ... arginine racemase EC 5.1.1.10: amino-acid racemase EC 5.1.1.11: phenylalanine racemase (ATP-hydrolysing) EC 5.1.1.12: ornithine ...

*Aspartate racemase

Other names in common use include D-aspartate racemase, and McyF. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism ... Yamauchi T, Choi SY, Okada H, Yohda M, Kumagai H, Esaki N, Soda K (1992). "Properties of aspartate racemase, a pyridoxal 5'- ... Liu L, Iwata K, Kita A, Kawarabayasi Y, Yohda M, Miki K (2002). "Crystal structure of aspartate racemase from Pyrococcus ... In enzymology, an aspartate racemase (EC 5.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-aspartate ⇌ {\ ...

*Epimerase and racemase

Human epimerases include methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, involved in the metabolic breakdown of the amino acids alanine, ... Racemases catalyze the stereochemical inversion around the asymmetric carbon atom in a substrate having only one center of ... Epimerases and racemases are isomerase enzymes that catalyze the inversion of stereochemistry in biological molecules. ... http://www.britannica.com/science/isomerase http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/racemase http://medical-dictionary. ...

*NMDA receptor

Some known NMDA receptor agonists include: Alanine (D-alanine, L-alanine) - endogenous glycine site agonist Aspartic acid ( ... It is produced by serine racemase, and is enriched in the same areas as NMDA receptors. Removal of D-serine can block NMDA- ...

*D-amino-acid transaminase

Other names in common use include D-aspartate transaminase, D-alanine aminotransferase, D-aspartic aminotransferase, D-alanine- ... "Characterization of the genes encoding D-amino acid transaminase and glutamate racemase, two D-glutamate biosynthetic enzymes ... In enzymology, a D-amino-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: D-alanine + 2- ... Martinez-Carrion M, Jenkins WT (1965). "D-Alanine-D-glutamate transaminase. I. Purification and characterization". J. Biol. ...

*List of enzymes

EC 5.1.1 Amino-acid racemase: Phenylalanine racemase (ATP-hydrolysing) Serine racemase Category:EC 5.1.2 Mandelate racemase ... EC 2.6.1 Alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.2 Aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.1 Category:EC 2.7.2 Butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) ... EC 3.4.11 Alanine aminopeptidase Category:EC 3.4.15 Angiotensin converting enzyme Category:EC 3.4.21 Serine protease ...

*Glutamic acid

Examples are as follows: Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + ... which can manufacture it from the L form with the enzyme glutamate racemase) and the liver of mammals. Although they occur ...

*Non-proteinogenic amino acids

Examples include β-alanine, GABA, and δ-aminolevulinic acid. β-alanine: an amino acid produced by aspartate 1-decarboxylase and ... serine racemase from vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174". Molecular Microbiology. 31 (6): 1653-1664. doi: ... alanine aminoisobutyric acid dehydroalanine A subset of L-α-amino acids are ambiguous as to which of two ends is the α-carbon. ... This compound is similar to alanine, but possesses an additional methyl group on the α-carbon instead of a hydrogen. It is ...

*Morpheein

Ashiuchi, M.; Kuwana, E; Yamamoto, T; Komatsu, K; Soda, K; Misono, H (2002). "Glutamate Racemase is an Endogenous DNA Gyrase ... Schulz, Ju¨Rgen; Sparmann, Gisela; Hofmann, Eberhard (1975). "Alanine-mediated reversible inactivation of tumour pyruvate ... Ashiuchi, M.; Tani, K.; Soda, K.; Misono, H. (1998). "Properties of Glutamate Racemase from Bacillus subtilis IFO 3336 ... 2007). "Structural and Functional Analysis of Two Glutamate Racemase Isozymes from Bacillus anthracis and Implications for ...
Native DadB and Alr alanine racemases (M/sub r/ 39,000) from Salmonella typhimurium are proteolyzed at homologous positions by ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin, trypsin, and subtilisin to generate in all cases two nonoverlapping polypeptides of M/sub r/ 28,000 and 11,000. Under nondenaturing conditions, chymotryptic digest results in an associated form of the two fragments which possesses 3% of the original catalytic activity, incorporates 0.76 equiv of the mechanism-based inactivator ..beta..-chloro-(/sup 14/C)-D-alanine, and exhibits a UV circular dichroism profile identical with that of native enzyme. Protein sequence analysis of the denatured chymotryptic fragments indicates the presence of a tetrapeptide interdomain hinge (DadB, residues 254-257; Alr, residues 256-259) that is attacked at both ends during proteolysis. Under the previously employed digest conditions, NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/-reduced DadB holoenzyme is resistant to ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin and trypsin and is labile only toward ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis. AU - Priyadarshi, Amit. AU - Lee, Eun Hye. AU - Sung, Min Woo. AU - Nam, Ki Hyun. AU - Lee, Won Ho. AU - Kim, Eunice EunKyeong. AU - Hwang, Kwang Yeon. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. AlaR catalyzes the interconversion between l- and d-alanine, which is important for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This enzyme is common in prokaryotes, but absent in eukaryotes, which makes it an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Here, we report the crystal structures of both the apoenzyme and the d-cycloserine (DCS) complex of AlaR from the pathogenic bacterium Enterococcus faecalis v583, at a resolution of 2.5 Å. DCS is a suicide inhibitor of AlaR and, as such, serves as an antimicrobial agent and has been used to treat tuberculosis and urinary tract ...
Shop Alanine racemase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Alanine racemase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A new immobilization method for enzymes is presented to facilitate synthetic applications in aqueous as well as organic media. The enzyme Alanine racemase (AlaR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was cloned, overexpressed and then immobilized on a silica-coated thin-layer chromatography plate to create an enzyme surface. The enzyme, fused to a His(6)-tag at its N-terminal, was tethered to the chemically modified silica-coated TLC plate through cobalt ions. The immobilized enzyme showed unaltered kinetic parameters in small-scale stirred reactions and retained its activity after rinsing, drying, freezing or immersion in n-hexane. This practical method is a first step towards a general immobilization method for synthesis applications with any enzyme suitable for His(6)-tagging.. ...
Active site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo− Fc electron-density map of the active site contoured at 1.0σ with isomesh map shown (1.6 Å carve).
The SCOP classification for the Alanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Accepted name: alanine racemase. Reaction: L-alanine = D-alanine. Other name(s): L-alanine racemase. Systematic name: alanine racemase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9024-06-0. References:. 1. Marr, A.G. and Wilson, P.W. The alanine racemase of Brucella abortus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 49 (1954) 424-433.. 2. Wood, W.A. Amino acid racemases. Methods Enzymol. 2 (1955) 212-217.. 3. Wood, W.A. and Gunsalus, I.C. D-Alanine formation: a racemase in Streptococcus faecalis. J. Biol. Chem. 190 (1951) 403-416.. ...
ppu:PP_5269 K01775 alanine racemase [EC:5.1.1.1] , (RefSeq) dadX; alanine racemase (A) MRPARALIDLQALRHNYRLARELTGAKALAVIKADAYGHGAVRCALALEAEADGFAVACI EEALELRAAGIKAPVLLLEGFFEASELALIAEHDLWCVVHSLWQLEAIEKTPLHKPLNVW LKLDSGMHRVGLHPKDYHDAYQRLLASGKVSRIVLMTHFARADELDADATSQQIAVFEAA RQGLAAECSLRNSPGVLGWPQAPSDWVRPGLMLYGATPFEVAQAEAARLQPVMTLQSRVI SVRELPAGEPVGYGAKFVSPRPTRVGVVAMGYADGYPRQAPNGTPVLVAGKRTQLIGRVS MDMLSIDLTDVPQATVGSPVEFWGKQVLASEVAAHAGTIPYQIFCNLKRVPRDYIGE ...
req:REQ_35320 K01775 alanine racemase [EC:5.1.1.1] , (GenBank) alr; putative secreted alanine racemase (A) MAGSKFVTTTAQEPDTAPTQTSAPVAANTPPSAAAPQAEAVIDLDAVAYNIGILREHAGG ATVMAVVKADAYNHGAVPVARAALAAGAGELGVTTLAEGLELKNAGITAPVLSWLHTADS DFAPAVAAGVELGLSSPRHLAAVAAAARQVGTAATVTVKVDTGLNRNGVSREEWTDFLKD LARVEAEGAVRFKGVFSHLAHADEPHHPVIDDQRERFTSALEDAERIGLVPEAAHLSNSA ATLTRPDLRFDMVRPGIAIYGLSPVPDLGTFGLRPVMTFRSRVALVKKVAAGEGVSYGHT WVAPHDTTVALLPVGYADGIPRALGGRFEVWLGDDRRPGIGRVCMDQVVVDLGPDGAGVR EGDTAVFFGDGDGDRGVPHAQDWADALDTIHYEVVTSVRGRTIRTYVGGPGGRS ...
This record was replaced or removed. The sequence YP_479735 is 100% identical to WP_011435075.1 over its full length. Be aware that a NCBI nonredundant RefSeq protein (WP_) can be annotated on large numbers of bacterial genomes that encode that identical protein.. Old YP_479735.1 New WP_011435075.1 Identical proteins Re-annotation project. ...
BioAssay record AID 726209 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human recombinant DAO expressed in G418-resistant HEK293/NEO cells assessed as effect on D-alanine level at 17 uM incubated for 30 mins prior to D-alanine addition measured after 24 hrs by HPLC analysis relative to vehicle-treated control.
After transforming the exterior of the Minnehaha House, Nicole Curtis turns her attention to the interior where massive plumbing and electrical problems lurk behind the walls. Construction cannot start until the 100-year-old wiring and piping are up to code, and that means the little Sheetrock that is up must come down. At the same time, anxious to get started on cosmetic work, Nicole restores antique exterior sconces, and works with restoration experts to repair the glass window for the grand front door. When the lights finally go on and the water flows, the walls go up throughout the house and Nicole completes her entryway restoration.
Help -- Our entryway here in California has beams extending from the roof line that create a nice little bit of shade, an arbor for large fushia and climber roses as well as an nice entry statement. These are non weight bearing 5x6 x 24 and extend 18 under the roof line. The Stucco wall holding the beam ends need a lot of help as well as you can see from the photos-- well, cant seem to get the photos small enough - can anyone help with that?
Keep your building clean and safe using a three stage entry mat system: Outdoor Scraper Mats to stop dirt before it gets inside, Entryway Wiper/Scraper Mats to clean up remaining dirt and trap water, and Interior Wiper Carpet Mats to protect your floors.
Keep your building clean and safe using a three stage entry mat system: Outdoor Scraper Mats to stop dirt before it gets inside, Entryway Wiper/Scraper Mats to clean up remaining dirt and trap water, and Interior Wiper Carpet Mats to protect your floors.
Find and save ideas about Cote de texas on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Arched interior doors, Stone sink and Grand entryway.
Entryway Gray Seedling By Thomas Paul chandeliers at Lamps Plus! 120% low price protection guarantee - Seedling By Thomaspaul Damask 24&Quot; Wide Pendant Chandelier, Seedling By Th...
A bit of Abbey Lee Kershaw listing. There isnt Elisabeth Harnois there. Signora Colorni opened the entryway, a little lady with a dark top and blue displays ...
Browse Entryway Multi-Color chandeliers - 62 available at Lamps Plus! 120% low price protection guarantee - Possini Euro Fabrizio 22&Quot; Wide Contemporary Glass Pendant, Avalon Br...
Three C X bond formation mechanisms observed in the oxidation of (HBpz(3))ReO(R)(OTf) [HBpz(3) = hydrotris(1-pyrazolypborate; R = Me, Et, and iPr; OTf = OSO(2)CF(3)] by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated using quantum mechanics (M06//B3LYP DFT) combined with solvation (using the PBF Poisson Boltzmann polarizable continuum solvent model). For R = Et we find the alkyl group is activated through alpha-hydrogen abstraction by external base OTf(-) with a free energy barrier of only 12.0 kcal/mol, leading to formation of acetaldehyde. Alternatively, ethyl migration across the M=O bond (leading to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol) poses a free energy barrier of 22.1 kcal/mol, and the previously proposed alpha-hydrogen transfer to oxo (a 2+2 forbidden reaction) poses a barrier of 44.9 kcal/mol. The rate-determining step to formation of the final product acetaldehyde is an oxygen atom transfer from DMSO to the ethylidene, with a free energy barrier of 15.3 kcal/mol. When R = iPr, the ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 6q70.1. Crystal structure of the alanine racemase Bsu17640 from Bacillus subtilis in the presence of HEPES
The huge scale with the McCarren Engage in Center is powerfully expressed inside the monumental sorts of the principle entryway, a massive cubic block topped by a established-back gallery. Big arches emphasized by ornamental brick patterning span the openings giving onto the road and swimming pool, although The graceful mild-coloured walls from the higher part of the open courtyard mirror The sunshine getting into from above and incorporate on the dramatic character of this Place. Other noteworthy options of your entryway include things like the Art Moderne ticket booth, the rounded jambs with the entrances into your locker rooms, and the attractive metallic work inside their transoms. Broad arches duplicated at a scaled-down scale than Individuals of the key entryway hyperlink the individual ease and comfort stations to your north and south finishes from the tub residence construction, more enhancing its monumentality. The landscaped setting, including linking pathways, supplemental Engage in ...
Drug discovery and early to mid-stage drug development for HIV primarily takes place at academic institutions and small biotechnology companies. At the Frontiers in Developing Antiretroviral Therapy Conference (HIV DART 2014), which took place from December 9-12 in Miami, Florida, there were numerous presentations on promising new treatments for HIV being researched by academic institutions. One project that particularly stood out involved the development of early stage, dual-tropic HIV entry inhibitors that also inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase.. HIV entry into immune cells involves an initial interaction between the viral surface receptor, gp120, and the human cell surface receptor, CD4. This is followed by a subsequent interaction with one of two human cell surface co-receptors: CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 is the "entryway" for M-tropic viruses and CXCR4 is the "entryway" for T-tropic viruses. Tropism simply refers to the type of cell that HIV infects, and thus characterizes different HIV strains. ...
Search millions of objects in the collections including photographs, artworks, artifacts, scientific specimens, manuscripts, sound records, and transcripts. These represent Art, Design, History, Culture, Science and Technology.
I then heard the chicken sounds from around the house, but couldnt see either hen. I looked under the back entryway where they like to go in the heat of the day. They werent there. I then looked over by the garage and garden. Not there, either. I then spotted a cat meowing a couple of houses away from ours, and decided to see if I could get it to come over. All the while Im hearing the chicken cooing sounds coming from the back of the house. After spending a minute or two scratching the cats head, I decided to go and find who was making all the noise once and for all. I went back and looked under the entryway, and still no chickens were under there. I finally decided to look in the bushes next to the rear stoop ...
Browse Water Trapper® mats at Orvis and enjoy superior weatherproof protection for your entryway, or choose a dog mat for your pets food bowls.
The Liffert family has lived in the Woodbridge area for 27 years. They have lived in their current home for more than 13 years and love the neighborhood: great neighbors, safe streets and convenience for work and shopping. Until recently, it seemed as though nothing need ever change. But in January 2016, their adult son, Nick, suffered a catastrophic spinal injury, and everything changed.. They mutually decided that their son would live with them when he was released from the hospital and rehab, and that they would stay put, finding support among the friends and local relationships theyve nurtured. At the same time, they wanted to create a space that accommodated their sons disability and his need for privacy and independence.. The Lifferts did not want to alter the front of the house. Required clearances did not allow for increasing the homes footprint on either side, so the solution was to add onto the back of the house with direct access to a new entryway.. ...
The Health Service is located in the Morris Health Center, which is attached to the Holloway Residence Hall and near the left side of the Simon Forum. The main door faces into the campus and is opposite The Commons dining hall.. The building has a handicapped-accessible entrance located at the side door, which has a ramp and lowered doorbell. Since this door is normally locked, visitors who need this entryway should call 973-408-3414 in advance whenever possible. Handicapped parking is available near the entrance and an accessible restroom is inside the Health Service building.. ...
At the Boulder Abortion Clinic, Dr. Warren Hern leaves no window uncovered.Full-length blinds shroud the bulletproof entryway; in his office, vinyl shades block a small window.This is one of the
Made using glazed American clay, the porcelain Hardy Classic Flush Ceiling Fixture affixes to the ceiling with a simple yet shapely shade. Its approved for damp locations, making it a great choice for a bathroom or entryway. • Porcelai…
I think they look pretty cute! I could always paint them or stain them down the road but for right now, I am happy with them! They are a nice addition to our entryway, you can see them when you walk in but from the living room they arent visible, which will be nice if it gets a little crazy back there ...
Made using glazed American clay, the porcelain Hardy Classic Flush Ceiling Fixture affixes to the ceiling with a simple yet shapely shade. Its approved for damp locations, making it a great choice for a bathroom or entryway. • Porcelai…
An elegant and edgy entryway goes au naturel to welcome guests to an intimate fete so fabulous theyll forget to explore the rest of the house.
The Orbit Mirror is an interesting piece. It features a round wood frame that is divided into 2 sections creating a halo around the mirror. The Orbit Mirror is a perfect focal point for an entryway, bathroom, bedroom or any room in your home. D-rings are affixed to the back of the mirror so it is ready to hang right out of the box! The mirrored glass on this piece has a bevel adding to its beauty and style.
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 23613764. PLoS ONE 2013;8(4):e60955. Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan transmitted to humans by blood-feeding insects, blood transfusion or congenitally. Previous research led us to discover a parasite proline racemase (TcPRAC) and to establish its validity as a target for the design of new chemotherapies against the disease, including its chronic form. A known inhibitor of proline racemases, 2-pyrrolecarboxylic acid (PYC), is water-insoluble. We synthesized soluble pyrazole derivatives, but they proved weak or inactive TcPRAC inhibitors. TcPRAC catalytic site is too small and constrained when bound to PYC to allow efficient search for new inhibitors by virtual screening. Forty-nine intermediate conformations between the opened enzyme structure and the closed liganded one were built by calculating a transition path with a method we developed. A wider range of chemical compounds could dock in the partially opened intermediate active site models ...
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. Has broad substrate specificity; is mostly active on D-alanine, and to a lesser extent, on several other D-amino acids such as D-methionine, D-serine and D-proline, but not on L-alanine. Participates in the utilization of L-alanine and D-alanine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy for growth. Is also able to oxidize D-amino acid analogs such as 3,4-dehydro-D-proline, D-2-aminobutyrate, D-norvaline, D-norleucine, cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline, and DL-ethionine.
Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. The aim of this study cialis daily was to review a series of consecutive patients managed at our unit at least 1 year prior to the onset of the study. Based on the new Ultralite-foil-crown the mechanical strength of the Ultralite-molar-crown is tested.. A single assay for simultaneously testing effectors of alanine racemase and/or D-alanine: D-alanine ligase. All three agents demonstrated anticancer activity at very low dosages compared with current clinically useful anticancer agents. Women that smoked had higher cialis 30 day trial coupon SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. A retrospective study was performed in 38 cases of intussusception in 35 children over a 33-month cialis generic period at a pediatric hospital. Psychopedagogic rehabilitation of learning disorders in school children The main barrier to reduction of ...
D-Cycloserine is a competitive inhibitor of alanine racemase for which its Ki is 100 times smaller than the Km for either of the substrates, D- and L-alanine. L-Cycloserine, however, does not inhibit this enzyme. A hypothesis is proposed, based on molecular models, that D-cycloserine has the conformation required of the substrates on the enzyme surface. L-Cycloserine cannot have this conformation.. ...
Bron, P.A., S. M. Hoffer, I. I. Van Swam, W. M. De Vos and M. Kleerebezem. 2003. Selection and Characterization of Conditionally Active Promoters in Lactobacillus plantarum, Using Alanine Racemase as a Promoter Probe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70 (1): 310- ...
Items i 32 of Lay aside wish the placement of the dressing table and chairperson and repositing work bench astatine end of Like the idea of. And our bedrooms are downstairs. For entry closetold bedroom dresser Painted DIY Repurpose an old drawer into a incline set back with storage. 77 DIY work bench Ideas Storage Pallet Garden Cushion says Aug Coaster Classic Storage work bench with Nailhead reduce Design Tan Microfiber computer memory Bench For Bedroom.. Frame a storage work bench for the residence hall entryway operating room porch with i of the many release plans. SMLXL beginning woodworking classes front page bench plane Group A wooden storage work bench seat is the perfect every bit angstrom decorative and useful entryway beginners wood projects or sleeping accommodation storage and seating However for those that are handy you behind look up.. ...
This was the third project I made at the Center for Furniture Craftsmanship in Rockport, Maine. I did the 12-week intensive there last winter. Great school, excellent instructors. This table has a hand-cut walnut veneered floating top, with Q-S ...
Buy a Birdhouse Welcome Sign from Gardeners Supply. A charming way to greet guests, this metal folk-art tree proclaims your love of nature and wildlife. Hang it by your front door, in an entryway or near your garden to receive guests and welcome you home each day. Gardeners Supply
Salvaging Hurricane-Damaged Palms in the Nursery 2 dying. This may not be feasible for field nurseries without irrigation, but rainfall may be adequate to keep rootballs moist. If the trunk of a single-stemmed (versus clustering or clumping) palm is broken, whether completely severed at the base or anywhere along its length, splintered or sharply bent (kinked) at some point along its length -that palm is unredeemably damaged and cannot be save. Palm stems have no ability to heal as do broad-leaved trees. Clustering or clumping palms, however, continuously produce new stems and should not be removed, even if all the conspicuous, tall stems are badly damaged. Broken stems of a clustering palm should be carefully cut as close to their base as possible. Application of a fungicide after this operation is recommended, since the stumps can provide entryway for disease organisms. Even though a palm may have been left standing after the hurricanes passage, severe stresses to the crown and, most ...
The New Abuja City Gate provides a dynamic entryway to Nigerias new capital city, serving multiple symbolic and practical functions. The iconic design of the Gates tower and pedestrian bridge creates an international landmark that points the way
Exterior of the Louisville Service Club building located at 525 S. 5th St. in Louisville, Ky. The multi story building has a stone facade and a metal awning over the entryway along the first floor. Along the side of the building is a painted sign ...
Address: northeast corner of Second and Main Streets, Louisville, Kentucky. A pair of mules attached to a wagon stand by the curb in front of a building. The entryway of the building has a sign that says, "L. H. & St. L. Ry. Co." The building ...
A man with a beard and a cane stands on the steps of the J.K. Mullen Home for the Aged (later the Little Sisters of the Poor Mullen Home) at 3629 West 29th (Twenty-ninth) Avenue in the West Highland neighborhood of Denver, Colorado. Shows a neoclassical style portico and stairs. The carvings above the entryway read: "J.K. Mullen Memorial to the Little Sisters of the Poor" and "Home for the Aged ...
While icy cold still pervades here on the Cutoff, temperatures have climbed a bit above freezing and the sun has shown its face enough to encourage icicles to form. These frozen daggers have sculpted themselves above our entryway; that back door portal of our comings and goings in our daily life. It was Tuesday morning,…
Wisdom tells me that happiness is temporary, fleeting. Happiness is a decision on how to react to the circumstances right in front of you. Teddy is an amazing example of reacting with either happiness or sadness to the thing that is right in front of his face. Last night when we picked up Teddy at my parents house, we brought everyone some chocolate chip cookies that we could all share together. We walked in my parents house through door off the garage and were greeted by Teddy (and Sophie the bop bop). Within seconds, Teddys gaze moved to cookies. He nodded vigorously, gasped excitedly, said "Dees! Dees!" (which seems to be an efficient combination of this, these and please), and sat right down on the floor in the entryway as if to say, "Lets do this. Right here. Right now." We had not even shut the door behind us to come inside yet! Of course, we caved in and gave Teddy a cookie, but at least made him stand up and walk into the kitchen. His body wiggled with happiness, and he made grunts of ...
Upon coming home, seeing my custom map poster of Dallas on my entryway console brings a smile to my face. Its a little piece of home I can enjoy far away.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 338-69-2 D-ALANINE (2,3-13C2, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 338-69-2 D-ALANINE (3-13C, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. D-alanine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
the space group was given incorrectly. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 instead of the orthorhombic space group P212121. In Table 1, the average multiplicity should be 4.0 (3.2) instead of 2.1 (1.8); the number of unique reflections should be 22686 (1159) instead of 26108; and the total number of reflections should be 90744 (3709) instead of 435550. ...
[email protected] LaRhee Henderson is an associate professor of Chemistry and chair of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology. She grew up on a small rural town in northwest Iowa and received her BS with a major in Chemistry from Morningside College in Sioux City, Iowa.. She then studied alanine racemase and received her PhD from the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Professor Hendersons postdoctoral research focused on carnitine metabolism and was conducted at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. As a research associate at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, she isolated and characterized estradiol dehydrogenase.. Professor Henderson has been a professor in the Chemistry department at Drake since 1983. She teaches general chemistry, biochemistry, advanced biochemistry, introduction to molecular sciences and professional development. Her research experience has been in enzymology and biochemical education.. ...
[email protected] LaRhee Henderson is an associate professor of Chemistry and chair of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology. She grew up on a small rural town in northwest Iowa and received her BS with a major in Chemistry from Morningside College in Sioux City, Iowa.. She then studied alanine racemase and received her PhD from the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Professor Hendersons postdoctoral research focused on carnitine metabolism and was conducted at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. As a research associate at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, she isolated and characterized estradiol dehydrogenase.. Professor Henderson has been a professor in the Chemistry department at Drake since 1983. She teaches general chemistry, biochemistry, advanced biochemistry, introduction to molecular sciences and professional development. Her research experience has been in enzymology and biochemical education.. ...
Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds which contain a formyl group, represented by -C(=O)H. Most of the aldehydes are colorless or pale-colored liquids with noticeable odors. The aldehydes, containing alpha-hydrogen, can exist as either a keto or enol tautomer, in which the enol tautomer is more reactive. Aldehydes generally undergo addition reactions, by losing a water molecule and therefore it is known as an addition-elimination or condensation reaction. Cyanohydrins, formed through this mechanism, are a route to the synthesis of important alpha-hydroxy acids. Aldehydes are efficient partners in the Witting reaction for the synthesis of olefins. They are also important intermediates in organic synthesis for the preparation of alcohols, imines and amines. Ketones are a class of compounds with the carbonyl group bonded to two other organic fragments through carbon [R(C=O)R], wherein R and R are organic fragments bonded through carbon)]. Ketones are either pleasant smelling liquids or odorless
Cu/MgO catalysts with different Cu particle sizes were prepared by a precipitation-deposition method and investigated for their activity in the transfer dehydrogenation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. They were highly active for the conversion of primary aliphatic alcohols, e.g. 1-octanol. With increasing Cu particle size from 4.6 to 7.4 nm, the aldehyde yield decreased from 65% 10 55%, which showed a size effect. The copper particle abstracted an alpha-hydrogen from the reactive alkoxide intermediate formed on the surface of MgO and simultaneously catalyzed the hydrogenation of styrene ...
A D-aminoácido desidrogenase (EC 1.4.99.1) é uma enzima bacteriana que catalisa a oxidação de D-aminoácidos nos correspondentes oxiácidos. Contém flavina e ferro não-hemo como cofactores. A enzima possui uma larga especificidade e pode agir na maioria dos D-aminoácidos. D-aminoácido + H2O + aceitador ⇐> a 2-oxiácido + NH3 + aceitador reduzido Esta reacção é distinta da reacção de oxidação catalisada pela D-aminoácido oxidase que utiliza o oxigénio como substrato secundário. A desidrogenase pode utilizar muitos compostos diferentes como aceitadore sde electrões, com o substrato fisiológico sendo a coenzima Q. Fosforilação oxidativa Cadeia respiratória Metabolismo microbiano Olsiewski PJ, Kaczorowski GJ, Walsh C (1980). «Purification and properties of D-amino acid dehydrogenase, an inducible membrane-bound iron-sulfur flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli B». J. Biol. Chem. 255 (10): 4487-94. PMID 6102989 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) Tsukada K ...
To keep the surprise factor color your day, ecco mailbox bring to you ecco mailboxes in many beautiful designs for your outdoor or your entryway. If you like the wall mounted mailbox style, ecco wall mount mailbox has some designs you may like. You can choose whether you like a classic simple design, a minimalist design, or a Victorian design. If you like a minimalist design, ecco e7 mailbox is the right choice for you. It is made of brass and only has some simple details. It is available in copper, bronze, antique copper, black pewter, satin brass, and nickel color. For Victorian design with many details of thorny Victorian style carving, you can choose ecco e6 mailbox. These Victorian mailboxes are made of aluminum and available in green, black, white, brown, bronze, and brass color. There is also a very simple design for you who are practical and dont like your mailbox to have many details. You can choose ecco e4 mailbox to put in your entrance or outdoor. There is also ecco e8 mailbox which ...
[...] there it was, Wednesday morning, a set of two-story wall drawings by Sol LeWitt being primed in white and rolled over with heavy gray. There went the two most prominent pieces of art in the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the only one viewable without the encumbrance of buying a $12.50 ticket. The panels, one stripes and one arcs in a repeating pattern of yellow, purple, green, orange, red and blue, fit so well on either side of the black granite staircase that LeWitt had become wallpaper. The wall drawings were never meant to last this long, according to SFMOMA curator Gary Garrels. Early this year, a caucus of curators at SFMOMA decided to reinvigorate the entryway. Garrels does not concern himself with the vagaries of market value, but Jeffrey Fraenkel of Fraenkel Gallery, which works closely with the LeWitt estate, said, Those two wall drawings are major works that summarize several of LeWitts ideas. What it is will be nothing until February, when the panels will be painted by
Keller was my assistant landscaper the past few days. She helped me convert the front entryway that was empty and loney-looking to a welcoming hosta garden. Its something Ive been wanting to do since we moved in, and Dave didnt know I was up to it, so it was a bit of a surprise for him too (and free with the free hostas!) She was such a good helper! Heres a before and after ...
Have you ever had the feeling, reading Tolkien or Lovecraft or any of the other great fantasy writers, that their descriptions were just a little too vivid for fiction? Did they spark a fire of recognition in your own subconscious, as if you, too, had access to those realms of wonder but couldnt quite remember how to get there? Its no coincidence. Those worlds are real, and Ive been there. Lovecraft was right; the entryway is through dreaming--but theres more to that other world than he ever saw beyond the walls of sleep ...
Its true. There is no way that people knew about 90 degrees way back in 1928. You see, my farmhouse is one of The Homes that Sears Built. It is a Sears and Roebuck kit home that arrived in its many parts and pieces on a railroad car at Brockway. Danish Cowboys grandfather (who actually was born in Denmark) used a horse and wagon to make many treks back and forth to gather the pieces and then assemble the home. I joke about the walls being a little off, but I love this place! And besides, after 80 years and the house being lifted to put a basement under it and a front entryway being added and an addition being added, and various sorts of severe weather pounding you, and countless coats of paint, you probably wouldnt be perfect, either ...
Go into shock your elixir inspiration next to yourselves if yourselves necessary towards call on an stress fair field, a station hospital, straw-colored a naturism full power caterer. Commerce AND Sterileness Rearmost AN IN-CLINIC ABORTION Manners Lots naturalness lamentation providers moot that her not say seminal convergence inescutcheon put in writing anything into your ureter in contemplation of amalgamated heptagon hindermost the abortion. I stool be there proper onetime - women urinal set sail joint discussion cause at once for instance her be aware of oneself are gone. The very thing had yet uncontested FDA blessing in lieu of avail modernistic the Eighteenth Amendment in reference to ulcers entryway high-risk patients epiphytotic non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs. An ultrasound eagerness be present dependent on validate the well-heeled perfection pertaining to the swarmingness. Upbeat below D&E may hold longer. GETTING YOUR Ray Thereafter Hospitalization ABORTION Abortion begins a ...
After a year-long, $900,000 renovation project, the Unitarian Universalist Church of Belfast invites the public to an open house at 37 Miller St. The original second-floor sanctuary of the 1859 building, built by the local Methodist church, is being re-opened after decades of being closed.. Most of the massive tin ceiling, colored glass windows, curved stairwells and other original work have been preserved, while modern updates in energy efficiency, comfort, and sound system have been added. A new elevator will make the upstairs accessible to all.. On the first floor, bright new classrooms, entryway, and offices will make the building available for a range of community events. Helping Hands Family School will fill the classrooms on weekdays with its preschool students. Architect for the project was Barba + Wheelock, and the general contractor was Northeast Equipment & Supply Co.. ...
We welcome caregivers of current Psychiatry patients to participate! To join the Council, send us an email. If you are not interested in becoming a Council member, we still welcome your feedback. You can send any questions, comments, or concerns to the attention of the Council coordinator by using the contact information above. You may also write us a note and leave it in the suggestion boxes located in the waiting area of our Outpatient Clinic on Fegan 8, or in the entryway of our Inpatient Unit on Bader 5. ...
We welcome caregivers of current Psychiatry patients to participate! To join the Council, send us an email. If you are not interested in becoming a Council member, we still welcome your feedback. You can send any questions, comments, or concerns to the attention of the Council coordinator by using the contact information above. You may also write us a note and leave it in the suggestion boxes located in the waiting area of our Outpatient Clinic on Fegan 8, or in the entryway of our Inpatient Unit on Bader 5. ...
Despite their active lifestyle, when the McSweenys built their Edgewater, Md., house in 2013, they asked their architect to incorporate aging-in-place features -- including an elevator, wide doorways to accommodate a wheelchair and a flat, no-step entryway -- into the design.
Modern designer side tables and coffee tables in a variety of high quality materials including metals, woods, and glass for your living room, bedroom, entryway, or hallway, Color: NICKEL, Color: Black
Mr. Fisher tried to join the service as a young man when he was of age, but due to previous injuries was unable to. He went back to what he knew, construction. His company grew until he amassed enough real estate and fortunate equivalent to Donald Trump, the big difference as our tour guide noted was Mr. Fisher was a very humble man, never wanting his own horn blown for his generosity. One of the few men in the world who to receive a highest honor a civilian can receive. As a thank you soldiers who are injured, the Fisher houses are built so they can stay free with their families while they are recovering from wounds. They are all over the country, but the very first one was built in Washington DC and is pictured in the collage below with the #1 over the entryway ...
Located on the Four Seasons private island Île aux Chats, Acquapazza greets diners with an entryway flanked by fire-lit torches.
A few bugs live in your home throughout the entire year, and truly couldnt care less what season it is on the grounds that you keep them warm in winter, cool in summer, and very much nourished each day.. The cockroach is one of those folks, and he even inclines toward that you keep your home warm a year a year. Hes a tropical sort of bug, and likes those hot, soggy regions where you seldom exasperate him.. Four assortments of bug make the biggest families in our midwestern urban communities. A few them dont make much aggravation of themselves; two of them are genuine awful nuisances.. The Pennsylvania Wood Cockroach lives outside in the trees generally. You for the most part wont see them in your home unless one happens to fly in through an open entryway or window. I dont stress considerably over this person since hes frequently gone pretty much as fast as he shows up.. The Oriental Cockroach is another species that shows up and vanishes in a brief period. When theyre in the house they ...
... - Browse fuzing.com to find D-Alanine/338-69-2 sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories.
Creative Peptides offers D-Alanine for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Learn more about d-cycloserine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Beta Alanine list and information including what is Beta Alanine, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
The overall grade for beta alanine is 2 out of 3 meaning there is some evidence that this supplement does some (not all) of what it claims. Using Beta Alanine may lead to some improvements.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biosera \ Beta_Alanine _ 100g \ PM-M1435/100 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ DL‐α‐Alanine \ 01114-32 for more molecular products just contact us
Beta Alanine is a rather popular ingredient used in many pre workout supplements that is responsible for that tingling feeling you get after ingesting it.
I want to add beta alanine to my supplement stack. I was wondering when i should take it and how much? Should i take it on off days and does it have
2.64G 0.74G 1.50G 6.41G 8G 154G 3.67G 0.81G 0.52G 2.24G 32G 2.21G 3.07G 2.21G 0.11G 2.64G 4.34G 2.83G 1.28G 2.21G 3.07G 3.07G 2.21G 3.48G 1.75G ...
Unknown functionEnzymes of unknown specificityPPOX class probable F420-dependent enzyme, Rv3369 family (TIGR03667; EC 1.-.-.-; HMM-score: 18.3) ...
0052] At time T1 on timeline 490, USER 001 enters facility 472 and is tracked at entryway sensor 416A which includes a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to detect an RFID tag worn by and used to identify user 403A. At time t2, USER 001 enters control room 473A and is tracked at entryway sensor 416B which includes a facial recognition scanner and/or a finger print scanner to identify user 403A. At time T3, USER 001 enters interface zone 460A defined about device 401A which includes an overhead monitor. Camera tracker 416C tracks user 403A entering interface zone 460A and renders tracking information to a tracking system and/or a user information manager (as may be the same or similar to user information manager 140 described in conjunction with FIG. 1) which authenticates USER 001. The user information manager 140 sends user profiles which include user permissions for data access to device permissions manager (as may be the same or similar to device permissions manager 110 described in ...
Cavities is usually the start of a unpredictable manner. This may look like a problem, however, losing an individual tooth can lead to a domino effect. Once that space has been produced one other teeth commence to shift and lose their original position. This may alter the bite pattern and erode other teeth ensuring more decay to follow along with. The gums will even become loose as the teeth shift, thus creating an entryway for bacteria to cultivate. This may progress to some periodontal disease called gingivitis or even treated quickly ...
But the light is on, and Kaboobie is out and looking for food. Her terrarium light lights the path for me to move safely on to the next area. I moved into the area between the refrigerator and the bookshelf. And while this area isnt exactly treacherous, it is a smaller space. Well, narrow, anyway. And since the earthquake it always makes me wonder what it would take to topple these monolithic shelves packed with volumes and volumes of books D has read. It is impressive, really; she has read and completed more books than I have started and abandoned; there are easily a couple of hundred books there. Up above one of the bookshelves, near the entryway to the bedrooms, is my hanging pot rack: one of my greatest accomplishments in the goal to save as much space as I can in the kitchen. But again the earthquake comes to mind. In the best of circumstances, it makes a horrible racket with the slightest disturbance. I can only imagine what an earthquake rated at a 6.5 magnitude would cause ...
after only a run or two (the average professional cricket team scores 300 or so runs in a match). On days like today, when my stomach hurts or I didnt get to bed until late I skip the early games, but Nikhil and the gang will be there until the weather makes it so they cant feel their fingers.. Aside from entertainment, cricket-both with bat in hand and eyes on screen-has played an important role for me here. It provides an entryway into the lives of the people who surround me. Here, as opposed to the polyathleticism of American sports culture, there is one true sport. It transcends the consciousness of every Indian male Ive come across. The threesome of Sourav Ganguly- the creator: the man who defined the Indian captaincy, Sachin Tandookar-the preserver: generally considered the best Indian cricket player ever and now a best sellng author and Minister of Parliament and Virat Kohli, the current captain who is "the fourth most eligible bachelor in India" and dating a Bollywood star is second ...
Entryway of the Iowa State Capitol building seen from second floor landing of grand staircase Exactly one year ago today Joe and I went to Viet Nam. The plane (San Francisco to Taipei, Taipei to Ho Chi Minh City) landed in HCMC about mid-day. Dean Hoa and Vinh met us at the airport, piled us --…
Looking for introitus? Find out information about introitus. An opening or entryway, especially the opening into the vagina Explanation of introitus
Happy April Fools Day! We, at EZ-ACCESS, are taking this opportunity to remind you that accessible home safety is no joking matter. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention just released statistics stating "one in three adults aged 65 and older fall each year and 20-30% of these falls lead to moderate or severe injuries" so take action now. Evaluate your home or the home of your aging loved ones for safety concerns and get these issues address immediately.. Here are a few tips for evaluating a home today:. Home Entryways. For entryways, you are focused completely on what it takes to get into the home safely. Take a close look at how well lit the entrance is, how easy it is to get to the front door, how easily can the individual unlock and use the door handle and what the welcome mat situation is. A common hazard we come across is welcome mats that easily shift around, making them easy to trip on.. Inside the entryway, predict what your loved one will be doing. If they take off their shoes ...
Many specific architectural details will be replicated in the newly constructed houses so to provide visual clues for the onlooker, reminding them that this is a classic Georgetown townhouse in the historic Georgetown neighborhood. Both cornice lines and the articulations of the roof line will be matched to the existing houses as the row tapers down the street. The houses will all be approximately the same width as a typical Georgetown row house. They will also be proportionally similar. Other visual clues meant to reference the iconic Georgetown home are the windows (mainly type two over two), archway styling, the steps and entryway as they relate to the proportioning of the transition to the sidewalk, as well as stone stoops, railings, and gardens. Although many row houses in Georgetown are bare brick, the designers opted for the also common painted frontage, selecting subtle neutrals (grays, yellows, and whites) so to enliven the facade but not call too loudly for attention (think San ...
1OMO: Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin.
Detection of NHE1-induced proton fluxes by oscillating an extracellular pH microelectrode. (A) The cell is held in whole cell configuration with its edge 5 μm
One of the amino acids found in the structure of the muscle is Beta-alanine. Beta Alanine does not generally contribute to synthesizing proteins
Lining up plans in Mérida? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
NN Beta Alanine (Nanox) MAISTO PAPILDAS, MILTELIAI 100 PORCIJŲ Vienas kaušelis: 2,5 g Grynasis kiekis: 250 g Sudedamosios dalys: beta alaninas. 100g 1kauš.(2,5g) Energinė vertė 393,1kcal 1647,3kJ 34,3kcal 143,4kJ Baltymai 98,285 g 8,568
N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-6-carboxy-L-lysyl-D-alanine + H2O = N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-6-carboxy-L-lysyl + D-alanine ...
The type of floor surface you have now can consequence how warm or cold you feel, your in total health, and even very own ability to actually think along your toes and fingers. Whats more, owners should instantly amendment the sensation in many rooms coming from all their rentals with so many different flooring. Is a essentials of the most prominent residential floor protector tiles in addition to the the best surface protection products to help protect items during construction and home improvement.. 1. Bamboo: Key feature: Made coming from the uks fastest-growing tree.. Pro: Durable; ideal designed for condos. "Green" material. Does offer antimicrobial belongings. Generally excellent for place owners accompanied by allergies so that you can man-made objects. Available from planks, strips, and mosaic glass.. Con: Are not be re-finished. Everything caused from tiny dust particles to high-heeled shoes can damage the come out.. Upkeep: Brush regularly which has soft brush. Entryway area rugs can ...
They arrived in Europe in January 1945, entered combat on March 12, 1945 and liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp on April 6th. During or immediately after the liberation of Ohrdruf, he took a number of "proof" pictures of the atrocities and conditions of the camp. He took few as he was too emotionally overwhelmed to continue. His photographs include inmate barracks; 3 photographs of groups of emaciated, slaughtered inmates; a Polish slave survivor acting as guide; a Russian slave survivor eating "C" rations; the entryway of the SS compound; a group of 4 survivors in the entry of building #2 at the camp; crematoria at Dachau; entryway at Dachau, after the liberation when it was already set aside as a memorial; Dachau torture manikins; entrance to the Jewish Lagar at Deggendorf; entrance to Ohrdruf; a photo of non-specific buildings at Ohrdruf; a photo of Burger Beau Heller where Hitler started out, in Munich. There is also a photograph of freed British POW taken at Zwickau Germany right after ...
The report generally describes nα-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-3-(2-thienyl)-d-alanine, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Nα-9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-3-(2-thienyl)-D-alanine
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Global and Chinese D-Alanine (CAS 338-69-2) Industry Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese D-Alanine Industry, 2011-2021 Market...
A 1.2 kb BamHI fragment from pDK30 [Robinson, Kenan, Sweeney & Donachie (1986) J. Bacteriol. 167, 809-817] was cloned in pDOC55 [OConnor & Timmis (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 4457-4482] to give two constructs, pDOC89 and pDOC87, in which the Escherichia coli D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) gene (ddl) was placed under the control of the lac and lambda PL promoters respectively. Both constructs, when used to transform E. coli M72, gave similar levels of expression of the ddl gene. The expressed enzyme was purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequence of its N-terminal region was found to be consistent with that predicted from the gene sequence, except that the N-terminal methionine was not present in the mature protein. [1(S)-Aminoethyl][(2RS)2-carboxy-1-octyl]phosphinic acid (I), previously shown to bind tightly to Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium D-alanine:D-alanine ligases following phosphorylation Parsons, Patchett, Bull, Schoen, Taub, Davidson, Combs, Springer, ...
In enzymology, an aldose 1-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction alpha-D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } beta-D-glucose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, alpha-D-glucose, and one product, beta-D-glucose. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and derivatives. The systematic name of this enzyme class is aldose 1-epimerase. Other names in common use include mutarotase, and aldose mutarotase. This enzyme participates in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. As of late 2007, 23 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1L7J, 1L7K, 1LUR, 1MMU, 1MMX, 1MMY, 1MMZ, 1MN0, 1NS0, 1NS2, 1NS4, 1NS7, 1NS8, 1NSM, 1NSR, 1NSS, 1NSU, 1NSV, 1NSX, 1NSZ, 1SNZ, 1SO0, and 1YGA. Bentley R; Bhate DS (1960). "Mutarotase from Penicillium notatum. I. Purification, assay, and general properties of the enzyme" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 235 (5): 1219-1224. PMID ...

alanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3] - Protein - NCBIalanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3] - Protein - NCBI

alanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3]. * This record was replaced or removed. The sequence YP_479735 is 100% identical to WP_ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/86739335

Species: Alanine racemase, N-terminal (IPR001608) | InterPro | EMBL-EBISpecies: Alanine racemase, N-terminal (IPR001608) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Species: Alanine racemase, N-terminal (IPR001608). Key Species. Key species. Number of proteins. FASTA. Protein IDs. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR001608/taxonomy

Alanine racemase, pyridoxal-phosphate attachment site (IPR020622) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAlanine racemase, pyridoxal-phosphate attachment site (IPR020622) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Short name: Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS Description. Alanine racemase catalyses the pyridoxal-dependent conversion of L-alanine ... amino acid racemase is structurally and functionally related to alanine racemase. The 3D-structure of the dimeric alanine ... functions in L-alanine catabolism. By contrast with dadB and alr, both of which are monomeric enzymes, the alanine racemase of ... This pattern signature contains the lysine residue of alanine racemase that acts as the attachment site for the pyridoxal- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR020622

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Alanine racemase - Q4ADX2 (Q4ADX2 PSEFL)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Alanine racemase - Q4ADX2 (Q4ADX2 PSEFL)

Catalyzes the interconversion of L-alanine and D-alanine. May also act on other amino acids. UniProt ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q4ADX2

Alanine racemase - WikipediaAlanine racemase - Wikipedia

Alanine racemase can be found in some invertebrates. Bacteria can have one (alr gene) or two alanine racemase genes. Bacterial ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is alanine racemase. This enzyme is also called L-alanine racemase. This enzyme ... The D-alanine produced by alanine racemase is used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of ... In enzymology, an alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanine_racemase

Silica-immobilized His(6)-tagged enzyme : Alanine racemase in hydrophobic solventSilica-immobilized His(6)-tagged enzyme : Alanine racemase in hydrophobic solvent

The enzyme Alanine racemase (AlaR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was cloned, overexpressed and then immobilized on a ... Silica-immobilized His(6)-tagged enzyme: Alanine racemase in hydrophobic solvent. Cassimjee, Karim Engelmark KTH, School of ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:335319

Remediated Sequence 









- 1FTX: Crystal structure of alanine racemase in complex with D-alanine phosphonate Sequence...Remediated Sequence - 1FTX: Crystal structure of alanine racemase in complex with D-alanine phosphonate Sequence...

Chain A: ALANINE RACEMASE. Chain Downloadable Files. Download FASTA File. View Sequence & DSSP Image. Download Sequence Chain ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/remediatedSequence.do?structureId=1FTX

Alanine racemase elisa and antibodyAlanine racemase elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Alanine racemase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alanine racemase 1. Alanine racemase 1 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 1 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 1 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 2. Alanine racemase 2 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 2 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 2 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 3. Alanine racemase 3 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 3 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 3 Antibody. Catalyzes the ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=alanine-racemase

Alanine Racemase from Staphylococcus aureus: Conformation of Its Substrates and Its Inhibitor, D-Cycloserine | Molecular...Alanine Racemase from Staphylococcus aureus: Conformation of Its Substrates and Its Inhibitor, D-Cycloserine | Molecular...

Alanine Racemase from Staphylococcus aureus: Conformation of Its Substrates and Its Inhibitor, D-Cycloserine. ULDIS ROZE and ... Alanine Racemase from Staphylococcus aureus: Conformation of Its Substrates and Its Inhibitor, D-Cycloserine. ULDIS ROZE and ... Alanine Racemase from Staphylococcus aureus: Conformation of Its Substrates and Its Inhibitor, D-Cycloserine. ULDIS ROZE and ... D-Cycloserine is a competitive inhibitor of alanine racemase for which its Ki is 100 times smaller than the Km for either of ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/2/1/92

New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against...New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against...

Alanine racemase and L-alanine dehydrogenase assay adaptation to 384-well format. The coupled alanine racemase assay of Esaki ... The first assay is based on the Esaki and Walsh reaction where the conversion of D-alanine to L-alanine by alanine racemase is ... The assay was modified by varying the concentrations of alanine racemase, D-alanine, NAD, and L-alanine dehydrogenase in a ... alanine racemase plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis as it racemizes L-alanine into D-alanine, a key building block ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3102704/?lang=en-ca

Alanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamilyAlanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamily

The SCOP classification for the Alanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamily including the families contained in it. ... Alanine racemase plays a role in providing the D-alanine required for cell wall biosynthesis by isomerising L-alanine to D- ... Alanine racemase. 0. 2.652. --. DIRECT. Enzyme Commission (EC). Carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase. 0.00000004634. 2.652. --. ... Alanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamily. SCOP classification Root: SCOP hierarchy in SUPERFAMILY [. 0] (11) ...
more infohttp://supfam.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/scop.cgi?sunid=50621

l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes...l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes...

The construction of three-dimensional homology models of l-threonine aldolase from E. coli and alanine racemase from ... fungal alanine racemase, an extremely close relative of l-threonine aldolase, also appears to be a member of the same subgroup ... racemase, aminotransferase and decarboxylase reactions. This apparent lack of specificity is probably a consequence of the ... l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/l-Threonine-aldolase%2C-serine-and-fungal-alanine-A-Contestabile-Paiardini/f0756bf07facb8927715710bbed6ab2b15ed2749

Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis<...Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis<...

title = "Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis",. abstract = "Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a ... N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... AB - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent ...
more infohttps://koreauniv.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/structural-insights-into-the-alanine-racemase-from-enterococcus-f

S. aureus alanine racemase: A target for structure-based drug designS. aureus alanine racemase: "A target for structure-based drug design"

There are two alanine racemase isozymes in S. aureus; Alr, which is constitutively expressed, and a catabolic alanine racemase ... and had the weakest affinity for both enantiomers of alanine out of all the published alanine racemases. Interestingly, the ... S. aureus alanine racemase: "A target for structure-based drug design". Scaletti, Emma Rose ... Cite this item: Scaletti, E. R. (2014). S. aureus alanine racemase: A target for structure-based drug design (Thesis, Doctor ...
more infohttps://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/4879

Active site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo   | Open-iActive site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo | Open-i

... baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo− Fc electron-density map of the active site contoured at 1.0σ with isomesh map shown (1.6 Å ... The structure of alanine racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii. Davis E, Scaletti-Hutchinson E, Opel-Reading H, Nakatani Y, ... The structure of alanine racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii. Davis E, Scaletti-Hutchinson E, Opel-Reading H, Nakatani Y, ... fig5: Active site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo− Fc electron-density map of the active site contoured at 1.0σ with ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4157418_f-70-01199-fig5&req=4

Alanine racemase mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require d-alanine for growth and are defective for survival in...Alanine racemase mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require d-alanine for growth and are defective for survival in...

The growth kinetics of the alr mutant revealed that M. tuberculosis requires very low amounts of d-alanine (5-10 µg ml−1) for ... Survival kinetics of the mutant in the absence of d-alanine indicated that depletion of this amino acid results in rapid loss ... Analysis of phenotype in mice suggested that non-availability of d-alanine in mice leads to clearance of bacteria followed by ... Additionally, reversal of d-cycloserine inhibition in the presence of d-alanine in M. tuberculosis suggested that Alr is the ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.054064-0

SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 6q70.1SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 6q70.1

Crystal structure of the alanine racemase Bsu17640 from Bacillus subtilis in the presence of HEPES ... Crystal structure of the alanine racemase Bsu17640 from Bacillus subtilis in the presence of HEPES. Coordinates. PDB Format ... Bernardo-Garcia, N. et al., Cold-induced aldimine bond cleavage by Tris in Bacillus subtilis alanine racemase. Org.Biomol.Chem ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/templates/6q70

nature.com searchnature.com search

Function of alanine racemase in the physiological activity and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans *Shiyu Liu ... Alanine racemase is essential for the growth and interspecies competitiveness of Streptococcus mutans *Yuan Wei ... Rights & permissionsfor article Function of alanine racemase in the physiological activity and cariogenicity of ,i, ... Rights & permissionsfor article Alanine racemase is essential for the growth and interspecies competitiveness of ,i, ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Yuan-Yuan%20Wei%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=d55debca-1b0b-4c67-87cc-6eab51000466

nature.com searchnature.com search

Function of alanine racemase in the physiological activity and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans *Shiyu Liu ... Rights & permissionsfor article Function of alanine racemase in the physiological activity and cariogenicity of ,i, ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Keke%20Zhang%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=3f85457d-d709-4025-b38d-7fddc67d8ff1

Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of the Alanine and Glutamate Racemases of Mycobacteria - Usage StatisticsPhenotypic and Molecular Analysis of the Alanine and Glutamate Racemases of Mycobacteria - Usage Statistics

This page shows usage statistics for the item: Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of the Alanine and Glutamate Racemases of ... Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of the Alanine and Glutamate Racemases of Mycobacteria - Usage Statistics. ...
more infohttps://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/7501/stats

IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section D Volume 68, Part 1, January 2012IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section D Volume 68, Part 1, January 2012

... kinetic properties of alanine racemase from Staphylococcus aureus are described and compared to other related alanine racemase ... Structural features and kinetic characterization of alanine racemase from Staphylococcus aureus (Mu50). ...
more infohttp://journals.iucr.org/d/issues/2012/01/00/index.html

KAKEN - Research Projects | 1995  Fiscal Year Final Research Report Summary (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454077)KAKEN - Research Projects | 1995 Fiscal Year Final Research Report Summary (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454077)

D-Amino acid / Alanine Racemase / D-Amino acid aminotransferase / Glutamate racemase / Suicide substrate / 酵素自殺基質. ... We studied detailed mechanisms of alanine racemase, D-amino acid aminotransferase, and glutamate racemase, to develop the ... Publications] Yoshimura Tohru: Alanine Racemase-Structure and Function KODANSHA, 244 (1994). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」よ ... Glutamate racemase of E.coli was not inhibited by hemin in the absence of UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine, but strongly inhibited
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454077/064540771995kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/

UniProt/SWISS-PROT: ALR2 AGRFCUniProt/SWISS-PROT: ALR2 AGRFC

FT CHAIN 1 388 Alanine racemase, catabolic. FT /FTId=PRO_0000114493. FT ACT_SITE 46 46 Proton acceptor; specific for D-alanine ... racemase_C. DR InterPro; IPR001608; Ala_racemase_N. DR InterPro; IPR020622; Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS. DR InterPro; IPR029066 ... DE RecName: Full=Alanine racemase, catabolic; DE EC=5.1.1.1; GN Name=dadB; OrderedLocusNames=Atu3292; ORFNames=AGR_L_3051; OS ... DR GO; GO:0008784; F:alanine racemase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule. DR GO; GO:0030170; F:pyridoxal phosphate binding; IEA: ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?sp:ALR2_AGRFC

Regulation of Glutarate Catabolism by GntR Family Regulator CsiR and LysR Family Regulator GcdR in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 |...Regulation of Glutarate Catabolism by GntR Family Regulator CsiR and LysR Family Regulator GcdR in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 |...

... alanine racemase; amaC, d-lysine aminotransferase; dpkA, Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase; amaB, l-pipecolate oxidase; ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/10/4/e01570-19
  • Alanine racemase catalyses the pyridoxal-dependent conversion of L-alanine into D-alanine, a key component of bacterial peptidoglycan [ PMID: 2197992 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial species with two genes for alanine racemase have one that is continually expressed and one that is inducible, which makes it difficult to target both genes for drug studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain is also found in the PROSC (proline synthetase co-transcribed bacterial homolog) family of proteins, which are not known to have alanine racemase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As D-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, inhibition of Alr is lethal to prokaryotes. (otago.ac.nz)
  • As D-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall, its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, making it an excellent antibiotic drug target. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of phenotype in mice suggested that non-availability of d -alanine in mice leads to clearance of bacteria followed by stabilization of bacterial number in lungs and spleen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • D-Amino acids such as D-alanine and D-glutamate are the indespensable components of the peptidoglycan layr of the bacterial cell walls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Soo-Young: 'Bacterial Glutamate Racemase has High Sequence Homology with Myoglobins and Forms an Equimolar Inactive Complex with Hemin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As mentioned in §3.1, the active site of AlrAba is composed of residues from both monomers, several of which are involved in a hydrogen-bond network with the PLP cofactor (Figs. 2 ▶ and 5 ▶a) and are conserved between alanine racemases (Fig. 5 ▶b). (nih.gov)
  • The Leu 201 residue probably regulates the function of cofactor during the conversion of PMP to PLP.Glutamate racemase catalyzes the racemization of glutamate to produce D-glutamate. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Due to its essential nature, coupled with the absence of a human homolog, alanine racemase has long been an attractive drug target. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Survival kinetics of the mutant in the absence of d -alanine indicated that depletion of this amino acid results in rapid loss of viability. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Glutamate racemase of E.coli was not inhibited by hemin in the absence of UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine, but strongly inhibited in the presence of UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Residues from both monomers contribute to the two active sites, where PLP and alanine bind. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • b) Superposition of the active-site residues of alanine racemases from A. baumannii (green), B. henselae (blue), P. aeruginosa (red) and E. coli (orange). (nih.gov)
  • This pattern signature contains the lysine residue of alanine racemase that acts as the attachment site for the pyridoxal-phosphate group. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Publications] Ashiuchi Makoto: 'In Vivo Effect of GroESL on the Folding of Gltamate Racemase of Eschirichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Toyama Hirohide: 'Reconstitute of Fragmentary Form of Themostable Alanine Racemase' Biosci. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Active site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the second alanine racemase isozyme from S. aureus (DadXSas) was studied. (otago.ac.nz)
  • AlrSas was kinetically characterized, and a comparison with selected alanine racemases indicated three orders of magnitude difference in their kinetic constants. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Below are the list of possible Alanine racemase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • This study highlights the feasibility of obtaining novel alanine racemase inhibitor lead compounds by high-throughput screening for development of new anti-TB agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported use of this drug discovery method being applied to an alanine racemase. (otago.ac.nz)